Article

Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... From a teaching perspective, phonics is defined as "a system of teaching reading that builds on alphabetic principle, a system of which a central component is the teaching of correspondences between letters and their pronunciations" (Adams, 1990:50). Snow et al, (1998) described phonics as an instructional teaching approach which involves using spellings for decoding speech sounds systematically. It is a process of "blending of grapheme-phoneme (letter-sound) correspondences to decode words, without a reliance on contextual cues, such as pictures, syntax or semantics" (Wattsa & Gardner, 2013:100) and it is mainly based on the principle of using letters for representing sounds (Stahl, et al., 1998 ;Smith,2011). ...
... Some scholars believe that children who have not learnt to read should not start with phonics as they will encounter serious difficulties in analyzing the phonemes of spoken words (Ehri & Wilce, 1980;Mann, 1986 ;Treiman, 1986). It is therefore necessary to consider that children should develop their ability to analyze language words and sounds with their syllables before they are introduced to phonics instruction (Snow;Burns & Griffin, 1998 ;Rose, 2006). By contrast, Goswami and Bryant (1990) believed that children are capable of analyzing words into larger speech units such as syllables and rimes. ...
... Some scholars believe that children who have not learnt to read should not start with phonics as they will encounter serious difficulties in analyzing the phonemes of spoken words (Ehri & Wilce, 1980;Mann, 1986 ;Treiman, 1986). It is therefore necessary to consider that children should develop their ability to analyze language words and sounds with their syllables before they are introduced to phonics instruction (Snow;Burns & Griffin, 1998 ;Rose, 2006). By contrast, Goswami and Bryant (1990) believed that children are capable of analyzing words into larger speech units such as syllables and rimes. ...
... Early investment in development of reading skills and remediation of reading difficulties is critical because early literacy is significantly associated with later academic achievement (Duncan et al., 2007;Hernandez, 2012). Indeed, Snow, Burns, and Griffin (1998) assert that many reading problems experienced by adolescents and adults arise from issues that could have been addressed in early childhood. They stress the importance of helping children overcome literacy obstacles in the primary grades or earlier. ...
... Unfortunately, there is some disagreement about how to classify early literacy outcomes. Distinguishing literacy outcomes for our purposes is particularly challenging because these outcomes are hierarchically and causally related (e.g., Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). The 2000 Report of the National Reading Panel (NICHD, 2000) defines three overarching categories of outcomes: alphabetics, reading fluency, and comprehension. ...
... The idea that written spellings systematically represent spoken words (Snow et al., 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study is a cost-effectiveness analysis of seven early literacy programs that have all been previously identified as effective at improving reading outcomes for students in Grades K-3. We use the ingredients method to collect cost data for each program and compare the cost-effectiveness of programs serving students in the same grade level.
... Whether at home or at school, the development of literacy begins in early childhood (Neuman and Dickinson, 2003;Snow, Burns, and Griffin, 1998;Whitehurst and Lonigan, 2003). As exposed in the previous section on family literacy practices, there is a positive relationship between parents who read to their children and provide an environment that is rich in literacy, ...
... Halle et al. (2003), through a literature review, found that the most common action was providing literacy-rich settings and increasing the quantity of print material in the institutional settings. At the level of language-supporting activities, Snow et al. (1998) described activities that develop phonological awareness, such as introducing the children to the alphabet and their sounds. Halle et al. (2003) also cited phonological awareness activities, before adding the following most common activities present in their literature review: supporting families with additional resources, engaging in interactive book reading, and engaging in individual one-onone conversations. ...
... formally introducing the alphabet and phonological awareness activities; and also supporting families with additional resources (Green, Peterson and Lewis, 2006;Halle, Calkins, Berry, and Johnson, 2003;Snow, Burns, and Griffin, 1998;Tabors, 2008). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
revious studies have found that students whose home language differs from the language of instruction are prone to school inadequacy and to dropping out early (Cummins, 2015; EC, 2013) This is especially true for the lusophone population in Luxembourg. This thesis aims to capture the experiences of these migrant children in the Luxembourgish educational system to identify possible matches as well as mismatches between children’s support structures at home, school and daycare centre. Drawing on a sociocultural framework that understands that children learn languages when engaging in social practices with members of their communities (Rogoff, 1990) and that gives a prominent role to children’s active role when interacting with their environments (Van Lier, 2004), this thesis investigates the role of the adults in shaping the immediate environments of three newly arrived five-year-old Brazilian children in Luxembourg. It presents two cases studies that examine the supporting structures that parents at home, teachers at school and educators in Maison Relais pour Enfants (a non-formal education institution) provide to support language development of these children. The data from this qualitative study was collected from October 2017 to July 2018, combining participant-observation, fieldnotes, video recordings, photographs, questionnaires and interviews. The data analysis drew on approximately 170 hours of field observation, 25 hours of video material, photographs, interviews, and questionnaires. It was then analysed by employing different qualitative methods, i.e. Qualitative Content Analysis (QCA) (Vaismoradi & Snelgrove, 2019), Sociocultural Discourse Analysis (SDA) (Mercer, 2004), and Thematic Content Analysis (TCA) (Anderson, 2007; Vaisomoradi & Snelgrove, 2019). The findings show that the adults designed physical learning spaces and selected material that afforded language and literacy development. They also offered language-related activities such as phonemic awareness exercises, tracing letters, reading books for children, asking children to retell stories, proposing songs and rhymes, among many others. In addition, adults deployed scaffolding strategies when talking to children, especially questions, repetitions, and feedback. While each setting is unique, some similarities could nevertheless be found. The children encountered the following features across the different settings: literacy, play, structure, and multilingual adults with a monolingual ethos. Overall, the findings show a positive start for the three children.
... [15] Family's socioeconomic status has an effect on children's early literacy acquisition and development which, in turn, affect reading abilities and life outcomes in future. [16,17] The homes characterized with higher SES included more quality HLE factors such as better storybook reading practice, greater child's interest toward reading, and reading frequently at a young age. Parents with a higher level of education and SES have been shown to read their children more often. ...
... Total score ranges from 3 to 29. Families are classified into five groups: upper class (26)(27)(28), upper-middle class (16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25), lower-middle class (11)(12)(13)(14)(15), upper-lower class (5-10), and lower class (<5). The Questionnaire on "Parental Perspectives on Storybook Reading in Indian Home Contexts" [23] was used. ...
... However, rather than focusing solely on the research supporting student learning in schools, researchers and program designers looked for proven methods aimed at supporting children's learning throughout their day and throughout their life. The research clearly stated that in order for a child to become literate, it is essential that the child's environment (both in and out of school) should support their literacy development (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). Studies consistently show that parents' level of education, family socio-economic status, the number of books present in the home, and family participation in literacy activities such as shared reading are positively associated with children's emergent language and literacy skills (Hess & Holloway, 1984;Payne, Whitehurst, & Angell, 1994;Purcell-Gates, 1996;Snow, Barnes, Chandler, Goodman, & Hemphill, 1991). ...
... At this stage, we can only speculate on what these obstacles might possibly be. There is extant literature to suggest that some children may struggle with learning disabilities (Snow et al., 1998). Others might have physical impairments that interfere with their reading acquisition (UNESCO, 2015). ...
... Strategy instruction may help but it's important that these learners be allowed extra time to complete tasks that require extensive reading (TTRS, 2019). Researches has been conducted on impart of letters and sounds on children reading abilities (Adams, 1990;Bond & Dykstra, 1968;Chall, 1967;NICHD, 2000;Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998;Snow & Juel, 2005), these studies are foreign studies hence the need for domestication and conduct of a similar study in Nigeria. This study on the first hand checked if letters and sounds does improve children reading abilities, and on the other hand test the applicability of their studies to Nigeria child. ...
