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Social desirability bias and exit survey responses: The case of a first nations campground in Central Ontario, Canada


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The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a case in which social desirability bias may have affected exit survey results. In this case, an exit survey of visitors to a First Nations (or aboriginal) campground, the results varied according to who collected the data (two aboriginal or First Nations research assistant versus a Caucasian researcher or mailbox). Overall, those who delivered the results to the First Nations research assistants provided answers that were more favorable than those delivered to the Caucasian researcher or mailbox. Many of results were found to be overly positive especially in regards to questions related to staff performance. The results of this study indicate that tourism researchers must be wary of data collection procedures (especially when attempting to measure cross culturally). Finally, this paper examines methods to counter act situations, which may produce social desirability bias.
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Tourism Management 28 (2007) 917–919
Research note
Social desirability bias and exit survey responses: The case of
a first nations campground in Central Ontario, Canada
Wayne W. Smith
Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
Received 8 September 2004; accepted 3 March 2006
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a case in which social desirability bias may have affected exit survey results. In this case, an
exit survey of visitors to a First Nations (or aboriginal) campground, the results varied according to who collected the data (two
aboriginal or First Nations research assistant versus a Caucasian researcher or mailbox). Overall, those who delivered the results to the
First Nations research assistants provided answers that were more favorable than those delivered to the Caucasian researcher or mailbox.
Many of results were found to be overly positive especially in regards to questions related to staff performance. The results of this study
indicate that tourism researchers must be wary of data collection procedures (especially when attempting to measure cross culturally).
Finally, this paper examines methods to counter act situations, which may produce social desirability bias.
r2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Social desirability bias; Aboriginal; First nations; Data collection methods
1. Introduction
Exit surveys are a key tool in many destinations arsenal
for gathering information about their visitors. In a tourism
context, these surveys are often conducted on a one-on-one
basis at the site. The exit survey data collected then is used
to justify how resources are allocated. Given the relative
importance of this data, questions related to the validity and
reliability of the information is critical to the development
of tourism research as a whole. The purpose of this paper is
to illustrate how social desirability bias can affect the overall
reliability and validity of results of exit surveys especially
when related to cross cultural measurement.
2. Social desirability bias
Social desirability bias is the wish for individuals’ to
answer survey questions based not on their true feelings,
but on the desire to present themselves in the most
favorable manner possible, based upon what they believe
to be the social norms and mores of their region (King &
Bruner, 2000;Middleton & Jones, 2000;Paulhus & Reid,
1991). As Nancarrow and Brace (2000) note, social
desirability bias creates two potential issues for researchers
to overcome. The first is that social desirability bias relates
to the over or under reporting behavior based on whether
or not the activity being discussed is socially acceptable.
Secondly, Nancarrow and Brace (2000) states the social
desirability bias can lead to relationships found within the
research being artificial in the sense that attributes can
often be inflated or moderated. Given that tourism is a
relationship-based business (it is based on person to person
connections), the ways in which on-site exit surveys are
conducted are often in danger of social desirability bias
being present. For instance, in Western culture very few
people would attend a party, and at the end of it would tell
the host it was not enjoyable. However, individuals will
often tell ‘outsiders’ their true feelings related to the
experience. When tourism entities collect on-site data using
local researchers, the question then must be raised is if it is
akin to the party example given above? The purpose of this
research is to examine whether or not data collection
methods impact results in a case where cultural variance
between researcher and respondent (tourist) is present.
0261-5177/$ - see front matter r2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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3. Methods
This study began as an exit survey for a small First
Nations band’s campground facilities in Central Ontario,
Canada. The questionnaire asked a variety of questions
related to park performance, individuals’ demographic
characteristics and their marketing preferences. The ques-
tionnaire was handed to guests as they checked into the
campground during three holiday weekend periods (one per
month in May, July, and August). On the Sunday and/or
Monday before visitors at each site were to check out the
primary researcher (who is Caucasian and male) or one of
two research assistants (both of First Nations heritage and
female) went and asked if the patrons had filled out the
survey. If they had already filled out the questionnaire they
gave it to the researcher or research assistants or if the
individual’s preferred, they were reminded that they could
place it in a ‘special’ box at the exit of the park. If the
patrons had not filled out the survey, they were then asked to
do so (and if they had lost it, were provided another at that
time). They were once again given the option of handing the
survey back to the primary researcher/research assistants or
placing it in the ‘special’ mailbox at the exit at the park.
