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The effect of suppressing and not accepting emotions on depressive symptoms: Is suppression different for men and women?

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  • Utah Center for Evidence Based Treatment, Salt Lake City, Utah

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Suppression of emotional expression has been associated with depressive symptoms. However, men suppress emotions more than women but women experience more symptoms of depression. The present study examined gender and emotional non-acceptance (thinking of emotions as bad and to be avoided) as moderators of the suppression-depression relationship. Participants were males (n=118) and females (n=210) aged 17–24. As expected, men reported suppressing emotions more than women and women reported more depressive symptoms. However, suppression was only related to depression in men and not women. Hierarchical regressions revealed a 3-way interaction among gender, suppression, and non-acceptance. Lower acceptance of emotions was associated with the highest depressive symptoms regardless of suppression or gender. With greater acceptance of emotions, suppression was related to more depressive symptoms in men but fewer depressive symptoms in women. These findings suggest that suppressing emotions may have different functions and may be more useful for understanding depressive symptoms in men rather than women.
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The effect of suppressing and not accepting emotions on depressive symptoms:
Is suppression different for men and women?
Jessica J. Flynn
a
, Tom Hollenstein
b,*
, Allison Mackey
c
a
Kent State University, OH, USA
b
Queen’s University, Department of Psychology, 220 Craine Hall, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6
c
Rotman Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
article info
Article history:
Received 13 November 2009
Received in revised form 13 May 2010
Accepted 18 May 2010
Available online 11 June 2010
Keywords:
Suppression
Gender differences
Non-acceptance
Emotion regulation
Depressive symptoms
abstract
Suppression of emotional expression has been associated with depressive symptoms. However, men sup-
press emotions more than women but women experience more symptoms of depression. The present
study examined gender and emotional non-acceptance (thinking of emotions as bad and to be avoided)
as moderators of the suppression-depression relationship. Participants were males (n= 118) and females
(n= 210) aged 17–24. As expected, men reported suppressing emotions more than women and women
reported more depressive symptoms. However, suppression was only related to depression in men and
not women. Hierarchical regressions revealed a 3-way interaction among gender, suppression, and
non-acceptance. Lower acceptance of emotions was associated with the highest depressive symptoms
regardless of suppression or gender. With greater acceptance of emotions, suppression was related to
more depressive symptoms in men but fewer depressive symptoms in women. These findings suggest
that suppressing emotions may have different functions and may be more useful for understanding
depressive symptoms in men rather than women.
Ó2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Based on his model of emotional regulation (Gross, 1998, 2007),
James Gross and colleagues have examined the functions and asso-
ciations of two strategies: expressive suppression, or inhibiting out-
ward expression when emotionally aroused (e.g., not crying when
sad), and cognitive reappraisal, or reframing an emotional situation
as less emotional (e.g., thinking of a performance as a learning
opportunity rather than a potential failure; Gross, 2008a, 2008b;
Gross & John, 2003). On the one hand, reappraisal is associated
with positive outcomes such as low levels of negative emotions
and high levels of well-being (Gross & John, 2003; John & Gross,
2004). On the other hand, suppression is related to negative out-
comes such as depression (Gross & John, 2003; John & Gross,
2004), negative social consequences (Butler et al., 2003; Gross &
John, 2003) and greater experience of negative emotions (Butler,
Lee, & Gross, 2007). Although Gross and colleagues are careful
not to conclude that one strategy is necessarily better than the
other, reappraisal is generally thought of as an adaptive emotion
regulation strategy and suppression as a maladaptive emotion reg-
ulation strategy.
1.1. Gender differences in the suppression–depression link
Research in western societies has revealed many gender differ-
ences in how men and women experience and express emotions.
For example, women express more emotion than men (Gross &
John, 1995, 1997; Kring & Gordon, 1998), women ruminate more
than men (Butler & Nolen-Hoeksema, 1994), men tend to display
more anger-related emotions and women tend to display more
dysphoric and self-conscious emotions than men (Brody, 1993).
Thus, women experience greater levels of negative emotionality
in the form of depressive symptoms (Kessler et al., 1994; Nolen-
Hoeksema, 2001; Regier et al., 1993; Young, Fogg, Scheftner, Keller,
& Fawcett, 1990), yet men suppress emotions more than women
(Gross & John, 2002, 2003). This reveals a previously unexamined
conundrum: if men suppress emotions more than women and sup-
pression is related to depression then why is it that men do not
experience higher levels of negative affect or depressive symptoms
than women? This conundrum suggests that when men suppress
emotions it may not have effects that are as deleterious as those
for women; hence, gender may moderate the relationship between
suppression and depression. The present study was designed to ad-
dress this conundrum by considering the moderating effects of
gender and then to try to explain these differences in terms of
how men and women approach or process emotional experiences.
Specifically, we considered whether accepting versus rejecting
0191-8869/$ - see front matter Ó2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.05.022
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 613 533 3288; fax: +1 613 533 2499.
E-mail address: Tom.Hollenstein@queensu.ca (T. Hollenstein).
Personality and Individual Differences 49 (2010) 582–586
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/paid
emotions was a key factor in the suppression–depression
connection.
