Article

Studies on the influence of dietary spices on food transit time in experimental rats

Authors:
  • CSIR - Central Food Technological Research Institute
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Abstract

In an animal experiment, the influence of several spices included in the diet, on food transit time was examined. Groups of adult female Wistar rats were maintained for 6 weeks on diets containing (g%): Curcumin (0.5), Capsaicin (0.015), Piperine (0.02), Ginger (0.05), Cumin (1.25), Fenugreek (2.0), Mustard (0.25), Asafoetida (0.25), Ajowan (0.2), Fennel (0.5), Coriander (2.0), Mint (1.0), Garlic (0.5), and Onion (2.0). On the last day, food transit time was monitored by including ferric oxide (0.5%) in the diet as an un-absorbable marker. Time of excretion of colored faeces was noted following time of consumption of the diet with the marker. In general, all the test spices except fenugreek and mustard produced a significant shortening of the food transit time. This influence was more prominent in the case of spices - ginger, ajowan, cumin, piperine coriander and capsaicin.

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... Most clinical trials used between 250 mg and 1 g of powdered root in a capsule form (up to four times a day). Marx et al. [55] suggested that a typical dose of ginger to prevent nausea and vomiting should be in the range of 1 g of powdered dry rhizome (i.e., [57,58], ginger stimulates the activity of amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase. Wang et al. [59] observed a decrease in body weight and liver steatosis, low-grade inflammation, and amelioration of insulin resistance in ginger-treated mice on a high-fat diet. ...
... Prakash and Srinivasan [56] observed that ginger intensifies the digestion and absorption of fats in a high-fat diet due to more effective bile acid secretion by the liver and higher pancreatic lipase activity. According to Platel and Srinivasan [57,58], ginger stimulates the activity of amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase. Wang et al. [59] observed a decrease in body weight and liver steatosis, low-grade inflammation, and amelioration of insulin resistance in ginger-treated mice on a high-fat diet. ...
Article
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The biological activities of four aromatic plants, namely frankincense, myrrh, ginger, and turmeric, were reviewed in the current study. The volatile fraction (essential oil) as well as the nonvolatile fraction of these four plants showed different promising biological activities that are displayed in detail. These activities can include protection from and/or alleviation of some ailment, which is supported with different proposed mechanisms of action. This review aimed to finally help researchers to get a handle on the importance of considering these selected aromatic plants, which have not been thoroughly reviewed before, as a potential adjuvant to classical synthetic drugs to enhance their efficiency. Moreover, the results elicited in this review encourage the consumption of these medicinal plants as an integrated part of the diet to boost the body's overall health based on scientific evidence.
... The beneficial influence of some spices on digestive enzymes stimulation or bile secretion has been directly correlated with the reduction of food transit time (Platel et al. 2001). ...
... In this regard, Platel and co-authors demonstrated an acceleration of food transit effect when consuming spices such as ginger, cumin, ajowan, fennel, coriander, mint, garlic, and onion and bioactive compounds i.e. curcumin, capsaicin, piperine, which could play an additional role in the prevention of colon cancer through combating constipation (Platel et al. 2001). ...
Chapter
The reliability of effectiveness of herbs and spices to treat and prevent common human illnesses has been always questioned due to the lack of scientific evidences. Since ancient times, plants have been used to improve human health, although the mechanisms were never properly understood. In recent years, modern medicine has start to use and even combine extracts and isolated compounds from traditional herbs and spices with drugs. In this chapter we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the medical efficiency of herbs and spices used over centuries and their principal bioactive compounds to treat or prevent several illnesses, focusing on studies in mammals and in humans.
... Take 100 g of ajwain, 50 g of ginger power and 25 g of black salt and crush them together to be put in a dry container. Applying hot formation on the area of pain will bring faster relief [24,27]. ...
... Digestive stimulant actions: Ajwain would increase the secretion of gastric acid nearly four times. In experimental rats in vivo, the addition of ajwain to the diet reduced food transit time and also enhanced the activity of digestive enzymes and/ or caused a higher secretion of bile acids [24]. ...
... The presence of essential oil and active ingredients in fennel seed such as anethole and estragol, which stimulate the secretion of bile acid and digestive enzymes like protease, lipase, amylase, and maltase, facilitate digestion, may be the reason for increased feed consumption in fennel supplemented birds [89] Fennel seed has been shown to increase hunger, boost endogenous digestive enzymes, and trigger immunological response [66]. Fennel, like other medicinal plants, has antibacterial and antibiotic properties that may help to reduce the quantity of unwanted intestinal microorganisms and improve digestion ...
... The presence of essential oil and active ingredients in fennel seed such as anethole and estragol, which stimulate the secretion of bile acid and digestive enzymes like protease, lipase, amylase, and maltase, facilitate digestion, may be the reason for increased feed consumption in fennel supplemented birds [89] Fennel seed has been shown to increase hunger, boost endogenous digestive enzymes, and trigger immunological response [66]. Fennel, like other medicinal plants, has antibacterial and antibiotic properties that may help to reduce the quantity of unwanted intestinal microorganisms and improve digestion [90]. ...
Article
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Following the European Union’s restriction on antibiotic growth promoters, research on enhancing gut health has been accelerated. As the poultry industry is facing issues that were previously managed by antimicrobial growth promoters, the hunt for the best remedies continues to find suitable alternatives. Simultaneously, social pressure is mounting to reduce the usage of antibiotics and replace them with other feed additives. Consumers believe a number of accessible options to be safe, with phytogenics playing a crucial role. This review describes how the use of fennel seeds could be beneficial for poultry. An overview of the broad chemical diversity of fennel is presented together with their physicochemical and biological properties. According to investigations, fennel seeds have a variety of biological effects in birds, including improved performance, higher immune cell proliferation, reduced oxidative stress, and boosted antibody titers against infectious diseases. The efficacy of poultry outcomes is determined by the stage and age of the plants, the extraction process, the geographical location, the chicken species, management techniques, and the concentrations administered. The present review focuses on the effects of fennel seeds as a feed additive on poultry growth, carcass quality, blood biochemistry, antioxidant activity, immunity, and microbiological aspects.
... Also, both in vivo and in vitro studies showed the antispasmodic effects and these plants' ability to improve GI ulcers in rats [10,12]. Studies have also shown that TA reduces food transit time through the GI tract, increases digestive enzymes' activity, and increases pancreatic secretions and bile acids [10,17,18]. According to the mentioned properties of medicinal herbs, the present research aims to study the effects of a mixture of ZM, TA, and AG essential oils on symptoms of FD, in a clinical trial. ...
... Also, prokinetic medications such as serotonergic agonists have beneficial effects on FD symptoms [2]. In vitro and in vivo studies unveil the plants' prokinetic effects investigated in this research work [10,18,46]. Monoterpenes in these essential oils such as thymol, carvacrol, (+)-carvone, and limonene are potent agonists of the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) channel [14,47,48]. ...