Questionnaires were marked with the symbol stating how
the data was collected. This was originally done to examine
issues related to response rate (which was over 60%)
however; as the data was analyzed some discrepancies were
noticed. As a result of the discrepancies, the research
collection process was reviewed and was found to be
consistent among all data collectors. Further analysis was
conducted into the results of the study based on which
source collected the data. An initial examination of the data
indicated that there was no statistically significant difference
between the responses received through the mailbox and the
primary researcher while the two-research assistants’ results
were also quite similar. There was a significant difference
however, between the research assistants’ results and those
delivered to the primary researcher and the mailbox.
The data collection process was then examined in detail
(employing techniques such as shadowing and reviewing
the procedures for encounters with potential respondents)
to ensure that a consistent approach was being pursued by
both the primary researcher and the research assistants and
was found to be adequate. There were also no significant
differences found between the researchers pertaining to the
overall profile of the visitors or their general trip
characteristics (such as activities engaged in while at the
park). These findings indicate that there may be a social
desirability bias present in the results. Due to these results,
the purpose of this research note is to establish these
differences to examine if a social desirability bias is present.
4. Results
The results of this study indicate that overall respondents
were more likely to give a more positive rating (based on a
five point Likert scale [1—strongly disagree to 5—agree
strongly]) for the park and its facilities to the research
assistants of First Nations heritage (Table 1). In particular,
those categories pertaining to the staffs’ performance (who
are all of First Nations descent) were found to be more
likely to be overly positive in comparison to the responses
given to the primary researcher and delivered anonymously
to the mailbox. There was no discrepancy found in the
demographic profile of visitors interviewed, and questions
regarding factors such as campers marketing tendencies
showed no statistically significant variation. These results
indicate that questions related to individual performance
and site-specific questions were more prone to possible
social desirability bias.
5. Conclusion
Social desirability bias is not commonly regarded in the
tourism literature as being a topic of importance. As these
results indicate, though, this topic is quite relevant to the
industry especially when asking visitors to make judgments
pertaining to service quality and image. King and Bruner
(2000) note situations where research designs are investi-
gating highly sensitive constructs (either personally or
socially sensitive) or situations in which subject anonymity
may be perceived as compromised are two instances where
social desirability bias may affect results.
Ways to relieve social desirability bias from the research
design include being careful of instrument construction. In
the case of this study, the phrasing of certain questions may
have lead respondents to believe they needed to make
personal judgments rather than service-quality judgments.
For instance, if the question ‘‘the office staff was friendly and
courteous’’ was rephrased into several specific performance-
related questions such as ‘‘the office staff asked me if I
needed anything to make my stay more pleasant’’ may have
lead to a reduction of social desirability bias. Further, in the
case of this study, using only third party data collectors or
guaranteeing anonymity through only collecting data via the
mailbox could have improved the data collection process.
These results bring forward many issues related to data
collection for tourism research in general. For instance, when
conducting exit surveys, what constitutes a third party? Is it
someone directly not involved in the research agenda or is it
someone who is not of the community and can be identified
as such? Finally, questions arise as to the overall validity of
the results. The question is whether a scale measures
accurately. In the case of this study, does someone agreeing
that the staff was friendly and courteous really mean that, or
should the scale be reexamined for its potential truer
meaning? Are the scales being used valid in these cases?
Social desirability bias is a factor that is omni-present
but not often considered an integral part of the research
design. Within the field of tourism research especially in
designs, where cultural factors involved, there is little
known about the effects of social desirability bias in these
cases. There needs to be further research into this field in
order to examine the effect of social desirability bias in
W.W. Smith / Tourism Management 28 (2007) 917–919918
relation to tourism research in order to not to be the host
that thinks their party was fantastic when in reality it was
perceived as terrible.
