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Principle of Electric Machines and Power Electronics

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... The equivalent model of SPIM with asymmetric main and auxiliary windings based on the Double Revolving Field theory [22] is given in Fig. 1. The model is obtained by simplifying the basic model of a SPIM and reducing the shunt elements (0.5R 2 /s and 0.5X m ) into an equivalent series branch. ...
... By solving the above system of equations simultaneously, (22) gives the solution of φ v for φ = 90°. Thus, the value of φ v for φ = 90°depends on the SPIM parameters, operating frequency and speed. ...
... As discussed in the previous section, (22) and (26) must be satisfied for maximum efficiency operation of SPIM. The value of k in (26) depends on SPIM impedances, operating conditions and rotational speed, that are, in turn, dependent on the operating frequency and load-conditions. ...
Article
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The recent increase in electricity prices and the usage of single-phase induction motors (SPIMs) provide a stimulus for a focused research on energy-efficient optimization of SPIM load such as air-conditioners and refrigerators. Variable speed control of SPIM provides a promising way forward to reduce its power consumption. However, during variable speed operation under the popular constant V/f method, SPIM is required to operate at non-rated conditions. The operation of SPIM at non-rated conditions disturbs its symmetrical and balanced operation, thus degrading its efficiency. Moreover, soft-starting of SPIM at non-rated conditions is also challenging due to the resulting reduction in starting-torque. In this paper, after a detailed analysis of SPIM energy-efficiency, an improved sensor-less optimal speed control strategy is developed to enable the symmetrical and balanced operation of SPIM at all the operating points over the entire speed-range to improve its performance. A novel algorithm, termed as the phase-shift algorithm, is also devised for efficient implementation of the proposed optimal speed control strategy. In addition, a unique framework for efficient soft-starting of SPIM at very low frequencies is also developed. The simulation-based results of the motor operated through the proposed phase-shift algorithm validate the energy-saving potential of the proposed control strategy.
... For the vice versa, it is called motor as in figure 2.14 where the motor have divided to two part which are Alternating Current (AC) Motor and Direct Current (DC) motor. The DC motor is widely used in mills, mines, and train because it provides the advantages of speed of control and torque regulation[8]. In DC machines, it consists of two important elements which are rotor and stator. ...
... We can control the speed (ω) by varies the Armature Voltage (E a ), Armature Current (I a ) and Field Current (I f ). It is based on the formula given[8] ...
... Per-Phase Equivalent Circuit of Induction Motor[6] ...
... Power flow in an induction motor[6]. ...
Article
The performance evaluation of cage induction motor continues to receive tremendous attention because of its vital effect on the overall system stability. The model has predicted the behavior of cage induction motor under different operating conditions and in selecting the appropriate motor for a specific load application. There is often a challenge when a squirrel cage induction motor is connected to a time-varying load, particularly when the motor is selected without considering the effects of pulsating torques. The usual method used for steady state analysis of induction motors is the equivalent circuit method. Using the per phase equivalent circuit of the induction motor, stator current and referred rotor current were computed using simple circuit analysis. Once the currents are available, then power can be computed because the voltage is already known.
... Slip variation in forward branch impedance and reverse branch impedance and total auxiliary winding impedance calculations are obtained. Detailed analysis carried out on capacitor performance with variation of slip [12][13][14][15]. Failure reasons are addressed in PSCRSPIM at low slip. ...
... Hence, the voltage across the capacitor from Fig.5 can be found out from equivalent circuit of auxiliary winding of PSCR motor. The voltage across the capacitor can be find out as (12) can be find out as ...
Article
This paper presents a case study on capacitor failure analysis in Permanent-Split Capacitor-Run SinglePhase Induction Motor (PSCRSPIM) in low slip region. It emphasizes the motor performance in low slip region and detailed analysis carried out for Capacitor voltage and current variation with respect to slip. Motor Equivalent circuit parameters are extracted from dc test, no-load test and locked-rotor test. MATLAB simulations are carried out. Theoretical and experimental results are plotted. The premature failure of capacitor faced by PSCRSPIM users is answered at the end of the Paper. Contrary to the general concept that overloaded machine will fail; the paper is addressing the failure of lightly loaded machines.
... O motor de indução trifásico (MIT) é o mais utilizado na indústria de todas as máquinas rotativas que transformam energia elétrica em energia mecânica. Um dos motivos é que a maioria dos sistemas atuais de distribuição de energia elétrica são de corrente alternada (Chapman, 2013 (Sen, 2013). O MIT operando a vazio possui uma corrente de partida bem menor que um motor sendo acionado à plena carga (Castagnini, Känsäkangas, & Kolehmainen, 2015). ...
... No MIT, devido ao entreferro, a corrente de magnetização I φ é elevada sendo geralmente em torno de 30 a 50 porcento da corrente de plena carga (Sen, 2013 (Gati, 2015). ...
Chapter
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A inserção no mercado de trabalho atual e o desenvolvimento profissional do Engenheiro Eletricista estão associados às competências e habilidades adquiridas no decorrer do curso e à convivência com a criatividade, a capacidade de gerenciar, o trabalho em grupo, a capacidade empreendedora, a incorporação dos princípios básicos de comunicação e o relacionamento interdisciplinar nas suas atividades de engenharia com outros professionais. Por isso, comemorando com imensa satisfação 20 anos do Curso de Engenharia Elétrica da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, é que alunos, professores e pesquisadores encaminharam manuscritos para compor os capítulos deste livro. O objetivo principal é fornecer à comunidade científica e ao público em geral, resultados de trabalhos de conclusão de curso, projetos de iniciação científica, projetos de extensão, projetos de pesquisa e de relatórios de experiências práticas das disciplinas do curso. Neste primeiro Volume o material é organizado e apresentado para uma leitura amena e agradável, desvendando temas relacionados com fontes de energia renováveis, a eficiência energética, o sistema elétrico nacional e outros assuntos, que levam a um caminho para o desenvolvimento sustentável, e assim contribuir desde as universidades para um Amazonas melhor e mais limpo. Boa leitura e bom aprendizado!