... This finding is supported the submission of National Literacy Trust (NLT, 2017) which stated that letters and sounds phonics as a way of teaching children how to read and write helps children to hear, identify and use different sounds that distinguish one word from another in the English language, this finding is also inline with the finding of Kristina (2011) that the letter and sound help children in mastering literary knowledge and it improve children reading skills. Adams, 1990;Bond & Dykstra, 1968;Chall, 1967;NICHD, 2000;Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998;Snow & Juel, 2005) similarly find out that letters and sounds greatly improve children reading ...
Article
Full-text available
The study examined the effect of Letters and Sounds Programme as a phonics method on preschool children reading abilities in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. The study adopted a pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental research design. Forty nursery two pupils in both private and public schools in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State were selected to participate in the study, multi stage sampling technique was used to select the sample. The research instrument titled Preschool Reading Ability Scale (PRAS) was used for data collection. The reliability index of PRAS was determined using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and it yielded (0.89). Seven research hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive and inferential statistics of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made; phonics method should be adopted to teach literacy skills in both private and public schools and it should start from preschool; preschool children should be taught phonemes (letter sounds) before graphemes(letter names): complete phonics instructions should be adopted and not half baked phonics instruction.
... He addressed not only the doing (or event), but also the cultural thinking about reading and writing (see also Maybin, 2000;Street, 1995). In this review, we included insights from New Literacy Studies and related sociocultural and social semiotic literacy research, and from cognitive approaches to reading (e.g., Snow et al., 1998) and writing (e.g., Hayes, 2012). This broad construct enabled us to identify the literacy aspects (e.g., reading or writing) and the theoretical grounding of the studies considered in the present review. ...
... This includes skills required in digital reading in for example PISA, in which not only phonemic skills, but also more complex visual and spatial skills related to the multimodal nature of such reading play a role in finding a path through the text. In an influential comprehensive review by Snow et al. (1998), five components related to cognitive approaches were identified as important for the development of reading skills: phonemic skills; reading fluency; word knowledge; background knowledge and reading comprehension; and the mastering of strategies such as prediction and summarising (e.g., Block & Duffy, 2008). For developing writing skills, both lower-order processes (such as spelling) and higher-order processes (such as deciding on intentions and generating ideas) are identified as important (Hillocks, 1986). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this comparative systematic review, we analyse how the use of digital games inside and outside school settings might support primary and secondary students’ literacy and language learning in relation to first language (L1) and second language (L2) educational contexts. Our findings indicate widely different patterns from utilising diverse game aspects, theories, and research methodologies in relation to the two different subject areas, which show that they are less convergent than what often is suggested in research that compares the two subjects in a globalised world. The L1 studies indicate positive findings with mainly commercial games in relation to writing, multimodal production, critical literacy, and, partly, to reading. The L2 studies report positive findings with educational games in relation to the investigated language skills (vocabulary, reading, and writing), though with an increasing number of studies conducted in out-of-school settings examining commercial gaming practices. We discuss the findings from the two K-12 subjects using a cross-disciplinary perspective, and we suggest directions for future research.
... [15] Family's socioeconomic status has an effect on children's early literacy acquisition and development which, in turn, affect reading abilities and life outcomes in future. [16,17] The homes characterized with higher SES included more quality HLE factors such as better storybook reading practice, greater child's interest toward reading, and reading frequently at a young age. Parents with a higher level of education and SES have been shown to read their children more often. ...
... Total score ranges from 3 to 29. Families are classified into five groups: upper class (26)(27)(28), upper-middle class (16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25), lower-middle class (11)(12)(13)(14)(15), upper-lower class (5-10), and lower class (<5). The Questionnaire on "Parental Perspectives on Storybook Reading in Indian Home Contexts" [23] was used. ...
... Young children need a strong foundation in emergent literacy skills to successfully engage in reading and literacy-related tasks throughout their academic career (Kendeou et al., 2009;Schleppegrell, 2012;Snow et al., 1998). Much research has been conducted to identify how children develop these skills and ways to support this development (Piasta, 2016). ...
... Much research has been conducted to identify how children develop these skills and ways to support this development (Piasta, 2016). Teachers are encouraged to target both oral language development and code-focused skills (Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998), including instruction on alphabet knowledge, shared book reading, conventions of print, phonological awareness, and emergent writing (National Early Literacy Panel [NELP], 2008;Snow et al., 1998). Despite this knowledge base, evidence suggests that EC teachers provide a range of literacy-learning experiences which may be less than optimal for encouraging longterm gains (Dwyer & Harbaugh, 2020;Justice et al., 2008;Pelatti et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study utilized a novel phenomenological approach with a stimulated recall procedure to understand the pedagogical reasoning of eight early child teachers during the enactment of literacy instruction in whole-group meeting and language arts activities. This approach to investigating knowledge—in contrast to more traditional conceptualizations of knowledge—focused on knowledge use as a process and prioritized teachers’ perspectives on knowledge used to enact literacy instruction in their own classrooms. Additionally, it allowed for a more nuanced investigation of the role of setting and teacher characteristics that are often examined in association with literacy instruction (e.g., degree attainment, years of experience, curriculum, instructional activity). Six types of knowledge were used by teachers in their pedagogical reasoning. In order of frequency of use these were knowledge of: goals for instruction, children, feelings, school environment, developing skills, and past experiences. Importantly, teachers made more references to knowledge derived from their immediate contexts as compared to decontextualized knowledge. Implications for understanding connections between knowledge and literacy instruction are discussed.
... A considerable body of research indicates that early literacy instruction including phonemic awareness instruction, among other components such as reading literature aloud and encouraging children to write can make reading accessible at an earlier age to more children (Ehri, Nunes, Willows, Schuster, Yaghoub-Zadeh, & Shanahan, 2001;Snow et al., 1998). With quality instruction, research has shown that children can enter kindergarten being able to segment words into phonemes (Hesketh, 2007;Yeh, 2003). ...
... Based on the discussion above, it is clear that print and phonemic awareness is a necessary foundational skill that children must possess in order to become proficient readers (August & Shanahan, 2006;Edwards, & Taub, 2016;Ehri et al., 2001;Ehri & Nunes, 2002;Fitzpatrick, 1997;Liberman, Shankweiler, & Liberman, 1989;Morrow, 2009;Noe et al., 2014;Puranik et al., 2011;Snow et al., 1998;Torgesen, 1998). According to Liberman et al. (1989), the most common cause of difficulties acquiring early word-reading skills is weakness in the ability to process phonological features. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the impact of reading storybooks and writing journal activities on print and phonemic awareness of Jordanian kindergarten children. Subjects participated in book-reading sessions with a print focus, and writing journals. A total of 50 children were recruited for the study from one kindergarten in Irbid City, Jordan. Two intact sections of 25 children each served as experimental and control groups. Pre-test measures of children’s print and phonemic awareness were administered. Subsequently, children in the experimental group participated in 24 small-group reading sessions that included a print focus, and 14 writing journals over a 14-week period. As an alternate condition, control-group children participated in conventional instruction methods only. Post-testing indicated that children who participated in print-focused reading and writing journal sessions outperformed their control group peers on four measures of print awareness (words in print, print concepts, alphabet knowledge and letter discrimination, and literacy terms), and on phonemic awareness (letter sound identification, rhyme, phoneme blending, phoneme segmentation, and phonemic manipulation), as well as overall performance. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
... Children learn more vocabulary when teachers use an interactional style of reading that includes explanations of word meanings and use inferential comments and questions (Beck & McKeown, 2007;NELP, 2008). This finding has important educational implications because vocabulary knowledge at the age of 5, in particular, is one of the strongest predictors of children's ability to learn to read (Durham et al., 2007;Snow et al., 1998). In fact, research indicates that direct teaching of word meanings during shared reading enhances the learning of the meaning of words, both in the CCLE and in home contexts (Biemiller, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study shows how the language in translated picturebooks is enriched by the use of rare words. We document how the translation of picturebooks from English to Portuguese results in the use of rare words in Portuguese. Evidence indicates that children learn new vocabulary through readings of picturebooks (Noble et al., 2019) and that translators make choices that contribute to the use of rare words (Ketola, 2018). The sample of 86 picturebooks was selected from a list recommended by the Portuguese national reading plan for 3-5-year-olds. The identification of rare words was done using a frequency analysis in both Portuguese, using ESCOLEX, and English, using the ChildFreq tool. Findings indicate that translated picturebooks use rich and varied lexicon and include an average of 6.6 rare words. Twenty-two percent of these words originate from literal and non-literal translations and are not rare in the original texts. This indicates that the process of translation contributes to increasing children's exposure to rare words.
