Article

The Effect of Employee Uniforms on Employee Satisfaction

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Abstract

Many hospitality-industry employees must wear uniforms, and those outfits can affect employees' attitudes. In turn, those attitudes almost certainly affect customer satisfaction, if only because the employees are a part of a property's atmosphere. One might guess that some uniform attributes (e.g., appearance, function, character, and comfort) make a difference to employees, while others have no effect. A survey of 201 employees at Las Vegas casino-resorts found a significant relationship between uniform design and employee attitudes. The study found, for instance, that uniforms can increase employees' self-confidence and enhance their credibility. On the other hand, certain costume designs actually elicit rude reactions from guests (who comment on the uniforms). Surprisingly, the level of contact between employees and guests had no influence on the how employees viewed their uniforms. The wisest course is for managers to involve employees in uniform selection.

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... Yeh et al. (2013) defined that the individual uniform of a worker plays a role in giving the customer a first impression of the organization. Workers' uniforms typically are one of the most important components of their identity (Nelson & Bowen, 2000). Although the importance of the uniform to the wearer has been widely discussed by past scholars including the perception of uniform and the appearance from the wearer's perspective, however, there has been little attention from the perspective of the Royal Malaysian Police officer's perspective (Alias & Bahron, 2019). ...
... Therefore, the workers' uniform is an important part of creating a view of service. Nelson and Bowen's (2000) study also agreed that uniform is one of the benefits packages for employees and that employees will be encouraged to carry out work in line with the organizational image and job satisfaction (Nelson & Bowen, 2000). Other research studies such as Laschinger & Grau (2012), Bandura (1998), andJackson et al. (2012) have found that uniform is both personal identity and identity introduction related to self-concept. ...
... Therefore, the workers' uniform is an important part of creating a view of service. Nelson and Bowen's (2000) study also agreed that uniform is one of the benefits packages for employees and that employees will be encouraged to carry out work in line with the organizational image and job satisfaction (Nelson & Bowen, 2000). Other research studies such as Laschinger & Grau (2012), Bandura (1998), andJackson et al. (2012) have found that uniform is both personal identity and identity introduction related to self-concept. ...
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The Royal Malaysian Police (PDRM) System is an entity that has a standardized or centralized system whereby it is the main national security institution in preserving national security, especially in matters related to national security and peace. In the early '80s, police officers were highly respected individuals, diligent and earnest in carrying out their duties, maintaining public order, and keeping the community safe and secure. However, the study of job satisfaction related to the uniform perception and organizational pride has received little attention from the context of the country's main security force, the Royal Malaysian Police. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to detect the direct and indirect connection between the uniform variable of perception and the organizational pride variable in the satisfaction of work among police officers of past scholars. This study is based on the theory of job satisfaction selected by adding the value of the relationship between uniform perception and organizational pride as independent variables among Sabah contingent police officers. At the end of this study, we should present the most recent models which can be applied to improve efficiency and organizational morale as well as to maximize community productivity. The findings of this study will be used to assist in assessing future interventions and team policies.
... Employee uniforms give one of the first impressions that customers see when they visit a hotel; therefore, uniforms are not just working suits, but they also influence the look of the entire hotel setting. Employee uniforms typically constitute an important component of a hospitality establishment's brand identity (Nelson & Bowen, 2000). In other words, uniforms are part of the organization image and an extension of hospitality services. ...
... Uniforms also clarify service by giving the guests an idea of what type of service to expect (Nelson & Bowen, 2000). For example, when guests visit the Disney hotel resorts, they are expecting casual and colorful uniforms which create a fun and friendly mood for customers. ...
... 49). Nelson and Bowen (2000) claimed that inappropriate uniforms communicate to customers that the company is careless and inefficient. In addition, employees tend to fail at performing their jobs when they wear ill-fitting uniforms. ...
Article
The purpose of the study was to investigate how different styles of employee uniforms affect employees' self-perceptions and hotel image. The results of the study indicated a significant relationship between uniforms and employee perceptions of job performance. Significance also existed between employees' job satisfaction and styles of uniforms.