... O motor de indução trifásico (MIT) é o mais utilizado na indústria de todas as máquinas rotativas que transformam energia elétrica em energia mecânica. Um dos motivos é que a maioria dos sistemas atuais de distribuição de energia elétrica são de corrente alternada (Chapman, 2013 (Sen, 2013). O MIT operando a vazio possui uma corrente de partida bem menor que um motor sendo acionado à plena carga (Castagnini, Känsäkangas, & Kolehmainen, 2015). ...
... No MIT, devido ao entreferro, a corrente de magnetização I φ é elevada sendo geralmente em torno de 30 a 50 porcento da corrente de plena carga (Sen, 2013 (Gati, 2015). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
A inserção no mercado de trabalho atual e o desenvolvimento profissional do Engenheiro Eletricista estão associados às competências e habilidades adquiridas no decorrer do curso e à convivência com a criatividade, a capacidade de gerenciar, o trabalho em grupo, a capacidade empreendedora, a incorporação dos princípios básicos de comunicação e o relacionamento interdisciplinar nas suas atividades de engenharia com outros professionais. Por isso, comemorando com imensa satisfação 20 anos do Curso de Engenharia Elétrica da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, é que alunos, professores e pesquisadores encaminharam manuscritos para compor os capítulos deste livro. O objetivo principal é fornecer à comunidade científica e ao público em geral, resultados de trabalhos de conclusão de curso, projetos de iniciação científica, projetos de extensão, projetos de pesquisa e de relatórios de experiências práticas das disciplinas do curso. Neste primeiro Volume o material é organizado e apresentado para uma leitura amena e agradável, desvendando temas relacionados com fontes de energia renováveis, a eficiência energética, o sistema elétrico nacional e outros assuntos, que levam a um caminho para o desenvolvimento sustentável, e assim contribuir desde as universidades para um Amazonas melhor e mais limpo. Boa leitura e bom aprendizado!
... O motor de indução trifásico (MIT) é o mais utilizado na indústria de todas as máquinas rotativas que transformam energia elétrica em energia mecânica. Um dos motivos é que a maioria dos sistemas atuais de distribuição de energia elétrica são de corrente alternada (Chapman, 2013 (Sen, 2013). O MIT operando a vazio possui uma corrente de partida bem menor que um motor sendo acionado à plena carga (Castagnini, Känsäkangas, & Kolehmainen, 2015). ...
... No MIT, devido ao entreferro, a corrente de magnetização I φ é elevada sendo geralmente em torno de 30 a 50 porcento da corrente de plena carga (Sen, 2013 (Gati, 2015). ...
Book
Full-text available
A inserção no mercado de trabalho atual e o desenvolvimento profissional do Engenheiro Eletricista estão associados às competências e habilidades adquiridas no decorrer do curso e à convivência com a criatividade, a capacidade de gerenciar, o trabalho em grupo, a capacidade empreendedora, a incorporação dos princípios básicos de comunicação e o relacionamento interdisciplinar nas suas atividades de engenharia com outros professionais. Por isso, comemorando com imensa satisfação 20 anos do Curso de Engenharia Elétrica da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, é que alunos, professores e pesquisadores encaminharam manuscritos para compor os capítulos deste livro. O objetivo principal é fornecer à comunidade científica e ao público em geral, resultados de trabalhos de conclusão de curso, projetos de iniciação científica, projetos de extensão, projetos de pesquisa e de relatórios de experiências práticas das disciplinas do curso. Neste primeiro Volume o material é organizado e apresentado para uma leitura amena e agradável, desvendando temas relacionados com fontes de energia renováveis, a eficiência energética, o sistema elétrico nacional e outros assuntos, que levam a um caminho para o desenvolvimento sustentável, e assim contribuir desde as universidades para um Amazonas melhor e mais limpo. Boa leitura e bom aprendizado!
... O motor de indução trifásico (MIT) é o mais utilizado na indústria de todas as máquinas rotativas que transformam energia elétrica em energia mecânica. Um dos motivos é que a maioria dos sistemas atuais de distribuição de energia elétrica são de corrente alternada (Chapman, 2013 (Sen, 2013). O MIT operando a vazio possui uma corrente de partida bem menor que um motor sendo acionado à plena carga (Castagnini, Känsäkangas, & Kolehmainen, 2015). ...