... Introduction and literature review It is well established by research on first language (L1) learners in the primary grades that vocabulary knowledge is a pivotal predictor of reading comprehension (e.g., Bialystok, 2002;Stahl & Nagy, 2006;Snow et al., 1998). This is equally true and even more critical for ELLs (e.g., Farnia & Geva, 2013). ...
... A pressing issue encountered by preschool teachers in the UK is how to communicate with these children and help them acquire the English language (Hutchinson, 2018), especially when the children first attend preschool. This is not only important for integrating EAL children into the preschool, and later school, environment; it also has implications for the children's ultimate academic achievement, as students who are less proficient in English when beginning reception year in school tend to be less successful throughout their schooling (e.g., Guerrero, 2004;Reardon, 2013;Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998;von Hippel, Workman & Downey, 2017). Potential first steps to addressing this issue would be to find out, in a natural preschool environment, how preschool teachers speak to EAL children, and then determine which linguistic features of preschool teacher talk relate to EAL children's language development. ...
Article
In an increasingly diverse society, young children are likely to speak different first languages that are not the majority language of society. Preschool might be one of the first and few environments where they experience the majority language. The present study investigated how preschool teachers communicate with monolingual English preschoolers and preschoolers learning English as an additional language (EAL). We recorded and transcribed four hours of naturalistic preschool classroom activities and observed whether and how preschool teachers tailored their speech to children of different language proficiency levels and linguistic backgrounds (monolingual English: n = 13; EAL: n = 10), using a suite of tools for analysing quantity and quality of speech. We found that teachers used more diverse vocabulary and more complex syntax with the monolingual children and children who were more proficient in English, showing sensitivity to individual children’s language capabilities and adapting their language use accordingly.
... Now a days, people speak English is not merely a medium of expression, rather a technology, and a medium of research and publication. English is based on a simple alphabet which can be attained easily in fairly quick time compared to other languages but empirical studies showed that many of the primary graduates were failing to learn language skills that they can use effectively (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998;Ahmed & Nath, 2005). ...
Book
Full-text available
English Education
... In other words, the size or breadth of vocabulary refers to the number of words a learner knows, i.e., the learner needs to possess minimal knowledge of the meaning of the words whereas vocabulary depth knowledge denotes how well or deeply a word is known (Qian and Schedl, 2004;Qian, 2005). Furthermore, researchers have reasoned that adequate vocabulary is pivotal to fluent reading (Allington, 2000;Joshi, 2005;Juel, 1995;Snow et al., 1998), and knowledge of vocabulary facilitates the ensuing in-depth reading comprehension (Choi and Zhang, 2018). ...
... Word recognition is the process of seeing a word and recognizing its pronunciation without having to think about it. One of the most important requirements for decoding in word identification is phonological awareness (Snow et al., 1998). Priming is one of the most significant concepts in word recognition. ...
... El desarrollo la competencia en comunicación lingüística parece tener relación con el desarrollo de otras competencias. Las habilidades de lectura son la base del éxito en todas las áreas académicas (Snow et al., 1998). El estudio de Gil Flores (2011) evidenció que el desarrollo de la lectura está vinculado con el desarrollo de otras competencias, como la competencia matemática, o con otras disciplinas de conocimiento, como el área científica. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Los currículos del siglo XXI en numerosos sistemas educativos han incorporado las competencias como nuevo elemento curricular, con el objetivo de potenciar una educación integral, permanente y práctica conectada con el contexto social. Numerosos cambios legislativos en España (Ley Orgánica 2/2006; Ley Orgánica 8/2013; Ley Orgánica 3/2020), documentos y recomendaciones supranacionales (Consejo de la Unión Europea, 2010; 2018; European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2012; Parlamento Europeo y Consejo de la Unión Europea, 2006, Sala et al., 2020), así como propuestas conceptuales y metodológicas (Moya & Luengo, 2010; Pérez-Pueyo et al., 2013; Proyecto Atlántida, 2008), han aparecido en las últimas décadas para contribuir a implantar un currículo por competencias en Educación Primaria. Monarca & Rappoport (2013) señalan que existe una desconexión entre las políticas educativas y las acciones didácticas, y este hecho puede explicar que las competencias no sean implantadas de forma sistemática, continuada y explícita. La implantación de las competencias a través de planificaciones didácticas requiere que se identifiquen de manera previa las relaciones entre las competencias y otros elementos curriculares. En consecuencia, el Marco Teórico revisa la literatura científica para ahondar en el concepto competencia y proponer fundamentos que respalden científicamente el diseño de una planificación didáctica por competencias. Los fundamentos obtenidos han sido concretados en una metodología que ha sido denominada como Aprendizaje Participativo Cíclico. Este método didáctico está basado en las premisas del Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos Cooperativos, pero introduciendo una peculiaridad, entre otras, de que se realiza de manera cíclica durante el curso académico. Los estudiantes se organizan en grupos heterogéneos de tres o cuatro estudiantes durante la realización de una tarea, en la cual cada miembro del grupo tiene asignado un rol. La competencia en comunicación lingüística (Consejo de Europa, 2018) y las competencias socioemocionales y morales (Saarni, 2000) han sido las seleccionadas en esta investigación para su estudio, debido a su importancia para garantizar una adecuada interacción social del alumnado. El objetivo general de la presente Tesis Doctoral es proporcionar evidencias científicas sobre el impacto de una planificación didáctica innovadora en el desarrollo de la competencia en comunicación lingüística, y de las competencias socioemocionales y morales en Educación Primaria. Este objetivo general ha sido concretado en cinco objetivos que han sido agrupados en tres ámbitos de investigación: conocimiento de las competencias, planificación de competencias y evaluación de competencias.
... As the Reading Excellence Act (HR 2614) was being signed into law in 1998 under the guise of seemingly neutral concepts of rigor and achievement (Kendi, 2016a(Kendi, , 2016bRiley, 2017), two key reports were commissioned by expert panels authorized by the US Congress: (1) Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998) and (2) Teaching Children to Read: A Report of the National Reading Panel (National Reading Panel, 2000). No Child Left Behind legislation was directly informed and funded by recommendations from these documents. ...
... In the same direction, an important research carried out in the North American context on the prevention of reading difficulties, which uses a concept that is close to the HLE, identified that the differences in the "literacy environment" of the child's family context are related to the differences in performance in later reading (SNOW; BURNS; GRIFFIN, 1998). Also noteworthy is the specific importance of reading with children and reading materials at home for language growth and the pre-literacy process (RODRIGUEZ; TAMIS-LEMONDA, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMO O artigo explora o potencial do conceito de Ambiente de Aprendizagem em Casa para compreender desigualdades educacionais no início da escolarização obrigatória no Brasil. Utiliza dados de um estudo longitudinal realizado entre 2017 e 2018 em uma amostra aleatória de 46 escolas e 2.716 crianças matriculadas na pré-escola de uma rede pública municipal. Os modelos de regressão linear e multinível estimados indicaram uma associação entre a medida de Ambiente de Aprendizagem em Casa e o desenvolvimento cognitivo no início da escolarização obrigatória (effect sizes de 0,229 a 0,308), bem como a aprendizagem das crianças durante a pré-escola (effect sizes de 0,123 a 0,152). Discute-se a relevância dos resultados para subsidiar políticas de apoio às famílias e projetar possíveis efeitos da pandemia nas desigualdades educacionais.
