Article

Additional vitamin E required in milk replacer diets that contain canola oil

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Abstract

It is known that ingestion of oils containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 and n-6 series results in a high degree of unsaturation in membrane phospholipids which in turn may increase lipid peroxidation, cholesterol oxidation, free radical accumulation and membrane damage. Vitamin E is a powerful inhibitor of lipid peroxidation induced by free radical damage to cell membranes and is an essential component of milk replacers. In the experiments reported here, neonatal piglets raised on canola oil based milk replacer diets supplemented according to NRC regulations, and with an α-tocopherol (mg) to PUFA (g) ratio of 0.49:1, had low α-tocopherol levels in their tissues. Depending on the quantity of iron administered, the piglets showed signs of vitamin E deficiency which ranged from acute, with high mortality, to mild, with only microscopic evidence of hepatocyte dissociation. Piglets raised on a soybean oil based milk replacer diet, supplemented with the same amount of α-tocopherol, and with a ratio of α-tocopherol to PUFA of 0.21:1, showed no signs of vitamin E deficiency and had significantly higher tissue levels of vitamin E than the piglets raised with the canola oil milk replacer. The factor(s) present in canola oil which increased the demand for vitamin E are unknown.

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... Decreased platelet counts (Naito et al., 2000a ), increased erythrocyte fragility, severe renal injury involving lesions in blood vessels (Miyazaki et al., 2000) and elevated blood pressure (Naito et al., 2000b) are associated with dietary canola oil. Similar anti-nutritional activities of canola oil have been observed in rats of other strains (Naito et al., 2000b), mice (Kameyama et al., 1996) and pigs (Sauer et al., 1997; Innis and Dyer, 1999 ). Although the survival-shortening factor in canola oil had been assumed to be phytosterols (Ratnayake et al., 2000b), the factor and the phytosterols have been partially separated by a CO 2 -supercritical fluid extraction method, indicating that a factor other than triacylglycerol and phytosterols is involved in the survival shortening (Tatematsu et al., 2004a; Ohara et al., 2006). ...
... Thus, some deterioration of hypertension-related cardiovascular injury via an elevated aldosterone level may have relevance to the shortening of life by canola oil and hydrogenated soybean oil in SHRSP. The unusual effects of canola and hydrogenated soybean oil may not be confined to SHRSP because the decreased platelet counts and unusual survival shortening effects of canola oil have also been observed in pigs (Sauer et al., 1997; Innis and Dyer, 1999 ). In boars, rapeseed meal caused degeneration and necrosis of the seminiferous epithelium, resulting in the atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, compared with soybean meal (Rotkiewicz et al., 1997). ...
... Contrary to the risk aspect, one beneficial effect of canola oil has been shown clinically in the Lyon Diet Heart Study (deLorgeril et al., 1994). However, the unusual effects of canola and some other vegetable oils observed in rodents (Huang et al., 1996; Innis and Dyer, 1999; Miyazaki et al., 2000; Tatematsu et al., 2004;) and piglets (Sauer et al., 1997; Innis and Dyer, 13 1999 ), as well as those observed in the present experiments , warrant further study to identify the factor and estimate the risks and benefits of these oils in human nutrition. ...
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Canola and some other types of oil unusually shorten the survival of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP), compared with soybean oil, perilla oil and animal fats. Since differential effects of canola and soybean oil on steroid hormone metabolism were suggested by a preliminary DNA microarray analysis as a reason for this, the steroid hormone levels in the serum and tissues of SHRSP fed different oils were investigated. The testosterone levels in the serum and the testes were found to be significantly lower in the canola oil group than in the soybean oil group, while no significant differences were detected in the corticosterone and estradiol levels in tissues. In a second experiment, it was found that hydrogenated soybean oil, with a survival-shortening activity comparable to that of canola oil, also decreased the testosterone level in testes to a similar degree. The testosterone-lowering activity of canola and hydrogenated soybean oil observed in SHRSP was considered in relation to other factors possibly affecting the physiology of SHRSP.
