Article

Attitudes toward heroic and nonheroic physical risk takers as mates and friends

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Abstract

Several hypotheses about attitudes toward risk takers, derived from costly signaling theory (CST), were tested. Male and female participants evaluated the attractiveness of risk takers compared with risk avoiders as potential mates, and as potential same-sex friends, in 21 different scenarios. Both females and males preferred heroic physical risk takers as mates, with the preference being stronger for females. Contrary to predictions, for nonheroic physical risks (such as risky sports), both males and females preferred risk avoiders over risk takers as mates. However, for same-sex friends, males significantly preferred nonheroic physical risk takers, whereas females preferred risk avoiders. It was concluded that insofar as nonheroic risk taking by males is a costly signal, the signal is directed more toward fellow males than toward females. Preferences for risk takers were positively correlated with reported self risk-taking tendencies, but the correlation was significantly higher for friends than for mates for both heroic and nonheroic physical risks.In a second study, both males and females accurately predicted the opposite sex's preferences for heroic risk takers as mates. However, males failed to predict females' preferences for nonheroic physical risk avoiders. Both males and females underestimated the opposite sex's preferences for drug risk avoiders.

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... In humans, evidence indicates prosocial and asocial risktaking may be attractive to third-party audiences and may signal underlying ability (Apalkova et al., 2018;Farthing, 2005Farthing, , 2007Hugill, Fink, Neave, Besson, & Bunse, 2011;Sylwester & Pawlowski, 2011;Wilke, Hutchinson, Todd, & Kruger, 2006). For example, heroic risk-takers are considered highly attractive and are more desired as mates (Farthing, 2005). ...
... In humans, evidence indicates prosocial and asocial risktaking may be attractive to third-party audiences and may signal underlying ability (Apalkova et al., 2018;Farthing, 2005Farthing, , 2007Hugill, Fink, Neave, Besson, & Bunse, 2011;Sylwester & Pawlowski, 2011;Wilke, Hutchinson, Todd, & Kruger, 2006). For example, heroic risk-takers are considered highly attractive and are more desired as mates (Farthing, 2005). Evidence from the anthropological literature also suggests that ability-based, prosocial risk-taking is attractive. ...
Article
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The relative state model posits two nonindependent pathways to risk. The need-based pathway suggests people take risks when non-risky options are unlikely to meet their needs. The ability-based pathway suggests people take risks when they possess resources or abilities making them more capable of successfully "pulling off" risk-taking. Growing laboratory and field evidence supports need-based risk-taking. However, little is known about ability-based risk-taking. We examined whether three indicators of embodied capital (attractiveness, cognitive ability, and physical dexterity) were associated with risk-related personality traits, risk-attitudes, behavioral risk-taking, and outcomes associated with risk-taking. Among 328 community members recruited to maximize variance on risk-propensity, we demonstrate that embodied capital indices predict various instantiations of risk-propensity consistent with the relative state model. Risk is typically operationalized as outcome variance (reviewed by Mishra, 2014). Every decision people make involves consideration of multiple potential outcomes; consequently , understanding how people engage with risk is an important psychological question. As with most behaviors, stable individual differences, perceptions and attitudes, and situational factors are known to interact to influence risk-propensity (reviewed by Figner & Weber, 2011). However, little is known about the association of embodied capital-inherent traits that contribute to relative (dis)advantage-with risk-related traits, attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes. In the following, we review instantiations of risk-propensity, indices of embodied capital, and evidence linking the two. We then present an exploratory study examining associations of embodied capital indices and risk among community members specifically targeted to maximize variance on risk-related traits, attitudes, and outcomes.
... Indeed, research shows that women rate gambling as an unattractive characteristic in men and investing as a neutral cue (e.g., Wilke et al., 2006). In line with this, Farthing (2005) reports that women see financial risk-taking as an unattractive characteristic in men. ...
... Consequently, being prone to this risk might not function as a reproductive strategy. For example, Farthing (2005) shows that drugs or alcohol consumption -health-related risk-taking -is a disapproved characteristic of mates. Likewise, Wilke et al. (2006) show that women see health-risk-taking propensities unattractive. ...
Article
Previous research has yielded mixed findings on the relationship between facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), an androgen-dependent feature, and risk-taking propensity. We argue that mixed findings might result from overlooked variables. Given that risk-taking propensity might be ultimately linked to a search for mating opportunities, we analyze if reproductive strategies moderate the relationship between fWHR and risk-taking propensity. Our results, obtained from a sample of 434 male participants, show a positive association between fWHR and recreational and social risk-taking only for men who are more motivated to focus on mating effort over offspring survival. This finding aligns with research arguing that risk-taking may be a mating strategy since being social and recreational risk-prone might illustrate physical and psychological qualities and improve one's ability to attract mates. Our results support the notion that risk-taking might be a domain-specific construct. Overall, our research is in line with recent findings suggesting that the impact of testosterone exposure on risk-taking propensity is best understood when considering the role of contextual variables. Consequently, we add to previous research that studies related to risk-taking propensity should account for reproductive strategies.
... For example, the gorgeous long tail of the peacock, which was only used to attract the peahens, is more likely to be found by natural enemies; Melanesians have to spend a lot of time and risk preying the turtles, which will be used as the main course of the banquet, to show the good physical quality of the men in their family (Smith & Bird, 2000). Costly signaling theory has made these puzzling behaviors reasonable (Farthing, 2005;Griskevicius et al., 2010;Janssens et al., 2011;Smith & Bird, 2000;Zahavi, 1975). According to the previous studies, the wealth and high social status that conspicuous displays represent are more emphasized by women who are selecting romantic partners (Lens, Driesmans, Pandelaere, & Janssens, 2012). ...
... For example, men who were close to the young women would give higher praise for material wealth (Roney, 2003). A central driving force behind these differences is the evolved sex differences in mate preferences and parental investment (Farthing, 2005;Griskevicius et al., 2010;Janssens et al., 2011;Smith & Bird, 2000;Trivers, 1972). Women invest more in raising a child, and thus have more evolved to choose mates that can protect them and devote enough resource in offspring (Trivers, 1972). ...
Conference Paper
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Conspicuous consumption, an economic concept, has a new interpretation from the perspective of evolutionary psychology. Recent researches indicated an initial empirical link between mating motives and individuals' conspicuous consumption, positing that people might use costly products to display their wealth to potential mates. Building on the previous work, we examined conspicuous consumption as a signaling system in the context of Chinese culture. The present research tested whether priming individuals with mating cues would increase their willingness to spend more on conspicuous displays compared with those primed with neutral cues (N=60). The results showed that mating motives elicited individuals' desire for conspicuous consumption; and a priming effect emerged in females. This may result from the unique Chinese culture of 'Mian Zi'. Previous work showed that failure in mating is an issue of losing face (Zhao, 2010). Since most Chinese unconsciously maintain their faces, it is possible that both men and women in romantic mindset spend more on luxury products, in an attempt to be competitive and face-saving. This research is important in that it provided a valuable contribution to our understanding of the underlying mechanism in conspicuous consumption.
... They concluded bravery was more desirable than altruism across all relationship contexts, but a brave and altruistic individual was most desirable. Further evidence shows women find brave and altruistic men more attractive than risk-avoiders, but did not show bravery without altruism is more desirable, as women demonstrated a preference for risk-avoiders over non-heroic risk-takers (Farthing 2005). Risk-avoiders are only preferred to non-heroic risktakers when the risk is high, for medium risk situations the non-heroic risk-taker was preferred (Farthing 2007). ...