... One of the main parameters of reading acquisition among beginning readers is knowledge of the letters' names (Griffin, Burns, & Snow, 1998). Knowledge of the letters names often provides access to their sound enabling the beginning reader to acquire primary decoding strategies (Carroll, 2000). ...
... Schools considered high poverty face significant challenges in impacting students' reading growth, including greater risk for lower achievement levels and academic reading difficulty as compared to high-income students (Chatterji, 2006;Kaplan & Walpole, 2005;Snow et al., 1998;White, 1982). This gap has been acknowledged as persistent (Jencks & Phillips, 1998). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this phenomenological study is to explore the experiences of doctoral students during the process of socialization as students and professionals and as they attempt to develop their profes�sional identities. This study uses Graduate Socialization Theory, and the data is made up of interviews and focus groups of graduate stu�dents within a college of education. The findings suggest that doctoral students face a myriad of challenges throughout their program that may stifle their socialization and hinder the development of their professional identities. The findings indicate that faculty, staff, and administrators could offer specific supports that could increase graduate student socialization, which may increase the likelihood of professional success for graduate students. These findings, the related implications for doctoral education, and suggestions for further research are discussed.
... Schools considered high poverty face significant challenges in impacting students' reading growth, including greater risk for lower achievement levels and academic reading difficulty as compared to high-income students (Chatterji, 2006;Kaplan & Walpole, 2005;Snow et al., 1998;White, 1982). This gap has been acknowledged as persistent (Jencks & Phillips, 1998). ...
Chapter
The purpose of this phenomenological study is to explore the experiences of doctoral students during the process of socialization as students and professionals and as they attempt to develop their profes�sional identities. This study uses Graduate Socialization Theory, and the data is made up of interviews and focus groups of graduate stu�dents within a college of education. The findings suggest that doctoral students face a myriad of challenges throughout their program that may stifle their socialization and hinder the development of their professional identities. The findings indicate that faculty, staff, and administrators could offer specific supports that could increase graduate student socialization, which may increase the likelihood of professional success for graduate students. These findings, the related implications for doctoral education, and suggestions for further research are discussed.
... Schools considered high poverty face significant challenges in impacting students' reading growth, including greater risk for lower achievement levels and academic reading difficulty as compared to high-income students (Chatterji, 2006;Kaplan & Walpole, 2005;Snow et al., 1998;White, 1982). This gap has been acknowledged as persistent (Jencks & Phillips, 1998). ...
Chapter
The purpose of this phenomenological study is to explore the experiences of doctoral students during the process of socialization as students and professionals and as they attempt to develop their profes�sional identities. This study uses Graduate Socialization Theory, and the data is made up of interviews and focus groups of graduate stu�dents within a college of education. The findings suggest that doctoral students face a myriad of challenges throughout their program that may stifle their socialization and hinder the development of their professional identities. The findings indicate that faculty, staff, and administrators could offer specific supports that could increase graduate student socialization, which may increase the likelihood of professional success for graduate students. These findings, the related implications for doctoral education, and suggestions for further research are discussed.
... According to Carlisle (2004), readers who have the ability to comprehend the morphological structure of words have the upper edge for both decoding words and vocabulary items and comprehending the processing of texts. In terms of the role of morphology in reading comprehension, Snow et al. (1998) claim that morphological knowledge is significant since it helps readers associate word forms and meanings within the structure of sentences. In addition, Mokhtari et al. (2016) maintain that understanding morphemes allows learners to identify associations in words; as a result, decoding for meaning might take place more efficaciously. ...
Article
Full-text available
Morphological knowledge has been established as a critical sub-skill in the learning of bilingual reading and a strong predictor of spelling, word reading, and reading comprehension skills. The goal of this study was to investigate the prediction of morphological knowledge to reading comprehension in 185 university-level English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students, using the four primary derivatives of morphological knowledge (i.e. adverb, adjective, verb, and noun). The current study, which took a quantitative method, used multiple regression analysis to analyse two English competence tests, i.e. a reading comprehension test and a morphological knowledge test. The findings indicated that verb derivative form statistically and significantly predicted the reading comprehension most. Additionally, the verb word class affected greatly in elucidating the dependent variable, namely reading comprehension, followed by the adverbial derivative form, the adjective word class, and the noun derivative form of morphological knowledge. Further consequences of the current study's findings will be felt by English language teachers, curriculum designers, and academics.
... Preschoolers' oral language skills were the focus of this study as early oral language ability is a key factor in evaluating school readiness and predicts later academic achievement (Snow et al., 1998;Hammer et al., 2014;Mesa et al., 2019). Moreover, we need a better understanding of preschool DLLs' oral language ability in both languages as they enter early education settings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies support the link of parental acculturation to their children’s academic achievement, identity, and family relations. Prior research also suggests that parental language proficiency is associated with children’s vocabulary knowledge. However, few studies have examined the links of parental acculturation to young children’s oral language abilities. As preschool oral language skills have been shown to predict future academic achievement, it is critical to understand the relations between parental acculturation and bilingual abilities with young immigrant children. Furthermore, few studies have examined the links between parental acculturation and children’s bilingual ability among different immigrant groups who live in the same areas to understand possible similarities and differences. To address these gaps, this study examines these relations in two of the largest and fastest-growing immigrant populations in the United States, Chinese American and Mexican American families. A total of 119 dual language learners (DLLs; 64 Chinese Americans and 55 Mexican Americans) enrolled in Head Start programs in Northern California were recruited. DLLs were assessed on oral language measures in both their heritage language (HL) and English. Parental interviews were conducted to obtain parental acculturation and language proficiency. Results showed no significant group differences between Chinese American and Mexican American parents on the majority of their acculturation dimensions. Furthermore, there were no significant group differences in the bilingual abilities between Chinese American and Mexican American DLLs. Cluster analysis identified four groups of DLLs based on their bilingual ability: high language ability in both English and HL, low language ability in both, English-dominant, and HL-dominant. Results suggest that parental acculturation levels are more similar than different among the four groups. On average, parents in all four groups had stronger ties to their heritage culture and HL than to the American culture. Results also showed links between parental cultural identities and children’s language dominance. Parents of English-dominant children had significantly higher levels of American identity than the parents of children with high ability in both languages. Implications are discussed.
... In the literature, there are lines of evidence for a specific influence of vocabulary knowledge (pronunciation and meaning) on reading and visual wordrecognition, especially during the initial steps of reading acquisition. Importantly, early vocabulary knowledge has been identified as a strong predictor for future successful reading (see Nation & Snowling, 1998;Roth, Speece, & Cooper, 2002;Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998;Stanovitch, 1986). Further studies also reported a reciprocal association between vocabulary knowledge and enhanced reading abilities (Ouellette, 2006;Perfetti, 2007;Ricketts, Bishop, & Nation, 2007), consistent with the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002). ...