King, M. F., & Bruner, G. C. (2000). Social desirability bias: A neglected
aspect of validity testing. Psychology & Marketing,17(2), 79–103.
Middleton, K. L., & Jones, J. L. (2000). Social desirable response sets:
The impact of country culture. Psychology & Marketing,17(2),
Nancarrow, C., & Brace, I. (2000). Saying the ‘right thing’: Coping with
social desirability bias in marketing research. Bristol Business School
Teaching and Research Review,1, 8–16.
Paulhus, D. L., & Reid, D. B. (1991). Enhancment and denial in social
desirability bias. Journal of Personal and Social Psychology,77(5),
Table 1
Measures of social desirability bias during exit survey at first nations campground
Survey item Collection method NMean Std. deviation TSig.
The registration process was easy. RA 114 3.95 1.12 2.03 0.043
Primary/Mailbox 131 3.63 1.29
The staff was efficient in processing my registration. RA 107 4.00 0.91 2.65 0.009
Primary/Mailbox 126 3.64 1.14
There were enough washroom facilities in the park. RA 104 3.99 0.98 2.02 0.044
Primary/Mailbox 123 3.72 1.06
The campsites were spacious. RA 113 4.29 0.76 2.27 0.024
Primary/Mailbox 129 4.04 0.96
The office staff was friendly and courteous. RA 116 4.70 0.60 2.43 0.016
Primary/Mailbox 129 4.51 0.60
The playground facilities were well maintained. RA 78 3.87 0.97 2.62 0.010
Primary/Mailbox 99 3.46 1.09
The campground signage was good. RA 112 4.25 0.71 0.55 0.580
Primary/Mailbox 125 3.90 0.88
The staff on patrols was friendly and courteous. RA 112 4.25 1.02 7.18 0.008
Primary/Mailbox 126 4.18 0.82
The campground-recycling program is too onerous. RA 116 4.56 0.78 2.53 0.012
Primary/Mailbox 127 4.29 0.87
The trails are well maintained. RA 113 4.47 0.72 2.17 0.030
Primary/Mailbox 125 4.26 0.79
The staff enforced the rules evenly. RA 113 4.83 1.04 2.64 0.009
Primary/Mailbox 126 3.18 1.00
The shower facilities were clean and tidy. RA 103 3.77 1.06 3.05 0.003
Primary/Mailbox 121 3.28 1.28
The staff teams made us feel welcome. RA 108 4.44 0.72 1.54 .010
Primary/Mailbox 126 4.07 0.77
Overall the visit to the park was enjoyable. RA 117 4.86 0.36 8.40 .000
Primary/Mailbox 132 4.18 0.84
RA ¼Research assistant.
Primary/Mailbox ¼Combined answers to Primary Researcher and Mailbox drop-off point.
W.W. Smith / Tourism Management 28 (2007) 917–919 919
... Social desirability is defined as a desire to 1) hide or deny socially undesired behavior and attitude; and 2) to undertake desired behavior or attitude that is normally acceptable in the respondent's environment (Krumpal, 2013;Kuncel & Tellegen, 2009;Smith, 2007). Hence, social desirability is the tendency of respondents to answer in what they believe is a socially acceptable manner rather than disclose their true attitude or behavior. ...
... avior and the aftermath of ethical behavior. In paper 2, the use of formal sanctions made a unique contribution to the explained variance in the perceived successful handling of workplace bullying. Other empirical research has found a link between sanctions and reduced unethical behavior (Ashkanasy et. al., 2006;Mantel, 2005;Shafer & Simmons, 2011;Smith et. al., 2007;Watson & Berkley, 2009). However, to the author's knowledge, this thesis is one of the first to establish a link between sanctions and the perceptions about how unethical behavior is handled. In paper 3, the informal element of retribution and lack of formal sanctions helped explain employee silence, controlling for other relevant factor ...