... Hypothesis 1 predicts that both considerate and heroic altruists will be more desirable than a neutral individual in long-term relationship contexts but not short-term sexual contexts. Hypothesis 2 predicts that there will be a significant difference between the desirability of considerate and heroic altruistshowever, the direction of this prediction is uncertain due to previously mixed findings which suggest that bravery is more influential in determining desirability than altruism (Kelly and Dunbar 2001), that risk-avoiders are preferred to risk-takers when the risk is not associated to altruism (Farthing 2005) and that there is no difference in desirability between altruists and heroes (Margana et al. 2019). Hypothesis 3 predicts that both considerate and heroic altruists will be more desirable than the neutral individual as friends, colleagues and cooperative partners. ...
Article
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Empirical evidence has demonstrated that in long-term romantic contexts altruists are favoured over non-altruists. Costly signalling theory suggests that altruism informs observers that cooperating with the altruist is beneficial. This paper distinguishes between types of altruism to investigate if there is a differential effect on desirability across types. Using dating advertisements, participants (observers) received information about a considerate altruist, heroic altruist or neutral character and then rated their attraction to the character in a range of romantic and non-romantic contexts. It was hypothesised that both considerate and heroic characters would be rated by observers as more desirable than the neutral advert in long-term romantic contexts and that there would be a difference in desirability scores between the considerate and heroic characters. The results of study 1 showed that considerate altruists were significantly more desirable than the neutral advert in long-term romantic contexts, but heroic altruists did not differ significantly from neutral or considerate characters. Study 2 confirmed the same pattern of results. These findings suggest that considerate altruism signals good character traits to observers, such as kindness, which could indicate parenting ability and characters who signal these traits will have increased reproductive success because they are more desirable and therefore have access to more/better quality reproductive mates. Furthermore, the results suggest that considerate and heroic altruism may be distinct, and that considerate altruism is the more desirable type of altruism.
... Substance use may increase mate value through signalling a willingness to take risks (Petraitis et al. 2014). A willingness to take risks may be perceived as attractive, specifically in men, as it may signal a better capacity to provide for a partner and offspring (Bassett and Moss 2004;Farthing 2005;Henderson et al. 2005). Further, in accordance with the handicap principle and the costly signalling theory, substance use might be interpreted as a signal of good genes as only individuals with particularly good genes may afford to take such risks (Farthing 2005;Zahavi 1975). ...
... A willingness to take risks may be perceived as attractive, specifically in men, as it may signal a better capacity to provide for a partner and offspring (Bassett and Moss 2004;Farthing 2005;Henderson et al. 2005). Further, in accordance with the handicap principle and the costly signalling theory, substance use might be interpreted as a signal of good genes as only individuals with particularly good genes may afford to take such risks (Farthing 2005;Zahavi 1975). One may, however, expect excessive substance use to be perceived as unattractive, as excessive substance use is associated with poor health-a trait that both sexes perceive as unattractive (Anthony et al. 1989;Grant et al. 2004;Lev-Ran et al. 2014;Rehm et al. 2003;Rehm et al. 2006;Shackelford et al. 2005). ...
Article
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The current study aimed to identify demographic, personality and substance-use characteristics associated with forming romantic relationships. Data were collected by two online surveys among students in Bergen, Norway, during the autumn of 2015 (T1) and by a follow-up survey that was conducted 12 months later (T2). The current sample consists of the 2404 participants who reported being single at T1 (mean age 23.2) and who participated in both waves of the survey. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Separate analyses were conducted for both sexes and for the entire sample of participants. High extroversion scores predicted relationship formation. For women, having a child/children, higher scores on neuroticism, alcohol use and illegal substance use positively predicted relationship formation, while for men, age and openness were positive predictors. The study contributes with several novel findings. In general, characteristics related to a need for support predicted romantic relationship formation among women, while characteristics associated with increased resource acquisition potential predicted relationship formation among men. The general pattern of findings is in line with established evolutionary theories such as the sexual strategies theory and the parental investment theory.
... Men and women are approximately equally generous in terms of low-risk forms of altruism for strangers, although women engage in fewer risky heroic rescues and may more often avoid altruism when it is possible to do so (Bani & Giussani 2010, DellaVigna et al. 2013). This may reflect women's higher sensitivity to risk or men's motivation to engage in risky altruism that enhances status and reputation (Farthing 2005, Miller 2007). However, women are slightly more likely than men to be altruistic kidney donors (Brethel-Haurwitz & Marsh 2014). ...
Article
Implicit in the longstanding disagreements about whether humans' fundamental nature is predominantly caring or callous is an assumption of uniformity. This article reviews evidence that instead supports inherent variation in caring motivation and behavior. The continuum between prosocial and antisocial extremes reflects variation in the structure and function of neurohormonal systems originally adapted to motivate parental care and since repurposed to support generalized forms of care. Extreme social behaviors such as extraordinary acts of altruism and aggression can often be best understood as reflecting variation in the neural systems that support care. A review of comparative, developmental, and neurobiological research finds consistent evidence that variations in caring motivations and behavior reflect individual differences in sensitivity to cues that signal vulnerability and distress and in the tendency to generalize care outward from socially close to distant others. The often complex relationships between caring motivation and various forms of altruism and aggression are discussed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 70 is January 4, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
Dance is definitely a cultural phenomenon. The well-known Russian historian Yuri Lotman outlined the concept of "culture" as a form of social communication between a group of people. Pair dancing is the best way to illustrate this statement. Dancing itself is the language of communication for a particular society. To be a full participant in such social intercourse, you must have the knowledge of the “language” of the group, follow the protocol of behavior and demonstrate membership / loyalty to the group. Dance is a non-verbal form of communication, built on the interaction of dancers in specific movements and symbolism of appearance and attributes. Ballroom dancing is a symbol of belonging to the nobility, participation in balls is a confirmation of loyalty to the ruling elite, the state.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
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The author investigates the representation of experience and trauma in folklore narratives by the example of the texts of the Mari non-fairy prose. Stories about meeting evil spirits, demonic characters, and unexplained phenomena reflects personal experience of narrators, especially traumatic events from the past. The main motifs of mystical stories are death, sorrow, sickness, etc., which are expressed in the narrative, its structure and plot.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
Feminine space research in North Caucasian cultures brought the author to raising a question of sexual interrelations as a cornerstone of social constructs that determine power and obedience, cooperation and mutual suppression, behavioural latitude and individual self-image. The research focuses on Adyghe (Kabardians, Cherkess, and Adygeans), inhabitants of central and western areas of the North Caucasus who are bound together with common language, history, culture, and ethnic self-identification. The methodological framework is based on Pushkareva’s method; it presupposes “considering not only gender socio-historical phenomena, but also gender-related social reality with its mutations over space and time.” Analysis of field materials shed the light to Adyghe sexual history from prehistoric to modern-day patterns. The research contributes to adjustments in comprehending commonplace gender relations and discovers cultural norms that simultaneously restrict public acts of intimacy and empower women with relatively free mentality.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
According to opinion polls, Armenia is one of the most religious countries in Europe. However, in some villages of the Aparan district Aragatsotn Marz parish life is almost completely absent. Everyday religiosity of the locals is connected with surbs – home and rural sanctuaries. These include some natural objects in the surrounding villages. Two parallel systems coexist in Armenia’s religious culture. One is the official Armenian Apostolic Church with its churches, a priesthood, and its spiritually cared flock, the other one includes vernacular practices and beliefs of much of this very flock. Rural surb is one of the phenomena of vernacular religious culture. The article attempts to typologize surbs, describes the rituals and practices of veneration of rural shrines.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
The term "evidence-based medicine" is being increasingly used by various sources of information today, and becomes a discussion subject of professional communities and ordinary citizens. Apart from a brief insight into the origin and development of evidence-based medicine in the world and in Russia, the article deals with the anthropological analysis of the attitudes of the modern Russian physicians and patients towards both the understanding of the term and the current status, prospects and possible risks of the development of this discipline in our country. The views of respondents about the role of pharmaceutical companies, the state and the balance between the development and implementation of clinical guidelines and individual cases are considered. The article presents the arguments of patients about whether there is still a "physician blessed by God" and whether it is important for them that the person who they address for help works in the paradigm of evidence-based medicine. Physicians question whether healing itself is still an art, or evidence-based medicine has finally turned it into a business and well-organized mechanism, which could protect them from criminal prosecution in a critical situation.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
The article outlines the complex ways of collecting a unique paleo-anthropological collection from the territory of the Prut-Dniester interfluve, which is stored in the Cabinet of Anthropology of the CPA IEA RAS. The essay describes individual episodes of the development of Moldavian archeology events that began more than half a century ago and lasted for 25 years. The content of the essay is made up of vivid everyday details of work in archaeological expeditions and the results of paleoanthropological studies that depict the formation of the anthropological characteristics of the Moldovan population, as well as how the data obtained reflects ethnogenetic processes.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
The author proposes to address the phenomenon of space as a category of museology. An interdisciplinary analysis of space definitions from philosophical, cultural and museological perspectives is carried out. References to reliable sources and practical experience help to formulate the definition of exhibition space and to study the prospects of its implementation in modern projects in the museum architecture. As an example of creating a modern museum space, the author studies the site of the Russian Museum of Ethnography and the project of the Vasiliy Svinyin’s depositary (the beginning of the XX century) and its modern realization.