... Uniforms are not just employee working suits, they also influence the look of the entire hotel setting. Employee uniforms typically constitute an important component of a hospitality establishment's brand identity (Nelson & Bowen, 2000). In other words, uniforms are part of the organization's image and an extension of hospitality services. ...
... Uniforms also clarify service by giving the guests an idea of what type of service to expect (Nelson & Bowen, 2000). For example, when guests visit Disney hotel resorts, they are expecting casual and colorful uniforms that create a fun and friendly mood for customers. ...
... Career clothing in general and the uniform in particular can serve to meet a variety of organizational goals and objectives (Joseph & Alex, 1972). Nelson and Bowen (2000) claimed that inappropriate uniforms communicate to customers that the company is careless and inefficient. In addition, employees tend to fail at performing jobs accurately when they wear ill-fitting uniforms. ...
Article
The purpose of the study is to investigate how different styles of employee uniforms affect customers' perceptions of the hotel image and employees' self-perceptions. The results of the study indicated a significant relationship between uniforms and employees' job performance. Significance also existed between employees' job satisfaction and styles of uniform. A significant relationship between styles of uniform and customers' perception of employee performance was found as well.
... At the operational level, another purpose of uniform management is the increase of design elements to their functionality and appropriateness, and health and safety especially within the hotel catering environment [9,10]. Furthermore, for many hotel organizations, uniforms are part of employee benefit packages and therefore can contribute to work commitment, organizational identification, and higher staff satisfaction [11][12][13]. ...
... Employee satisfaction research shows that uniform design features (e.g. function, appropriateness to job task, function, fit, and comfort are important to the wearer, as those contribute to service employees' attitudes towards their job and the organization [13]. Adomaitis, et al., [21] highlight that formal or informal wear impact staffs behaviour as well as customers actions/ reactions. ...
... In the literature a number of benefits of uniforms for staff are described: Uniforms can protect the user, and support standardization in the service encounter process [24,25]. Other emerging purposes of uniform management and design are the increased needs to the functionality, health and safety, especially within the hotel catering environment [10,13]. Management can use uniforms as visual symbols to continuously transfer firm values to and among their employees [26,27] and uniforms have communicative power in both, the external and internal spheres of a corporation. ...
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Uniforms play a major role during any service encounter and can impact stakeholder experience. The authors review current literature in the field of uniform provision in the hotel industry and present a comparative study from two different cultural settings: Hong Kong SAR, China and Tyrol, Austria. The research gathered quantitative data from those that wear business attire or uniforms and are engaged in the provision of services and or products alike. The data presents six factors, which describe uniform wear influences on customer contact employees. The overall result shows, that in the three highest scores, contact staff considered their job pleasant; uniforms communicate to others that one belongs to the organization, and they were very satisfied with their current job. On the other spectrum, the lowest scores were collected for wearing a uniform towards improving the job satisfaction, and the lack of involved in uniform design process.
... The element of tangibility speaks to how the physical environment of the environment appeals to the customer, including the employees, communication material and equipment. Several studies particularly in the hospitality sector provide evidence suggesting that employee dress code, for example, uniforms give customers an idea of the service to expect (Nelson and Bowen, 2000). Thusyanthy and Senthilnathan (2011) found evidence that layout of physical facilities also determined the service that commercial banks can provide as they seek to satisfy their clients. ...
... Mobile network operators could resolve this challenge by establishing a dress code for employees and educating them on the value of neatness and appearance in the services sector. Research in the hospitality sector found that employee dress code, for example, uniforms aid in making the service more tangible by giving customers the idea of the service to expect such as limited service, formal or relaxed (Nelson and Bowen, 2000). In addition, evidence in the banking sector suggest that good tangibles lead to increased customeremployee interaction resulting in higher levels of customer satisfaction (Thusyanthy and Senthilnathan, 2011). ...