Summary The overall aim of this thesis is to contribute to the current knowledge about the role of organizational context in combating unethical behavior. In this study, the organizational context has been defined as ethical infrastructure, and the (un)ethical behaviors in focus are workplace bullying and whistleblowing. Ethical infrastructure refers to formal and informal systems that enable ethical behavior and disable unethical behavior in organizations, thereby enhancing ethical effectiveness in organizations. Formal systems are those tangible elements visible within and outside the organization, and comprise standardized elements such as policies, formal training programs, and formal sanctions. Informal systems, on the other hand, are those intangible messages and notions in organizations that inform the organizational members about where the organization truly stands, and the values it holds, regarding ethical issues. These informal systems may be social norms, lunchtime talks, peer pressure, and climate, to mention a few. The presence of formal and informal ethical systems within an overarching ethical infrastructure is associated with less unethical behavior and practices in organizations, increased awareness of unethical behaviors, and successful management of unethical behaviors, such as workplace bullying. Antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying are well documented, however, the measures taken against workplace bullying, and the effectiveness of such measures, have received less attention. Furthermore, unethical behaviors in organizations jeopardize the safety, health, and wellbeing of the workforce, and hence, they should be combated. One important medium to prevent and deter such unethical behaviors is through employee whistleblowing. Often treated as a voluntary action on the part of the employees, the whistleblowers may find themselves in an ambivalent position, possibly risking their own position as well as other colleagues’ positions if they speak up and report unethical behaviors. To improve the ethical functioning of the organization, it is essential for the organization to establish routines and guidelines as well as a climate that addresses the raising of concerns about unethical issues. Viewed in this light, the aim of this thesis is to study Organizational antecedents for having an ethical infrastructure, the relationship between the formal and informal systems of organizations’ ethical infrastructures, and how these relate to the combating of unethical behavior in relation to workplace bullying and to whistleblowing by employees. Ethical infrastructure is explored from three different angles, constituted into three papers. The first paper explores organizational resources as antecedents for having elements within the formal and informal systems of ethical infrastructure. The organizational resources in focus are level of human resources practices, organizational size, and perceived financial resources. The second paper explores the relationship between the elements within the formal and informal systems of ethical infrastructure and successful handling of workplace bullying as perceived by human resource (HR) managers and elected head safety representatives (HSRs) in Norwegian municipalities. The last paper explores the elements within the formal and informal systems of ethical infrastructure in relation to whistleblowing behavior. The study investigates 1) if ethical infrastructure statistically predicts whether organizational members blow the whistle on observed unethical behavior, and 2) if ethical infrastructure predicts a whistleblower's intention to leave the organization and employee silence. The theoretical basis for the thesis is the research fields of business ethics, workplace bullying, and whistleblowing literature. The empirical research in this thesis, presented in the three papers, is two cross sectional surveys. Papers 1 and 2 were based on a survey conducted amongst HR managers and HSRs in Norwegian municipalities in 2008 (N=216, response rate = 50.2 percent on municipality level), whereas paper 3 was based on a survey conducted from a random sample of registered Norwegian taxpayers in 2008 (N=1602, response rate=23 percent). The first survey (Papers 1 and 2) involved investigations of elements within the formal and informal systems of the ethical infrastructure, workplace bullying, and organizational resources. The formal elements included in this survey were anti-bullying policies, training in issues related to workplace bullying, and formal sanctions against the reported bullying. The informal element was conflict management climate. The second survey (paper 3) involved investigations of elements within the formal and informal systems of the ethical infrastructure, observed unethical behaviors, and whistleblowing. The formal elements in this second survey were policies for handling whistleblowing, and formal sanctions against the wrongdoers, whereas the informal elements were justice climate and retaliation. The results of paper 1 show that the level of HRM practice statistically predicts all elements, except sanctions, of a well-developed ethical infrastructure against workplace bullying. Perceived financial resources do not predict any of the elements of such ethical infrastructure, whereas organizational size predicts the existence of policies and training against bullying. The results from paper 2 show that formal and informal ethical systems predict almost 40 percent of cases of perceived successful handling of workplace bullying, and that the use of sanctions in cases of workplace bullying is the only unique predictor of such perceived successful handling. Lastly, the results of paper 3 support the idea that ethical infrastructure is associated with whistleblowing. Both the formal and informal systems of the ethical infrastructure are related to blowing the whistle when unethical behavior is observed. In other words, having policies and perceiving justice climate as weak increased the likelihood of whistleblowing behavior. The whistleblowers' intentions to leave are related to a single element within the informal systems, namely a weak justice climate. Employee silence, which is operationalized as the willingness to blow the whistle again in the future, is related to both formal and informal systems. Lack