... Various conversational openers capture attraction. The direct ones straightforwardly reveal the seducer's erotic desire with masculine traits such as social power (Sadalla et al., 1987), risk-taking willingness (Wilke et al., 2006) and bravery (Farthing, 2005), yet necessitates solid seduction skills and self-confidence. Both situational and indirect ones alternatively highlight non-personal subjects and display a humorous and adventurous personality. ...
Thesis
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After working as a personal assistant during the Second World War to John Godfrey, the Director of Naval Intelligence of the Royal Navy, Ian Fleming designed James Bond as a prominent fictional British agent from the novel Casino Royale (1953) onward. Bond completes the assignments while simultaneously enjoying the bachelor lifestyle and this has always intrigued many readers and spectators. His life is also enriched by consumerism and more essentially, effortless seduction to limitless sex. Meanwhile his sexual encounters stress his freedom from commitment as well as his embodied British national power, his interactions with most of the Bond Girls since the first Bond movie Dr No (1962) however lack mutual comfort and connection. My dissertation analyses four generations of James Bond movies: Thunderball (1965), Moonraker (1979), GoldenEye (1995) and Casino Royale (2006). These four sources substantiate that the legendary womaniser Bond is instead very much incapable of seducing most of his Bond Girls. As each of the Girl provides a certain extent of intelligence leading to the antagonists, the deficient Bondian seduction therefore hinders both his capacity in national security maintenance as well as his possibility of relishing splendid sexual life.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
The study is based on intra and inter-group analyses of craniometrical characteristics of two samples of skulls obtained during the excavations of urban cemeteries in modern Pereslavl-Zalesskiy. The samples under study consist of 29 male and 19 female skulls from necropolis of the Church of the Beheading of John the Baptist XVI – early XVII centuries and 31 male and 26 female skulls from Andrey Smolensky Church cemetery XVI–XVIII centuries. To identify differences between the samples from Pereslavl-Zalesskiy we used Student's t-test. The principal component method and the canonical variate analysis were used for the intragroup and intergroup analyses respectively. Intragroup analysis revealed certain heterogeneity of these groups. The male samples from Pereslavl were demonstrated to be significantly different. This probably indicates a partial replacement of population that occurred after the tragic events of the Time of Troubles, which virtually devastated the city’s neighborhood at the beginning of the XVII century. The results of the intergroup canonical analysis demonstrated the greatest proximity of the Pereslavl’s group XVI-XVII centuries to the samples from Pskov and Suzdal. The proximity of the later samples from Pereslavl-Zalessky to the groups of Moscow and Tver may indicate that the population of these cities made a significant contribution to the formation of the Pereslavl-Zalessky’s population after the Time of Troubles. Female samples from Pereslavl significantly differ among themselves in a number of metric cranial traits. The results of intergroup canonical analysis demonstrate the greatest proximity of the female samples from Pereslavl to each other, and to the samples from Pskov, Tver and Moscow, like in the male samples
... Sex-differentiated adaptive pressures have also been invoked as a distal cause for men's relative inclination towards a host of competitive pursuits, including entrepreneurship (White et al., 2006), heroics (Farthing, 2005), future discounting (Daly & Wilson, 2005), risk taking (Dekel & Scotchmer, 1999;Ronay & von Hippel, 2010), and violence and aggression (Archer, 2006;Daly & Wilson, 1989;Wilson & Daly, 1985). While overconfidence may well be an important unmeasured variable in many of these contexts, its greatest utility likely follows from its status-enhancing social function. ...
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Biological differences between men and women mandate that women’s obligatory investment in reproduction is significantly greater than that of men. As a result, women have evolved to be the “choosier” of the two sexes and men have evolved to compete for female choice. To the degree that overconfidence is an effective tool for attracting mates and driving away competitors, greater competition among men suggests that they should express more overconfidence than women. Thus, sexual selection may be the primary reason why overconfidence is typically more pronounced in men than it is in women. Sexual selection may also be a distal, causal factor in what we describe as a cult of overconfidence pervading modern organizations and institutions. Whereas overconfidence was once regulated and constrained by features of ancestral life, levels of social mobility and accountability in contemporary society and modern organizations make it increasingly difficult to keep this gendered bias in check.
... Various conversational openers capture attraction. The direct ones straightforwardly reveal the seducer's erotic desire with masculine traits such as social power (Sadalla et al., 1987), risk-taking willingness (Wilke et al., 2006) and bravery (Farthing, 2005), yet necessitates solid seduction skills and self-confidence. Both situational and indirect ones alternatively highlight non-personal subjects and display a humorous and adventurous personality. ...
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After working as a personal assistant during the Second World War to John Godfrey, the Director of Naval Intelligence of the Royal Navy, Ian Fleming designed James Bond as a prominent fictional British agent from the novel Casino Royale (1953) onward. Bond completes the assignments while simultaneously enjoying the bachelor lifestyle and this has always intrigued many readers and spectators. His life is also enriched by consumerism and more essentially, effortless seduction to limitless sex. Meanwhile his sexual encounters stress his freedom from commitment as well as his embodied British national power, his interactions with most of the Bond Girls since the first Bond movie Dr No (1962) however lack mutual comfort and connection. My dissertation analyses four generations of James Bond movies: Thunderball (1965), Moonraker (1979), GoldenEye (1995) and Casino Royale (2006). These four sources substantiate that the legendary womaniser Bond is instead very much incapable of seducing most of his Bond Girls. As each of the Girl provides a certain extent of intelligence leading to the antagonists, the deficient Bondian seduction therefore hinders both his capacity in national security maintenance as well as his possibility of relishing splendid sexual life.
... For instance, one can feel that taking a risk generates a positive thrill and yet be unmotivated to take a risk to preserve personal resources. Scholars have also looked at similar attitudes such as attitudes about risk-takers (Farthing 2005) or about safety (Ek and Akselsson 2007). ...