... Além disso, o mesmo autor, em estudo testando sucedâneos de leite à base de óleo de canola ou óleo de soja, ambos enriquecidos com a mesma quantidade de α-tocoferol, verificou que os leitões que receberam óleo de canola apresentaram sinais de deficiência de vitamina E, que variou de aguda, com alta mortalidade, à leve, com apenas microscópicas provas de dissociação de hepatócitos. Já os leitões alimentados com sucedâneo à base de óleo de soja não mostraram sinais de deficiência de vitamina E, além de apresentarem níveis significativamente maiores dessa vitamina nos tecidos, quando comparados aos leitões que receberam óleo de canola (Sauer et al., 1997). ...
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The swine industry has shown a great technological progress during the last years, espe­cially due to major advances in genetics. A higher number of piglets produced per litter and lower individual weights has been observed, which increased health challenges. The incre­asing litter size also reduces uniformity at birth by increasing the frequency of small piglets, which can increase the competition between littermates for colostrum and milk. In addition, all piglets have the natural challenge of facing the control of thermoregulation, having low reserves of glucose and fat at birth. This makes piglets rely almost exclusively on colostrum and milk intake for their survival. These factors may lead to an increase in piglet mortality, which mainly occurs in the first three days of life and represents one of the biggest issues facing the pork industry. The supply of energy sources becomes important in order to enhance the immunity development and the performance of young piglets. The purpose of this review is to present the potential use of different energy sources to promote adequate supplementation, reducing mortality and improving the performance of newborn piglets. © 2016, Universidad de Cordoba, Servicio de Publicaciones. All rights reserved.
... Alimentos cozidos com óleo de canola desenvolvem fungos (bolor) muito rapidamente. Durante o processo de desodorização, os ácidos graxos ômega-3 do óleo de canola processado são transformados em ácidos graxos trans, semelhantes aos das margarinas e provavelmente mais perigosos.69 Um recente estudo indica que o óleo de canola "coração saudável" na verdade cria uma deficiência de vitamina E, uma vitamina necessária para a saúde do sistema cardiovascular.70 ...
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Tradução: Odi Melo www.melnex.net As gorduras de origem vegetal e animal propiciam uma fonte concentrada de energia na dieta alimentar. Elas também fornecem os elementos formadores das membranas das células, além de uma variedade de hormônios e substâncias assemelhadas. Quando fazem parte de uma refeição, as gorduras retardam a absorção, a fim de que possamos ficar mais tempo sem sentir fome. Além disso, elas funcionam como portadoras das importantes vitaminas A, D, E e K, que são solúveis em gordura (lipossolúveis). As gorduras da dieta alimentar são necessárias para converter caroteno em vitamina A, para absorção de minerais e para uma gama de outros processos. A nutrição "politicamente correta" é baseada na suposição de que devemos reduzir a ingestão de gorduras, principalmente as saturadas e de origem animal. As gorduras de fonte animal também contêm colesterol, que é apresentado como um "vilão gêmeo" da dieta civilizada. A hipótese lipídica A teoria (chamada "hipótese lipídica") de que há uma relação direta entre a quantidade de gordura e o colesterol da dieta alimentar na incidência de doenças cardiocoronárias foi proposta por um pesquisador chamado Ancel Keys, no final da década de 1950. Inúmeros estudos subseqüentes têm questionado seus dados e suas conclusões. No entanto, os artigos de Keys receberam muito mais publicidade do que aqueles que apresentavam posições alternativas. As indústrias de óleos vegetais e de processamento de alimentos, principais beneficiários de qualquer pesquisa que condene os alimentos tradicionais (seus concorrentes) passaram a promover e financiar mais pesquisas, concebidas para dar suporte à hipótese lipídica.