of sanctions, a justice climate perceived as weak, and experiencing retaliation reduce the likelihood of future whistleblowing. In sum, the thesis provides support for the claim that ethical infrastructures are useful in combating unethical behavior in organizations. This support has been shown through the three papers in which the significance of having an ethical infrastructure when combating unethical behavior such as workplace bullying, organizational antecedents for having an ethical infrastructure, and the ethical infrastructure's importance in relation to whistleblowing have been demonstrated. The findings from the thesis illustrate how and why it is important to include the organizational context, here denoted as ethical infrastructure, when investigating and gaining knowledge about important aspects of combating unethical behavior in organizations. The results demonstrate that implementing formal systems is not a sufficient organizational effort to combat unethical behavior. Rather, organizations have to consider how their informal systems additionally contribute or counteract efforts to control (un)ethical behavior. Compared to the more traditional business ethics literature, which is accustomed to only investigating unethical behavior in relation to single elements of the ethical infrastructure (e.g. policies), this study utilizes a broad approach by investigating a number of elements simultaneously, thereby studying their collective importance in combating unethical behavior in organizations. The findings have some practical implications. First, they inform practitioners about which organizational resources are associated with having a well-developed ethical infrastructure against workplace bullying. A high level of HRM practices seems to be more important for the existence of a well-developed ethical infrastructure against workplace bullying than financial resources and organizational size, at least as perceived by HR managers and HSRs. Second, as the elements of ethical infrastructure are interrelated and in combination explain a high degree of the successful handling of workplace bullying, organizations may build an overall stronger ethical infrastructure against workplace bullying. Thus, organizations may benefit from a broader approach when planning a strategy to combat workplace bullying. It has previously been argued that for ethical infrastructure to be operative, the elements, e.g. policies, training, recurrent communications, formal surveillance, and sanctions, are more likely to be effective if they are integrated simultaneously. Thus, as demonstrated in the research in this thesis, managers may be able to reduce the unethical behavior and thereby deal better with incidents of bullying if they integrate several elements of the formal and informal systems embedded in the ethical infrastructure simultaneously. Finally, the study demonstrates the link between the ethical infrastructure and ethical employee behavior such as whistleblowing. The study in paper 3 illustrates the complexity of the whistleblowing process, suggesting that managers need to take a broad perspective when developing structures to create an environment that embraces reports of observed unethical behavior in the organization. In addition to formal systems such as policies and sanctions, managers should develop an ethical culture in which formal and informal systems of the ethical infrastructure interact to encourage organizational members to report unethical behavior. The findings in the thesis have some limitations and have some implications for future studies. This thesis used only cross-sectional data. As with any cross-sectional data, drawing inferences about causality is difficult and no such inferences are intended in this thesis. The sample size of the two studies may hold some limitations. The generalization of the findings is limited due to a low sample size in study 1. Generalization of the findings in paper 3 is limited due to low response rate gained in study 2. Future research should include a higher number of respondents, which would provide data with greater statistical power. This thesis, with its research, is one of the first to investigate the relationship between ethical infrastructure and workplace bullying and whistleblowing in organizations. Therefore, the thesis should be viewed as the first attempt to research organizational handling of unethical behavior by applying the theoretical framework of ethical infrastructure. Future studies should employ longitudinal and quasi-experimental designs to gain more knowledge about the relationship between ethical infrastructures and workplace bullying and whistleblowing. Furthermore, this thesis is one of the first to address several measures simultaneously to combat unethical behavior in organizations. As a result, some elements of the formal systems were measured using partly self-composed single questions, while other elements were assessed using multiple item scales. The items and scales used in this thesis should be elaborated and refined in future studies to enhance their validity. Additionally, future studies should explore other types of organizational settings and branches, employing measures that are even more objective and contain multiple sources of information on independent variables regarding organizational resources as antecedents for having a well-developed ethical infrastructure. Finally, this thesis has only investigated the ethical infrastructure in relation to workplace bullying and whistleblowing, and therefore, conclusion must be drawn with caution toward other types of unethical behaviors that may occur in organizations. This thesis calls for more research on the ethical infrastructure in relation to other types of unethical behaviors. The findings in this thesis have expanded the business ethics literature on ethical infrastructure by exploring the organizational drivers of ethical infrastructure, their association with the handling of (un)ethical behavior, and how it relates to employee experiences after they report unethical behavior. The study also contributes to the workplace bullying and whistleblowing literature by suggesting the ways in which theories of business ethics, such as ethical infrastructure, may be used to combat workplace bullying, and amend the whistleblowing process.