Article
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Risk-taking has been a major field of interest for scientists and for applied purposes since decades. However, many researchers have noted that the current measurement instruments fail to show adequate validity and predictive power. Given the recent calls to develop new measures, this paper aims to highlight six key points that should be kept in mind when constructing or using measures of risk-taking concepts. Specifically, we encourage risk-taking scholars (a) to pay close attention to the terminology used in studies, (b) to distinguish measures of general and specific risk-taking, (c) to distinguish risk-taking from the appeal of risky activities, (d) to keep in mind the subjectivity of risk-taking, (e) to consider the measurement of passive risk-taking, and (f) to favour more realistic risk-taking tasks. Overall, these recommendations should help researchers to design and use more relevant risk-taking measures.
... The demonstration of the ability to overcome dangerous situations, and the prestige which derives from such victories, is attractive for females (25,26). Males with a tendency to engage in such situations had an advantage in mating opportunities during human evolution and they still have one in modern societies (4,5,10). ...
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Higher risk taking is particularly characteristic for males between 15 and 35 years, the age when intrasexual competition is the strongest. This fitness-maximizing strategy, however, also has negative consequences; previous data revealed that males have a significantly higher tendency to die in accidents. This retrospective study aimed to assess whether age-related risk taking, often associated with the reproductive competition between males, and referred to as the Young Male Syndrome (YMS), may play a role in the high incidence of severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) in young males. Derived from the availableevidence and the main assumptions of the YMS, we expected that men, especially when they are in the age when their reproductive potential peaks, are more likely to suffer sTBI from highly risky behaviors that also lead to higher mortality. It was also expected that alcohol intoxication makes the demographic pattern of sTBI even more similar to what previous research on the YMS implies. We analyzed demographic data of patients with sTBI (N=365) registered in a clinical database. To this end, we built Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to reveal which of the demographic characteristics are the best predictors for risky behaviors leading to sTBI and death as a consequence of the injury. The data suggest that younger people acquired sTBI from riskier behaviors compared to members of older age groups, irrespective of their sex. Moreover, being male and being alcohol intoxicated also contributed significantly to risk-taking behavior. Mortality rate after the injury, however, increased with the age of the patient and did not depend on the riskiness of the behavior. The results indicate that the demographic distribution of the specific patient population in our focus cannot be simply explained by the YMS. However, higher incidence rates of males among the patients are in line with the core assumptions of the YMS. These data indicate that epidemiological studies should also take into consideration evolutionary theories and highlight the importance of age and sex specific prevention strategies.
... The demonstration of the ability to overcome dangerous situations, and the prestige which derives from such victories, is attractive for females (25,26). Males with a tendency to engage in such situations had an advantage in mating opportunities during human evolution and they still have one in modern societies (4,5,10). ...
Article
Full-text available
Higher risk taking is particularly characteristic for males between 15 and 35 years, the age when intrasexual competition is the strongest. This fitness-maximizing strategy, however, also has negative consequences; previous data revealed that males have a significantly higher tendency to die in accidents. This retrospective study aimed to assess whether age-related risk taking, often associated with the reproductive competition between males, and referred to as the Young Male Syndrome (YMS), may play a role in the high incidence of severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) in young males. Derived from the available evidence and the main assumptions of the YMS, we expected that men, especially when they are in the age when their reproductive potential peaks, are more likely to suffer sTBI from highly risky behaviors that also lead to higher mortality. It was also expected that alcohol intoxication makes the demographic pattern of sTBI even more similar to what previous research on the YMS implies. We analyzed demographic data of patients with sTBI (N = 365) registered in a clinical database. To this end, we built Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to reveal which of the demographic characteristics are the best predictors for risky behaviors leading to sTBI and death as a consequence of the injury. The data suggest that younger people acquired sTBI from riskier behaviors compared to members of older age groups, irrespective of their sex. Moreover, being male and being alcohol intoxicated also contributed significantly to risk-taking behavior. Mortality rate after the injury, however, increased with the age of the patient and did not depend on the riskiness of the behavior. The results indicate that the demographic distribution of the specific patient population in our focus cannot be simply explained by the YMS. However, higher incidence rates of males among the patients are in line with the core assumptions of the YMS. These data indicate that epidemiological studies should also take into consideration evolutionary theories and highlight the importance of age and sex specific prevention strategies.
... Vincke (2017) provides an extensive literature view and discussion of the various sexual signals communicated with "dark consumption" goods, namely alcohol and cigarettes, but does not focus narrowly on the same psychological mechanisms as I do. Empirical evidence, in general, is mixed on the issue, with some finding evidence in favor of such models (e.g., Kelly and Dunbar 2001;Farthing 2005), and others not (e.g., Wilke et al. 2006;Borkowska and Pawlowski 2014). ...
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At the conclusion of 2017, to the dismay of journalists, pundits, and academics, large numbers of adolescents began consuming Tide Pods, a form of laundry detergent that is candy-like in appearance. This paper argues that purposeful consumption of laundry detergent may in fact be individually rational for adolescents. The consumption of Tide Pods may allow adolescents to successfully signal status in accordance with the Handicap Principle, which explains the beauty of a peacock’s tail and the practice of stotting by gazelles in the wild. The Handicap Principle is also a common explanation of adolescents’ willingness to engage in dangerous activities, like drug use. A subtext of the thesis of this paper is the veracity of rational choice explanations in unconventional contexts distant from its original applications.
... A form of risky behavior that serves as an especially effective costly signal is physically risky altruistic behavior, which is the very definition of heroism. Evolutionary psychologists believe that even apparently selfless impulses such as true heroism must provide some adaptive advantage for individuals; otherwise, such behaviors would have been strongly selected against, and many studies confirm that people who sacrifice for the group by engaging in physically costly altruistic activities do in fact achieve elevated social status, respect, and recognition as a result of their public selflessness (McAndrew and Perilloux 2012;Willer 2009), especially when the behavior displays courage and physical strength (Farthing 2005;Griskevicius et al. 2007;Kelly and Dunbar 2001;Sylwester and Pawlowski 2011). ...
Chapter
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This is a literature review on costly signalling.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
The experience of describing sacrifices (the Kurban tradition) in the traditional culture of the Gagauz opens up a possibility for an anthropological exploration of its origin (ethnogenetic echo) and the prospects for the development of its repertoire (sociological echo) as a single scenario. Among the characters of this scenario there are the sacrifier, the one who receives the sacrifice, and the institute of public opinion (“insan maana bulmasyn”), which guarantees following the canonical norms of customary law and morality which set the rules of sacrifice as a gift and as a holiday.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
The article is devoted to the problem of women's social memory, recorded in the autobiographical discourse. The main attention is paid to the gender differences in memory as a subject of integrative studies of gender anthropology and anthropology of memory. The article discusses the relationship between the practice of memorization and social experience of women. The author concludes that there is a functional relationship between the anthropology of memory and the study of the gender aspects of social experience.
... Rather than attempting to convince people with these beliefs about the threat posed by COVID-19, it may instead be effective when trying to persuade them to social distance to instead frame the action of social distancing as aligning with a value that they already hold [54]. For instance, bravery and risk-taking are generally viewed as attractive traits across a variety of cultures [55][56][57]. ...
Article
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What types of public health messages are effective at changing people’s beliefs and intentions to practice social distancing to slow the spread of COVID-19? We conducted two randomized experiments in summer 2020 that assigned respondents to read a public health message and then measured their beliefs and behavioral intentions across a wide variety of outcomes. Using both a convenience sample and a pre-registered replication with a nationally representative sample of Americans, we find that a message that reframes not social distancing as recklessness rather than bravery and a message that highlights the need for everyone to take action to protect one another are the most effective at increasing beliefs and intentions related to social distancing. These results provide an evidentiary basis for building effective public health campaigns to increase social distancing during flu pandemics.