Article
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Background. The Trachyspermum ammi L. (TA), Anethum graveolens L. (AG), and Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZM) herbal oils are among the most used herbal products in traditional medicine as the antiseptic, anesthetic, carminative, and antispasmodic. However, there are no clinical studies to evaluate the efficacy of the herbs mentioned in the treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD). This study was designed to appraise the efficacy and safety of a novel herbal medicine consisting of ZM, AG, and TA essential oils compared to omeprazole in FD treatment. Methods. The present study was a randomized double-blind clinical trial with parallel groups in Iran. Patients in control and intervention arms received omeprazole 20 mg once a day and 250 mg soft-gel capsules containing 180 mg of essential oils of ZM, AG, and TA twice a day for two weeks, respectively. The primary outcome was the sufficient response rate in the postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and/or epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) at the end of the intervention. Secondary outcomes were the improvement rate in the PDS, EPS, Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), and quality of life scores. Also, safety and tolerability were assessed. Results. The within-group comparison of EPS, PDS, total GSRS, GSRS Pain, and GSRS Dyspepsia scores with that at the end of the treatment indicated a significant reduction in both control and intervention groups (). However, after two weeks of treatment, the herbal medication and omeprazole arms were significantly different in the sufficient response rate based on PDS () and EPS () scores (78.3% (18/23) and 73.7% (14/19) in the intervention group vs. 36.4% (8/22) and 40.9% (9/22) in the control group). Also, the mean reduction in EPS (), PDS (), and GSRS () scores after treatment was significantly higher in the intervention group than control group. Conclusion. Based on the study findings, this herbal medicine can be considered as an appropriate treatment of FD. However, a larger multicenter trial is needed to confirm the results of the trial. 1. Introduction Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) include a series of digestive symptoms caused by a disturbance in the interactions of the gastrointestinal (GI) system and the brain that is arisen from a dysfunction in the sensory-motor and immune systems in the GI tract to the altered central nervous system processing [1]. Functional dyspepsia (FD), as one of the FGIDs cases, is associated with dysfunction in the gastroduodenal region and shows symptoms such as pain, early satiety, and fullness in the upper GI tract [2]. The most common medications used to treat FD include proton pump inhibitors, H2 antagonists, and prokinetic medications. However, they may cause various adverse effects such as the increased risk of intestinal infections, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and malabsorption of substances, e.g., iron and vitamin B12, atrophic gastritis [3–5]. In addition to these adverse effects, unresponsiveness to treatment and medical expenses have led patients of FGIDs to complementary and alternative medicine, such as herbal medicines [2, 6, 7]. Herbal medicines are considered as an appropriate alternative therapy for FD treatment due to their multiple properties and different mechanisms of FD [8]. The Trachyspermum ammi L. (TA), Anethum graveolens L. (AG), and Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZM) are three major medicinal herbs that are used in Iranian and Indian traditional medicine to treat digestive disorders as an analgesic, antiflatulence, antispasmodic, antiseptic, carminative, and antidiarrheal [9–12]. These herbs’ essential oils contain phenolic monoterpenoids, e.g., carvacrol and thymol; oxygenated monoterpenoids, e.g., D-carvone; and hydrocarbon monoterpenes, e.g., D-limonene [10, 13]. Terpenoids existing in these herbs have been recently attracted significant attention due to their antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties [14–16]. Also, both in vivo and in vitro studies showed the antispasmodic effects and these plants’ ability to improve GI ulcers in rats [10, 12]. Studies have also shown that TA reduces food transit time through the GI tract, increases digestive enzymes’ activity, and increases pancreatic secretions and bile acids [10, 17, 18]. According to the mentioned properties of medicinal herbs, the present research aims to study the effects of a mixture of ZM, TA, and AG essential oils on symptoms of FD, in a clinical trial. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Trial Design The present randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted at Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran, from November 2017 to April 2018. The study was done by allocation ratio 1 : 1 and parallel groups. This trial was also approved by the Ethics Committee of the university (Ethics committee reference number: HUMS.REC.1394.012) based on the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization and the ethical principles originating in the Declaration of Helsinki. All data and final manuscript were reviewed and approved by all authors. The trial was registered in the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry with trial ID number IRCT2016072629026N2. 2.2. Study Participation The statistical population included all patients aged 15-60 years, enrolled in the Gastroenterology Clinic of Shahid Mohammadi Hospital of Bandar Abbas. Inclusion criteria included the written consent and complete knowledge about the study; being diagnosed with FD based on the ROME III criteria as the presence of postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) (including postprandial fullness or early satiation) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) (including epigastric pain, or epigastric burning), for three months in the past six months; and dyspepsia symptoms with scores of 6 or higher on the 11-point Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for more than 4 of the 14 days prior to registration were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included the participants’ lack of consent to continue the study; taking antibiotics or nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs two weeks before the study; gastroesophageal reflux disease (heartburn, acid regurgitation); drug or alcohol abuse; the presence of gastroesophageal malignancy, chronic digestive diseases, and peptic ulcer disease based on history, physical examination, laboratory tests (e.g., white blood cell count, C reactive protein (CRP) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)), and upper endoscopy; liver and kidney dysfunction based on laboratory tests; planned or current pregnancy; the history of a severe allergic reaction to medicinal plants; the history of upper gastrointestinal tract surgery; and serious illnesses like heart failure, diabetes and epilepsy, and previous or current significant psychiatric comorbidity [19–24]. Participants were not allowed to receive PPIs, H2-receptor antagonists, antacids, mucosal protectants, prokinetics, antidepressant drugs, anticholinergic agents, and cholinergic agents one week of study commencement or during the study. Upper endoscopy was used to rule out peptic ulcer and malignancy only if there were alarm features such as burning pain in the epigaster which increases during the night and wakes up the patients, frequent vomiting, loss of appetite, family history of gastrointestinal malignancies, lower gastrointestinal bleeding, odynophagia, dysphagia, unexplained significant weight loss, palpable abdominal mass, lymphadenopathy, jaundice, and age over 45 years [19, 20, 25]. 2.3. Randomization, Blinding, and Intervention Firstly, the gastroenterologist visited the patients, and the inclusion criteria were confirmed; then, participants were justified briefly about the research, and informed consent was obtained. They were then randomly divided into two equal groups of control and intervention, which received medical regimens A and B, respectively. Randomization was done by using a random allocation software-generated list and in a 1 : 1 ratio. Also, the randomization and medicine administration was done by someone other than the investigators. The medicines were put in similar cans, and the code of the medicinal regimen was labeled on each can. The code of medicine given to each patient and their clinical symptoms was recorded on the treatment of the evaluator’s personal information form (a trained medical student). The investigators, patients, and treatment assessors were not aware of the medicine regimens type. Regimen A was 20 mg omeprazole capsule once a day for two weeks, and regimen B was 250 mg soft-gel capsules containing pure essential oils of ZM (28.8%), AG (21.6%), and TA (21.6%), and sunflower oil (28%) as an excipient twice a day for two weeks. Also, for blinding the participants, aromatized sunflower oil soft-gel capsules twice a day and starch hard gel capsules once a day in the same shape, size, and color as placebo were given to control and intervention arms, respectively. 2.4. Determining the Safe Dosage and Preparation of Herbal Capsule 250 mg soft-gel capsules were produced in Minoo Pharmaceutical Company (Tehran, Iran). The essential oils and sunflower oil were produced in Barij Essence Pharmaceutical Company (Kashan, Iran). The method of determining the safe dosage and preparation of herbal soft-gel capsule is as detailed in our previous investigation [24]. 2.5. Identification and Separation of Essential Oils Compounds The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of essential oils were performed on an HP 5890 GC system coupled to a Quadrupole Mass Detector. The analysis method has been described in detail in previous studies [24, 26, 27]. 2.6. Evaluation of Outcomes Patients’ information, the severity of symptoms, and quality of life were recorded in a special form at the baseline, end, and two weeks after the end of the treatment. The daily severity of EPS and PDS in the week before the start and end of the intervention were scored using NRS from 0 (no symptoms) to 10 (the most severe symptoms), and the sufficient response to treatment as the primary outcome was defined as a mean NRS score ≤3 in seven days before the end of the intervention [28]. Also, symptom severity was assessed using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). To determine the effect of treatment on patients’ quality of life, they were asked to complete the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The secondary outcomes were the improvement rate in the PDS, EPS, Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), and quality of life scores at the end and two weeks after the intervention. Also, safety and tolerability were assessed. 2.7. GSRS The questions on this questionnaire are scored on a 7-point Likert scale, ranging from “No discomfort at all” (0) to “Very severe discomfort” [6]. GSRS has been approved in other studies with five dimensions, including abdominal pain (stomachache, hunger pain, and nausea), reflux (heartburn and regurgitation), diarrhea (diarrhea, loose stools, and the urgent need for defecation), constipation (constipation, hard stool, and feeling of incomplete evacuation), and dyspepsia (borborygmus, abdominal distention, eructation, and increased flatus). The total score of symptoms is obtained by summing the mean scores of the subscales. Previous studies have shown that GSRS has a high level of internal consistency [29, 30]. 2.8. SF-36 SF-36 is scored based on the total score, a score for each subscale, and a score for each of the physical and mental parts, according to instructions. Several grading scales are used for answering different items of this questionnaire, such as the 5-point Likert scale from excellent (100) to the poor (0) or yes (100) and no (0). Higher scores signify a better health status and vice versa [31, 32]. 2.9. Safety and Compliance Mild adverse events (nausea, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pains causing awakening, taste disturbance, dry mouth, bitterness and unpleasant changes in the mouth taste, headache, skin redness, dizziness, and itching) and severe adverse events (gastrointestinal bleeding and severe allergic reactions) were also recorded to assess the safety of treatment regimens. Treatment was discontinued if severe adverse events occurred. In order to evaluate the safety, the laboratory tests (serum alanine aminotransferases and aspartate aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin, random blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine) were performed at the start and after treatment. Patients were asked to keep their medication until the end of the study. To consumption, more than 80%, 60-80%, and less than 60% of prescribed medications were considered full, good, and poor compliance rates, respectively [24, 33]. 2.10. Sample Size and Statistical Analyses According to a pilot study done before this trial, the treatment rate of FD by this herbal medicine was obtained 70%. Also, determining the sample size, treatment rate with omeprazole in two weeks [34], type I error, and power were considered 29%, 0.05, and 90%, respectively. Based on these findings, the sample size was estimated to be 32 cases in each group. Statistical analysis method by using the statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) version 17 has been described in our previous investigation in detail [24]. 3. Results Figure 1 shows a patient flowchart, according to the CONSORT statement advice.