... Besides shortened survival time, we observed accelerated renal injury in SHRSP rats fed rapeseed oil and partially hydrogenated oil (Miyazaki, M., Watanabe, S., Oikawa, T., Morazumi, K., Fuzinami, T., and Okuyama, H., unpublished data). Other groups have also raised questions on the safety of some common vegetable oils using different endpoints; for example, increased mortality after injection of iron into piglets fed a rapeseed oil-supplemented, tocopherol-restricted diet (14), and reduced platelet counts in piglets fed rapeseed oil-or high-oleate vegetable oil-supplemented diets (15,16). The problem of myocardial necrosis reported in rapeseed oilfed Sprague-Dawley rats remains unresolved (8,9). ...
Article
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... So far, we have no evidence to suggest that the minor components in rapeseed oil are the cause of these changes in gene expressions. However, it should be noted that besides shortened survival time and accelerated renal injury in SHRSP rats, several vegetable oils, including rapeseed oil, have been reported to have other detrimental e¡ects: reduced platelet count in newborn piglets and SHRSP rats [45^47]; increased mortality after injection of iron to rapeseed oil-fed newborn piglets; and increased myocardial necrosis in rapeseed oil-fed Sprague^Dawley rats [48,49]. ...
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Thirty-five infants weighing less than 1500 g at birth were fed four commercial formulas (A-D) varying in polyunsaturated fatty acid composition (32 per cent linoleic acid in A and B and 12 per cent linoleic acid in C and D) and in iron content (smaller than 1.0 in A and B; 12 to 12 mg per liter in B and D). Infants receiving formula B showed significantly lower hemoglobins (p smaller than 0.01) and higher reticulocyte counts (p smaller than 0.005) than infants fed the other three formulas. Infants receiving the two formulas with higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (A and B) showed significantly greater hydrogen-peroxide-induced hemolysis (p smaller than 0.001) than those given diets containing lower amounts. Infants in groups A and B also had lower serum tocopherol concentrations. Infant red-cell membranes are altered by the increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron in the diet. It appears that the development of vitamin E deficiency anemia occurs in infants receiving iron supplementation.
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SUMMARY Sixteen Yorkshire gilts were assigned ran- domly to four semi-purified diets fed through- out gestation and lactation. Two sources of fat (stripped lard and stripped corn oil) were fed factorially with two levels of vitamin E (a- tocopheryl acetate, 0 and 100 IU/kg of diet). All diets were supplemented with .05 ppm Se as Na2SeO3. Reproductive performance (litter size, individual pig birth weight, weaning weight and livability) was not affected by diet. No signs of selenium-vitamin E deficiency were noted in either dams or progeny. Serum a- tocoperhol concentration of darns was signifi- cantly reduced with low vitamin E diets and was higher in diets containing lard plus vitamin E than in diets containing corn oil plus vitamin E at 2, 8 and 12 weeks and immediately pre-partum. Concentration of a-tocopherol in colostrum and milk fat was several-fold higher with supplemental dietary vitamin E than with- out and lard tended to promote a higher concentration than corn oil although the differ- ence was not significant. There was a pro- nounced decrease in c~-tocopherol concentra- tion in all diet groups in colostrum compared with milk at 3 weeks lactation. Diet did not affect colostral or milk cholesterol concentra- tion or dam or newborn progeny serum choles- terol levels. Progeny of sows in all diet groups had significantly higher serum 0~-tocopherol concentrations than those of their dams (P
Article