... That is, it takes a desirable value and reframes it as sel sh and unattractive ("people who don't practice social distancing… aren't brave, they are reckless"). Bravery and risk-taking are viewed as attractive traits across a variety of cultures (6)(7)(8). This reframing was either presented alone (Not Bravery) or with language about how people who spread COVID-19 pollute the environment around them (Not Bravery + Pollution). ...
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What types of public health messages are effective at changing people’s beliefs and intentions to practice social distancing to slow the spread of COVID-19? We conducted two randomized experiments that assigned respondents to read a public health message and then measured their beliefs and behavioral intentions across a wide variety of outcomes. Using both a convenience sample and a nationally representative sample of Americans, we find that a message that reframes bravery as recklessness and a message that highlights the need for everyone to take action to protect others are the most effective at increasing beliefs and intentions related to social distancing. These results provide an evidentiary basis for building effective public health campaigns to increase social distancing during flu pandemics.
... 23 Risk-taking behaviours have evolved in young males and serves as costly signalling of high-quality characteristics to potential mates and demonstrates strengths or abilities to peers. 24 Swimming, wading and jumping activities at coastal locations often involve the social context of a group of peers where behaviours could be determined as attention--vseeking 21 24 or in line with social rules and controls that typify 'dangerous masculinities'. 5 Under these pretences, they may also be undertaken surreptitiously in remote, unsupervised locations. ...
Article
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Introduction Drowning is a leading cause of unintentional death, especially for males. In Australian coastal waters, young male adults account for 25% of the burden of male drowning. This study aims to describe young male coastal drowning deaths and to examine the prevalence of risk factors, especially alcohol and drugs. Methods Characteristics of unintentional fatal drowning involving males (15–34 years) were compared with other adults (15 years and older). Data were sourced from the National Coronial Information System (Australia) and Surf Life Saving incident reports (2004/2005–2018/2019). Relative risk was calculated and χ ² tests of independence were performed (p<0.05). Blood alcohol and drug concentrations were analysed with permutational analyses of variance. Results Young males drowned more while jumping (9.85 times), swimming/wading (1.41 times), at rock/cliff locations (1.42 times) and on public holidays (1.8 times). Young males drowned less while boating (0.81 times), scuba diving (2.08 times), offshore (1.56 times) or due to medical factors (3.7 times). Young males drowned more (1.68 times) after consuming illicit drugs (amphetamines 2.26 times; cannabis 2.25 times) and less with prescription drugs (benzodiazepines 2.6 times; opiates 4.1 times; antidepressants 7.7 times). Blood serum concentrations of cannabis were higher in young males, while amphetamine and alcohol were lower. Discussion Unsafe behaviours alongside certain activities or locations create deadly combinations of risk factors. A relationship between age, activity, attitude and affluence is proposed, where young males drown more in affordable activities with fewer regulations. Our results support multilevel strategies (spanning life stages) to reduce young male coastal drowning.
... The most common underlying rationale for traits that vary widely within a species due to their costly signalling value is described by the handicap principle, first formalized by Amotz Zahavi (1975). Game Theoretical models of this mode of costly signalling have been proposed for a range of individual difference traits in humans, including risk-taking (Farthing 2004), communal contributions to activities such as hunting (Gurven and Hill 2009), and expressions of religious devotion (Wood 2017). ...
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
The article is devoted to the role of Islam in culture and social life of the Turkmen of southern Russia. The study is based on the author's field materials collected in 2007–2015 in the Stavropol and Astrakhan Regions. The ethnic group of the Russian Turkmen was formed in the XVII–XIX centuries and currently counts about 17,000 people. The Turkmen are Sunni Muslims, most of their customs and rituals are associated with Muslim prayers and symbolism. At the same time, the Turkmen are not among the zealous Muslims, in their spiritual culture there are folk customs and beliefs that are very superficially associated with Islam. In the Soviet period, the Russian Turkmen maintained their religion, secretly carried out Islamic rites and rules, despite the anti-religious state policy. Currently, the religiousness of the Turkmen varies greatly, but almost all families hold major religious ceremonies. Mosques play the role of community centers, social life in the Turkmen settlements is closely intertwined with religious life, and the mullahs are local leaders and take part in self-government bodies. Propaganda of fundamentalist Islam has not bypassed the Turkmen, as many regions of the North Caucasus. A peculiar situation has developed: young people have become involved in religion much more than old honored people, educated in the Soviet ideals. Residents of the Turkmen settlements and imams of mosques are trying to resist the spread of fundamentalist ideas. The situation is particularly difficult in the Stavropol Territory; so the regional administration is trying to control any cultural and religious activities on the ground, sometimes suspecting “Wahhabi sentiments” among quite loyal citizens, such as the Turkmen. It is important that the Turkmen are almost the only people of this region who, traditionally practicing Islam, retain complete loyalty to the Russian population and the Russian state
... From the R-S Theory perspective, the willingness of young males to engage in such risky situations might be adaptive in terms of fitness maximization (Tamas et al., 2019). This behavior can be instrumental in acquiring prestige and dominance over other males (Jonason & Fisher 2009;Segal 2001), gaining more resources (Baumeister et al., 2017;Daly & Wilson, 2001), and appearing more attractive to females (e.g., they are regarded as more brave and altruistic) (Farthing, 2007;Kelly & Dunbar, 2001). In the sexual context, in particular, the frequent risk taking among young men can be explained as a sexually selected trait for attracting mates . ...
Thesis
The young male syndrome postulates that young men demonstrate excessive risk-taking behavior. Initially, archival studies analyzing homicide data confirmed this phenomenon, yet few experimental or cross-sectional studies have offered additional support. The current research systematically tested the young male hypothesis in five studies. The hypothesis proposes that the general tendency for men to be more prone to risk than women is stronger among younger than older adults. Looked at from a different angle, the hypothesis proposes that the general tendency for risk propensity to decline with age is stronger among men than women. Study 1 assessed general risk propensity among members of the Dutch general public. Results did not support the young male hypothesis. Study 2 assessed both general and domain-specific risk propensity, again among Dutch respondents. Results pertaining to risk propensity in the occupational and leisure/sports domains contradicted the young male hypothesis. Study 3 refined the measurement of domain-specific risk propensity. Results neither replicated the contradictory findings of Study 2 nor offered support for the young male hypothesis. Yet, a suggestive pattern emerged in the financial domain, which was consistent with the hypothesis: the tendency for men (compared to women) to be more inclined toward financial risk was stronger among younger than older adults. Study 4 implemented further methodological improvements to hone in on the young male hypothesis. Results revealed strong support for the hypothesis in the financial and recreational risk domains. Considering the inherent limitations of the self-report measures used in Studies 1-4, Study 5 assessed financial risk propensity via choice scenarios, with outcomes phrased either as gains or losses. Results again supported the hypothesis, but only when financial outcomes were framed as gains. Whereas individuals are generally risk averse in the gain domain, young men bucked this trend in an attempt to maximize financial outcomes. Evolutionary perspectives consider this behavior as a high risk-high reward strategy.
... Here, displays of different forms of altruistic behaviour have been shown to be valued, including heroism. For example Kelly & Dunbar (2001) found that heroic males were desired as romantic partners, more so than altruists, and furthermore women have a preference for heroic risk-takers over non-heroic risk-takers, particularly when levels of risk involved were high (Farthing, 2005(Farthing, , 2007. Recently Margana et al., (2019) found that women desired heroic partners, particularly for long-term relationships, and Bhogal and Bartlett (2021) found the same desirability for heroic partners in both men and women. ...