... These compounds gave the onion its antioxidant, antibacterial, antiasthmatic, antistress, anticancer, hepatoprotective effects and immune enhancement potential (Ramos et al., 2006). Besides, onion accelerates the digestive process and reduces food transit time in the gastrointestinal tract (Platel & Srinivasan, 2001). ...
... Contrary to these results, olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus growth performance was not changed after feeding on onion powder (Cho & Lee, 2012). The positive effect of onion as growth enhancer can be attributed to its growth stimulation of specific beneficial microorganisms in the colon with their associated positive health effects, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli (Gibson, 1998); the accelerated digestive process; the reduced food transit time in (Platel & Srinivasan, 2001). Furthermore, onion contains cysteine sulphoxide (CSO) with S-propenyl-CSO, which exert growth-enhancing effects (Apines-Amar et al., 2012). ...
Article
The present study evaluated the effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa)powder and its extracts on growth, blood biochemical parameters, non-specific immune parameters and potential disease resistance against pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Oreochromis niloticus. Fish formulated diets containing onion powder (1% or 0.5%) or onion alcoholic extracts (1% or 0.5%). At the end of the experiment, the weight gain and specific growth rate were significantly increased than control. Besides, red blood cells (RBCs) and haemoglobin (Hb) showed a significant increase with insignificant changes of leukocytic cells count (WBCs), triglycerides, creatinine and uric acid levels. Results showed significant increase of total protein and albumin, and significant enhancement of innate immune response including serum globulins, serum antiprotease, lysozyme activities, myeloperoxidase content and the phago-cytic index compared with the control group. Meanwhile feeding on onion increased superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and glutathione-S-transferase but significantly decreased hepatic peroxidase. The cumulative mortality of O. niloticus injected with A. hydrophila exhibited relatively low mortality levels in all onion supplemented groups. The relative per cent survivals were 100%, 100%, 80% and 70% in 1% onion powder, 0.5% powder, 1% extract and 0.5% extract groups, respectively, compared with control (60%). Additionally, there was a significant increase in relative immune gene expressions of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) in head kidney tissues of treated groups than the control. These results confirm the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of dietary onion with its beneficial effects on growth performance and disease resistance against A. hydroph-ila in O. niloticus. K E Y W O R D S
... Data in Table (9) showed that total proteins, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio differed significantly (P<0.05) as affected by experimental rations as compared to control group. Total proteins increased in T3 which may be due to that GP enhanced the secretion of saliva, the efficiency of digestion enzymes, the digestion and metabolism and slow the time of feed passage which increased the absorption of protein in small intestine (Platel andSirnivasan, 2001 andSuresh andSrinivasan, 2007). Furthermore, Shams Al-dain, and Jarjeis (2015) and El-Gohary et al. (2012) found that total proteins tended to be higher with GP addition for Friesian dairy cows and goats rations, respectively. ...
... Data in Table (9) showed that total proteins, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio differed significantly (P<0.05) as affected by experimental rations as compared to control group. Total proteins increased in T3 which may be due to that GP enhanced the secretion of saliva, the efficiency of digestion enzymes, the digestion and metabolism and slow the time of feed passage which increased the absorption of protein in small intestine (Platel andSirnivasan, 2001 andSuresh andSrinivasan, 2007). Furthermore, Shams Al-dain, and Jarjeis (2015) and El-Gohary et al. (2012) found that total proteins tended to be higher with GP addition for Friesian dairy cows and goats rations, respectively. ...
... Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZM), Trachyspermum ammi L. (TA), and Anethum graveolens L. (AG) are among the common herbal medicines used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders [13][14][15]. Many in vivo and in vitro studies have shown the antispasmodic effects of these herbs [15][16][17][18][19]. Another study on rats has proven the ability of TA to reduce the time of food transit through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract [14,20,21]. Also, various studies indicate the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic effects of all the three plants used in this study and the monoterpenes in their essential oils [22][23][24]. ...
... Activation of the serotonergic pathway by TRPA1 agonists, in turn, activates the gastrocolic neural reflex and colonic motility through stimulation of the 5-HT3 receptors at the terminals of the vagus efferent neurons [56][57][58][59]. Also, in animal studies, TA reduced the passage of food in the GI tract [14,21,60]. Literature has also shown the efficacy of tegaserod as a 5-HT4 agonist in improving constipation, pain, and bloating in constipation-predominant IBS [61,62]. ...
Article
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Background: The unresponsiveness to conventional pharmacological treatments and their side effects have led patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to use complementary and alternative medicine such as herbal remedies. Beside, Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZM), Trachyspermum ammi L. (TA), and Anethum graveolens L. (AG) are being used as an antiseptic, carminative, and antispasmodic in traditional medicine. This trial investigated the efficacy and safety of a combination of ZM, AG, and TA essential oils in the treatment of IBS. Method: The present study was a randomized double-blind clinical trial with parallel groups in Iran. Patients in the control arm received three tablets of 10 mg hyoscine butylbromide daily for two weeks, and the intervention arm was daily treated with two 250 mg softgel capsules containing 180 mg of essential oils of ZM, AG, and TA for two weeks. Primary outcomes were the response rates based on the IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS), IBS Adequate Relief (IBS-AR), and IBS Global Assessment Improvement (IBS-GAI) at the end and two weeks after the end of the intervention. Secondary outcomes were the improvement rates in IBS-SSS scores, improving the quality of life, safety, and tolerability. Results: The posttreatment improvement percentage based on IBS-AR, IBS-GAI, and IBS-SSS scales was 83.9%, 75%, and 87% in the intervention group and 37.9%, 27.5%, and 34.4% in the control group, respectively (P < 0.001). Also, the improvement of the quality of life in the herbal medicine arm was significantly more than that in the control arm (P < 0.001). Conclusions: According to the results, the herbal medicine investigated in this study can be considered an appropriate alternative treatment for IBS.
... It is suggested that herbs flavour could influence the animal's eating pattern, the secretion of digestive fluids and the feed intake (Barreto et al., 2008). By having the ability to accelerate digestion, herbs can shorten the time required for the feed to pass through the digestive tract (Platel and Srinivasan, 2001). In addition to their ability to aid in digestion, many herbs contain bioactive compounds that modulate the cellular membrane of microbes (Kamel, 2001). ...
Article
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This study was designed to test the effect of a herbal product, Aquapro®, on the growth performance and gut morphology of dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1843) in a 49-day feeding trial. Four diets, containing Aquapro® at 0 (Aqua0), 50 (Aqua50), 100 (Aqua100), and 150 (Aqua150) g.kg-1 dry matter (DM) were formulated. Forty-five fish (14.44 ± 0.27 g) were randomly distributed into each of 12 experimental tanks. Each dietary treatment was randomly allocated to three tanks and offered to fish at 2.8 % body weight. Ten fish from each tank were randomly sampled weekly for length and weight measurements. At termination, three fish from each tank were sampled for distal intestinal tissues for histology preparation. A non-significant (P > 0.05) interaction between the diets and the fish age (weeks) on both the weight and caudal length of the fish was observed. The fish weight decreased significantly with an increase in Aquapro® inclusion in the diets beyond 100 g.kg-1. The Aqua150 diet produced the least weight gain of 24.57 ± 2.44 g. Aquapro® inclusion in the diets did not cause any gut morphological alterations in the fish. In conclusion, Aquapro® product, up to 100 g.kg-1 kob diet does not negatively affect juvenile dusky kob growth and all the tested inclusion levels did not cause gut inflammation, thereby suggesting uninterrupted nutrient absorption.
... There are reports of the specific activity of N. sativa extract against asthma (Koshak et al., 2017) and rheumatoid arthritis (Tekeoglu et al., 2007) due to its inhibitory effect on mast cells to produce histamine and antioxidant activity (Bordoni et al., 2019). N. sativa extracts are also effective against gastro-intestinal problems and work by acting as a digestive stimulant (Platel and Srinivasan, 2001), appetite stimulant (Ahmad et al., 2013) and antiulcer agent (Rajkapoor et al., 2002). The hepatoprotective (Farrag et al., 2007), neuroprotective (Akhtar et al., 2012) and respiratory protective (Koshak et al., 2017) activity of N. sativa extracts are also reported. ...