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Empirical studies of tourist socio-cultural aversions and their influence on tourist consumption are limited. A socio-cultural aversion describes the avoidance associated with an ingrained dislike for, and distancing from something representative of a specific social or cultural group's identity, and can be implicit or explicit, aggressive or passive. This study explores socio-cultural aversions in the context of Indigenous tourism. The study reveals that while xenophobia and racism can predict the attitudes of both domestic and international tourists towards Indigenous tourism, this does not necessarily result in a non-willingness to participate. However, regarding self-congruity bias, the less participants relate to or identify with Indigenous tourism, the less likely they are willing to participate. This has implications for the appeal and marketing of tourism products, especially those underpinned by socio-cultural components such as Indigenous tourism. The study proposes marketing and product development solutions for destination marketers and tourism operators seeking to enhance appeal for Indigenous tourism experiences.
Introduction Middle ear anatomy is difficult for learners because of its intricate and complex anatomy. Historically its anatomy has been taught with dissections and figures. 3D printed models have grown in popularity for their ability to represent complex structures. This study sought to assess the efficacy of a conceptual 3D printed middle ear model in radiology trainee education. Methods An uncontrolled before-after trial was performed in which radiology trainees participated in small group teaching sessions using a 3D printed conceptual middle ear model. Participant knowledge was assessed with identical pre- and 1-week post-intervention knowledge assessments and surveys. Results A total of 26 participants completed the study. The mean pre-intervention test score for participants (out of 20) was 6 ± 3.4, which increased to 11.7 ± 3.5 (p-value < 0.02) following interaction with the model. Second year radiology residents had the largest improvement in score, 9.0 ± 4.2, while fourth year radiology residents had the least, 2.8 ± 2.6. The small increase in post-intervention scores for the neuroradiology fellows was not found to be statistically significant (p-value 0.07). Subgroup analysis of post-intervention knowledge found no statistical difference among participants of different years of training. The survey showed increased understanding and desire for incorporation into curriculum. Discussion: Interaction with the 3D printed model was found to improve anatomical knowledge in radiology residents but not neuroradiology fellows, whose improvement was not statistically significant. All participants, regardless of their years of training, were found to have knowledge equivalent to that of a fellow following their training.
Introduction Despite a surge in the use of three-dimensional printing (3DP) in medical education, a comprehensive evaluation of randomized trials in its effectiveness is lacking. Radiologic studies play an integral role in affording educators the ability to create customized realistic anatomic models. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to assess the effect of 3DP versus traditional 2-D methods for anatomy education. Methods PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ERIC, and IEEE Xplore were queried to identify randomized controlled trials that quantitatively investigated anatomy education via postintervention assessments of medical students or resident physicians who were exposed to 3DP versus traditional methods. Criteria for the meta-analysis required that studies additionally included a pre-intervention assessment. Results A total of 804 articles were reviewed, identifying 8 and 7 studies for systematic reviews of medical students and resident physicians, respectively, of which 4 and 7 were included in the meta-analyses. 3DP models were associated with higher anatomy examination scores for medical students (P < .0001), but for resident physicians were statistically not significant (P = .53). Discussion The 3DP models are shown to positively impact medical students especially given their limited fund of knowledge in anatomy. It is postulated that the lack of a statistically significant result for the resident physicians was multifactorial, in part due to the small test group sizes introducing noise and nonrepresentative samples, as well as relative simplicity of the 3DP models used with resident physicians, which were below their level of training. More trials are required to evaluate the usefulness of highly customized 3DP models.