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Previous research has shown that heroic acts are valued traits in human mate choice, due to their desirability particularly for long term partners. There is however inconsistency as to whether heroism is a more valued trait than more general forms of altruism, or if both signal the same underlying desired trait in partners. To assess this, the current study looked to directly compare the desirability of heroic and altruistic acts when both are options that individuals may choose. Here, both male and female participants were provided with descriptions of hypothetical individuals who chose to behave either heroically or altruistically in the same everyday scenario, and asked to rate their desirability for both short and long term relationships. It was found that although both heroic and altruistic individuals were considered more desirable for long term than short term relationships, there were no differences in the ratings of heroic and altruistic acts nor were there any sex differences. Accordingly it is concluded that heroism is not a distinct trait in mate choice than altruism, and both signal the actor’s underlying prosocial personality characteristic that is valued in long term relationship for both men and women.
... Although H2 may appear counterintuitive, the social psychology literature indicates that there are good reasons to believe that a person who backs down in a dispute becomes less likeable to observers, who may in turn become more likely to want to punish that individual. There is research suggesting that overconfidence, even to the point of breaking rules, causes people to view an individual more positively, as does social risk-taking (Kelly & Dunbar, 2001;Farthing, 2005;Wilke et al., 2006;Van Kleef et al., 2011;Lamba & Nityananda, 2014). Males in particular who show social dominance and control can be judged more attractively as potential mates (Sadalla et al., 1987;Oesch & Miklousic, 2011). ...
Article
Public figures often apologize after making controversial statements. There are reasons to believe, however, that apologizing makes public figures appear weak and risk averse, which may make them less likeable and lead members of the public to want to punish them. This paper presents the results of an experiment in which respondents were given two versions of two real-life controversies involving public figures. Approximately half of the participants read a story that made it appear as if the person had apologized, while the rest were led to believe that the individual had stood firm. In the first experiment, hearing that Rand Paul apologized for his comments on civil rights did not change whether respondents were less likely to vote for him. When presented with two versions of the controversy surrounding Larry Summers and his comments about women scientists and engineers, however, liberals and females were more likely to say that he should have faced negative consequences for his statement when presented with his apology. The effects on other groups were smaller or neutral. The evidence suggests that when a prominent figure apologizes for a controversial statement, individuals are either unaffected or become more likely to desire that the individual be punished.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Recently, museum designers engaged in exploring dungeons, following archaeologists and diggers. Such interest in transformation of the underground space into a museum space has not yet been sufficiently analyzed, so the article considers a variety of examples from the modern practice of turning underground spaces into museums. In addition to sociocultural examples related to the special features of the urban space or the preservation of a unique landscape, I would like to draw special attention to the importance of archetypes associated with underground spaces when designing a modern museum exposition.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
In a brief report by a well-known American historian is analysed the contribution of her Russian colleague Natalya Pushkareva to the creation of a new scientific direction - gender studies in ethnology and in the study of the past. The author substantiates the special role of an individual in the institutionalization of women's and gender studies in Russian historiography, reflects on stages of the scientific biography of Natalya Pushkareva, foundation of a scientific school and her followers, united by common interests and intellectual identity.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
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The article attempts to explain the special dance tradition of the mountaineers of the North Caucasus – a pair dance called “Lezginka” performed during weddings and other festive events. The etymology of the dance's name, its characteristic choreography as well as the origin of pair dance, which is partly an echo of the ancient pagan totemic imaginations, are investigated. A possible relationship between the characteristic choreography of the dance and the local eagle totem is shown.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
The male behavioural strategy associated with physical risk is one of the universal foundations on which the ideas of masculinity established in society are based. Risk-taking propensity in general can signal a man's greater competitiveness, and physically risky actions can be perceived as "courageous" behavior and evidence of strength and athleticism. The results of a number of experimental studies and observations recorded sexual differences in risky behavior. In particular, young men are more likely to take physical risks than women. Evolutionary scientists have suggested that these differences may be a result of male competition for access to sexual partners. In this study we present an analysis of male and female physical risk assessments of men in the Russian sample (n = 701). Men and women were offered vignettes describing men who differed in risk-taking propensity. Respondents needed to assess the attractiveness of men in the context of long-term romantic and short-term (so-called "one night stand") relationships, as well as to assess their competitiveness, tendency to aggression, provisioning quality and a tendency to dangerous health behavior (alcohol abuse, unprotected sex, etc.). The degree of risk tolerance was significant in the evaluation of all the proposed parameters. Men who demonstrate an average degree of risk-taking propensity received the highest ratings for attractiveness for short-term relationships. Low-risk men were found to be more attractive in long-term relationships and able to provide the best quality of life. Men who choose a type of activity associated with constant physical risk and danger were assessed as the most aggressive and competitive. In addition, high risk propensity was associated with a higher propensity for unhealthy lifestyles and bad habits. Thus, male risk-taking behaviour affects men's social perception, attractiveness and quality assessment, and a high degree of risk-taking is not always perceived as a positive quality.
... При этом предполагается, что многие виды рискованного поведения могут восприниматься негативно, однако существуют формы риска, позволяющие мужчинам продемонстрировать свои позитивные каче-ства, поскольку на эти виды риска могут пойти только мужчины с неординарными физическими возможностями. В настоящем исследовании основное внимание было уделено физическому риску как мужской демонстрации, имеющей эволюционное обоснование -это поведение часто включает в себя применение навыков, которые лучше демонстрируют физическую одаренность -силу и атлетизм, -чем другие (со-временные) виды риска (Farthing 2005;Petraitis et al. 2014). ...
Article
The article is dedicated to the history of the Italians of Crimea. The history of the group is still little studied and rich in myths and legends. Our complex historical-anthropological and genetic study of the community allowed us to dispel some myths, which are widespread among the members of the community and far beyond it, and to recreate the history, geography and causes of migrations that took place in the XIX century. The historical part of the research was mainly based on sources and documents found in the Russian and Italian archives. We used documents from the State Archive of the Saratov Region, the State Archive of the Republic of Crimea, the Russian State Military Archive of Moscow, the state archives of Genova, Napoli, Bari, Turin, and the Vatican Secret Archive. Extensive and equally useful information was found in newspapers and other periodicals of the XIX–XX centuries from Russian and Italian library collections. Family archives of descendants of Italian migrants also provided valuable information. The article presents some of the materials found in the course of the study. The article also deals with the problem of the size of the community, which is difficult to define both today and in the past.
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Established from 1953 in Casino Royale, James Bond favourably captures the attention from the worldwide audience by embracing the relative phenomenon in the Western society. Balancing his life-threatening adventurous missions with consumerism, alluring glamour as well as the countless sexual encounters, Bond is conventionally created as a perfect womanizer. The selection of the 6 th Bond, Daniel Craig, is extraordinarily attractive owing to the masculine body configuration. Portraying as an invincible seducer, it is yet expected that Bond encounters massive embarrassment in the authentic scenarios. The major theories and descriptions suggested by Michael D. Botwin concerning mating, particularly focuses on the long-term courtship, are examined. Supplementing the theories with the contemporary interpretations in sensual persuasion by heterogeneous PUAs (Pick-up artists) such as Erik von Markovik, Neil Strauss and Kezia Noble, it is suspicious that Bond can succeed in sexual enticement. The temporal limitation in constructing sufficient mutual understanding and connection diminishes the opportunity of rewarding sexual attempts. Owing to the fact that the minor Bond girls, Sévérine in Skyfall and Lucia in Spectre as investigated, provide crucial information leading to the villains. Bond, in reality, is considered as a counterproductive MI6 associate due to his deficiency in seduction and thus, the incapability of obtaining information from the Bond girls.
