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Reading for Understanding:: Toward an R&D Program in Reading Comprehension

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... Reading comprehension-the construction of meaning from written text and the ultimate goal of reading (Catts and Kamhi, 1999)-requires the coordination of multiple underlying cognitive and linguistic processes (Kintsch, 1998;Snow, 2002;Elleman and Compton, 2017;Fuchs et al., 2018). Thus, across multiple theoretical models of reading that place reading comprehension as the outcome of interest, reading comprehension is viewed as a multidimensional construct (Gough and Tunmer, 1986). ...
... Researchers have identified several additional reader characteristics that contribute to comprehending written text, some of which may account for the lack of association across reading comprehension measures (Miller et al., 2013). These characteristics include reading fluency, working memory, verbal reasoning, background knowledge, motivation and engagement, and executive functioning (Perfetti et al., 1996;Snow, 2002;Kintsch and Kintsch, 2005;Cutting and Scarborough, 2006). ...
... As mentioned previously, we hypothesized that any between-group differences that may have moderated the evidence of construct validity would be accounted for in analyzing the effect of group membership. To evaluate this hypothesis, future research should explore the extent to which participant characteristics such as working memory, background knowledge, verbal reasoning, and executive functioning influence the construct validity of various measurement methods across clinical populations (e.g., Perfetti et al., 1996;Snow, 2002;Kintsch and Kintsch, 2005;Miller et al., 2013). ...
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Obtaining valid assessments of language and literacy skills in children with Down syndrome (DS) presents a challenge as there is a paucity of information about the psychometrics of measures that are commonly used to measure listening and reading comprehension in this population. Evaluating the construct validity of measures that employ different methods is essential to ascertain the optimal method of assessment in individuals with DS and with typical developmental histories (TD). This pilot study aimed to evaluate the construct validity of four parallel measures of listening and reading comprehension. Participants included 19 individuals with DS ( M = 17 years, 3 months; SD = 3 years, 6 months) and 19 word-level reading-matched children with TD ( M = 7 years, 2 months; SD = 7 months). Participants completed norm-referenced assessments for four parallel measures of listening and reading comprehension. The four measurement methods were: (1) non-verbal response, (2) cloze procedure, (3) passage-level with close-ended questions, and (4) passage-level with open-ended questions. Participants completed additional assessments (e.g., cognition, language, and speech) for descriptive purposes. Construct validity was assessed using the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix, a correlation matrix arranged to facilitate the assessment and interpretation of construct validity of measures across various formats. For both study groups, we observed strong evidence of construct validity for three out of four measurement methods. Results using the multimethod perspective also indicated that the listening and reading comprehension constructs were not separable. The findings from this pilot study represent a first step toward determining optimal methods of listening and reading comprehension assessment for individuals with DS. Additionally, these results can inform outcome measure selection in future language and literacy research with children with DS.
... Data analysis draws upon constructivist and grounded theory approaches (Charmaz, 2008). As researcher-practitioner, I investigated aspects of theory from three psychological processes that informed the research: audiation (Brodsky et al., 2003;Gordon, 2003Gordon, , 2007; representational thinking (Bamberger, 1982(Bamberger, , 1991(Bamberger, , 2005Barrett, 1997Barrett, , 2001Barrett, , 2005Gromko, 2016;Gromko & Russel, 2016;Pramling, 2009;Reybrouck et al. 2009;Upitis, 1990Upitis, , 1992; and language reading (Ehri, 2014;Samuels, 2002;Schwanenflugel et al. 2011;Snow, 2002). The choirlab aspect of the research design had a dual purpose. ...
... El análisis de los datos se basa en enfoques teóricos constructivistas y fundamentados (Charmaz, 2008). Como investigadora y profesional, estudié aspectos de la teoría a partir de tres procesos psicológicos que fundamentaron la investigación: la audición (Brodsky et al., 2003;Gordon, 2003Gordon, , 2007; el pensamiento representacional (Bamberger, 1982(Bamberger, , 1991(Bamberger, , 2005Barrett, 1997Barrett, , 2001Barrett, , 2005Gromko, 2016;Gromko & Russel, 2016;Pramling, 2009;Reybrouck et al. 2009;Upitis, 1990Upitis, , 1992; y la lectura del lenguaje (Ehri, 2014;Samuels, 2002;Schwanenflugel et al., 2011;Snow, 2002). El aspecto de laboratorio coral del diseño de la investigación tenía un doble propósito. ...
... Aspects of theory from three psychological processes inform the research: language reading, representation, and audiation (imaging sound). Theories of language reading fluency and comprehension are drawn upon for investigation in relation to fluency and meaning making in reading music from notation (Griffiths et al., 2010;Kintsch, 1988Kintsch, , 1998Kintsch & Van Dijk, 1978;Paris, 2005;Perfetti, 1999;Perfetti et al., 2008;LaBerg & Samuels, 1974;Samuels, 2002;Schwanenflugel et al., 2011;Snow, 2002;Verhoeven & Perfetti, 2008). ...