Article
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Mobile networks have become the most utilized pathway of communication but very little information is available on customers’ experiences with respect to service quality and satisfaction. Through a survey, data was gathered from 1451 participants to examine customers’ experiences of service quality and satisfaction. The study investigated whether service quality and customer satisfaction experiences were different in respect of the mobile network operator used by the customer. This study is cross sectional by design and quantitative in nature. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather primary data from mobile network users. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. For inferential statistics, the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used. The results revealed that the mobile network operator used by the customer, had a significant impact on service quality and customer satisfaction levels. This study contributes academically by indicating how South African consumers perceive mobile network service providers. Furthermore, the study identifies shortcomings and areas of strengths of South African mobile network operators with regards to service quality and customer satisfaction.
... As appearance is a robust design component that is used to produce an impression, clothing is used as an indicator of social status and personality [39,40]. When it comes to a law enforcement officer's professional appearance, an image that represents authority for public safety and commands presence is desirable. ...
... For military clothing, Schutz, Cardello, and Winterhalter [46] argued that the satisfactory fit of a garment is essential for wearers to feel comfortable. The frustration that comes from wearing uniforms that hinder movement-whether as a result of poor design or poor fabric choice for functionality-can lead to job attitude problems [40]. For ballistic vest wearers, research indicates that thicker and bulkier ballistic panels may negatively impact mobility, which could affect officers' comfort and willingness to wear safety apparel [47,48]. ...
Article
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High-visibility safety apparel (HVSA) is personal protective clothing that provides visual conspicuity to reduce police officers’ risk of fatality or injury from road traffic accidents. Under the current U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Highway Administration regulations, police officers on or near Federal-Aid highways are mandated to wear HVSA to enhance their visibility. Although wearing HVSA can significantly prevent traffic-related fatalities among police officers, studies have shown that they do not consistently, or ever, wear it. This study identifies factors influencing HVSA noncompliance among officers by exploring their perceptions of its use and efficiency. Ninety-eight police officers completed a field survey in four cities in Yavapai County, Arizona; their responses were analyzed via predictive decision tree modeling. The results indicated that officers’ HVSA-wearing behavior can be predicted by safety ethics, professional appearance, occupation risk, functionality of HVSA, and safety education. Among these predictors, safety ethics and professional appearance were the most important factors in forecasting officers’ HVSA-wearing behavior. Our study contributes to enhancing knowledge about the psychological aspects of officers’ HVSA-wearing behavior and provides implications for improving their traffic safety policies and compliance in the law enforcement community.
... Employee uniforms are purported to have an impact on both the consumer and the organization. From the organizations' perspective, uniforms are one of the marketing tools making a marketing or brand statement, establishing a brand identity, creating a brand image, tangibilizing the service products, creating a certain atmosphere and creating specific impressions, directing employees' behavior toward company rules and norms, assuring employee performance and consumer patronage (Joseph, 1986;Joseph and Alex, 1972;Haise and Rucker, 2003;Nelson and Bowen, 2000;Rafaeli, 1989;Rubinstein, 1995;Tedeschi and Melburg, 1984). Also as an important component of servicescape, employee uniforms are suggested to create certain moods, feelings and expectations in consumers, besides easing their identification of servers and their status, (Nelson and Bowen, 2000;Johnson et al., 2004). ...