Article
Most economic decisions are embedded in a specific social context. In many such contexts, individual choices are influenced by their observability due to underlying social norms and social image concerns. This study investigates the impact of choices being observed, compared to anonymity of choices, on risk taking in a laboratory experiment. I relate participants’ investments in a risky asset to social norms for risk taking that are elicited in an incentivized procedure. I find that risk taking is not affected by the choice being observed by a matched participant. Nor do investments follow elicited norms for risk taking more closely when observed. This holds when considering males and females separately. However, I provide strong evidence for gender-specific norms in risk taking. While these explain part of the existing gender gap in risk taking, males still “overshoot” by investing more than the norm dictates.
Chapter
In the psychological literature on risk-taking behavior, men tend to be more risktakingthan women, especially when observers are present. This gender difference insocial facilitation effect has intrigued evolutionary psychologists, who seek to explore theevolutionary value served by male risk-taking behavior. Researchers have developedthree evolutionary perspectives to interpret how and why risk-taking behavior facilitatessuccessful male survival and reproduction - namely, costly signaling theory, showingoffhypotheses, and sexual selection theory. These evolutionary perspectives haveobtained support from empirical studies on the relation between male risk taking, malemating strategy, and female mate preferences. However, all these studies andperspectives have ignored cultural influence, a gap which only recently has beenrecognized by Chinese psychologists. Work is still ongoing; however, based on risktaking studies along the theme of Chinese cultural psychology perspectives, in thischapter, we propose a new theoretical approach for future evolutionary research onhuman risk taking, that is, by using a culture-gene coevolutionary perspective to blendevolutionary psychology with cultural psychology. For instance, the evolutionary valueserved by risk avoiding, from Chinese women's perspective, should be considered.Several relevant genetic studies are also reviewed.
Thesis
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Established from 1953 in Casino Royale, James Bond favourably captures the attention from the worldwide audience by embracing the relative phenomenon in the Western society. Balancing his life-threatening adventurous missions with consumerism, alluring glamour as well as the countless sexual encounters, Bond is conventionally created as a perfect womanizer. The selection of the 6 th Bond, Daniel Craig, is extraordinarily attractive owing to the masculine body configuration. Portraying as an invincible seducer, it is yet expected that Bond encounters massive embarrassment in the authentic scenarios. The major theories and descriptions suggested by Michael D. Botwin concerning mating, particularly focuses on the long-term courtship, are examined. Supplementing the theories with the contemporary interpretations in sensual persuasion by heterogeneous PUAs (Pick-up artists) such as Erik von Markovik, Neil Strauss and Kezia Noble, it is suspicious that Bond can succeed in sexual enticement. The temporal limitation in constructing sufficient mutual understanding and connection diminishes the opportunity of rewarding sexual attempts. Owing to the fact that the minor Bond girls, Sévérine in Skyfall and Lucia in Spectre as investigated, provide crucial information leading to the villains. Bond, in reality, is considered as a counterproductive MI6 associate due to his deficiency in seduction and thus, the incapability of obtaining information from the Bond girls.
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Male risk-taking behavior is associated with personality traits and correlates with hormone titers, notably for testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Yet, these influences may be stronger in some individuals due to context or profession in which risk-taking occurs. We examine this possibility by investigating relationships of personality, aggression, and sensation seeking with T and C together with anthropometric measures in high risk-taking men: Russian alpinists (n = 55) and members of the Russian Special Forces (n = 33). They provided saliva samples before and after viewing a ~5 min video of aggressive male encounters and completed surveys after this task. After viewing the video, T increased in alpinists but decreased in Special Forces, and C increased in Special Forces. Alpinists scored higher than Special Forces in neuroticism and openness whereas Special Forces scored higher than alpinists in extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Verbal aggression, anger, hostility, experience seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility were higher in alpinists than in Special Forces. Our findings suggest behavioral differences in high risk-taking men, influenced by profession-related individual differences in sensation seeking and hormonal response to challenges.
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Men and women reliably differ on the importance of certain criteria when considering romantic relationships. From an evolutionary perspective that explains sex differences in mating effort and parental investment, men should prioritise attractiveness and women, wealth. Personality traits also signal important information about relationship potential with those of the dark triad facilitating short-term relationships. However, how the vulnerable dark triad traits of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and secondary psychopathyfunction in relationships remains relatively unexplored. Even though interpersonally tempestuous, individuals high in these traits might be alluring in that they offer a thrilling relationship for the short-term, so long as they are also physically appealing. Across two studies, we examined sex differences in partner preference judged on attractiveness in relation to BPD and secondary psychopathy across short- and long-term relationship contexts. Men were willing to engage in relationships with attractive women high in BPD traits, while women compensated low attractiveness for wealth in long-term dating, and did not desire secondary psychopathy in any relationship. Results show that women are more astute in mate preference, avoiding troublesome or financially challenged men who are time and economically costly, and men more readily engage in potentially turbulent relationships.
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Engaging in risky behaviors is a sexual signalling strategy that men use to procure mates. The present study investigates men’s preferences for engaging in risky behaviors (along with women’s preferences for their male partner’s risky behavior) within dating couples. We investigated associations between relationship length, self-perceived attractiveness, sociosexuality orientation, and preference for risky behaviors in a sample of 256 couples. Results indicated that men had stronger preferences for risky behaviors than their partner’s ideal preference. Furthermore, relationship length was associated with a decline in women’s preference for their partner’s risk-taking, but not men’s preference for their own risk taking. Self-perceived attractiveness was negatively associated with risk preference, and sociosexuality orientation was not directly related to risk preference. Female preferences for less intense male risky behaviors could reflect the need of paternal investment which is required for offspring care. Decreased male sexual signalling could account for lower preferences of risky behaviors in females who are involved in longer lasting romantic relationships.
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How and why animals and humans signal reliably is a key issue in biology and social sciences that needs to be understood to explain the evolution of communication. In situations in which the receiver needs to differentiate between low- and high-quality signallers, once a ruling paradigm, the Handicap Principle has claimed that honest signals have to be costly to produce. Subsequent game theoretical models, however, highlighted that honest signals are not necessarily costly. Honesty is maintained by the potential cost of cheating: by the difference in the marginal benefit to marginal cost for low versus high-quality signallers; i.e. by differential trade-offs. Owing to the difficulties of manipulating signal costs and benefits, there is lack of empirical tests of these predictions. We present the results of a laboratory decision-making experiment with human participants to test the role of equilibrium signal cost and signalling trade-offs for the development of honest communication. We found that the trade-off manipulation had a much higher influence on the reliability of communication than the manipulation of the equilibrium cost of signal. Contrary to the predictions of the Handicap Principle, negative production cost promoted honesty at a very high level in the differential trade-off condition.
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Social psychological theories tend to be primarily concerned with the immediate causes of altruism, whereas evolutionary explanations focus more on the origins and ultimate functions of altruistic behavior. Recent developments in the evolutionary psychology of altruism promise an even richer understanding of this important category of social behaviors. Specifically, new perspectives offered by multilevel selection theory and costly-signaling theory may help to shed light on some of the more problematic issues in the study of altruism.
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The authors conducted a meta-analysis of 150 studies in which the risk-taking tendencies of male and female participants were compared. Studies were coded with respect to type of task (e.g., self-reported behaviors vs. observed behaviors), task content (e.g., smoking vs. sex), and 5 age levels. Results showed that the average effects for 14 out of 16 types of risk taking were significantly larger than 0 (indicating greater risk taking in male participants) and that nearly half of the effects were greater than .20. However, certain topics (e.g., intellectual risk taking and physical skills) produced larger gender differences than others (e.g., smoking). In addition, the authors found that (a) there were significant shifts in the size of the gender gap between successive age levels, and (b) the gender gap seems to be growing smaller over time. The discussion focuses on the meaning of the results for theories of risk taking and the need for additional studies to clarify age trends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Zahavi's1,2 handicap principle makes “waste” a common outcome of signal selection because the cost of a signal guarantees its honesty. The capacity to bear the cost reveals the show-off's hidden qualities. While displays take many forms, some also provide fitness-related benefits to the audience in addition to information about the show-off. Zahavi3 has used the handicap principle to explain both merely wasteful displays and altruistic behavior. Here we focus on the distinction between these two kinds of display and the importance of benefits other than information in show-off explanations of a particular puzzle in human evolution: men's work. Males of other primate species do not contribute any significant fraction of the food consumed by females and juveniles. Our own species is different. When people live on wild foods, hunting is usually a specialty of men, and meat is commonly a substantial component of everyone's diet. Here we explore the hypothesis that this unique male subsistence contribution may have evolved as hunting large animals became a focus of competitive display.