Thesis
The contribution of orthography has been reported for learning of low-frequency words in native language (L1; Rosenthal & Ehri, 2008) and of pseudowords (Ricketts, Bishop, & Nation, 2009) by using a paired-associate learning paradigm (PAL). These studies cannot fully account for foreign language (L2) word learning, for which both L2 spoken and written forms have to be linked into a pre-existing concept, which in turn, is already connected to phonological and (sometimes) to an orthographic representation in L1. Besides, L2 learning confronts children to different challenges, such as incongruent letter/sound mapping with L1, due to the larger overlap on written than on spoken modality between languages (Marian et al., 2012). Therefore, this doctoral work aimed to explore the benefit of orthography on L2 word learning in children and to determine whether this advantage was modulated by L1 reading skills. We also sought to determine the moderating effect of incongruent letter/sound mappings with L1 on L2 learning. Using a PAL, we conducted three main L2 vocabulary learning studies by contrasting two learning methods, both simultaneous presentation of spoken and written (orthographic method) vs spoken forms only (non-orthographic method). As for learning phase, we made two groups of children (third vs. fifth graders) learn 16 (Study 1a) or 24 German words (Study 1b, Study 2). As for testing, we assessed learning performance with three main experimental tasks: a forced-choice picture recognition task (choose the correct image corresponding to the spoken form), a go/no-go spoken recognition task (discrimination between spoken German words and close phonological distractors) and an orthographic judgment task (select the correct German written form among three written distractors). We reported a consistent benefit of orthography on all three experimental tasks in both groups, supporting that children relied on written information at early steps of L2 learning. Still, contradictory results were reported for phonological learning in fifth graders, given that the benefit of orthography was only retrieved when increasing the learning load (Study 1b). Interestingly, although fifth graders outperformed the third graders on all experimental tasks, we reported a comparable amplitude for the orthographic facilitation in both groups. Measures of L1 reading skills were not (consistently) correlated with L2 vocabulary learning, supporting that a minimal amount of orthographic knowledge was enough to trigger an orthographic facilitation. A moderating effect of incongruent letter/sound mappings with L1 was restricted to L2 phonological learning, with larger discriminative performance for congruent compared to incongruent L2 words immediately after learning (Study 2), but disappeared after a one-week delay, aiming for a differential time-course for the encoding of congruent and incongruent L2 words, an assumption that was discussed in regards to the ontogenetic model of L2 lexical representation (Bordag, Gor, & Opitz, 2021) and to the L2 lexical fuzziness (Kapnoula, 2021). Study 3 was conducted during an Indoc mobility and explored whether the bilingual advantage on L3 vocabulary learning might be extended to children attending a classroom-immersion to L2 and whether this advantage was reinforced by the cross-linguistic similarities conveyed by cognate words. We reported a generalized advantage and cognate facilitation was restricted to the learning of novel L3 written form. In light of these results, this doctoral work reinforced the need for developmental models of bilingualism to consider the lexical and sublexical processing at early steps of L2 acquisition.
... Maítear gurb iad luathbhlianta an dalta bunscoile na blianta is tábhachtaí chun deacrachtaí foghlama a chosc (Clay, 1993;Pinnell, 1989;Slavin, Madden, Dolan & Wasik, 1996). Léirítear i dtaighde thar na blianta gur fíorannamh a chúitítear daltaí má dhéanann siad drochthosach sa léitheoireacht (Lentz, 1988;Neuman & Dickinson, 2001;Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998;Torgesen, 1998;Whitehurst & Lonigan, 2001). Tá cruthúntas ann go mbíonn deacrachtaí suntasacha i bhfoghlaim na léitheoireachta ag aon trian amháin de pháistí (Adam, 1990). ...
... Simple decoding skills are usually fully covered by the first 2 years of primary education, but deep comprehension skills are not readily trained in schools. They not only require a large amount of vocabulary that is not taught in school, but also an understanding of real-world concepts that rely on rich environmental and parental input (Snow et al., 1998), something that children in poverty often lack. Skill differences that were not usually tested in kindergarten or the primary grades may manifest themselves as an achievement gap in test scores by the third grade. ...
... An array of research and explanations has been proposed for different readers' difficulties, as part of a growing literature on reading skills in language learning. Reading skill indubitably has its own vivacity in language acquisition and is considered one of the most important communication skills as it can improve the overall language proficiency (Snow et al., 1998;Krashen & Brown, 2007;Sharma, 2018). Rivers (1981) named it not only the most important activity, a source of information, a pleasurable activity, but also as a means of consolidating and extending one's knowledge of the language. ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper intends to divulge and argue the major reading problems Saudi students face and flaws in contemporary research that affects a lot on developing their reading skills. The problems and pitfalls related to reading skill, prime facie, seem traditional but widely discussed; hitherto, remain unsettled in the arena of language learning. The researcher tries to explore and shed light on these problems while achieving different asymptotic levels of performance, constrained and unconstrained skills to observe and experience how far and fast the Saudi EFL learners master the reading skills in and out of classroom settings at Jazan University. It is solely based on experience and observational data that the researcher has collected on his students’ everyday classroom performance. The paper also monitors how far the previous findings contributed to overcome struggling readers’ problems and improve their reading abilities and suggests how recognizing these major occurring problems may endow with an authentic and viable initiative for planning reading instruction and interventions. Hence, the present study aims to provide in-depth examination and interpretation of struggling Saudi EFL learners’ problems and challenges meting out different texts in structure and related aspects on different reading tasks. The paper concludes with some vital suggestions that would indubitably help learners and teachers practice in realia to lessen anxiety, achieve desired outcomes and evolve educational policies for language instruction, evaluation and assessment.
... Pek çok çalışmada okul çağı çocuklarının çok önemli bir bölümünün okuma becerilerinin edinilmesinde akranları düzeyinde başarı gösteremediği ve tüm okul yaşamları boyunca da akranlarının gerisinde kalmaya devam ettikleri gösterilmiştir Nordström, Jacobson ve Söderberg, 2016;Reschly, 2010;Snow, Burns ve Griffin, 1998). Bu oranın ABD'de yürütülen bir çalışmada dördüncü sınıf düzeyinde %32 olduğu belirlenmiş ve yaklaşık her üç çocuktan birinin sınıf düzeyinin gerisinde okuma performansı gösterdiği bulunmuştur (National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2013). ...
... Conversely, inappropriate reading materials that demand too much or too little can negatively affect the reader's experience; they may be either too boring or too difficult and therefore lead to frustration (Rog and Burton, 2001). Experiences of failure at the very beginning of a reading stage can lead to later reading difficulties (Snow et al., 1998) or a reluctance to read independently (Torgesen, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the linguistic features of texts in twenty-nine picture books used in an early English as a Foreign Language program in China. We used the software CLAN to automatically extract indices of linguistic complexity that are typically used to analyze child-directed speech and tested if these indices aligned with expert judgments on the books’ appropriate grade level (Kindergarten-1 through Kindergarten-3). Of the eleven characteristics investigated, seven showed significant between-level differences with moderate effect sizes. Across all levels, vocabulary complexity (i.e., frequency of types, frequency of tokens, and vocabulary diversity) and syntactic complexity (i.e., number of verbs per utterance, number of Developmental-Sentence-Scoring-eligible utterances, mean length of utterance in morphemes, and total number of non-zero morphemes) increased, also in alignment with experts’ judgments. Indices of child language development can thus be used to estimate text complexity in picture books. The study contributes to a better understanding of children’s picture book difficulty and has methodological implications for investigating text characteristics for very young children learning English as a foreign language.
... An array reading skills in language learning. Reading skill indubitably has its own vivacity in language acquisition and is considered one of the most important communication skills as it can improve the overall language proficiency (Snow et al., 1998;Krashen & Brown, 2007;Sharma, 2018). Rivers (1981) named it not only the most important activity, a the writer, directing his total prior experience and concepts he attained, as well as the language competence he has achieved. ...