Article
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The ancient world practically depended on herbal sources of medicines to treat common as well as chronic diseases. Till now, over 80% population in the developing and under developed countries depend on plant materials for the same. Many claims have been justified about the efficacy of modern medicines; it is interesting to know that most of them are derived from plants. The common herbs and spices are exploited by the existing herbal branches of medicines to prepare potential drugs. Occasionally, it also uses rare species of medicinal plants, native to specific climate or region. The screening of new and rare plant species is required to improve the scope of pharmacological alternatives. However, the common herbs and spices provide a more practical, productive as well as a feasible source of medicine. Hence, the current review describes the medicinal benefits of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) and celery (Apium graveolens L.) seeds, and chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) roots. They are not only commonly available but are loaded with essential nutrients that promote overall health and boosts immunity.
... Additionally, COR has a significant stimulating influence on intestinal disaccharidases and alkaline phosphatases, and also significantly improve terminal digestive enzyme activities (Platel and Srinivasan, 2001a). Moreover, Platel and Srinivasan, (2001b) observed an enhanced digestion and a reduction in feed passage time in the digestive tract as a result of curcumin and piperine supplementation. Therefore, the improvement of broiler performance by dietary supplementation of BP, COR, or their combinations may be due to the above mentioned mechanisms. ...
... Our results indicate that it has been reported that onion stimulates the digestive process, accelerating digestion and reducing food transit time in the gastrointestinal tract (Platel et al., 2001). Onion prebiotic activity is also being investigated by Benkeblia et al. (2006) and Sharma et al. (2006). ...
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This study was conducted to find out the dietary effect of Allium cepa (onion) as a feed additive on the growth, hematology, body composition and organoleptic profile of grass carp (Ctenopharyngoden idella). Three experimental diets (T1, T2, T3) containing 1%, 2% and 3% of onion powder and a control diet were fed to the fish in the aquariums. The total of 10±3 fish were stocked in each aquarium with 2 replicates. Fish fed with 1% and 2% gained significantly higher weight gain, specific growth ratio and feed conversion ratio than control group and T3. Increase in WBC and RBC in T1 as compare to other treatment groups exhibit positive health effect in grass carp. Fish flesh quality with respect to consumer’s approval did not show any significant differences irrespective of diet composition among various dietary treatments. The body composition of grass carp result the moisture content ranged from 71 to 73.6%, crude protein (15 to 17%), ash content (2.15 to 2.7%) and dry matter (26.4 to 29%) with significant differences with respect to concentrations of onion powder.
... It is possible that CSM inclusion increased the secretion of bile acids and enhanced lipase activity, leading to enhancement of the absorption of fat and fat-soluble compounds, including β-carotenoids, which finally resulted in improving the yolk color score (PLATEL and SRInIvASAn, 2000). Moreover, dietary CSM enhanced calcium and phosphors digestibility, which is the cause of improved shell thickness (PLATEL and SRInIvASAn, 2001). Therefore, it is possible that dietary CSM might be involved in increasing serum calcium concentrations, and hence increasing shell calcification which consequently leads to the improvement of shell quality features. ...
... 59 By increasing the secretion of bile salts and activity of pancreatic lipase it improves digestion and absorption of dietary fat in high fat fed animal. 60 A study conducted in rats suggests reduction of food transit time in the gastro intestinal tract. 61 It is evidenced that ginger alters fluidity and permeability of the intestinal brush border membrane with increased microvilli length and perimeter resulting in broader area for absorption. ...
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Shunthi (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is medicinal plant widely used in Ayurvedic formulations, since antiquity, for a number of diseases such as Agnimandya, Amavata, Grahani, Arsha, VibandhaJvara etc. Also, it has been using in Indian foods as a spice since ages thus it acquires both nutritional and medicinal importance, termed to be a nutraceutical plant. Ayurvedic classics explained various factors regarding Shunthi such as synonyms of identification, Rasa panchaka, Karma, therapeutic uses, dose and contraindications. It possesses Katu rasa, Laghu Snigdhaguna, Ushnavirya, Madhura Vipaka and Kaphavatahara karma. Presently there is renewed interest in ginger aimed at identification and isolation of its chemical constituents, scientific validation of its pharmacological actions on various systems. This article aimed at exploring shunthi in ayurvedic literature and validating through recent investigations. Current researches on ginger confirms its action in several diseases acting as Radical scavenging and Antioxidant, Anti-arthritic, Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic, Anti-microbial, Anti-bacterial, cardiotonic, digestive stimulant and sialagogue, Glucose, cholesterol and lipid lowering agent. Researches provide an example to explain the action of ayurvedic medicine (shunthi) in terms of conventional biochemistry and pharmacology.
... Carmint reduced both abdominal pain and bloating severity, as well as reducing the number of days with abdominal pain and days with bloating in an 8-week trial. 52 The herbs in this formula (Melissa officinalis, Mentha spicata, and Coriandrum sativum) have demonstrated antispasmodic, antinociceptive, 74 prokinetic, 68 and anti-inflammatory properties, 74,75 as well as a capacity to improve colonic visceral hypersensitivity. 76 Aniseed oil eliminated the symptoms of IBS in 75% of subjects after a 4-week treatment period, as well as significantly improving quality of life. ...
... Curcumin is understood to stimulate all the major digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas, viz., lipase, amylase, and the proteases ─ trypsin and chymotrypsin, that play a vital role in the digestion of the major nutrients ─ starch/ glycogen, proteins, and triacylglycerols present in the consumed food [1]. As a result of facilitated overall digestion of food by the consumption of turmeric, the duration of residence of food in the gastrointestinal tract is shortened [2]. Dietary consumption of curcumin along with high-fat has been shown to facilitate dietary fat absorption [3]. ...
... Capsaicin and other herb enhance the synthesis of bile acids in the liver and their excretion in bile, what beneficially effects the digestion and absorption of lipids. Most of the prelisted spices stimulate the function of pancreatic enzymes (lipases, amylases and proteases), some also increase the activity, extracts from herbs and spices accelerate the digestion and shorten the time of feed/food passage through the digestive tract [14], [15]. Windich et al. (2008) [16] also indicate that spices helped to increase the absorption of essential nutrients, hence improving the growth of the animals. ...
... This diet decreased weighting and so it caused enterohepatonephropathy, anemia and regulating the quantity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzymes and C-reactive protein (CRP), cholesterol, total lipid and uric acid a two percent concentration extract had milder effects of these types (Saleem, Riaz, Ahmad, & Saleem, 2017). If we prove that Trachyspermum ammi affects the body weight, this (subject) may determine to explanation of the digestive effects (Platel & Srinivasan, 2001). The aim of this research is the effect of Trachyspermum ammi extract with different concentrations on the body weight of mice. ...
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Background and Aim. In traditional medicine, the use of Trachyspermum ammi, commonly known as 'Ajwain', is recommended to improve digestive function of the stomach and has effects on body weight. The present study aims to determine the effect different concentrations of mixed organic solvents extract (MOSE) of Trachyspermum ammi on mice compared with control group. Materials and Methods. This experimental-interventional study was performed on mice weighing an average of 21 gr, selected through random allocation method. The mice were divided into four groups of 24 (one control group and three case groups), receiving 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations or density of MOSE of Trachyspermum ammi (0.001 mg/kg). First, the dried fruit of Trachyspermum ammi was powdered and then, it was extracted using various organic solvents including petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol. The extract was fed to the mice for 14 days and their weight was controlled every day. Results. The hypothesis of diversity in the weight gain of mice among the four groups after 15 days was significant; weight gain in control group was significantly higher than other groups (p<0.05). In addition, comparing the weight gain of the mice that received different concentrations of MOSE of Trachyspermum ammi (0.5, 1 and 2%) did not show a significant difference (p<0.05). Conclusion. The use of Trachyspermum ammi plant can not be effect on body weight compared to the control group. This could not be a suitable way to weight change through diet.
... Notably, the addition of BPP with TP showed the best growth performance, as BPP could enhance gastric and pancreatic enzyme secretions, thereby improving nutrient digestibility and growth (Srinivasan, 2007). Furthermore, Platel and Srinivasan (2001) observed an improved digestion system and a decrease in feed passage time in the digestive tract after curcumin and piperine addition. ...