... From the organizations' perspective, uniforms are one of the marketing tools making a marketing or brand statement, establishing a brand identity, creating a brand image, tangibilizing the service products, creating a certain atmosphere and creating specific impressions, directing employees' behavior toward company rules and norms, assuring employee performance and consumer patronage (Joseph, 1986;Joseph and Alex, 1972;Haise and Rucker, 2003;Nelson and Bowen, 2000;Rafaeli, 1989;Rubinstein, 1995;Tedeschi and Melburg, 1984). Also as an important component of servicescape, employee uniforms are suggested to create certain moods, feelings and expectations in consumers, besides easing their identification of servers and their status, (Nelson and Bowen, 2000;Johnson et al., 2004). Johnson et al., (2004), for example, found that employee uniforms were one of the five key elements contributing to customer satisfaction for casinos, another tourism product considered as a small-scale destination. ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine if consumers have substantially common color preferences in hospitality uniforms for destination brands. Employee uniforms with their dimensions of style, material and color are a crucial part of the coordinated brand message of a business or a destination; however, this has been a void in tourism and hospitality literature. Current visitors to Hong Kong were studied using intercept surveys in four different groups controlling for potential confounding factors. Although results reveal the common perception and preference for black-white-formal uniforms for Hong Kong’s hospitality industry across different treatment groups as well as different cultural groups, implications and discussions are provided as a call for further research in this venue of inquiry. Design/methodology/approach – This is a cross-sectional study using a site intercept survey with structured questionnaires on Chinese and international travelers in Hong Kong. Four different surveys were used as different treatments for four groups of respondents that were randomly assigned into each group. Each group was presented with a different default pair of male and female uniform pictures for the initial evaluation on the first page of the survey, followed by a list of uniforms with different colors and styles on the second page of the survey to select and evaluate their own pairs of male and female uniforms. Findings – Results revealed that consumers’ general favorite colors may not apply to their preferences for the employee uniforms for a destination they visit. Also, there were similarities in the favorite color and choice uniform color for the three general culture groups, such as Chinese, Asia-Pacific and Western consumers, included in the study. Besides, findings implied that Hong Kong may be a strong brand with a uniform color preference for hospitality uniforms for different consumer segments. Research limitations/implications – This study needs to be considered as an exploratory attempt to bring researchers’ attention to the several questions still to be answered by future research. The results and discussions provided in this study are beyond being robust or conclusive; insights about potential brand connotations with employee uniform colors need to be taken as potential leads for future studies because there is a need for further study in this area. Practical implications – The importance of hotel employee uniforms for quality hotel experience was the highest for the Chinese group, whereas it was the lowest for the Western group. Chinese and Asia-Pacific respondents placed more importance on uniforms as a cue for a quality hotel experience, which signal a higher level of involvement in visible cues in the consumption environment. Hence, hotels as well as destinations catering to these groups need to take their market segment preferences into consideration before making decisions about brand cues for their products. Originality/value – There is a lack of attention to the color aspect of service encounter in tourism and hospitality literature. Therefore, color needs attention from researchers as a new venue of research in tourism and hospitality, especially in the tourism destination context. This study is a spearhead to generate interest by intriguing questions for future attention from researchers.
... Marketers also view the employee as part of the product from an atmospheric standpoint (Nelson & Bowen, 2000;Rafaeli, 1993). Neatness and dress of the employees are parts of the product being offered by the service firm. ...
Article
The authors conducted an extensive review of literature to see if there was evidence indicating there are differences in the management of services and manufacturing organizations. The literature identified differences that related to measurements used to assess effectiveness and efficiency, differences in production strategies and differences in production processes between organizations producing tangible goods and those producing intangible services. The results of the review indicate that there are a number of important and defendable differences between managing a manufacturing firm and a service. The authors also provide tables summarizing the differences and provide research implication for each difference. The review serves as a foundation for future academic efforts to better understand the unique challenges of managing organizations in the services sector.
... Management and staff were to be involved at every stage to ensure garments were not only exquisitely designed but also fit-for-purpose, durable, comfortable and welcomed by staff. Depending on the type of hotel and the nature of work that the staff is involved in, uniforms could be simply utilitarian or highly attractive or a combination of both (Nelson and Bowen, 2000;Robinson, 2005). ...