Purpose Product performance measurements have been used to explain other business performance variables. The purpose of this paper is to propose that, regarding Mexican consumers, the “comparison-based perceived attribute performance” (CAP) approach is a better predictor of outcomes, such as satisfaction, value and loyalty, compared with the traditional measurement of “non-comparison-based perceived attribute performance” (NCAP). These two forms of assessing attribute-level performance may be considered as different constructs. Design/methodology/approach Using these two approaches, empirical tests were performed to attribute performance measurement and were conducted on products from two different categories: tequila and liquid dishwashing detergent. Regression analyses were performed using Mexican consumer samples of n =295 and n =239, respectively. Findings As opposed to NCAP, CAP measurements yielded higher statistical levels of satisfaction, value and loyalty for both product categories. In the case of tequila, factor analysis indicated a clear separation between the two types of measurements, suggesting that they should be considered distinct constructs. However, this was not found for the other product category. Originality/value CAP, which has better potential to predict outcomes than NCAP, could have relevant implications in brand positioning assessment and importance-performance analyses.
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One research tradition has distinguished self-deception, the tendency to give favorably biased but honestly held self-descriptions from impression management, the tendency to give favorable self-descriptions to others. A 2nd tradition has distinguished enhancement, the claiming of positive attributes, from denial, the repudiation of negative attributes. The 2 distinctions were evaluated jointly in 3 studies with a total of 937 undergraduates. Factor analyses showed that impression management items (both enhancement and denial) loaded together. Self-deception items split up: Enhancement items formed a 2nd factor, whereas denial items fell closer to the impression management factor. Of the 4 types, self-deceptive enhancement best predicted adjustment. These results clarify the constructs of enhancement and denial. The critical distinction is not simply one of keying direction but whether the item content refers to a positive or negative attribute. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A tremendous growth in the use of multi-item scales in marketing research has occurred over the past two decades. Concurrently, there is increasing concern about the quality of these measures. Although the majority of marketing-related articles now discuss the reliability of the scales administered, few address the issue of scale validity. One aspect of scale validity, which should be of particular concern to marketing researchers, is the potential threat of contamination due to social-desirability response bias. However, a careful review of nearly 20 years of published research suggests that social-desirability bias has been consistently neglected in scale construction, evaluation, and implementation. The purpose of this article is to discuss the nature of such a bias, methods for identifying, testing for and/or preventing it, and how these methods can and should be implemented in consumer-related research. ©: 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Explored differences in social-desirability response bias across cultures. In Exp 1, 237 Western college students from the US and 104 Eastern college students from Asian countries completed the Marlowe-Crowne Social-Desirability scale (MCSD; D. P. Crowne and D. Marlowe, 1967). In Exp 2, 259 graduate and undergraduate Eastern business students (from Asian countries) and Western business students (from the US and Canada) completed a short form of the MCSD scale. Results indicate a significant difference in response bias between Western and Eastern Ss that may be attributed to differences in the dominant cultural dimensions of the Ss' country of origin. Additional analysis reveals surprising results regarding the measurement-scale properties themselves. The unexpected findings raise concerns about the cross-cultural generalizability of the MCSD scale. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Saying the ‘right thing’: Coping with social desirability bias in marketing research
  • Nancarrow
Nancarrow, C., & Brace, I. (2000). Saying the 'right thing': Coping with social desirability bias in marketing research. Bristol Business School Teaching and Research Review, 1, 8–16.
Enhancment and denial in social desirability bias
  • Paulhus