Article
Cadmium (Cd) has become a critical problem in freshwater ecosystems because of both increasing levels and high toxicity. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of turmeric powder (TP) alone or in combination with black pepper powder (BPP) on the Cd-induced growth and health disturbances in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). A total of 180 healthy fish were divided into six groups in triplicate. The first, second, and third groups were fed on a non-supplemented basal diet, a basal diet supplemented with TP (0.5%), and a basal diet supplemented with TP (0.5%)+BPP (0.1%), respectively. The fourth group was exposed to Cd (0.8 mg/L water) only. The fifth and sixth groups were exposed to Cd and fed on diets supplemented with TP or TP+BPP. The growth performance indicators, somatic indices, whole chemical composition, and Cd residues were evaluated. The liver and kidney function indicators, reproductive hormones, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content were estimated. A histopathological investigation and immunohistochemical detection of the apoptotic marker, caspase 3 of hepatic, renal, and testicular tissues were performed. The results showed that Cd reduced growth, crude lipid, protein, ash contents, and hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indexes. Moreover, considerably elevated levels of alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, urea, creatinine, potassium, and malondialdehyde were recorded. However, a considerable depletion of lysozyme activity, immunoglobulin M, testosterone, estradiol, catalase, and superoxide dismutase in addition to ATP content was evident. The highest amount of Cd was detected in the liver compared with that in the muscles. Moreover, the impairment of hepatic, renal, and testicular tissues architecture with high expression of caspase 3 was prominent. However, the addition of TP and TP+BPP in the diet of Cdintoxicated fish restored the disturbances in most of the indicators. Notably, the combined TP+BPP supplementation achieved the highest recovery. Overall, TP+BPP mixture can be added in C. gariepinus diet to enhance growth and ameliorate the hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, and reprotoxic effects of Cd.
... Carmint reduced both abdominal pain and bloating severity, as well as reducing the number of days with abdominal pain and days with bloating in an 8-week trial. 52 The herbs in this formula (Melissa officinalis, Mentha spicata, and Coriandrum sativum) have demonstrated antispasmodic, antinociceptive, 74 prokinetic, 68 and anti-inflammatory properties, 74,75 as well as a capacity to improve colonic visceral hypersensitivity. 76 Aniseed oil eliminated the symptoms of IBS in 75% of subjects after a 4-week treatment period, as well as significantly improving quality of life. ...
... Due to an estimated mean transit time of 12 hours in rats (Platel and Srinivasan 2001), stomach contents include consumed items for only a few food intakes. By contrast, the caecum can stock remains that are difficult to digest from multiple food intakes (Perrin and Curtis 1980). ...
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Invasive rats (Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, R. exulans) are recognized as a major threat to native island ecosystems and biodiversity. On many islands, two or three invasive rat species co-occur, often sharing the same habitat; however few studies have focused on the effects of coexisting invasive rat species on native biodiversity. We investigated rat population ecology and diet in a New-Caledonian rainforest where black (Rattus rattus) and Pacific rats (R. exulans) coexist. Black rats dominated Pacific rats in relative abundance with a proportion varying between 80.9 and 88.9%. A total of 374 black rats and 87 Pacific rats were sampled for diet assessment through stomach and caecum analysis. Rat diet was mainly composed of plants, invertebrates and to a lesser extent Squamata, with black rats being more frugivorous and Pacific rats being more omnivorous. Ten of 15 endemic skink and gecko species were consumed, nine species by black rats and six species by Pacific rats. Thus, the presence of both rat species may strengthen the overall predation rate on each native prey species, and/or broaden the total number of native prey species impacted in the New-Caledonian rainforest. These results highlight the importance of preventing new rat species introduction on islands to avoid the strengthening and/or the broadening of negative effects on native biodiversity, and the importance of following the proportion of each rat species during rat control operations. Research to assess the threats generated by various assortments of rodent species on native biodiversity could improve priority setting in conservation actions.
... Along with medicinal properties black pepper can be used for various purposes such as various sauces & dishes like meat dishes as well as in perfumery due to pungent alkaloids piperine (5-9%) and volatile oils (1-2.5%) Piperine, an active constituent found in Piper nigrum showsa numerous biological activity as Antioxidant, Antitumor, Antiasthmatics, Antipyretic, Analgesic, Antiinflammatory, Antidiarrheal, Anxiolytic, Antidepressant, Hepatoprotective, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antimetastatic, Anti-thyroid [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. ...
... Better nutrient absorption is the result of improved feed digestibility by EOs, having been documented in pigs and poultry [83,84]. Botanicals could influence the digestibility and speed of feed passage through digestive tract, with impacts on bile synthesis, increasing the secretion of saliva, bile and mucus, and enhancing enzyme activity [85,86], but data are inconsistent [87] and mainly related to experiences in human medicine [32]. PFA also increase nutrient absorption by increasing absorptive surface area. ...
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The inconsistency of phytogenic feed additives’ (PFA) effects on the livestock industry poses a risk for their use as a replacement for antibiotic growth promoters. The livestock market is being encouraged to use natural growth promotors, but information is limited about the PFA mode of action. The aim of this paper is to present the complexity of compounds present in essential oils (EOs) and factors that influence biological effects of PFA. In this paper, we highlight various controls and optimization parameters that influence the processes for the standardization of these products. The chemical composition of EOs depends on plant genetics, growth conditions, development stage at harvest, and processes of extracting active compounds. Their biological effects are further influenced by the interaction of phytochemicals and their bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. PFA effects on animal health and production are also complex due to various EO antibiotic, antioxidant, anti-quorum sensing, anti-inflammatory, and digestive fluids stimulating activities. Research must focus on reliable methods to identify and control the quality and effects of EOs. In this study, we focused on available microencapsulation techniques of EOs to increase the bioavailability of active compounds, as well as their application in the animal feed additive industry.
... Carmint reduced both abdominal pain and bloating severity, as well as reducing the number of days with abdominal pain and days with bloating in an 8-week trial. 52 The herbs in this formula (Melissa officinalis, Mentha spicata, and Coriandrum sativum) have demonstrated antispasmodic, antinociceptive, 74 prokinetic, 68 and anti-inflammatory properties, 74,75 as well as a capacity to improve colonic visceral hypersensitivity. 76 Aniseed oil eliminated the symptoms of IBS in 75% of subjects after a 4-week treatment period, as well as significantly improving quality of life. ...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Western herbal medicines in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Design: A computer-based search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, GreenFILE, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and the Cochrane Library was conducted. A hand-search of the bibliographies of relevant papers and previous meta-analyses and reviews was also undertaken. Trials were included in the review if they were double-blind and placebo-controlled investigating the effects of Western herbal medicines on IBS-related symptoms or quality of life. There were no language restrictions. Eligibility assessment and data extraction were performed by two independent researchers. For herbal medicines where there was more than 1 trial of similar design, data were synthesised using relative risk of symptoms improving using the random effects model. Results: Thirty-three trials were identified that met all eligibility criteria. Seventeen of these evaluated peppermint essential oil, fifteen other Western herbal medicines, and one trial evaluated peppermint oil in one arm and aniseed essential oil in the other arm. Eighteen different herbal preparations were evaluated in these trials. Data suggests that a number of Western herbal medicines may provide relief of IBS symptoms. Meta-analyses suggest that peppermint essential oil is both efficacious and well-tolerated in the short-term management of IBS. Aloe vera and asafoetida also demonstrated efficacy in reducing global IBS symptoms in meta-analyses. The herbal formulas STW 5, STW 5-II and Carmint, along with Ferula assa-foetida, Pimpenella anisum oil, the combination of Curcumin and Foeniculum vulgare oil, and the blend of Schinopsis lorentzii, Aesculus hippocastanum, and peppermint essential oil also demonstrated efficacy in rigorously-designed clinical trials. Conclusion: A number of Western herbal medicines show promise in the treatment of IBS. With the exception of peppermint essential oil, Aloe vera, and asafoetida, however, none of the positive trials have been replicated. This lack of replication limits the capacity to make definitive statements of efficacy for these herbal medicines.
... It can also be used to make beer [10] . Guinea pepper contains calcium (0.000437g), Iron (0.00002886g) and magnesium (0.000194g) as well as vitamins A, B, C, D and E [11] . The seed of guinea pepper are used in the treatment of measles and leprosy. ...
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The study was carried out to investigate the effect of the aqueous extracts of Myristicafragrans(Nutmeg), Murrayakoenigi(curry leaf) and Aframomummelegueta(Guinea pepper) on Some Biochemical and haematologicalParameters. Sixteen (16) wister strain rats weighing between 130-180g were divided into four (4) groups of four (4) rats each and for 21 days fed the following diets: Group A-normal diet + myristicafragrans (Nutmeg) aqueous extract, Group B-normal diet + murrayakoenigi (curry leaf) aqueous extract, Group C-normal diet + aframomummelegueta (Guinea pepper) aqueous extract, Group D-normal diet (control). After a period of 21 days the rats were sacrificed and the serum was taken for the following estimations: total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and glucose. The whole blood was taken for packed cell volume and white blood cell count. The results indicated that oral administration of myristicafragrans, murrayakoenigi and aframomummelegueta to rat's exhibit remarkable hypolipidaemic activity and lowering glucose concentration. The oral administration of these three spices exhibit protein increasing activities compared with the control rats. The packed cell volume and white cell values of all the rats decreased after feeding with experimental diet (aqueous extract) compare with the control rats. It is clear from this study thatMyristicafragrans(Nutmeg), Murrayakoenigi(curry leaf) andAframomummelegueta (Guinea pepper) contain significant amounts of phytochemicals and exhibit hypolipidaemic activity when consumed.