Diets rich in linoleic acid (CO) from corn oil, or in linoleic acid and either alpha-linolenic acid (LO) based on linseed oil or n-3 fatty acids (MO) from menhaden oil were fed to male and female Cynomolgus monkeys for 15 wk. In the liver a 40% reduction of alpha-tocopherol occurred in the MO group relative to the CO and LO groups followed by increased formation of lipofuscin in vivo. A four-fold increase of alpha-tocopherol in the MO diet (MO + E) brought the level in the liver to that found with CO and LO. The increased peroxidation in the MO group in the liver phospholipids was associated with the replacement of 60% of the n-6 fatty acids by n-3 fatty acids from menhaden oil. Similar fatty acid profiles were found in groups fed MO and MO + E, respectively. Compared to the CO fed group, feeding alpha-linolenic acid only resulted in a slight incorporation of n-3 fatty acids in the liver membranes mainly due to a direct incorporation of alpha-linolenic acid. However, in monkeys fed menhaden oil more than 30% of the total fatty acids in the liver phospholipids were n-3 fatty acids. The various diets did not influence the activity of liver catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) nor superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), but glutathione-peroxidase activity (EC 1.11.1.9) was higher in monkeys fed the MO diet. The catalase activity in females was 20% higher than in males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Weanling rats were fed diets containing 10% menhaden oil (MO) or 10% corn oil-lard (1:1, COL) with low (less than or equal to 5 IU/kg) or supplementary (35 IU/kg) vitamin E for six weeks. The rats were killed 30 min after injection with 24 mg iron/kg as ferrous chloride because thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in liver homogenates were highest at 30 min after injection of iron into rats fed a standard diet. Tissue homogenates were used either without incubation (zero-time) or after incubation at 37 degrees C for 1 hr. In addition to TBARS and conjugated dienes, headspace hexanal and total volatiles (TOV) determined by capillary gas chromatography were useful indices of lipid peroxidation since they were decreased by vitamin E supplementation and were increased with increasing iron dose. Regardless of the dietary lipid used, vitamin E supplementation decreased headspace hexanal, TOV, TBARS and conjugated dienes in both zero-time and incubated homogenates of liver and kidney. Dietary MO increased TBARS in both zero-time and incubated homogenates of tissue from rats injected with iron. In contrast, dietary MO decreased hexanal and TOV in incubated tissue homogenates. The study demonstrated the usefulness and limitations of using hexanal and TOV as indices of lipid peroxidation.
Article
Feeding rats with 4 g/kg body weight of sardine oil during 7 or 14 days increases the content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the erythrocyte and hepatic microsomal membranes by 2 to 6%. These membranes show increased susceptibility to the induction of oxidative stress, expressed as lipid peroxidation, when they are exposed to Fe2+-ascorbate and to NADPH-FE3+-ADP, respectively. The results indicate that in order to prevent the increased susceptibility to lipid peroxidation, supplementation with larger amounts of antioxidants may be needed than those required to stabilize the oil.
Article
Nutritional status of vitamin E was assessed in very low birth weight infants of less than 1,500 g, with respect to changes in plasma and red blood cell (RBC) tocopherol concentrations. The forty infants examined were divided into two groups in terms of their birth weight: group A, less than 1,000 g; and group B, 1,000-1,500 g. Immediately after birth, plasma tocopherol level was 335 +/- 101 micrograms/dl in group A and 316 +/- 103 micrograms/dl in group B, while RBC tocopherol was 187 +/- 48 micrograms/dl and 231 +/- 72 micrograms/dl packed PBCs, in groups A and B, respectively. In two infants, RBC tocopherol concentrations were less than 115 micrograms/dl, this level being reported as the lowest of the normal range. After birth, plasma and RBC tocopherol levels decreased markedly during 4 to 6 weeks of life especially in group A, while no decrease below normal range was documented in RBC levels in group B. A fine granule preparation of tocopheryl nicotinate (20 mg/kg/day) was administered in seven other infants, three in group A and four in group B. All three infants in group A showed no elevation of plasma and RBC tocopherol levels during the first 4 or 5 weeks of the administration, but a marked elevation thereafter. In three of the four infants in group B, an elevation of plasma and RBC tocopherol concentrations was documented after 2 weeks of the administration. The above findings indicate that no deficiency exists even in very low birth weight infants immediately after birth, while the deficiency may develop after birth, due to a poor ability to absorb fat.