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Se presentan resultados de un proyecto de intervención para el programa de radio Ventana al Sonido (GU, 2020) que se transmite los domingos a las 11:00 de la mañana por Radio UAA (94.5 FM), el cual, desde 2014, ha sido implementado como estrategia de aprendizaje situado en las asignaturas de Cultura y Apreciación Musicales de la Licenciatura en Música de la Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes. En el contexto de un trabajo de titulación de maestría, una estudiante de la generación 2018-2020 diseñó un taller de producción radiofónica desde casa para atender el compromiso de programación anual asumido por la institución, el cual se vio afectado repentinamente por el confinamiento derivado de la pandemia COVID-19. Se presentan resultados de la intervención y reflexiones que se interpretan como indicios de cambio social que podrían impactar significativamente el currículo de la educación musical de nivel superior en los próximos años.
... Between them, patterns of behavior to be observed, level of expected performance, types of materials, the proportion of the reading task in which the person must show adequacy, as well as characteristics of the reader, like aptitude and goals (Bormuth, 1973;Irigoyen et al., 2008). Thus, the reader, the text, and the activity itself, interrelated in a specific sociocultural context, are the elements that delimit comprehension (Snow, 2002). ...
... Skilled reading involves the deep, inferential, analytical, and reflective reading of a vast array of resources, whether for entertainment or learning (Snow, 2002). For this, and according to Andrade (2007), the reader requires sub-competencies divided into three large groups: a) linguistic competence, which would cover, according to the linguistic approach, grammatical, semantic, syntactic, and lexical skills corresponding to a literal reading; b) communicative competence, which, from a psycho-linguistic approach, includes analysis, interpretation, deduction, induction, inferential reading, identification of the structure of the text; and c) pragmatic competence, which, from the sociolinguistic and sociocultural approach, is related to the reader's use of the text, the identification of the intention of the author, the analysis of language and the vision of the world. ...
... Reading comprehension involves a complex interaction between the reader, the text, and the task (Snow, 2002). It requires a series of grammatical, semantic, syntactic, and lexical subskills and the construction of meanings, inferences, analysis, synthesis, criticism, and reorganization of previous knowledge. ...
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The importance of working memory in executing different highly demanding cognitive tasks, such as reading comprehension, and, in turn, its impact on student performance has been revised in several studies at varying levels of analysis. To assess the relationship between the levels of working memory and reading comprehension, adequately substantiated instruments have been applied. This work aims to evaluate such degrees, between high school and university students, with reading span and cloze-type tests, due to the scarcity of the joint application of these instruments in Latin America. Despite the easy construction, the above application and analysis of exams formed from questions with nested answers (cloze) in open virtual learning platforms such as Moodle. The results refer to a correlation, for those over nineteen years of age, highly significant for women and just significant for men, partly due to a higher proportion of university students both in the level of instructional reading and in the fourth level of reading span.
... Importantly, some contemporary frameworks of literacy assume that reading can vary across contexts (Snow, 2002;Britt et al., 2018). Context can involve place and time where the literacy activity takes place, the texts that students read, and the nature of the tasks. ...
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The goal of this study was to assess the relationships between computational approaches to analyzing constructed responses made during reading and individual differences in the foundational skills of reading in college readers. We also explored if these relationships were consistent across texts and samples collected at different institutions and texts. The study made use of archival data that involved college participants who produced typed constructed responses under thinking aloud instructions reading history and science texts. They also took assessments of vocabulary knowledge and proficiency in comprehension. The protocols were analyzed to assess two different ways to determine their cohesion. One approach involved assessing how readers established connections with themselves (i.e., to other constructed responses they produced). The other approach involved assessing connections between the constructed responses and the texts that were read. Additionally, the comparisons were made by assessing both lexical (i.e., word matching) and semantic (i.e., high dimensional semantic spaces) comparisons. The result showed that both approaches for analyzing cohesion and making the comparisons were correlated with vocabulary knowledge and comprehension proficiency. The implications of the results for theory and practice are discussed.
... Thus, success in science and reading are likely reciprocal. Optimal learning may occur when children have a solid background in science and strong reading skills that enable them to easily integrate information in text to their existing knowledge and experiences (Cervetti & Wright, 2020;McNamara & Kintsch, 1996;Snow, 2002). ...