... As a result of in vivo experiments in rats, this natural monoterpene also reduces the food transient time [118,119]. In another enzyme modulatory study, thymol reinforced the pancreatic lipase and amylase effectiveness, which may support the digestive stimulant action [120]. ...
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Background: Thymol is a natural phenolic monoterpenoid widely used in pharmaceutical and food preservative applications. Thymol isomeric with carvacrol, extracted primarily from Thymus species (Trachyspermum ammi) and other plants sources such as Baccharisgrise bachii and Centipeda minima, has ethnopharmacological characteristics. Methods: This review was prepared by analyzing articles published on thymol moiety in last decade and selected from Science Direct, Scopus, Pub Med, Web of Science and SciFinder. The selected articles are classified and gives brief introduction about thymol and its isolation, illustrates its natural as well as synthetic sources, and also therapeutic benefits of thymol worldwide Results: Thymol has been covering different endeavors such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antidiarrhoeal, anthelmintic, analgesic, digestive, abortifacient, antihypertensive, spermicidal, depigmenting, antileishmanial, anticholinesterase, insecticidal and many others. This phenolic compound is among the essential scaffolds for medicinal chemists to synthesize more bio-active molecules by further derivatization of the thymol moiety Conclusion: Thymol is an interesting scaffold due to its different activities and derivatization of thymol is proved to enhance its biological activities. However, more robust, randomised, controlled clinical trials would be desirable with well-characterised thymol preparations to corroborate its beneficial effects in diseased patients. Moreover, in view of the potential use of thymol and thymol-rich essential oils in the treatment of human infections, comprehensive studies on chronic and acute toxicity and also teratogenicity are to be recommended. Keywords: GC-MS analysis, carvacrol, thymol, Thymus species, monoterpene, carvacrol.
... The beneficial effect of fenugreek on growth has been demonstrated in several species: fish (Abbas et al., 2019), broilers (Park and Kim, 2015) and rabbits (Abd El-Rahman et al., 2011). According to Kalpana and Srinivasan (2001), the saponins contained in fenugreek stimulate growth. ...
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The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sprouted fenugreek incorporation into the diet of rabbits on their dairy and growth performances. Data from 24 lactations performed by 8 Californian rabbit does were studied. They were divided into 2 homogeneous groups, a control (batch C) having received an ordinary ration and an experimental (batch E) having received the same ration supplemented with sprouted fenugreek. Growth rates of suckling pups were also recorded. Then, Growth performance of 152 young rabbits' issue from these females was monitored. They were divided into 4 homogeneous groups, one control having received an ordinary diet (batch C) and 3 experimental having received the same diet with substitution of 12%, 15% and 25% (batch E1, E3 and E3) of the concentrate by sprouted fenugreek. The results showed an improvement in the dairy performance of the rabbit does of batch E, with an average peak lactation of 287 g/d vs 236 g/d in batch C (p <0.01). The daily weight gain of suckling pups was better in batch E (13 g/d vs 11.7 g/d; p <0.01). Likewise, the weaned young rabbits of the experimental batches recorded higher growth rates than the control batch (p <0.01). Sprouted fenugreek incorporation into the rabbit's ration allowed to improve their performances.
... Ajwain was reported to acts as digestive stimulant by shortening the food transit time 55 . Helicobacter pylori play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. ...
Article
Trachyspermum ammi L. Sprague syn. Carum copticum Benth. & Hook, commonly known as ajwain, is an annual aromatic and herbaceous plant of the family Apiaceae. The fruits of T. ammi are native to Egypt and widely cultivated in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and distributed throughout India. Ajwain is commercially cultivated in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat (Surendranagar, Saurashtra region), Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and other states also. Traditionally the plant is used in Ayurvedic and Unani formulations for the treatment of various disorders like flatulence, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, abdominal pains, piles, and bronchial problems, lack of appetite, galactogogue, asthma and amenorrhoea. It has been reported to possess many pharmacological bioactivities like antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, antiasthmatic, antitussive, and many more. This review summarizes the reported traditional benefits, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of T. ammi.
... There is evidence that consumption of dietary fenugreek seeds stimulate digestive actions of rats through stimulation of liver for production and secretion of more bile enriched in bile acids, along with activities of pancreatic lipase and chymotrypsin (Platel & Srinivasan, 2001). However, it is reported that pancreatic amylase and trypsin were decreased by fenugreek diet in rats (Platel & Srinivasan, 2000). ...
... T. ammi exhibit numerous biological activities like digestive stimulant actions, gastroprotective activity (Platel and Srinivasan, 2001), hepatoprotective activity, antihypertensive and broncho-dilating activity (Gilani et al., 2005), antiplatelet-aggregatory (Srivastava, 1988), antilithiasis and diuretic activity (Ahsan et al., 1989), nematicidal activity (Park et al., 2007), antifilarial activity (Mathew et al., 2008), anti-spasmodic, antitussive effects (Boskabadyet al., 2005. ...
Article
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Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (Family: Apiaceae), commonly known as Ajwain, is widely grown in India, Afghanistan, Iran, Egypt, Pakistan, etc. Conventionally distillation of the Ajwain crop is done before the formation of the seed for extraction of the essential oil. The quality and quantity of essential oil production depend not only on genetic factors but also on the plant's developmental stage, post-harvest treatments, etc. Thus, the present study was undertaken to find out the effect of six factors like drying of the herb in the shade, sun, and oven (after seed formation), harvesting before and after seed formation, and powdering the material after seed formation on the essential oil yields and chemical composition. A marked difference was noted in the essential oil yields in all the experiments, with maximum yield being observed in the sun-drying method (3.2%). In contrast, a low yield was noted in the powdered material(0.3%). The chemical composition of the essential oil showed an interesting pattern. The major component -terpinene was observed more in the essential oil obtained in the after-seed harvest material (74.201%), whereas its low abundancy was noted in the oven-dried material (31.756%). Powdering the material has influenced the thymol content evident from the essential oil obtained from the unpowdered material (37.916%)to the powdered material (3.99%); both were done before seed harvest. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that the essential oil characteristics of Ajwain are greatly influenced by drying temperature, methods of sample preparation, and storage of herbage.
... Onion has been indicated to reduce food transit time in the gastrointestinal tract (174). Some studies have also shown that this plant stimulates the growth of useful microorganisms such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the colon due to its high soluble fiber content, including inulin and fructooligosaccharides (40,175). ...
Article
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Onion or Allium cepa (A. cepa) is one of the most important condiment plants grown and consumed all over the world. This plant has various therapeutic effects attributed to its constituents, such as quercetin, thiosulphinates and phenolic acids. In the present article, various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of A. cepa were reviewed. Different online databases using keywords such as onion, A. cepa, therapeutic effects, and pharmacological effects until the end of December 2019 were searched for this purpose. Onion has been suggested to be effective in treating a broad range of disorders, including asthma, inflammatory disorders, dysentery, wounds, scars, keloids and pain. In addition, different studies have demonstrated that onion possesses numerous pharmacological properties, including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-platelet properties as well as the effect on bone, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, nervous, respiratory, and urogenital systems effects such as anti-osteoporosis, anti-hypertensive, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, neuro-protective, anti-asthmatic and diuretic effects. The present review provides detailed the various pharmacological properties of onion and its constituents and possible underlying mechanisms. The results of multiple studies suggested the therapeutic effect of onion on a wide range of disorders.
... • Stimulating the digestive activities. [227,228,229,230,231,232] mustard • Enhance urinary activities. ...
... Recent studies have pointed out that capsaicin could promote gastric digestion. The main mechanism is to stimulate the secretion of bile acids and enhance the activities of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and intestine, reducing the digestion time of food in the gastrointestinal tract (Platel & Srinivasan, 2001). Consequently, we speculate that short-term ingestion of capsaicin may promote the release of gastrin and other gastrointestinal hormones during digestion. ...
Article
Background Chili peppers are commonly consumed spices worldwide and capsaicin is the main source for the spicy flavors, which is reported to have many biological activities. However, long-time consumption of chili peppers may probably cause the gastrointestinal discomfort due to the strong pungency of capsaicin. The beneficial and adverse effects of capsaicin on gastrointestinal health and the underlying mechanisms haven't been revealed. Scope and approach The review summarized the effects of capsaicin ingestion on the gastrointestinal tract and their possible mechanisms, illustrated the current and potential strategies for relieving capsaicin-induced discomfort, and provided insight into further studies on capsaicin and gastrointestinal health. Key Findings and Conclusions: Long-term and high levels of capsaicin ingestion may cause gastrointestinal discomfort and affect gastrointestinal digestion, which is more pronounced in specific gastrointestinal disorders. By analyzing the possible mechanisms, we found that capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and the neuropeptides can regulate the visceral pain and immune response, thereby affecting the oxidative stress and tissue permeability of the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, capsaicin can alter the structure of gut microbiota and affect the levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Current strategies can only decrease the oral pungent taste, but cannot relieve the gastrointestinal discomfort. Based on the effects of probiotics on gastrointestinal disorders and the correlation studies between probiotics and TRPV1, probiotics have the potential to relieve the capsaicin-induced gastrointestinal discomfort.