Article
A simplified approach involving saponification is described for situations in which this route is favoured over total lipid extraction. Sample preparation is completed in a single test-tube, within 45 min, followed by injection and quantification by either reversed- or normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. α-Tocopherol (or its acetate ester) is recovered adequately (94.8%; coefficient of variation = 3.8%) but other less biologically significant congeners are subject to losses, a feature shared by other reported saponification schemes.
Article
Plasma vitamin E unconjugated bilirubin levels glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activities and % hemolysis were studied in infants with neonatal jaundice to find out how vitamin E deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of neonatal jaundice. Significant decreases in the level of plasma vitamin E and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity with concomitant increase in unconjugated bilirubin level and % hemolysis were observed in these infants. Negative significant correlations were observed between vitamin E and bilirubin and Vitamin E and % hemolysis while positive correlation was observed between vitamin E and G6PD activity among the jaundiced neonates. These results indicate that increased hemolysis and mawrked hyperbilirubinemia observed in neonatal jaundice may be due to Vitamin E deficiency especially in G6PD deficient erythrocytes.
Article
Vitamin E status was assessed in 36 infants with birth weights less than 1500 gm who were assigned randomly to receive one of three sources of nutrition: milk obtained from mothers of preterm infants (preterm milk), mature human milk, or infant formula. Infants in each dietary group were further assigned randomly to receive iron supplementation (2 mg/kg/day) beginning at 2 weeks or to receive no iron supplementation. All infants received a standard multivitamin, providing 4.1 mg alpha-tocopherol daily. Serum vitamin E concentrations at 6 weeks were significantly related both to type of milk (P less than 0.0001) and to iron supplementation (P less than 0.05). Infants fed preterm milk had significantly higher serum vitamin E levels than did infants fed mature human milk, and both groups had significantly higher levels than did those fed formula. Ratios of serum vitamin E/total lipid were also significantly greater for infants fed human milks than for those fed formula. The addition of iron to all three diets resulted in significantly lower serum vitamin E levels at 6 weeks (P less than 0.05); however, only in the group fed formula was there evidence of vitamin E deficiency. Preterm milk with routine multivitamin supplementation uniformly resulted in vitamin E sufficiency in VLBW infants whether or not iron was administered.
Article
Forty-eight intact male pigs were used to investigate the influence of source of protein supplement, corn moisture content, and supplemental vitamin E-selenium survived the cidence of mulberry heart disease, hepatosis dietetica and associated lesions. Pigs fed soybean meal-high moisture corn diets survived fewer days than pigs fed the other diets. None of the pigs fed torula yeast-dry corn or soybean meal-high moisture corn without supplemental vitamin E-selenium survived the 13 week trial. Supplemental vitamin E-selenium increased survival of pigs. A higher incidence of hepatosis dietetica, myocardial degeneration, skeletal muscle degeneration, and exudative diathesis was observed in pigs fed torula yeast-dry corn or soybean meal-high moisture corn than pigs fed soybean meal-dry corn. Supplemental vitamin E-selenium resulted in a reduction in the incidence of the above lesions by approximately 50% with the exception of hepatosis dietetica. Tissue selenium concentration did not appear to be related to the incidence of the various lesions.
Female miniature swine, 4-11 yr, were fed 15% fat diets containing n-3 and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fat for 6 months, at 1.95 g fat/kg body weight. Liver lipids from menhaden oil-fed minipigs were elevated in the n-3 fatty acids: 20:5, 22:5 and 22:6, but heart lipids only in 20:5 and 22:6. Liver cell plasma membrane was elevated in 20:5, 22:5 and 22:6 and lowered in the n-6 acids 18:2 and 20:4 in menhaden oil-fed animals, to a greater extent than in the total tissue lipids. Liver alpha-tocopherol tended to decrease upon feeding menhaden oil, but heart alpha-tocopherol concentrations were not affected.
Vitamin E content in colostrum and sow's milk and sow milk yield at two levels of dietary fats
  • Nielsen
Retrolental fibroplasia: efficacy of vitamin E in a double-blind clinical study of preterm infants
  • Hitner