Book
Full-text available
Call for Papers and Special Issue Proposals Aims and Scope Journal of Language Teaching and Research (JLTR) is a scholarly peer-reviewed international scientific journal published bimonthly, focusing on theories, methods, and materials in language teaching, study and research. It provides a high profile, leading edge forum for academics, professionals, consultants, educators, practitioners and students in the field to contribute and disseminate innovative new work on language teaching and research. JLTR invites original, previously unpublished, research and survey articles, plus research-in-progress reports and short research notes, on both practical and theoretical aspects of language teaching, learning, and research. These areas include, but are not limited to, the following topics: • Language teaching methodologies • Pedagogical techniques • Teaching and curricular practices • Curriculum development and teaching methods • Programme, syllabus, and materials design • Second and foreign language teaching and learning • Classroom-centered research • Literacy • Language education • Teacher education and professional development • Teacher training • Cross-cultural studies • Child, second, and foreign language acquisition • Bilingual and multilingual education • Translation • Teaching of specific skills • Language teaching for specific purposes • New technologies in language teaching • Testing and evaluation • Language representation • Language planning • Literature, language, and linguistics • Applied linguistics • Phonetics, phonology, and morphology • Syntax and semantics • Sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, and neurolinguistics • Discourse analysis • Stylistics • Language and culture, cognition, and pragmatics • Language teaching and psychology, anthropology, sociology • Theories and practice in related fields Special Issue Guidelines Special issues feature specifically aimed and targeted topics of interest contributed by authors responding to a particular Call for Papers or by invitation, edited by guest editor(s). We encourage you to submit proposals for creating special issues in areas that are of interest to the Journal. Preference will be given to proposals that cover some unique aspect of the technology and ones that include subjects that are timely and useful to the readers of the Journal. A Special Issue is typically made of 15 to 30 papers, with each paper 8 to 12 pages of length. A special issue can also be proposed for selected top papers of a conference/workshop. In this case, the special issue is usually released in association with the committee members of the conference/workshop like general chairs and/or program chairs who are appointed as the Guest Editors of the Special Issue. The following information should be included as part of the proposal: • Proposed title for the Special Issue • Description of the topic area to be focused upon and justification • Review process for the selection and rejection of papers • Name, contact, position, affiliation, and biography of the Guest Editor(s) • List of potential reviewers if available • Potential authors to the issue if available • Estimated number of papers to accept to the special issue • Tentative time-table for the call for papers and reviews, including o Submission of extended version o Notification of acceptance o Final submission due o Time to deliver final package to the publisher If the proposal is for selected papers of a conference/workshop, the following information should be included as part of the proposal as well: • The name of the conference/workshop, and the URL of the event. • A brief description of the technical issues that the conference/workshop addresses, highlighting the relevance for the journal. • A brief description of the event, including: number of submitted and accepted papers, and number of attendees. If these numbers are not yet available, please refer to previous events. First time conference/workshops, please report the estimated figures. • Publisher and indexing of the conference proceedings. If a proposal is accepted, the guest editor will be responsible for: • Preparing the “Call for Papers” to be included on the Journal’s Web site. • Distribution of the Call for Papers broadly to various mailing lists and sites. • Getting submissions, arranging review process, making decisions, and carrying out all correspondence with the authors. Authors should be informed the Author Guide. • Providing us the completed and approved final versions of the papers formatted in the Journal’s style, together with all authors’ contact information. • Writing a one- or two-page introductory editorial to be published in the Special Issue.
... Therefore, it is very much essential to form or construct a test in Odia language, by preparing and standardizing stimuli, not translated or adapted from other tests of different languages. (Snow, Burns & Griffin, 1998). It involves conscious awareness of the smallest distinguishable auditory units (Harris & Hodges, 1995). ...
Article
Phonological skills development is one of the basic foundations before language mastery of a child. Similarly, morphological skills development in children is a basic link between cognitive language functions and literacy, which also makes a unique contribution to vocabulary growth and acquisition. To test phonological and morphological abilities or skills, testing tool should be available in the native language of the speaker or the participant. Translated versions of different such tests may not yield similar results for a typical developing child compared to the native speaker age matched child, tested on the original test. Therefore, such tests or tools are warranted to be constructed in the native language of the speaker. The formation of test procedures in a language is essential for testing different psycholinguistic abilities and testing hypotheses regarding normal development and patterns of development related to various disorders. Odia is one of the alphasyllabic languages of the Indic group of the Indo-European family, with unique features of few phonemes, morphophonemic and morphosyntactic rules, dissimilar to its sister languages. Very few and limited studies exist on the development pattern of acquisition of linguistic skills (specifically phonology and morphological skills) in Odia language in general and specifically the lexical and conceptual levels in Odia language. The present study reports on the development and standardization of stimuli as a part of PhD research, aiming at developing a screening test to assess phonological and morphological abilities in Odia speaking individuals. The test stimuli include words, non-words, segments of words, sentences and synthetically modified words, targeted to measure fifteen different subtests in the area of phonology and morphology, like syllable segmentation, word blending, morphological closure etc. Development of the test stimuli included preparation of initial word lists for familiarity testing by 10 adults (25-35 years) and 10 children 10-12 years), preparation of test stimuli like words, non-words, sentences, word pairs, modified words and presentation to pilot subjects (12 sub-groups of typically developing children and one adult group), twice with an interval of one month. The two data obtained from the pilot sub-groups compared and scores were analysed to check test-retest reliability. Summary: The analysis indicated a clear internal consistency and therefore the stimuli were finalized to be used for the main data collection to develop a screening test in assessing these abilities in Odia-speaking children. Key words: Stimuli, Familiarity, Phonological abilities, Morphological abilities, Odia language
... Skilled readers can read (most) texts effortlessly and fluently, applying technical prowess at decoding symbols into a content that is meaningful for the reader (Cain & Oakhill, 2011;Keenan et al., 2008). Regarding the technical aspects, skilled reading relies on reading fluency and reading comprehension, with reading fluency requiring rapid naming (Kirby et al., 2003), alphabet knowledge, knowledge of print conventions, and decoding skill (Joshi et al., 2012;National Reading Panel, 2000;Snow et al., 1998). Besides decoding, fundamental processes involved in reading comprehension include phonological, syntactic, and semantic aspects of language (e.g., Suggate et al., 2018), inference making, strategy usage, vocabulary and prior knowledge (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mental imagery is foundational to human experience, lying at the heart of cognition and reading, however research has failed to conclusively investigate and demonstrate a link. Therefore, we conducted three studies measuring adults' reading and imagery performance. In Study 1, the mental imagery skills of 155 adults were measured using two established self-report measures, namely the Plymouth Sensory Imagery Questionnaire (Psi-Q) and the Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (SUIS), and a novel imagery comparison task. In Study 2 (n = 452), a control for speeded processing replaced the SUIS. In Study 3 (n = 236), we added a measure of reading speed. Findings indicate that the objective measurement of mental imagery was associated with reading performance, whereas self-report measures were not. Further, reading comprehension linked more strongly to mental imagery than reading speed did. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, that mental imagery processes are intrinsically linked with reading performance.
... In addition, a child's first language can be an essential resource for second-language learning (Cummins, 2013). For example, Snow et al. (1998) showed that a child's maintenance of their first language supported their success in learning to read in a second language. More importantly, educators need to acknowledge that children's first language connects children to their culture, values, and each other (Wong-Fillmore, 2000). ...
Article
This article examines four Afghan refugee parents/guardians in Islamabad, Pakistan for their beliefs about literacy and language(s). Semi-structured interviews with each parent/guardian showed that they all highly valued reading and writing as essential life skills. However, while they viewed literacy as having instrumental value, they also strongly believed it shaped and developed a person morally and supported one to think critically. In terms of language(s), all of the parents/guardians wanted their children to learn to read and write in their first language, and believed that speaking only one’s first language was not enough. They believed that the school their children attended should offer classes to teach them to read and write in their first language. In addition, they supported their children learning Urdu, the national language of their host country, Pakistan. All of the parents also mentioned the importance of having their children learn English, as they believed it is an international and useful language in the world. This study offers important findings regarding parents’/guardians’ beliefs about language and literacy from one of the largest refugee groups about which little is known.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this study reading habits have been correlated with academic achievement. Students who have developed the habits of reading academic and non-academic materials develop their comprehension of concepts, critical thinking skills, and verbal fluency and ultimately have better academic outcomes. This quantitative study examined reading habits and their influence on the academic achievements of students at Asia-Pacific International University, Mauk Lek, Thailand. A convenience sampling method was utilized to select 250 individuals who responded to a survey questionnaire, A Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. A multiple regression and Correlation Matrix analysis checked the influence of reading habits on academic achievement. Among the five variables, the study confirmed that the purpose of reading has a significant relationship with academic performance. Furthermore, the findings indicated that the majority of the respondents value the importance of reading. However, the respondents had low reading habits. The study recommends that policymakers in universities should develop plans and for increasing students' reading habits. This includes providing resources to encourage students to take up reading. In addition, administrators should develop strategies for teachers to create activities that can promote reading habits, which would, in turn, improve students' academic performance.