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Humans sometimes forage or distribute the products of foraging in ways that do not maximize individual energetic return rates. As an alternative to hypotheses that rely on reciprocal altruism to counter the costs of inefficiency, we suggest that the cost itself could be recouped through signal benefit. Costly signaling theory predicts that signals can provide fitness benefits when costs are honestly linked to signaler quality, and this information is broadcast to potential mates and competitors. Here, we test some predictions of costly signaling theory against empirical data on human food acquisition and sharing patterns. We show that at least two types of marine foraging, turtle hunting and spearfishing, as practiced among the Meriam (a Melanesian people of Torres Strait, Australia) meet key criteria for costly signaling: signal traits are (1) differentially costly or beneficial in ways that are (2) honestly linked to signaler quality, and (3) designed to effectively broadcast the signal. We conclude that relatively inefficient hunting or sharing choices may be maintained in a population if they serve as costly and reliable signals designed to reveal the signaler's qualities to observers.
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Heroism is apparently nonadaptive in Darwinian terms, so why does it exist at all? Risk-taking and heroic behavior are predominantly male tendencies, and literature and legend reflect this. This study explores the possibility that heroism persists in many human cultures owing to a female preference for risk-prone rather than risk-averse males as sexual partners, and it suggests that such a preference may be exploited as a male mating strategy. It also attempts to quantify the relative influences of altruism and bravery in the evolution of heroism. Our study found that females do prefer risk-prone brave males to risk-averse non-brave males, and that men are aware of this preference. Bravery in a male was shown to be the stronger factor influencing female choice of short-term partners, long-term partners, and male friends, with altruism playing a lesser part in their choice. Altruism was deemed important in long-term relationships and friendships, but for short-term liaisons, non-altruists were preferred to altruists. Heroism may therefore have evolved owing to a female preference for brave, risk-prone males because risk-taking acts as an honest cue for "good genes." Altruism was judged to be a less influential factor in the evolution of heroism than bravery and a demonstrated willingness to take risks.
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It is suggested that characters which develop through mate preference confer handicaps on the selected individuals in their survival. These handicaps are of use to the selecting sex since they test the quality of the mate. The size of characters selected in this way serve as marks of quality. The understanding that a handicap, which tests for quality, can evolve as a consequence of its advantage to the individual, may provide an explanation for many puzzling evolutionary problems. Such an interpretation may provide an alternative to other hypotheses which assumed complicated selective mechanisms, such as group selection or kin selection, which do not act directly on the individual.
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Costly signaling theory (CST) offers an explanation of generosity and collective action that contrasts sharply with explanations based on conditional reciprocity. This makes it particularly relevant to situations involving widespread unconditional provisioning of collective goods. We provide a preliminary application of CST to ethnographic data on turtle hunting and public feasting among the Meriam of Torres Strait, Australia. Turtle hunting appears to meet the key conditions specified in CST: it is (1) an honest signal of underlying abilities such as strength, risk-taking, skill, and leadership; (2) costly in ways not subject to reciprocation; (3) an effective means of broadcasting signals, since the collective good (a feast) attracts a large audience; and (4) seems to provide benefits to signalers (turtle hunters) as well as recipients (audience). We conclude with some suggestions as to the broader implications of this research, and the costly signaling paradigm in general, for understanding collective action and generosity in human social groups.
Article
Why is risk consistently underestimated, and why do young men in particular take exceptionally high risks and think of themselves as invulnerable? Two explanatory paths are proposed. The first is that risk taking in young males has been shaped by evolutionary forces to provide a fitness value. The second pathway is through myth and the other narrative forms that affirm the ego's immortality and invulnerability. Because of its evolutionary base, risk taking is emotionally driven: Emotions are preverbal and irrational, which means that persuasive prevention cannot be more than weakly successful. Three prevention challenges emerge from this analysis: to determine what it is that young drivers fear, to attach affectively experienced fears to defined driving behaviors, and to devise injury-prevention programs that acknowledge that young males’ risk taking is not “stupid,” but driven by adaptive needs that are as significant to today's young adults as they were to our distant ancestors.
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[reviews] the mortality and morbidity patterns of adolescents, the biopsychosocial processes occurring during adolescence and preliminary results from . . . cross sectional longitudinal studies [to] enable the reader to have a better understanding of the utility of true risk-taking behavior in the adolescent years (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Employed a cross-cultural design to test the relationship between the proportion of similar attitudes expressed by a stranger and attraction toward that stranger, usually conceived as a linear function. Ss were 506 students from 4 different cultures (Hawaii, India, Japan, and Mexico). The relationship was supported in each of the cultural groups. Sample differences did not indicate differences in the general nature of the function but rather in the no level of attraction responses. There were not significant sex differences in attraction responses. (18 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It is widely assumed that among hunter-gatherers, men work to provision their families. However, men may have more to gain by giving food to a wide range of companions who treat them favorably in return. If so, and if some resources better serve this end, men's foraging behavior should vary accordingly. Aspects of this hypothesis are tested on observations of food acquisition and sharing among Ache foragers of Eastern Paraguay. Previous analysis showed that different Ache food types were differently shared. Resources shared most widely were game animals. Further analysis and additional data presented here suggest a causal association between the wide sharing of game and the fact that men hunt and women do not. Data show that men preferentially target resources in both hunting and gathering which are more widely shared, resources more likely to be consumed outside their own nuclear families. These results have implications for 1) the identification of male reproductive trade-offs in human societies, 2) the view that families are units of common interest integrated by the sexual division of labor, 3) current reconstructions of the evolution of foraging and food sharing among early hominids, and 4) assessments of the role of risk and reciprocity in hunter-gatherer foraging strategies.
Article
Sexual selection theory suggests that willingness to participate in risky or violent competitive interactions should be observed primarily in those age-sex classes that have experienced the most intense reproductive competition (fitness variance) during the species' evolutionary history, and in those individuals whose present circumstances are predictive of reproductive failure.Homicidal conflicts in the city of Detroit in 1972 are reviewed in the light of the above perspective. Homicide in Detroit, as elsewhere, is overwhelming a male affair. Victim and offender populations are almost identical, with unemployed, unmarried, young men greatly overrepresented. The most common conflict typologies are described, and it is suggested that many, perhaps most, homicides concern status competition.Other manifestations of “taste for risk,” such as daredevilry and gambling are briefly reviewed. The evidence suggests that such a taste is primarily a masculine attribute, and is socially facilitated by the presence of peers in pursuit of the same goals.Such dangerous, competitive acts as the classic “trivial altercation” homicide often appear foolhardy to observers. However, it remains unknown whether the typical consequences of such acts are ultimately beneficial or detrimental to the perpetrators' interests.
Who dares, wins: heroism vs. altruism in women's mate choice
  • Kelly
Kelly, S., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (2001). Who dares, wins: heroism vs. altruism in women's mate choice. Human Nature, 12, 89 – 105.
Error management theory: a new perspective on biases in cross-sex mind reading
  • Haselton