... No MIT, devido ao entreferro, a corrente de magnetização I φ é elevada sendo geralmente em torno de 30 a 50 porcento da corrente de plena carga (Sen, 2013 (Gati, 2015). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
A inserção no mercado de trabalho atual e o desenvolvimento profissional do Engenheiro Eletricista estão associados às competências e habilidades adquiridas no decorrer do curso e à convivência com a criatividade, a capacidade de gerenciar, o trabalho em grupo, a capacidade empreendedora, a incorporação dos princípios básicos de comunicação e o relacionamento interdisciplinar nas suas atividades de engenharia com outros professionais. Por isso, comemorando com imensa satisfação 20 anos do Curso de Engenharia Elétrica da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, é que alunos, professores e pesquisadores encaminharam manuscritos para compor os capítulos deste livro. O objetivo principal é fornecer à comunidade científica e ao público em geral, resultados de trabalhos de conclusão de curso, projetos de iniciação científica, projetos de extensão, projetos de pesquisa e de relatórios de experiências práticas das disciplinas do curso. Neste primeiro Volume o material é organizado e apresentado para uma leitura amena e agradável, desvendando temas relacionados com fontes de energia renováveis, a eficiência energética, o sistema elétrico nacional e outros assuntos, que levam a um caminho para o desenvolvimento sustentável, e assim contribuir desde as universidades para um Amazonas melhor e mais limpo. Boa leitura e bom aprendizado!
... Induction motors can be considered to be systems that convert electrical power into mechanical power. Assuming sinusoidal voltage and current are at a steady state and the induction motor as a balanced three-phase load, the line current can be expressed [12,13] as: ...
... Equation (1) can be used to evaluate the mechanical power, starting from the measurement of a line current [12][13][14], considering the voltage equal to the rated value. Unfortunately, the relation in Equation (1) it is not linear, since the functions η(P m ) and cosφ(P m ) depend on the mechanical power, as shown in [3] (Figure 1), where the typical trends of efficiency and active factor are plotted for different values of mechanical power. ...
Article
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Three-phase induction motors are widely diffused in the industrial environment. Many times, the rated power of three-phase induction motors is not properly chosen causing incorrect operating conditions from an energetic point of view. Monitoring the mechanical dimension of a new motor is helpful, should an existing motor need to be replaced. This paper presents an IoT sensors network for monitoring the mechanical power produced by three-phase induction motors, adopting an indirect measuring method. The proposed technique can be easily adopted to monitor the mechanical power using only one line of current transducer, reducing the cost of the monitoring system. The proposed indirect measurement technique has been implemented on a low-cost IoT system, based on a Photon Particle SoC. The results show that the proposed IoT system can estimate the mechanical power with a relative error of within 8%.
... Several topologies for electronic motor control exist (Sen, 2007;Mohan, et al., 2003). Due to the DC propulsion of many current locomotives and the DC nature of most storage systems, DC-DC converters are key to development of regeneration systems. ...
... Higher speeds of a motor can causes higher bearing losses; however, this is usually overshadowed by rotor and magnetic losses in the motor which depend on the variable speed control of the motor. (Sen, 2007) Figure 37: System efficiency diagram of the locomotive traction and auxiliary system demonstrating efficiencies of different components Figure 37 shows the traction path and associated efficiencies for each traction system component. ...
... The technique calculates the optimal control signal while respecting the given constrains over the output frequency deviation and the load change. The effects of the physical constraints such as generation rate constraint (GRC) and speed governor dead band [11,12] are considered. The power system with the proposed MPC technique has been tested through the effect of uncertainties due to governor and turbine parameters variation and load disturbance using computer simulation. ...
Article
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In this paper, a new load frequency control (LFC) using the model predictive control MPC technique is presented. The MPC technique has been designed such that the effect of the uncertainty due to governor and turbine parameters variation and load disturbance is reduced. A simplified frequency response model is introduced, and physical constraints of the governor and turbine are considered in this model. The model was employed in the MPC structure. The optimal parameter values of MPC were obtained using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based on a certain cost function. The presented MPC is compared against a conventional proportional integral derivative (PID) controller. Simulations show that the MPC gives a better frequency response while using cheaper resources. The simulation results illustrate that MPC could be a realistic solution to some of the LFC problems power systems are facing today. Also, it can absorb and predict the different types of disturbances.
... Find: 3. The real, reactive, and apparent powers consumed by the load. 4. The power factor of the load. ...
Chapter
This course is prepared and presented for second year electrical engineering and electronics students. The main objective of this course is to understand the principles and theory of the different types of electrical machines and to make the students able to analyze and quantify their performance in the steady state.
... This can be caused by the converter itself, e.g., by the control method and the switching frequency of the converter, and/or through incomplete filtering of harmonics present in the grid voltage [1,2]. In some systems, another source of superimposed alternating currents (AC) can be the pulsating AC power of a single-phase electric motor and other single-phase AC loads, which are connected to the battery via an unfiltered DC/AC-inverter [3]. ...
Article
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Batteries in energy storage systems are exposed to electrical noise, such as alternating current (AC) harmonics. While there have been many studies investigating whether Lithium-ion batteries are affected by AC harmonics, such studies on Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries are scarce. In this study a 10 Ah, 12 V NiMH battery was tested with three different harmonic current frequency overlays during a single charge/discharge cycle: 50 Hz, 100 Hz, and 1000 Hz. No effect on battery internal temperature or gas pressure was found, indicating that NiMH battery aging is not affected by the tested harmonic AC frequencies. This can reduce the cost of energy storage systems, as no extra filters are needed to safeguard the batteries. Instead, the capacitive properties of the batteries give the possibility to use the battery bank itself as a high pass filter, further reducing system complexity and cost.
... BELBIC is a model-free controller cannot be applied to unstable systems or systems with unstable equilibrium point. This is a usual effect of the trial and error method of a learning process [14][15][16]. This chapter deals with detailed study of emotional learning of controller with the aim of achieving better dynamic response by developing Simulink model for the speed control of BELBIC-based PMBLDCM drive system using MATLAB/Simulink. ...