Book
Full-text available
Com este livro, pretendemos alcançar especialmente os egressos e os estudantes de cursos de graduação e de pós-graduação em Letras, Linguística, Pedagogia, Psicologia, Fonoaudiologia, dentre outros profissionais interessados nas imprescindíveis contribuições para o fomento da alfabetização. Ainda contamos com os familiares ou responsáveis por nossas sábias crianças, pois também desejamos tê-los como interlocutores.
Article
Previous research suggests that the ways in which early childhood classrooms are organized may facilitate children’s language learning. However, different measures of classroom organization often yield inconsistent findings regarding child outcomes. In this study, we investigated multiple aspects of classroom organization across two time points in classrooms where children made varying language gains. Using a purposeful sample of 60 early childhood classrooms, 30 in which children made higher language gains and 30 in which children made lower language gains, we explored the organization of the physical classroom literacy environment, classroom management, classroom time, and classroom activities. Research Findings: Results indicated that the organization of classroom time and classroom activities, but not of the classroom literacy environment nor of classroom management, differed across classrooms. Differences between classrooms were particularly salient in the fall. Practice or Policy: Findings suggest similarities and differences in the organizational patterns of classrooms, both at the start of the school year and across time. This has implications for how early childhood classrooms are organized to facilitate children’s language learning and highlights the importance of supporting teachers with establishing classroom organization early in the school year. Furthermore, these results emphasize the value of using multiple measures when exploring classroom organization.
Article
Full-text available
The present study focuses on Computer Functional Literacy of Higher Secondary School students. Computers are continuously being applied to new careers and used in the innovative field all the occasion. The skill not only to use computers but to adapt to progress and added changes in computing technology is essential to any professional-minded person. This ability to apply old information to the latest milieu not just allows for the use of computers but can enhance productivity and even pleasure in one's work. This study steps to truly make aware the students of a computer-intensive future and this study's results revealed that the computer functional literacy of higher secondary school students is at a moderate level. The normative survey method was used in the present study and the Random sampling technique was used. Variables such as types of management, medium of instruction, computer knowledge and locality of the students are significantly different in this study.
Article
The importance of letter sound knowledge (LSK) as a precursor to later literacy skills has been well‐documented. Since English language learners (ELLs), or students who first acquired a language other than English, continue to underperform in reading compared to their English‐speaking peers, they are particularly at‐risk for reading and academic difficulties. The current study examines the utility and acceptability of teaching letter sounds to four ELL preschoolers through a software‐based incremental rehearsal tool (Tutoring Buddy). All students demonstrated increases in LSK, with large effect sizes derived through percentage of all nonoverlapping data analyses. Increases were also noted in the students' generalization of letter sounds to measures of letter sound fluency and nonsense word fluency, signified by small to large effect sizes. Large effect sizes generated for real word fluency measures indicated that all students were able to apply LSK to decoding real, consonant‐vowel‐consonant words. All students rated Tutoring Buddy as helpful for their letter sound learning, and varied in how enjoyable they found the intervention to be. Overall, the results support the use of Tutoring Buddy as an effective and acceptable method for teaching letter sounds to young ELLs. Implications for school‐based professionals working with ELL and future directions for research are discussed. Tutoring Buddy was highly effective in improving student letter‐sound knowledge and fluency in word reading. All of the English language learners (ELL) student participants rated Tutoring Buddy as helpful for their learning of letter sounds. Overall, Tutoring Buddy is an effective and acceptable method for teaching letter sounds to young ELL. Tutoring Buddy was highly effective in improving student letter‐sound knowledge and fluency in word reading. All of the English language learners (ELL) student participants rated Tutoring Buddy as helpful for their learning of letter sounds. Overall, Tutoring Buddy is an effective and acceptable method for teaching letter sounds to young ELL.
Article
In this study, we aimed to determine the early cognitive and home environmental predictors of reading in Turkish‐speaking children. A total of 362 children participated in the study. We monitored the children for 3 years and assessed the home environmental variables and cognitive skills in kindergarten, reading fluency at the end of the first grade, and reading comprehension at the end of the second grade. We found that home literacy environment and socioeconomic status predicted early literacy skills in kindergarten as they also predicted reading fluency and reading comprehension through early literacy in later years. In addition, we found that phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and rapid naming predicted reading fluency, while language and verbal working memory predicted reading comprehension. The results of the study showed us that it is important to consider reading and reading comprehension in Turkish‐speaking children holistically, together with cognitive skills and home environmental variables. Early cognitive and home environmental factors affect the development of reading and reading comprehension in Turkish‐speaking children. Early home literacy environment and socioeconomic status predict reading success through early cognitive factors. Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and rapid naming are essential variables for the development of reading fluency in Turkish, a highly transparent language. Early cognitive and home environmental factors affect the development of reading and reading comprehension in Turkish‐speaking children. Early home literacy environment and socioeconomic status predict reading success through early cognitive factors. Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, and rapid naming are essential variables for the development of reading fluency in Turkish, a highly transparent language.
Article
Full-text available
Abstrak: Kemahiran ejaan merupakan prasyarat penting penguasaan bahasa Inggeris. Strategi pengajaran bahasa konvensional perlu direvolusikan untuk abad ke-21 dengan memanfaatkan pendekatan Pembelajaran Berasaskan Permainan (PBP) bagi membolehkan pelajar Bahasa Inggeris sebagai Bahasa Kedua (ESL) menguasai ejaan. Oleh itu, pengajaran dan pembelajaran dalam talian menjadi strategi penting untuk menyampaikan dan menerima pengetahuan. Kajian kes ini memfokuskan pada pengajaran penguasaan ejaan melalui penggunaan permainan 'Lit-Fun'. Kajian ini menggunakan reka bentuk quasi-eksperimen melibatkan 20 puluh orang murid Asli Tahun 2 ESL berkemahiran campuran dari sebuah sekolah rendah kebangsaan di pendalaman Gua Musang, Kelantan. Murid ini dibahagikan kepada dua kumpulan iaitu kumpulan rawatan dan kumpulan kawalan. Instrumen kajian yang digunakan adalah analisis dokumen, ujian pra dan pasca serta pemerhatian. Untuk mengekalkan integriti data, pengkaji mengambil langkah-langkah yang perlu untuk memastikan instrumen tersebut boleh dipercayai dan sah. Ini termasuk menilai kandungan dan kesahan muka instrumen kajian, pengesahan pakar untuk soalan temu bual dan penglibatan yang mencukupi dalam pengumpulan data. Penemuan utama mengenai penggunaan permainan 'Lit-Fun' mendedahkan peningkatan kemahiran mengeja dalam Bahasa Inggeris dan memberikan impak yang positif terhadap sikap dan motivasi murid sepanjang intervensi dijalankan. Kata kunci: Pendekatan pembelajaran berasaskan permainan, proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran, kemahiran mengeja, penguasaan bahasa Inggeris Abstract: Spelling skills are an important condition of English proficiency. Conventional language strategies need to be revolutionized for the 21st century by leveraging the Game-Based Learning (PBP) approach to enable English as a Second Language (ESL) learners to master spelling. Therefore, online teaching and learning becomes an important strategy for imparting and receiving knowledge. This case study focuses on teaching spelling proficiency through the use of 'Lit-Fun' games. This study uses a quasi-experimental design involving 20 Asli Year 2 ESL students with mixed skills from a national primary school in Gua Musang, Kelantan. These students were divided into two groups, namely the treatment group and the control group. The research instruments used were document analysis, pre and post tests and observations. To maintain the integrity of the data, the researcher took the necessary steps to ensure that the instrument was reliable and valid. These include content evaluation and face
Chapter
This chapter reviews existing research on children’s early care and education (ECE) experience in Turkey. There are three sections. The first is ECE quality research worldwide; the second is ECE systems and services available to children and families in Turkey, and the third is ECE quality research in Turkey. A concluding part presents future directions and suggestions for researchers, educators, and policymakers in Turkey.KeywordsEarly childhood care and education (ECE)Structural qualityProcess qualityChild development
Book
Full-text available
This study focuses on identification of metacognitive development levels among students in their grade 5 in either (a) mainstream elementary schools, (b) elementary schools implementing Dalton education elements in their curriculum or (c) elementary schools implementing RWCT program in their daily activities. The main goal of the empirical study is to verify or disprove the assumption which states that the type of educational programme can influence the metacognitive development of a child in a specific reading domain. That is why author of this text examines the level of (a) the regulation aspect and (b) knowledge aspect of metacognition at research sample of 1103 students from different types of elementary schools. The results of this study verify the hypothesis that the type of education program has direct influence on metacognitive development of a student: (a) students of RWCT elementary can better judge the relative effectivity of suggested strategies based on the task situation (metacognitive knowledge) and together with student from Dalton plan elementary schools they are able to (b) recognize false answers from correct ones and are also (c) more accurate in their error approximations of answers related to reading comprehension (metacognitive regulation). Students from RWCT elementary schools, as well as from Dalton plan elementary were significantly better at (d) scoring high in their tests which evaluated the reading comprehension levels, than their peers in mainstream schools. Students from RWCT elementary schools, as well as from Dalton plan elementary also (e) showed a slight underestimation in their performance. The conclusion part of the study suggests possible outcome explanations of the differences among individual types of study programmes in relation to the metacognitive knowledge and regulation levels among students (based on curriculum) and also suggestions for future research in this specific area, limits of this study and suggestions for theory and clinical practice.