Article
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Environmental friendly treatment of textiles has become a preferred choice over chemical treatment because of it being less harmful to textiles as well as environment. Biopolishing treatments of cellulose-containing textile fabrics with cellulase enzyme are utilized for removing protruding fibers in order to achieve a smooth and polished surface. In this study, natural cellulosic fabrics (linen, gabardine and poplin fabrics) were biopolished using cellulase enzyme to improve their surface properties and quality (fuzzing and pilling). Physico-mechanical properties were measured and determined. Additionally, dyeing of finished fabrics was carried out using different classes of reactive dyes. Design and production of functional uniforms (coats, aprons, bows, trousers, etc.) were performed using the natural fabrics that available in Egyptian markets. That achieving the elements and requirements of hotel uniforms were inspired from the elements of Nubian art and folklore; such as design motifs, dye colors, printing, and fabrics types.
... Numerous studies have found that facets of frontline service providers' personal appearance are considered in forming an impression of that provider's service effectiveness (Forsythe 1988;Johnson and Roach-Higgins 1987;Lennon and Miller 1984;Nelson and Bowen 2000;Paek 1986). Facial features are particularly important in this regard (Berry and McArthur 1986;Reed and Blunk 1990;Wogalter and Hosie 2001). ...
Article
Based on a study that compared photographs of models, hotel guests ascribe greater assurance ability to clean-shaven men, and to men and women who smile and are attractive. For unknown reasons, the facial hair effect holds for Caucasian men, but not for African-American men. This study presented photographs of Caucasian men in one set of treatment conditions, and African-American men in another set to compare the two sets of men regarding facial attractiveness, genuine smiling, and effects of facial hair. The theoretical contribution of this research is the identification of the effects of these facial attributes on assurance perceptions. The practical implications of these findings are as follows: (1) Except under special circumstances, hotel firms should not permit their employees to wear beards; (2) hotel firms should incorporate genuine smiling training in their customer service training and should evaluate frontline provider smiling with programs such as mystery shopping; and (3) within appropriate legal and ethical boundaries, hotel firms should put in place, manage, and enforce grooming policies that could influence the facial attractiveness ratings of their employees.
... The construct of employee's satisfaction is especially important in the hotel industry, which is characterized by low job security, low wages, low skill levels, use of casual workforce, and is generally referred to as an industry with high turnover rates (Iverson and Deery 1995). Evidence from past research suggests that employee satisfaction in the hospitality industry has been found to reduce turnover (LaLopa 1997) and support improvements in hotel's overall performance (Nelson and Bowen 2000, Simons and Enz 1995, Kwame and Marshall 1992. ...
... It produces a better match between consumer expectations and experiences, which is a primary determinant of perceived service quality (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry 1985). As an additional benefit, uniforms are often thought to couple the experience of a service encounter with the identity of the brand as a whole (Forsyth 2004;Nelson and Bowen 2000). This has led to some research investigating how uniforms influence overall evaluations of service encounters that generally finds benefits of employee uniforms on impressions of employees and brands (e.g. ...
Article
A group of individuals can be seen as a tight group or category with a core essence or as a loose collection of relatively unrelated entities. This dissertation explores how the perceived unity or entitativity of a group or category can be affected by relatively subtle cues, yet has significant effects on consumer judgments and behavior. First, perceived unity can be employed to counteract the historically meager donations to large groups of victims. Entitative groups elicit strong judgments and emotional reactions, so presenting victims in need of charitable support as a tight group (e.g. by calling six children a family or showing endangered butterflies moving in unison) increases donations relative to non-unified but otherwise identical victims. Collections of employees at a company can also vary on whether they seem like a tight category or a loose collection of people. Employees who wear uniforms seem more categorized and unified with each other and with the company, which causes i) more attribution of responsibility to the company for the employee???s behavior, ii) an assimilation of judgments, where one employee???s negative behavior lowers judgments of other employees, and iii) stronger judgments of the company following a service encounter. Theoretical and managerial implications of the antecedents and consequences of perceived unity are discussed.
... Guided by theoretical approach to the individual elements of general impression by several authors (Daniel, 1996;Nelson & Bowen, 2000;Turner, 2003;Belbin, 2012;Martin, 2013) in this study were singled out the following determinants of staff's impression: ...