Chapter
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Many of the industrialized drives depend on electric motors for their production, thus the need for efficient speed control of motors must be highlighted. There is a growing demand for the applications of the PMBLDC motors in the fields of agriculture, residential, commercial, and industrial and other utility areas. The conventional PI controller can control the speed of PMBLDC motor. However, it cannot guarantee the stability of the machine throughout the load varies. Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC) is applied in this paper to improve the speed performance of PMBLDC motor. The simulation model of the drive system is made with MATLAB/Simulink.
... Using CO-PWM Technique Fig. 9b gives the FFT analysis of the above three phase waveform using VF-PWM method. The THD of this method is very low 12.51 compared to all other three methods [7]. The obtained pure sinusoidal waveforms are three phase output voltage waves using LC filter at time period of 0.2 ms and 180 V amplitude which is shown in Fig. 10a and FFT analysis is shown in Fig. 10b [8]. ...
Chapter
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There are many inverter topologies in which cascaded inverter have some advantages compared to other multilevel inverters such as reduced harmonics but they have drawbacks also such as many heat losses, more switches, high cost. But in this new configuration which is developed in this project overcome all these disadvantages. In this project four different pulse width modulation techniques are used, they are In Phase disposition, Phase Opposition disposition, Overlap Carrier disposition, and Frequency Varying disposition methods. This paper discusses new configuration with 10 power switches and four DC sources. The proposed configuration includes many advantages compared to existing configurations the advantages are very less cost, less switching losses, less harmonics, and greater efficiency at output. The circuit is built in matlab software and results are verified to select the best Pulse width modulation technique which has reduced Total Harmonic Distortion in output. In order to make the output voltage more sinusoidal and reduce the THD, LC Filter is used.
... Hence, it is advantage when the machines operate at lesser breakdown occurrences and duration. This project of reducing the energy consumption at holding furnace by identifying the root cause of failures and implementing the improvements in the phased manner [5]. Figure 1, repesents the principle of electromagnetic induction utilizes the magnetic effect of the electrical current. ...
Article
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This paper deals with high energy consuming induction holding furnace. The improved version of coil design along with additional electrical interlocks and alarm, modified hydraulic controls, strengthening mechanical structures and energy saving proposals at holding furnace fume extraction system ensures trouble free operation of furnace and hence continuity of production at all the planned plant operational days. This project involves in purchasing of D-section copper extruded coil from Europe–Switzerland for its extended length from existing 3 meters long to 9 Meters which enables in reduction of coil joints. The performance of the holding furnace has improved in terms ofits energy consumption per ton of liquid metal. The payback period for the estimated investment will be less than 2 years.
... Bu bölümde motorun stator dış ve iç çapı, nüve uzunluğu ve hava aralığı uzunluğu gibi motorun temel boyutlandırma eşitlikleri paylaşılmıştır. Daha detaylı tasarım eşitlikleri [13][14] kaynaklarda verilmektedir. ...
Article
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Hafif elektrikli araçlarda kullanılacak asenkron tahrik motorlarının (ATM) hız, moment ve güç değerleri, kullanımının amaçlandığı bölgedeki sürüş çevrimine bağlı olarak kalkış ve fren yapma sayısı, hız limiti, ivme ihtiyacı, toplam araç ağırlığı gibi birçok parametreye bağlı olarak değişmektedir. Fakat endüstriyel tip sincap kafesli asenkron motorlar sürekli çalışma rejiminde ve anma şartlarında şebekeden çalışmaya uygun olarak tasarlanırlar ve elektrikli araçlar için kullanılacak asenkron tahrik motorlarından tasarım ve performans isterleri bakımından önemli ölçüde ayrışırlar. Bu çalışma, hafif elektrikli araçlarda kullanılmak üzere özelleştirilmiş, 48V DC batarya gerilimine sahip, 3,5kW gücünde ve S2-60dk çalışma rejiminde çalışabilecek bir ATM’nin tasarımını, sonlu eleman analizlerini (SEA), performans çıktılarını, prototip üretimi gerçekleştirilen motorun test sonuçlarını ve tasarım sonuçları ile karşılaştırmasını sunmaktadır. Çalışmada ihtiyaç duyulan motor özelliklerine yönelik temel boyutlandırma eşitlikleri, tasarlanan asenkron motorun fiziksel ölçüleri, stator ve rotor oluk ölçüleri, sarım özellikleri ve performans değerleri verilmiştir. Tasarımı gerçekleştirilen motor öncelikle SEA analizlerine tabi tutularak farklı çalışma koşullarındaki akı dağılımları ve akım yoğunlukları verilmiştir. Üretimi gerçekleştirilen prototip asenkron tahrik motoru sekiz farklı hız ve yük şartında test edilerek frekans, gerilim, akım, hız, moment, çıkış gücü, güç faktörü ve verim sonuçları tasarım sonuçları ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Benzer şekilde prototip motor farklı yük şartlarında ısı testlerine alınarak ısı artışı eğrileri elde edilmiş ve sunulmuştur. Test sonuçları ile tasarım sonuçları büyük oranda benzerlik göstermiş olup, tasarım sonuçları test sonuçları ile doğrulanmıştır.
... Assume that the turn ON and turn OFF time of switch is defined in term of for turn ON and for OFF time. The time period, T, is defined as (2) And the frequency of switch is, therefore the flux is constant for separately excited DC motor [12]. Applying Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) to the circuit in Thus, from the above Equation (6), back emf of the DC motor may be controlled via armature voltage, armature resistance and field flux. ...