Article
Full-text available
The research aimed to utilized video animated stories as an innovative reading assessment scheme in improving comprehension skills among Grade 7 learners at Alitagtag National High School, Alitagtag District, Division of Batangas Province for the School Year 2020-2021. The study used a quantitative method and descriptive research design applying Informal Reading Inventory and Comprehension Test, Video Animated Stories and Questionnaire in analyzing data obtained from the learner-respondents. Purposive Sampling method was used focusing on Capacity reading category in the Pre-Reading Test administered. There were 77 learners out of 1529 student population who were considered struggling readers. Video Animated Stories were utilized from the three selected stories in Philippine literature which is serves as an innovative assessment scheme in improving the comprehension skills of learners. Questionnaire was also used in gathering the satisfaction level of the learners upon using video animated stories. The tools mentioned passed the Learning Resource evaluation, and was validated by experts in the field garnering reliability results of 0.90 Cronbach's alpha. Proficiency Level, Frequency, Weighted mean and Ranking were the statistical tools used in data treatment. Results of the study shows Capacity reading level are detected among Grade 7 learners. However, learner's achieved higher proficiency of reading comprehension in the three selected stories when video animated stories were utilized in the Reading Assessment tool. Likewise, greater learner reading speed is achieved by learner in video animation stories. Results in the Post-Informal Reading Assessment entailed positive results. Thus, learners derived High Satisfaction level of perception in the use video animation stories in improving their reading comprehension skills.
Article
Full-text available
This work is based on previous studies showing that a short conversational intervention (SCI) focusing on the causes of the story events is effective in promoting the causal and mental content of children’s narratives. In these studies, however, not all the children improved their narratives after the SCI). The present study examined individual differences in the effectiveness of the SCI and investigated whether they were related to variation in the children’s executive function skills such as cognitive inhibition and flexibility. Eighty 6- to 8-year-old French-speaking children participated in the narrative task and executive function tasks. In the narrative task, they first told a story (NAR1) based on the Stone Story made up of five wordless pictures involving a misunderstanding between two characters; each child then participated in the SCI, and finally narrated the story a second time (NAR2). Then, the children were presented with executive function tasks. Cognitive inhibition was assessed by the Animal Stroop test, and cognitive flexibility was assessed by a three-criterion classification task and a local/global figure-matching task. Group results showed that the children expressed the misunderstanding between the characters in mental terms significantly more in their second than in their first narratives. Results also showed individual variation in the post-SCI improvements and indicated a significant positive relation between large improvements in the children’s post-SCI narrative and their inhibitory control skills. No significant relations were found in this study between large improvements and the two cognitive flexibility measures. These results suggest that narrative-promoting interventions should closely consider individual differences in the effectiveness of their procedures and envisage working not only on promoting narrative content but also on the skills needed to benefit from the interventions.
Chapter
Full-text available
Bibliografia do Novo Deit Libras, 3ª edição revista e ampliada (2015). A publicação lista 2.841 referências bibliográficas que foram consultadas para a elaboração da 3a. edição revista e ampliada do Novo Deit-Libras: Novo Dicionário Enciclopédico Ilustrado Trilíngue da Língua de Sinais Brasileira. As referências cobrem campos como os de Psicologia e Neuropsicologia Cognitivas e do Desenvolvimento, Linguística e Neuropsicolinguística Cognitiva, Educação, Educação de Surdos, História de Educação de Surdos, Filosofias educacionais em surdez, Fonoaudiologia, Antropologia Cultural, dentre muitos outros. Como esse dicionário propõe, em diversos capítulos associados, um novo modelo de lexicografia e lexicologia da Libras, grande esforço foi feito na justificação e explicação das bases desse modelo. O dicionário encarna, usa e ilustra esse novo modelo. References used in the New Encyclopedic Illustrated Dictionary of Brazilian Sign Language, 3rd edition (2015). The publication lists 2,841 references that were used to support the elaboration of the Brazilian Sign Language Encyclopedic Dictionary, 3rd edition. The references cover fields such as Cognitive and Developmental Psychology and Neuropsychology, Cognitive Linguistics and Neurolinguistics and Neuropsycholinguistics, Applied Linguistics, Lexicography, Lexicology, Education, Deaf Education, Special Education, History of Education, Bilingualism, History of Deaf Education, Speech Language Pathology, Cultural Anthropology, among many othes. In several chapters, this seminal dictionary advances a groundbreaking original model dicionário in sign language lexicography and lexicology. The chapters justify and explain such a model, which is embodied by the dictionary itself.
Article
Full-text available
Resumen La educación durante la primera infancia es crucial para el desarrollo cognitivo, emocional y social de las personas y tiene un impacto de largo plazo puesto que, en los primeros años de vida, constituye un período de amplio crecimiento y evolución; en parte, por los numerosos cambios que se producen en el cerebro. La evidencia revela que los programas educativos de buena calidad son los que aprovechan las potencialidades de la edad infantil para desarrollar habilidades fundamentales para el aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida. Por ello, invertir en buenos programas de educación y cuido de la primera infancia debe ser parte de una base fundamental de las políticas y programas de desarrollo humano. Tener acceso a oportunidades educativas de calidad durante la infancia contribuye a mejorar la equidad social y a cerrar las brechas de desigualdad, especialmente en la niñez más desfavorecida. En esta investigación 1 se define a la educación en la primera infancia como las etapas, niveles o programas de educación formal y no formal que se ofrecen a la niñez desde el nacimiento hasta antes de iniciar el primer grado de primaria. Se han desarrollado numerosas investigaciones que dan cuenta de la situación internacional en la educación de la primera infancia y de las mejores prácticas con recomendaciones que enriquecen la toma de decisiones. Sin embargo, en Centroamérica y República Dominicana se carece de investigación que ofrezca un panorama regional del tema y evidencias que informen políticas específicas, de ahí la importancia de este trabajo.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.