Article
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The subject of this research is the insufficiently studied aesthetic dimension of overall quality, created among other also through the "image" of service staff. The main objective of this research is related to finding an adequate methodological process of measurement and assessment by which the presence of the mentioned aesthetic dimension in the total quality achieved would be proven and enabling the analysis of the relationship between the dependent variables (questions related to expectations and perceptions) and independent variables (studied tourist facilities and cities, age structure of respondents). For that purpose five specific determinants of assessment have been allocated: appearance, charm, tidiness, business clothing and team affiliation. The methodology used in this research included a research of primary and secondary sources, the survey technique, the scaling technique, the method of analysis and synthesis, the descriptive statistical analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The research was conducted in travel agencies, tourist info-centers, restaurants, hostels/apartments and hotels in three cities in the Republic of Serbia: Subotica, Novi Sad and Belgrade. The period of the study realization was July-December 2013. The research results indicate the fact that the respondents were generally dissatisfied with the impression of the staff. The largest negative gap value was recorded at the second determinant related to the manifested charm. This kind of approach to the quality, based on individual dimensions, can serve for corrections of the services in the relevant tourist entities, with the aim of reaching the threshold of the users' satisfaction and to increase the perceived value of the total service.
... Marketers also view the employee as part of the product from an atmospheric standpoint (Nelson & Bowen, 2000;Rafaeli, 1993). Neatness and dress of the employees are parts of the product being offered by the service firm. ...
Article
The authors conducted an extensive review of literature to see if there was evidence indicating there are differences in the management of services and manufacturing organizations. The literature identified differences that related to measurements used to assess effectiveness and efficiency, differences in production strategies and differences in production processes between organizations producing tangible goods and those producing intangible services. The results of the review indicate that there are a number of important and defendable differences between managing a manufacturing firm and a service. The authors also provide tables summarizing the differences and provide research implication for each difference. The review serves as a foundation for future academic efforts to better understand the unique challenges of managing organizations in the services sector.
... Attitude-toward-the-job is conceptualized as a composite of learned predispositions toward reacting positively or negatively toward a particular job. An eight-item semantic differential scale for the purpose of measuring attitude-toward-thejob is developed based on the work of Nelson and Bowen (2000). It is expected that higher scores are representative of a more favorable attitude toward the job. ...
Article
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Frontline service personnel (FSP) play an invaluable role in the marketing mix by directly influencing the customers perception of both the service organization as well as the service quality during the face-to-face delivery service encounter (Ashforth and Humphrey 1993). The purpose of this dissertation is to examine how sources of job stress for FSP such as perceived customer demands, role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload, and emotional labor and various mediators such as job autonomy, emotional intelligence, and emotion-focused coping directly and indirectly influence job stress and outcome variables such as attitudes, behaviors, physical consequences, emotional exhaustion, job performance, and intentions. Research from frontline social service personnels (FSSP) perspective was collected in three phases: 1) eight personal in-depth interviews to determine the fit of the constructs in the model in a social service environment, 2) a cognitive response survey gathered from 86 FSSP to identify appropriate line items, and 3) a survey questionnaire gathered from 533 members of the National Association of Social Workers-Florida. Psychometrically sound scales developed and purified in the study demonstrated reliability and validity. These scales were then used to examine the structural model. Structural equation modeling, correlations, and regression analyses were used to examine relationships in the model. Results of the study indicated that self-management of emotionally-based behavior was significant in the creation and reduction of job stress. Findings suggest that the influence of emotional-based behavior plays a significant role in job performance at the social service encounter and indirectly influences intention to switch and intention to leave.
... The significance of the uniform has been demonstrated across multiple industries, especially, in the hospitality and service sectors. Specifically, Nelson and Bowen (2000); (Yeh, Tu, Chuang & Lin, 2013) appreciated the significance of uniform in the hospitality industry where the latter stress the importance of uniforms as the component of establishing the brand in the hospitality sector. Such observations regarding the impact of uniform in the hospitality sector have been cemented by Karch & Peters (2017) who suggested that uniforms play an important role in improving performance and experiences in the service sector. ...