Article
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The purpose of the paper is to manipulate the separately excited DC motor via the usage of the strength electronic IGBT (Insulate Gate Bipolar Transistor). The speed of separately excited DC motor may be manipulated by using varying the armature terminal voltage. In this way the speed may be controlled for above rated speed and under the rated speed respectively. In this model, the speed of motor up to and below the rated speed may be achieved via changing the armature voltage. The voltage of armature terminal may be precise by using IGBT or MOSFET established chopper. The IGBT chopper get the signal from controller and adjustable voltage is given to the armature of dc motor according to the specified speed. The main benefits to apply this method is that the speed varies proportionally with armature terminal voltage and varies inversely with subject terminal voltage with the help of maintaining the voltage of discipline and armature steady respectively. The PI controller is finding for isolation of delay and presents very fast manage. The version of one after the other excited DC motor is designed and the general format of DC force mechanism is obtained. By the assessment of triangular carrier signal with reference signal we get the PWM pulse for chopper switch. The simulation version is designed within the MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation output parameters of simulation model of DC motor such as; armature current, armature voltage, torque, speed, field current is analyzed.
... Ayrıca DA motorlarında kullanılan sürücü sistemleri AA sürücü sistemlerine kıyasla daha basit ve daha az maliyetlidir. (Sen, 2007). ...
... With the pulse width small, the average voltage applied onto the motor is low, and the motor's speed is slow. If the width is wide, the average voltage is higher, and therefore motor speed is higher [12,13]. Fig. 4 shows PWM signal with 50% duty cycle, where T is the signal period, V H is the signal amplitude. ...
Article
This Paper presents a novel hardware design methodology of digital control systems. For this, instead of synthesizing the control system using Very high speed integration circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL), LabVIEW FPGA module from National Instrument (NI) is used to design the whole system that include analog capture circuit to take out the analog signals (set point and process variable) from the real world, PID controller module, and PWM signal generator module to drive the motor. The physical implementation of the digital system is based on Spartan-3E FPGA from Xilinx. Simulation studies of speed control of a D.C. motor are conducted and the effect of a sudden change in reference speed and load are also included.
... calcula-se o fator de enrolamento (K wh ) para a h-ésima harmônica em (6) (Sen, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
Este trabalho propõe uma análise do desempenho das máquinas elétricas lineares tubulares em função do tipo de enrolamento trifásico. As características operacionais analisadas são a força eletromagnética e a tensão induzida devido ao sistema de excitação de campo. O estudo é aplicado a uma topologia composta por dois arranjos de quase-Halbach e uma armadura longa. Quatro diferentes tipos de enrolamento são analisados. Para tanto, uma modelagem matemática em função da primeira e da terceira harmônica da indução magnética e do fator de enrolamento é detalhada. Adicionalmente, simulações via modelo numérico de elementos finitos são realizadas e os resultados de força eletromagnética e tensão induzida de circuito aberto são comparados com os resultados dos modelos analíticos. A abordagem proposta neste trabalho possibilita que outras configurações de enrolamento sejam exploradas em máquinas lineares tubulares, as quais são diferentes do enrolamento concentrado tradicionalmente apresentado na literatura.
... There is, however, a minimum value of current below which the thyristor reverts to the low current or the forward blocking state. This minimum value of current is called the holding current, I H . 8 For reverse voltages the characteristics are similar to those of a reverse biased silicon diode. With increasing reverse voltages, the current remains small till a breakdown voltage is reached at which the current increases very sharply with the voltage. ...
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The last four decades witnessed huge progress in the field of electrical engineering-power electronic branch, according to the efforts and research of thousands of scientists all around the world in this field. This caused a technological revolution in power electronics that we witness today as part of it, and the coming generation will witness the other parts. Despite a large number of researches and studies, there was a decisive landmark that pushed the wheel of this revolution, the thyristor was one of these inventions. The thyristor is an electronic key that permits the electrical current to cut and pass through despite many sophisticated and sensitive electronic devices. The invention of the thyristor wide opened the door to power electronic science, the science that gives the problem the modern industry the ability to auto-control when dealing with high voltages and currents. The thyristor has high power handling and good efficiency in the power transfer systems. In spite of the passing three decades since the start of studying the power electronic as a curriculum in the Iraqi Institutes and Universities, but the the library is lacking such a book which covers all the subjects and aspects of power electronics and their engineering applications in electrical power systems. This book is written in a simple and easy English-Language to cover all the subjects taught in this field to the students of technical college and college of engineering in the fourth year of their study – Electrical and electronic engineering departments – and also to the students in the final year of their study in the Electrical department in the technical institutes. This book contains different subjects in separative chapters together with analyzing the essential circuits and explaining the function of the practical circuits. These subjects are organized in an accumulative manner. Each the chapter contains examples with their answers and tutorial questions at the end of each chapter, in order to enhance the comprehension of it. The first six chapters concentrate on the basics of power electronics, they give the student a wide perspective on thyristor, its construction, characteristics, how its functions and protects, and the way of its firing and commutation. The chapters also cover the applications of the thyristor in the rectification of alternating current (A.C.) and showing also the practical circuits and their applications in a simple way. They give the reader special importance toward switching ON and OFF of direct current (D.C.)ii circuits and how to control them. After that, they demonstrate the inversion of D.C. to A.C. with variable frequency by controlling the time of conducting and disconducting of the thyristor used in the system. Finally, they give special importance to switching ON and OFF the A.C. circuits and the controlling function for both single-phase and three-phase systems. The last four chapters (seventh to tenth) of this book specialized in demonstrating the most important applications in this field. Chapter seven shows us the most important applications of the thyristor in industries that in no need for using electrical motors. The last three chapters show us the industrial applications of the thyristor in the field of controlling the speed of electrical motors which are widely spread in the industry, especially in D.C. motors, 3-phase induction motors, and three-phase synchronous motors
... Electric motors are the crucial actuators in various industrial plants and electric vehicles [1][2][3]. DC motor, induction motor, and permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) remain the mainstream actuators most commonly used due to inherent mature technologies and easily accessible commercial components. However, SRM [4] has the most potential to be the competitor in various speed driving applications [4][5][6][7] due to the merits, including simple structure with singlyexcited concentrated armature winding, the rotor without conductors or magnets providing rigidity and no demagnetization risk of the permanent magnet, highly developed torque, and acceleration capability. ...