... It can also be used to make beer [10] . Guinea pepper contains calcium (0.000437g), Iron (0.00002886g) and magnesium (0.000194g) as well as vitamins A, B, C, D and E [11] . The seed of guinea pepper are used in the treatment of measles and leprosy. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study was carried out to investigate the effect of the aqueous extracts of Myristica fragrans(Nutmeg), Murraya koenigi(curry leaf) and Aframomum melegueta(Guinea pepper) on Some Biochemical and haematological Parameters. Sixteen (16) wister strain rats weighing between 130-180g were divided into four (4) groups of four (4) rats each and for 21 days fed the following diets: Group A-normal diet + myristica fragrans (Nutmeg) aqueous extract, Group B-normal diet + murraya koenigi (curry leaf) aqueous extract, Group C-normal diet + aframomum melegueta (Guinea pepper) aqueous extract, Group D-normal diet (control). After a period of 21 days the rats were sacrificed and the serum was taken for the following estimations: total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and glucose. The whole blood was taken for packed cell volume and white blood cell count. The results indicated that oral administration of myristica fragrans, murraya koenigi and aframomum melegueta to rat's exhibit remarkable hypolipidaemic activity and lowering glucose concentration. The oral administration of these three spices exhibit protein increasing activities compared with the control rats. The packed cell volume and white cell values of all the rats decreased after feeding with experimental diet (aqueous extract) compare with the control rats. It is clear from this study that Myristica fragrans(Nutmeg), Murraya koenigi(curry leaf) and Aframomum melegueta (Guinea pepper) contain significant amounts of phytochemicals and exhibit hypolipidaemic activity when consumed.
... A significant difference between the treatment groups and the negative control group for BW (p < 0.001), FI (p < 0.001), and FE (p < 0.001) was observed ( No studies have yet tested EO diet supplements in mice; however, Denli et al. [20] observed that T. vulgaris EO caused BW gain and improved FE for quail. Platel et al. [37] concluded that adding various spices in food enhanced either enzyme activity related to digestion or increased the secretion of bile. Yang et al. [38] observed that EO supplementation during the growth period increased lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activities significantly. ...
Article
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The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in livestock faces increasing scrutiny and opposition due to concerns about the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Alternative solutions are being sought, and plants of Lamiaceae may provide an alternative to synthetic antibiotics in animal nutrition. In this study, we extracted essential oil from Monarda didyma, a member of the Lamiaceae family. We examined the chemical composition of the essential oil and then evaluated the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of M. didyma essential oil and its main compounds in vitro. We then evaluated the effectiveness of M. didyma essential oil in regard to growth performance, feed efficiency, and mortality in both mice and broilers. Carvacrol (49.03%) was the dominant compound in the essential oil extracts. M. didyma essential oil demonstrated antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (MIC = 87 µg·mL−1), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 47 µg·mL−1), and Clostridium perfringens (MIC = 35 µg·mL−1). Supplementing the diet of mice with essential oil at a concentration of 0.1% significantly increased body weight (+5.4%) and feed efficiency (+18.85%). In broilers, M. didyma essential oil significantly improved body weight gain (2.64%). Our results suggest that adding M. didyma essential oil to the diet of broilers offers a potential substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.
... Active compounds in medicinal plants such as bioflavonoids have a positive effect on fish immune status and growth performance [48] . The enhancement of feed utilization as observed in improved FCR and PER of C. gariepinus fed the OPP diets could be as a result of onion peel, improving digestion through the stimulation of digestive process, resulting to reduction in food transit time [34] . ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the dietary effect of onion peel powder (OPP) on growth, blood chemistry, hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities and SOD mRNA responses of Clarias gariepinus. One hundred and twenty fish were randomly distributed into twelve plastic tanks and fed experimental diets for 42 days. Four diets (control, OPP-2, OPP-4 and OPP-6) were formulated with graded levels of OPP (0, 20, 40 and 60 g/kg diet) respectively. At the end of the experiment, the fish fed OPP supplemented diet exhibited significantly increased weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and better feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the control group (p<0.05). The highest values of haemoglobin (Hb) and erythrocytes (RBCs) count were observed in fish fed control diet (p<0.05). The pack cell volume (PCV, %) of the control and OPP-6 groups differs significantly (p<0.05) from other groups. Experimental fish group fed the control diet had the lowest total leukocytes (WBCs) and was significantly different (p<0.05) from other treatment groups. Dietary OPP significantly decreased (p<0.05) cortisol level when compared to the control group. The cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose values of fish fed OPP-2 were significantly higher (p<0.05) than other experimental groups including control. The antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione) increased significantly (p<0.05) in fish fed graded levels of OPP diets compared to those fed the control diet. Furthermore, the control group had significantly decreased expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene (p<0.05). Therefore, this study confirmed the beneficial effects of onion peel supplemented diet on growth, nutrient utilization, haematology and biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymes activities of C. gariepinus.
... It also stimulates the activity of digestive enzymes of pancreas-lipase, amylase, and proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxy peptidase) [26] . Ginger lowered the food transit time in experimental rats by facilitating digestion [27] . Among several spices which are perceived to stimulate the digestive system, ginger probably is to be ranked at the top based on the available evidence [24] . ...
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The present research investigation was carried out to study effect of 50% ethanolic rhizome extract of Zingiber officinale on physical parameters on Lead induced toxicity in broiler birds. 140 broiler chicks were divided into 7 groups each comprising of 20 birds. The toxicity was induced by administration of lead acetate @200mg/kg feed from T2 to T7 and T1 as normal control. T3 & T4 was given Ascorbic acid @200mg/kg feed & extract @200mg/kg BW, respectively. T5 was given Ascorbic acid @200mg/kg feed & extract @200mg/kg BW. T6 was given extract @300mg/kg BW. Group T7 received Ascorbic acid @200mg/kg feed and etract @300mg/kg BW. The results showed that, lead treated group with Zingiber officinale extract i.e. T4 and T6 and with L-Ascorbic Acid i.e. T5 and T7 has suppressed the negative impact of lead on body weight and body weight gain, also by ascorbic Acid alone (T3). However, all the treatment of Zingiber officinale extract alone and with ascorbic acid does not produced significant positive effect on feed consumption. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly improved by Zingiber officinale all treatments. Finally, it has concluded that extract of Zingiber officinale alone and with L-ascorbic acid has protective effect against the lead induced toxicity in broiler birds.
... The feed conversion ratio (FCR) describes the hens' overall efficiency in converting ingested feed mass into egg mass over a specific period of time. An important claim often made for phytogenic feed additives is improvement of the FCR and thereby enhancing the intestinal availability of essential nutrients for absorption (Langhout, 2000;Williams & Losa, 2001 In an experiment curcumin (0.5 g), capsaicin (0.015 g), piperine (0.02 g), ginger (0.05 g), cumin (1.25 g), asafoetida (0.25 g), ajwan (0.2 g), fennel (0.5 g), coriander (2.0 g), mint (1.0 g), garlic (0.5 g) and onion (2.0 g) could shorten the time of feed passage through digestive tract in rats (Platel & Srinivasan, 2001). Herbs with growth promoting activity increase the stability of feed and beneficially influence the gastrointestinal ecosystem mostly through growth inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms' growth (Windisch, Schedle, Plitzner, & Kroismayr, 2008). ...
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Background Organic products of animals are getting more accepted by consumers. Using herbal additives may lead to more health animal products. In this research it is hypothesized that Lavandula angustifolia and/or Mentha spicata essential oils would be helpful to enhance production performance in laying hens. Objectives This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha spicata essential oils on performance, egg traits and blood variables in laying hens. Methods 144 Lohmann LSL‐Lite laying hens from 42 until 56 weeks of age were used in a completely randomized design in four treatments and six replicates (six birds per replicate). The treatments consisted of: (a) control group (basal diet), (b) basal diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg diet lavender essential oil (LEO), (c) basal diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg diet mint essential oil (MEO), and (d) basal diet supplemented with both LEO and MEO. Results Using LEO and/or MEO did not affect body weight changes, feed intake, egg weight, egg index, yolk index, Haugh unit, egg shell weight and egg shell thickness. Feeding LEO, individually or in combination with MEO, did not affect FCR compared with the control group (p < .05), however, feeding MEO individually increased feed conversation ratio (FCR) compared to LEO and the control group during 42–56 weeks (p < .05), as well as decreasing egg mass compared to LEO (p < .05). Feeding LEO increased egg production compared to MEO and combination of MEO and LEO (p < .05). Conclusions In conclusion, dietary supplemental MEO (250 mg/kg) may increase FCR, and LEO (250 mg/kg) is more effective than MEO (250 mg/kg) for egg production and egg mass purposes; besides MEO (250 mg/kg) negatively affected FCR compared with the control group. In addition, no specific beneficial effect of dietary supplemental MEO and/or LEO on the other measured variables was detected.