... Uniformen er bedriftenes forlengede arm, som også kan ha negativ innflytelse på uniformsbaererens personlige identitet fordi uniformen er reduksjonistisk og begrenser et fritt, individuelt uttrykk: "Depriving individuals of the right to determine their own appearance has been found as a major contributor to the process of deindividuation" (Nelson og Bowen 2000:90, Goffman 1967. ...
Article
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... In these cases, it has been found that corporate image influences customer perception and, therefore, customer satisfaction. Apart from to facilitating the staff identification and classification (Nelson and Bowen 2000;Davies and Chun 2012), the uniform inspires in the consumer an image of professionalism and knowledge; it improves employee performance, employee-brand congruence and the customer-employee connection (Wang and Lang 2019). Accordingly, Henkel et al (2007) included employees' personal interest in dressing appropriately when dealing with customers in an analysis of the quality of brand behaviour, highlighting the relationship between physical appearance and the organisation's brand. ...
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The aim of this study is to analyse the gap between the museum brand identity and the employee brand behaviour during the interaction with visitors. To achieve this objective, a qualitative methodology was carried out for both the collection of documentation to identify the main characteristics of museum brand identity and participant observation for the analysis of employee brand behaviour. The study has been conducted in seven museums and monographic centres of the artist Pablo Picasso in Spain and France. The application of participant observation has made it possible to deduce three types of employee brand behaviour: visual, verbal and emotional brand behaviour. The results highlight the connection of employee behaviour with the brand dimensions related to the product, the artist, the symbolism and the link with the territory. However, the digital sphere and the elements of identity related to the organisation are not reflected in the interaction between employees and visitors. The research emphasises the need for explicit brand behaviour in the museums analysed so that the organisation’s mission and values reach visitors through employee–visitor interaction.
... External appearance is a strong design element which decides the first impression and is the most important aspect in satisfaction of clothes. External appearance of clothes provides information of wearers such as social and professional position, role of sex, political inclination and aesthetic sense, etc. Nelson and Bowen(2000) said that in attributes of external appearance, there are color, material, fit and conspicuousness, etc. ...
Article
The purpose of this research is to propose employee uniforms for tourist hotels on Jeju Island, such uniforms that embrace Jeju's unique culture and promote the tourism of Jeju Island. It has been suggested that there exists a need for hotel employee uniforms to attract more tourist attention and boost Jeju's tourism industry. We designed the uniform after analyzing the empirical data collected from academia thesis, periodicals, papers and pictures from internet search, and fashion industry magazines. The uniform analysis and production procedures are as follows: (1) precedent research case review (2) current (existing) uniform status survey (3) latest fashion trend analysis (2010 - 2014) (4) creating the uniform implementing the trend-based design with Gal Cheon, Jeju's cultural product material. We found tipping points of the design through literature and trend analysis; we developed appropriate uniforms accordingly that are harmonious with Jeju's unique identity. We received great evaluations on the appearance and comfort as well. A new concept of uniform featuring Gal Cheon has been proposed. It is expected that the uniforms will promote the brand image of Jeju as an international freedom city and its culture.
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Many research studies have found that service quality has a direct impact on a company's profitability. Given the increasing competition in the steak restaurant business in Taiwan, the restaurant industry has noticed the importance of service quality. This study empirically assessed customers’ perceptions and expectations of service to measure service quality of a chain steakhouse in Taiwan. By applying the three-column SERVQUAL model approach coupled with part of the Fishbein model, the study was able to (a) analyze the service gaps existing in the service delivery process to measure service quality and customer satisfaction and (b) conduct a multiattribute attitude measure to evaluate a customer's attitude toward the service measure attributes of the same brand name restaurants in different locations. As service quality has a direct impact on a company's profits, the research findings are important, particularly to the examined chain steakhouse. These findings offer implications to improve the service quality for restaurant operations and further support the company in gaining a competitive advantage in the increasingly viable steak restaurant business in Taiwan.