Article
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This paper presents a three-phase full-bridge boost switch-mode rectifier (SMR) powered switched-reluctance motor (SRM) drive with battery energy storage buffer. It covers the designing of the power circuits and control schemes for the two power stages. Except for having a superior line-drawn power quality, the boost-able DC-link voltage of the SRM drive can enhance the SRM driving performance in a wide speed range and sent back the recovered regenerative braking energy to the grid successfully. The next is establishing a battery energy storage system (BESS) with a bidirectional interface DC-DC converter connected to the motor drive DC-link for providing an energy buffer. The proposed parallel operation strategy has three possible inter-connected operations. (i) Grid-to-battery (G2B) charging: The battery charged by the grid with a good line drawn power quality. (ii) B2G discharging operation: The battery sending power back to the grid by the interface converter and the SMR. (iii) Battery buffer operation: Powering of the SRM drive simultaneously by the utility grid and the battery with the proposed parallel operation strategy.
... O rendimento, ղ, de um motor de indução trifásico é dado em porcentagem e calculado através de (26), sendo Pe, a potência ativa instantânea de entrada, dada por (23), Ps, a potência ativa instantânea de saída, dada por (24) e Psup as perdas por atrito e ventilação (Krause et al., 2002) (Sen, 2007). ...
Conference Paper
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A demanda por energia continua aumentando em escalas globais e a eficiência energética se torna um dos principais tópicos a serem estudados. Neste contexto, sabe-se que os motores elétricos possuem elevada relevância, visto que, representam uma grande parcela do consumo total. Estes, por uma maior necessidade de controle de suas características operativas, vêm sendo alimentados por inversores de frequência, que, apesar de seus grandes benefícios, acrescentam distorções harmônicas aos sinais elétricos, o que prejudica o rendimento das máquinas. Portanto, este documento apresenta análises acerca do rendimento de motores elétricos de indução alimentados por inversores, para duas diferentes técnicas de modulação, sendo elas a PWM senoidal e a vetorial.
... Каждый элемент библиотеки Power System имеет своё название и пиктограмму, т.е. блоки после выбора, которых откроется блок настройки параметров выбранного элемента [12,13]. Результаты компьютерного моделирования приведены на рисунках 2 и 3 в виде графиков переходных процессов и механических характеристик двигателя. ...
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1 Худжандский политехнический институт таджикского технического Университета имени академика М.С. Осими, г. Худжанд, Таджикистан 2 Казанский государственный энергетический университет, Россия 3 Новый Лиссабонский университет; ТУ София и БФУ Болгария ORCID*: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2573-759X, shahbozdadoboev@mail.ru Резюме: ЦЕЛЬ. Анализ пусковых переходных процессов асинхронного двигателя при низком качестве электроэнергии питающей сети, а именно пуск асинхронного двигателя при пониженном напряжении сети, при пониженной частоте сети, а также пуск при провалах напряжения в сети. МЕТОДЫ. Основным методом исследования было принято имитационное моделирование на основе компьютерных моделей. С этой целью были разработаны компьютерные модели исследуемой системы в программе MATLAB/Simulink. РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ. В статье рассмотрены основные достоинства и недостатки асинхронных электродвигателей, проведен анализ негативных пусковых факторов асинхронных машин, выполнено компьютерное моделирование асинхронной машины при питании от сети с пониженными напряжением и частотой. Проведено исследование провалов напряжения в сети при пусковых режимах асинхронных машин, с этой целью разработана компьютерная модель для исследования провалов напряжения сети, вызванных пусковыми режимами электродвигателей. Приведены результаты в виде графиков переходных процессов асинхронного двигателя, которые показывают поведение данного типа машин при пуске от сети с низким качеством электроэнергии. ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ. Новизна исследования заключается в компьютерном моделировании асинхронного двигателя в абсолютных единицах, а также в детальном графическом выводе результатов. Ключевые слова: качество электроэнергии; пониженное напряжение; частота сети; асинхронный электродвигатель; переходные процессы; электромагнитный момент; MATLAB/Simulink. Abstract: THE PURPOSE. To analyze the starting transient processes of an asynchronous motor with a low quality of electricity in the supply network. To consider starting an asynchronous motor at a reduced mains voltage, at a reduced mains frequency, as well as starting with voltage dips in the network. METHODS. Simulation modeling based on computer models was adopted as the main research method. For this purpose, computer models of the system under study were developed in the MATLAB / Simulink program. RESULTS. The article discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of asynchronous electric motors, analyzes the negative starting factors of ЭНЕРГЕТИКА
... Каждый элемент библиотеки Power System имеет своё название и пиктограмму, т.е. блоки после выбора, которых откроется блок настройки параметров выбранного элемента [12,13]. Результаты компьютерного моделирования приведены на рисунках 2 и 3 в виде графиков переходных процессов и механических характеристик двигателя. ...