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this study is the first to examine the extent to which science achievement is distinct from math and reading in kindergarten, first, and second grade; and the utility of kindergarten language proficiency and executive functioning (EF) for predicting science achievement among multilingual (n = 1022) and English monolingual (n = 12,343) children at each grade level. The results demonstrate that science is separable from math and reading achievement, though highly correlated. The results also indicate that kindergarten language proficiency and EF support science achievement similarly across elementary school for both groups. These results coupled with large correlations among science, math, and reading achievement suggest that integrated instruction that takes advantage of domain interconnectedness may reduce redundancies and help children connect with science content.
... Okuduğunu anlama, yazılı dil ile etkileşim ve katılım yoluyla eş zamanlı olarak anlam çıkarma ve oluşturma sürecidir (Snow, 2002). Okuduğunu anlama, bir dizi temel dil ve bilişsel becerilere bağlıdır (Cain ve Oakhill, 2006). ...
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, matematik başarısı ile okuduğunu anlama becerisi arasındaki ilişkiyi meta-analiz yöntemiyle incelemektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda belirlenen anahtar kelimelerle veri tabanlarında taratılan ve dâhil edilme kriterlerine uyan makale ve lisansüstü tezlerden oluşan 18 çalışma araştırmaya dâhil edilmiştir. Bu çalışmalardan 28 etki büyüklüğü değeri hesaplanmıştır. Verilerin analizleri rastgele etkiler modeli esas alınarak yapılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software (CMA) programı kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre okuduğunu anlama becerisi ile matematik başarısı arasında pozitif yönde yüksek düzeyde (g=0.575) bir ilişki vardır. Ayrıca çalışmaların etki büyüklüklerinin yayın yılına, yayın türüne ve öğrenim kademesine göre anlamlı bir farklılık göstermediği tespit edilmiştir.
... Okuduğunu anlama, yazılı dil ile etkileşim ve katılım yoluyla eş zamanlı olarak anlam çıkarma ve oluşturma sürecidir (Snow, 2002). Okuduğunu anlama, bir dizi temel dil ve bilişsel becerilere bağlıdır (Cain ve Oakhill, 2006). ...
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This study aims to investigate the relationship between mathematics achievement and reading comprehension skill using the method of meta-analysis. For this purpose, 18 studies consisting of articles and postgraduate theses that were scanned in databases using the identified keywords and were in line with the inclusion criteria were included in the study. From these studies, 28 effect size values were calculated. The analysis of the data was performed based on the random-ef fects model. The Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software (CMA) program was used to analyze the data. According to the study results, it was found that there was a positive relationship at a high level (g=0.575) between reading comprehension skills and mathematics achievement. Moreover, the effect sizes of the studies were found to have no significant difference in terms of year of publication, type of publication, and level of education.
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On a daily basis, most people read about issues of interest from a diversity of sources. Moreover, the information they encounter frequently encompass discrepancies, ranging from minor inconsistencies to straight contradictions. Readers may construct coherent representations from discrepant contents by linking contents to their respective sources and connecting the sources with agree-disagree or other types of connectives. Across research studies, however, college-level readers' attention to sources has been found to vary according to individual, text and task dimensions. The present study tested the assumption that readers' strategies depend both on the discrepancy of the information and on the context in which the task is framed. Moreover, beliefs about science were included as potential moderator of context effects. One hundred and sixty university students were tasked to read about a series of social-scientific issues. The task was framed in either a university context or a personal context scenario. For each topic, the participants read two short texts which provided either consistent or discrepant information, and then they wrote a short overview essay. The university context had a significant impact on indicators related to a documents model representation (e.g., text switches, number of adversative connectors in the essay) and standards for presentation (e.g., time on the essay/task page, formal features of the essay). The data support a context-dependent view of reading comprehension, whereby both reading behavior and outcomes are primarily a function of the standards and goals set by the reader. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11145-022-10321-2.
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Research has helped practice get to this possibility. Having built on earlier work, research today is well beyond simple notions of texts, readers, and contexts. Researchers today who study response from a sociocultural frame take for granted the complexities of the reader-text transaction that is embedded in multiple worlds. Teachers, too, recognize the care with which this transaction must be negotiated in the classroom-itself a conflicted cultural world. What teachers say and do, the texts they choose and how they choose them, and the tasks they set for their students all affect this transaction. While teachers can help students develop specific tools to use as they read and respond in a particular classroom, the cultural tools that students bring to the classroom remain varied, sometimes closely aligned to those sanctioned by the teacher, sometimes in opposition. By creating opportunities for students to read and respond in the company of others, teachers foster their students' ability to make sense of text worlds and lived worlds. By encouraging 8-year-olds to make connections between their own experiences and experiences of characters in the books they read, or giving 16-year-olds the tools they need to explore how they and the characters they are reading about are constituted by their cultures, teachers make it possible for students to use their responses to school-sanctioned text to construct and critique their worlds.
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