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When a job situation requires the wearing of a uniform, as is the case with flight attendants, both image projected by the uniform and employee preferences are important. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of components of a uniform on image of, and preference for, the uniform. It was also designed to assess the effects of both uniform attributes and opportunities for feedback on satisfaction with one's own uniform. Using survey data from 121 flight attendants, it was found that differences in neckwear and footwear did not have a significant effect on preferences but did have significant effects on image. Data on liked and disliked features of the flight attendants' own uniforms identified fit and fabric as the two main sources of dissatisfaction. The data on opportunities for feedback about the uniform supported the proposition that more opportunities for feedback may result in greater employee satisfaction.
Employee satisfaction is an important factor in the hospitality industry. This study offers a technique to gauge employee satisfaction and demonstrates its use in an actual setting. A case study of the Mercure Mirage Eilat Hotel evaluated employee's satisfaction, before and after organizational social event, revealing that satisfaction improved after the social event. The findings also demonstrate that the composition of satisfaction altered. Prior to the organizational activity, monetary compensation was of prime importance; following the organizational activity, social issues gained significant importance in forming employee satisfaction.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the development of a conceptual model of service quality in airports by conducting an empirical investigation into passengers' expectations for this service industry. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is a qualitative exploration of the airport experience from the passengers' perspective was combined with a review of relevant literature to identify variables, to clarify basic concepts and to generate a conceptual model of airport service quality expectations. The paper's quantitative research was used to develop a self-report scale to measure passenger expectations of airport service quality, to test dimensionality and to evaluate scale reliability and validity. Findings – Qualitative and quantitative research on nearly 1,000 airport users provided results suggesting that passengers' expectations of airport service quality is a multidimensional, hierarchical construct that includes three key dimensions: function, interaction and diversion. Research limitations/implications – By bringing together different literatures and research paradigms to conceptualize service quality in a novel environment, the study contributes to the ongoing extension of service quality research. It is limited insofar as efforts to define a global expectations construct may have “homogenized” results. Practical implications – This paper builds on the extant literature on service quality to propose an approach for measuring passengers' expectations of airport service quality that can serve as a foundation of a concise and easy-to-administer self-report measure for identifying and managing airport service quality strategies. Originality/value – The paper shows that by going beyond traditional service performance measures used in the airport industry and by introducing new variables to the service quality literature, such as Csikszentmihalyi's taxonomy of activity, this study broadens and enriches both practice and theory.
This paper investigates the feasibility of applying SERVQUAL to measure the quality ofservice provided by the establishments of a tourism subsector (hotels) of a tourist destination (Cantabria, an autonomous region in northern Spain), in order to obtain relevant information for decision-making by those in charge of the tourist administration and industry associations of the region. In the specific case of the subsector we have chosen, the most significant variables for a strategic diagnosis, and which have therefore been incorporated into the analysis, are the legal category of the establishment and the geographical zone where it is located. The results of the study have allowed us to identify the categories of establishments, and the zones which require special attention, as well as the sort of interventions needed.
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This study examines if the uniforms of dental hygienists influence the formation of professional identity. A self-administered survey was conducted on 534 dental hygienists in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Incheon from March 28 to April 15, 2007. The dependent variable was professional identity. The independent variables were the organizational characteristics, uniform characteristics, and attitudes towards uniform. For the data analysis, we used t-test and hierarchical regression analysis. Using a t-test, we found the relationship between the color of the uniform and attitudes towards uniforms. The white uniform turned out to be associated with a positive perception of uniform function and uniform-image fit. The result of hierarchical regression analysis shows that the color of the uniform, perception of uniform functioning, and uniform satisfaction were statistically significant in predicting professional identity. We also tested the same model for two groups, those with and without image concern. The test results show that the significant factors were different for these two groups. This study confirms the function of uniforms in constructing professional identity and implies the need to have broader perspectives in studying uniforms.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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