Article
Full-text available
THE PURPOSE. To analyze the starting transient processes of an asynchronous motor with a low quality of electricity in the supply network. To consider starting an asynchronous motor at a reduced mains voltage, at a reduced mains frequency, as well as starting with voltage dips in the network. METHODS. Simulation modeling based on computer models was adopted as the main research method. For this purpose, computer models of the system under study were developed in the MATLAB / Simulink program. RESULTS. The article discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of asynchronous electric motors, analyzes the negative starting factors of asynchronous machines, performs computer modeling of an asynchronous machine when powered from a network with reduced voltage and frequency. A study of voltage dips in the network at starting modes of asynchronous machines has been carried out. For this purpose, a computer model has been developed to study the voltage dips in the network caused by starting modes of electric motors. The results are given in the form of graphs of the transient processes of an induction motor, which show the behavior of this type of machine when starting from the network with low power quality. CONCLUSION. The novelty of the research lies in the computer simulation of an induction motor in absolute units, as well as in a detailed graphical display of the results.
... The technique calculates the optimal control signal while respecting the given constrains over the output frequency deviation and the load change. The effects of the physical constraints such as generation rate constraint (GRC) and speed governor dead band [11,12] are considered. The power system with the proposed MPC technique has been tested through the effect of uncertainties due to governor and turbine parameters variation and load disturbance using computer simulation. ...
Book
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The book related with power electronic components, specially the thyristor and their applications in control of electrical machines and power systems
Conference Paper
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The results of the analysis of transient and technological processes of the irrigation pumping station of the first lift, taking into account the negative starting effects on the synchronous electric drive, are considered. The analysis and review of the ways of regulating the performance of the units of the irrigation pumping station of the first lift are made, and the main difficulties of the existing methods of regulating the pump supply are revealed. Computer simulation of starting modes of high-voltage synchronous electric motors with direct and soft start, where soft starter was used for soft start, was carried out. The simulation took into account the changes in the currents of all phases of the electric motor, the electromagnetic torque, the motor speed, the effective value of the current, as well as the static torque. The introduction of semiconductor soft starters for electric drives of high-power pumping units has been substantiated.
Article
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This paper presents an observer-based active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) structure which achieves robust tracking performance, effective regulatory control, and negligible internal uncertainty for a separately-excited DC motor. The approach is primarily founded on the opportunity of online estimation of all the disturbance inputs-known and unknown-which affects a DC motor utilizing suitable observers, and proceeding to reject them through an appropriate feedback control law. The critical tuning parameters for this controller are the observer and controller bandwidths; the higher values of which will result in enhanced disturbance-rejection performance. A frequency response analysis demonstrates that the observer-based controller significantly improves the robustness of the DC motor to external disturbances, and remarkably maintains its bandwidth and stability margin regardless of the unknown dynamics and parametric variations existing in the motor. A thorough comparison is made between the proposed control strategy and previous model-based strategies used via control simulations to validate its effectiveness.
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Energy is an essential ingredient to improve the quality of our life. With the gradual depletion of the conventional resources for power generation, and the kind of environmental pollution caused by conventional power generation, emphasis is being placed all over the world on tapping green energy sources namely solar, wind, hydro, bio-mass, geothermal and bio-fuels. The utilization of renewable energies is not new to the society. In the history of mankind renewable energies have for a long time been the primary possibility of generating energy. As academic constitutes an important segment of our society and with the power to influence the society through research and education, this conference tries to focus the attention by the academia on green energy, and encourages them to create awareness in the society and get them actively involved in research on power generation from renewable energy sources.
Article
The present study aims to propose an indirect field‐oriented control (IFOC) strategy for star‐connected three‐phase induction machine (SCTPIM) drives against single‐phase open‐circuit fault. In the proposed IFOC method, transformation matrices (TMs) are applied to the faulty SCTPIM equations. Based on the results, the asymmetrical equations of the faulty SCTPIM can be transformed into symmetrical equations by using these matrices. The symmetrical equations have structures which are similar to healthy SCTPIM equations. Thus, a midfield IFOC strategy could be shared during both normal and open‐phase fault operations. The performance of the proposed control system was confirmed based on the simulations and experiments for a vector controlled 0.75 kW SCTPIM drive. The results confirmed the effectiveness of the introduced controller in the speed and torque ripples decreasing of the faulty SCTPIM and eliminating the unbalances in the faulty SCTPIM currents.
Thesis
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Les travaux de recherche présentés dans ce manuscrit traitent des systèmes de conversion d'énergie marémotrice mettant en œuvre une machine synchrone à aimants permanents double étoile en fonctionnement en défauts. Initialement, une commande à minimisation du nombre de capteurs est développée dans le but d'améliorer la fiabilité de ces systèmes. La position du rotor est une grandeur très sensible à mesurer, dont la valeur est estimée par un filtre de Kalman étendu. De ce fait, une erreur d'estimation, habituellement non dangereuse, est apparue, mais son effet est amplifié par le grand nombre de pôles de la machine. Elle induit une surintensité à cause de la perte de contrôlabilité du courant direct de la machine. Une technique est donc proposée pour compenser cette erreur et rétablir le fonctionnement normal du système. Ensuite, deux défauts sont étudiés, le défaut d'ouverture de phase statorique et le court-circuit entre spires. Pour les deux défauts, une analyse détaillée du comportement de la machine sous ces conditions est effectuée. Une solution est proposée pour permettre à la machine de survivre au défaut d'ouverture d'une phase statorique sans avoir à modifier sa construction (en gardant ses neutres isolés). Un algorithme de diagnostic du défaut de court-circuit entre spires est ensuite proposé, qui permet de détecter la survenance du défaut et d'estimer sa sévérité.