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... The total phytoestrogen content of dry Ajwain seed was determined as 473 ppm. In this regard, the herb is the second highest in the list of plants tested for total phytoestrogen content [57]. It should be noted that the herb has been traditionally used as a galactagogue [20]. ...
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Functional foods are recently introduced to assure superior nutritional quality; contain biologically active compounds in defined amounts. These foods have to be effectively packaged and stored in order to prevent microbial spoilage and risk of food borne infections. Recently, food technologists and scientists are formulating the Essential Oil (EOs) containing functional foods. The antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of EOs have been proved by a number of researchers. Health conscious consumers prefer natural additives, hence these volatile oils due to their green image can be safely used as a replacement of synthetic preservatives. The shelf life of functional foods can be improved by antimicrobial packaging incorporating EOs and their derivatives in the edible films and coatings. EOs can be easily fabricated as microencapsules and nanoparticles, which increases their stability and solubility. Hence EOs are considered as the most usable additives in future functional foods.
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The use of natural products as medicinally active organic compounds is a very sustainable and green approach. Over recent years scientists have successfully discovered the potential of spices in the field of clinical and medicinal chemistry. Various organic compounds present in spices possess significant values as antimicrobial, anticancer, antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, antidiabetic, and antihistaminic agents. Spices are also rich in antioxidant components and are potential inhibitors of inflammation. Because of the presence of several bioactive compounds, spices are used as promising defensive or ameliorative agents in several clinical trials. On the other hand, spices contain contents that are very low in calories and are comparatively economically reliable sources of potential bioactive compounds in diet. This paper describes the use of a few natural spices in medicinal chemistry.
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We developed a colorimetric method for measuring the amount of oil in mouse stool after co-administering an oil-soluble dye. When the amount of oil in the feces calculated from the amounts of Sudan III and Oil Red O was plotted against the amount of oil detected by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, the graph was linear, showing a one-to-one correlation between two analyses. This method may be utilized to determine the efficacy of lipase inhibitors, or to assess fat malabsorption in vivo. Fullsize Image
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The poor water solubility and inadequate oral bioavailability of gefitinib (Gef) remains a critical issue to achieve the therapeutic outcomes. Herein, we designed a poly (maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMA/C18) based lipid nanovehicle (PLN) to improve the intestinal absorption and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble Gef. PLN was nanometer-sized particles, and Gef was dispersed in the PLN formulation as amorphous or molecular state. At 4 h of oral administration, the tissue concentration of Gef in duodenum, jejunum and ileum was profoundly enhanced 3.37-, 8.94- and 8.09-fold by PLN when comparing to the counterpart lipid nanovehicle. Moreover, the oral bioavailability of Gef was significantly enhanced 2.48-fold by the PLN formulation when comparing to the free drug suspension. Therefore, this study provides an encouraging bioadhesive delivery platform to improve the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs.
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The influence of mint leaf and garlic oil, the two common ingredients of several digestive stimulant drugs, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion and composition in experimental rats. The test materials were administered orally at two doses which were either pharmacological dose or 5 times of this. The results indicated that mint leaf had significant stimulatory influence on lipase activity of pancreas and intestinal mucosa, while garlic oil stimulated the enzyme activity only in intestinal mucosa. Mint also stimulated intestinal amylase activity. Garlic oil exhibited a reduction in pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities. However, these test materials did not have any marked influence on bile secretion and composition.
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A few common spices or their active principles, were examined for their possible influence on digestive enzymes of intestinal mucosa in experimental rat. The animals were fed the following diets for 8 weeks: control, curcumin (0.5%), capsaicin (15 mg%), piperine (20 mg%), ginger (50 mg%), cumin (1.25%), fenugreek (2%), mustard (250 mg%) and asafoetida (250 mg%). Dietary curcumin, capsaicin, piperine and ginger prominantly enhanced intestinal lipase activity and also the disaccharidases sucrase and maltase. Dietary cumin, fenugreek, mustard and asafoetida brought about decreases in the levels of phosphatases and sucrase. The positive influences of a good number of spices on these terminal enzymes of digestive process could be an additional feature of species that are generally well recognized to stimulate digestion.
Chapter
It normally takes between 1 and 4 days for the residues of a solid meal to pass through the gastrointestinal tract. Most of this time is spent in the colon; passage of food through the stomach and small intestine only takes a few hours (Read et al., 1980).
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A few spices, which are commonly employed to improve digestion in traditional systems of medicine were examined for their possible influence on digestive enzymes of pancreas and small intestine in experimental rats. In one set of animals, the spices-ajowan, fennel, coriander, onion, garlic and mint were given through the diet for 8 weeks. In another experiment, the same spices were administered orally as an appropriate single dose to animals. Pancreatic trypsin was significantly stimulated by all the dietary spices examined except mint, while chymotrypsin was stimulated by coriander and onion. These two spices also had a significant stimulating influence on intestinal disaccharidases and alkaline phosphatase. Most of the spices tested in this study showed significant enhancing effect on intestinal enzymes, particularly lipase and amylase, when given as a single oral dose, while similar beneficial effects were not observed on pancreatic enzymes. Among the spices examined, onion produced a pronounced stimu lation of a majority of digestive enzymes of pancreas and small intestine. The positive influences on the pancreatic and intestinal digestive enzymes exerted by spices could contribute to their well recognised digestive stimulant action.
Article
Spices - cumin, coriander, ajowan, fennel, mint, and garlic, were examined for their influence on bile secretion rate and bile acid content of bile in experimental rats both as a result of continued dietary intake and single oral dose of the test spice. Groups of animals were maintained for 8 weeks on the following spice diets : Cumin (1.25 %), Coriander (2.0 %), Ajowan (0.2 %), Fennel (0.5 %), Mint (1.0 %), and Garlic (0.5%). In a separate set of rats, these test spices were also administered as a single intragastric dose (mg/kg body wt : Cumin, 600; Coriander, 400; Ajowan, 80; Fennel, 200; Mint, 400; and Garlic oil, 0.02. Bile flow rate was significantly enhanced by dietary cumin, ajowan, and garlic. Ajowan had this beneficial effect even with a single oral dose. The biliary solids were higher in the case of dietary cumin, coriander, ajowan, fennel and mint. A pronouncedly higher rate of secretion of bile acids was caused by all the test spices except garlic, compared to control, both in dietary treatment as well as in single oral dosage of the spice. Higher rate of bile acids secretion would probably contribute to the digestive stimulant action of the test spices.
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Physiological effects of feeding ragi, cowpea, brinjal, guava and fractions of ragi and cowpea were studied in rats. All the materials except ragi starch increased faecal weight with a concomitant decrease in the transit time (TT). The cotyledon portion of cowpea was more effective in decreasing TT than the testa portion. Whole cowpea and brinjal brought about changes in the caecal volume and content. Digestibility of fibre from the test materials showed a wide variation.
Article
A few common spices or their active principles were examined for their possible influence on digestive enzymes of pancreas in experimental rat. Groups of animals were maintained for 8 weeks on the following spice diets: curcumin (0.5%), capsaicin (15 mg%), piperine (20 mg%), ginger (50 mg%), cumin (1.25%), fenugreek (2%), mustard (250 mg%) and asafoetida (250 mg%). Dietary curcumin, capsaicin, piperine, ginger, fenugreek and asafoetida prominently enhanced pancreatic lipase activity. Curcumin, capsaicin, piperine, ginger, cumin and asafoetida also stimulated pancreatic amylase. Trypsin was significantly stimulated by curcumin, capsaicin, piperine, ginger and cumin, while chymotrypsin was stimulated by all the spices tested except mustard. This stimulatory influence of test spices on the pancreatic digestive enzymes was however not observed when their intake was restricted to a single oral dose. The positive influences on the pancreatic digestive enzymes exerted by a good number of spices consumed in diet could be a factor contributing to the well recognised digestive stimulant action of spices.
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Health Effects of Spices
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Digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine in response to orally administered mint leaf, and garlic pearl
  • Sharatchandra