Chapter
In the process industry, air coolers are some of the main cooling equipment. The air cooler of the atmospheric distillation column has fixed and variable fans, and the cooling duty is controlled. When the controller output exceeds the operating limits, the number of fixed fans in operation is changed to return it within the limits. However, the power consumption of the air cooler is not minimized. Daiguji and Yamashita (2022) proposed a method for optimizing the number of fixed fans in operation to minimize the power consumption, while reducing the frequency of fixed-fan starts and stops. Unfortunately, when this optimization method is applied to an air cooler with several variable fans, multiple fixed fans start and stop simultaneously, excessively disturbing the process. This paper proposes a modified optimization method in which the fixed fans start or stop one at a time. The modified optimization method was applied to industrial process, and the results showed that the power consumption was reduced, compared to the actual operation.
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THE PURPOSE. Development of a methodology for conducting a feasibility study when using a soft start system based on a current inverter for high-voltage electric motors of pumping units of irrigation pumping stations of the first lift. METHODS. Research and calculations were carried out in accordance with the algorithm for compiling the energy balance of pumping units, as well as using the analysis of statistical data. RESULTS. A feasibility study is presented for the feasibility of introducing soft start systems for irrigation pumping stations of the first lift, where, as a rule, powerful synchronous electric motors are installed. A method for determining the economic efficiency of systems or soft starters for electric drives of pumping stations is proposed. The rational use of an alternative soft starter based on a current inverter is substantiated. CONCLUSION. Determining the economic efficiency of introducing soft starters remains a difficult task, since the operating conditions of facilities require taking into account various influencing factors that are not always amenable to accurate assessment. This is the problem of developing a universal methodology for assessing the economic efficiency of introducing soft starters. The proposed methodology for determining the economic efficiency of such systems, based on known methods, complements and simplifies the process of calculations and computational algorithms.
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Nowadays, one of the main points considered by the world’s leading automakers in the design phase, the manufacturing phase and mass production, is the reduction or control of pollutions and emissions in the internal combustion engines of automobiles. Due to the standards set in different countries and recent decades regarding the control of environmental pollution of vehicles, these points are considered by car manufacturers. Because of that, the production of electric and hybrid cars with different designs is slowly expanding over time in the manufacturing lines of vehicles. One of the features of hybrid electric vehicles is the increase in power and torque in the power production system in the parallel arrangement. Therefore, for this group of cars, a smaller internal combustion engine can be considered, which ultimately reduces the emissions, and at the same time, the parallel activity of the two internal combustion engines and AC motor creates the required torque and power in different driving mode. The formation and arrangement of two power sources in this article will be considered parallel. In this paper, we will simulate the movements of pistons in the EF7 national internal combustion engine with a crank and slider mechanism, and the results related to the power and torque produced in the crankshaft of this engine will be drawn and simulated in MATLAB software. BRUSA HSM1 AC motor, which is considered in this paper as the main power source of power and torque generation system, will be analyzed using numerical calculations, as well as information extracted from the catalog of this motor. Finally, by analyzing different driving modes and applying coefficients and efficiencies, torque and power output in these situations are examined.
Conference Paper
Harmonic analysis in power systems is a significant challenge due to the increasing prominence of harmonics and owing to customer requirements for high power quality. This paper proposes a new harmonic power flow method and considers different key categories of nonlinear loads: loads with defined nonlinear V-I functions, thyristor-controlled converters, and inverters. A novel formulation for each device is derived and the effect of these harmonic sources are studied in single-source and multiple source scenarios. This method is not only simpler than conventional methods but also reveals the same precision. The method is implemented on the IEEE 14-bus system and different scenarios are studied. The results are compared to other methods in literature which proves the precision, applicability, and efficiency of the proposed method
Chapter
A transformer is an electrical device that converts electrical energy from one circuit to the other via a magnetic circuit with a change in the voltage and current levels without changing the frequency. Transformers are used at electric power stations to increase the voltage level, appropriate to match the transmission requirement. Single‐phase transformers are used for single‐phase ac input and single‐phase ac output. Three‐phase transformers have three‐phase input and three‐phase output. The principle of operation of a transformer is based on electromagnetic induction which states that a voltage is induced in a coil if time varying flux links the coil. The transformer secondary terminal voltage varies with the change in the load due to internal voltage drop in the transformer’s impedance. The analysis of a transformer can be carried out by using an equivalent circuit. The chapter describes the behaviour of a three‐phase transformer when one of the feeders supplying the primary winding gets open‐circuited.
Article
This paper provides an effective systematic procedure for the efficient treatment of worm gearboxes for industrial-grade cases. The accurate and general dynamic model of the worm gearbox is analytically obtained and the effects of the dominant factors, such as the disturbance torque and friction between the teeth and threads, are also addressed. A universal algorithm is proposed for accurate estimation of the disturbance torque that makes no utilization of any designated sensing unit. Numerous experimentations have been conducted to validate the proposed procedure and algorithm. The contributions of this paper are not limited to worm gearboxes but rather are extendable to all other conventional gearboxes that use similar power transmission methods. The gradient patterns of the normal force, the friction force, and the coefficient of friction in worm gearboxes are also identified as a function of the effective elements, such as the output loading torque and angular velocity.
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