1.2. Non-acceptance
Emotional acceptance is the willingness to fully experience all
emotions, even negative ones (Campbell-Sills, Barlow, Brown, &
Hoffman, 2006; Eifert & Heffner, 2003; Hayes et al., 1999; Levitt,
Brown, Orsillo, & Barlow, 2004). Non-acceptance manifests as not
wanting to feel any emotion appraised as ‘‘bad’’ (Gratz & Roemer,
2004) and is positively associated with suppression as well as
symptoms of depression (Campbell-Sills et al., 2006; Gratz & Roe-
mer, 2004; Hayes et al., 1999). Thus, non-acceptance may also af-
fect how suppression relates to depression. In fact, some
researchers seem to equate suppression and non-acceptance
(Campbell-Sills et al., 2006; Cioffi & Holloway, 1993; Masedo &
Esteve, 2007). However, we argue that non-acceptance and sup-
pression are distinct because: (1) non-acceptance is a value judg-
ment about the experience of emotions whereas suppression is
an act taken to control the expression of emotion, (2) it is possible
to accept one’s emotions but choose to suppress their expression
for other reasons (e.g., social desirability) and (3) suppression can
be theoretically assumed to have positive outcomes in some con-
texts (Butler et al., 2003; Elias, 1978) whereas non-acceptance
has only been associated with negative outcomes (Bach & Hayes,
2002;Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999; Heffner, Eifert, Parker, Her-
nandez, & Sperry, 2003; McCracken, 1998). Thus, non-acceptance is
a good candidate to explain the moderation of gender on the sup-
pression–depression link.
1.3. The present study
The first objective of the present study was to replicate the
gender differences found in previous studies of the suppression–
depression link by testing the following hypotheses: (a) suppres-
sion will be positively related to symptoms of depression, (b)
women will have more symptoms of depression than men, and
(c) men will suppress more than women. The second objective
was to examine the moderating effects of non-acceptance and gen-
der on the relationship between suppression and symptoms of
depression. We expected both gender and non-acceptance would
moderate this relationship.
2. Method
2.1. Participants and procedure
Participants were 328 undergraduate students aged 17–24
(M= 19.29), 64% female. Ethnic backgrounds were European–Cana-
dian (67%), East Asian (20%), Other (7%), South Asian (5%) or African
or First Nations Canadian (<1%). Participants were recruited from
undergraduate classes at a university in southern Ontario, Canada.
Participants completed a questionnaire booklet taking 25 min
and were compensated with $5.
2.2. Measures
2.2.1. Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003)
Participants indicate agreement with items on a scale from 1
(strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). The 4-item Suppression
scale (Cronbach’s
a
= .78) includes items such as ‘‘I control my
emotions by not expressing them.’’ The 6-item Reappraisal scale
(Cronbach’s
a
= .83) includes items such as ‘‘When I want to feel
less negative emotion (such as sadness or anger), I change what
I’m thinking about’’. The square root of Reappraisal was used in
analyses to correct for skewness.
2.2.2. Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz & Roemer,
2004)
The 6-item subscale measuring ‘‘Non-Acceptance of Emotional
Responses’’ reliably differentiates those who accept negative emo-
tions from those who do not. Participants report the frequency of
Non-Acceptance for statements beginning with the phrase: ‘‘When
I’m upset’’ followed by six different ways of feeling about being up-
set such as ‘‘I feel like I am weak’’ and ‘‘I feel embarrassed for feel-
ing that way’’ on a 5-point scale from ‘‘almost never’’ to ‘‘almost
always’’ (Cronbach’s
a
= .81). The log of Non-Acceptance was used
in analyses to correct for skewness.
2.2.3. Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Keogh &
Reidy, 2000)
For the 12-item General Distress: Depressive Symptoms sub-
scale, respondents indicated how much during the past seven
weeks they experienced symptoms (e.g., ‘‘I felt like a failure’’) on
a 5-point scale from ‘‘not at all’’ to ‘‘extremely’’ (Cronbach’s
a
= .93). Levels of Depressive Symptoms were below the clinical
range in this sample. The log of Depressive Symptoms was used
in analyses to correct for skewness.
3. Results
Means and correlations are displayed in Table 1. As predicted,
Reappraisal was negatively related to Depressive Symptoms and
Non-Acceptance was positively related to Depressive Symptoms.
Unexpectedly, in the full sample, Suppression was not related to
Depressive Symptoms. t-Tests were conducted on all variables (Ta-
ble 2) to test for expected gender differences. Reappraisal was not
different by gender. As expected, women reported more Depres-
sive Symptoms and Non-Acceptance, whereas men reported
greater Suppression. It was also expected that the processes of sup-
pression would be different in men and women, thus correlations
among Suppression and Non-Acceptance within each gender were
calculated separately (Table 3). For men, Suppression and
Non-Acceptance were positively related to Depressive Symptoms.
However, in women, Suppression was not related to Depressive
Symptoms and Non-Acceptance was positively related to Depres-
sive Symptoms. Thus, unexpectedly, Suppression was related to
Non-Acceptance only in women but not in men.
To examine the second objective of this study, hierarchical
regression analyses were performed on the dependent variable
(Depressive Symptoms) using Suppression, Non-Acceptance and
Gender as independent variables. All interaction variables were
created with standardized variables. As shown in Table 4, the main
effects of Gender, Suppression and Non-Acceptance accounted for
21% of the variance in Step 1. Surprisingly, there was not a signif-
icant amount of unique variance of Suppression associated with
Table 1
Correlations among all variables with means (and standard deviations) on diagonal.
Suppression Reappraisal Non-
acceptance
Depressive
symptoms
Suppression 3.43 (1.21)
Reappraisal .04 1.38 (.41)
Non-
acceptance
.20
***
.01 2.17 (.87)
Depressive
symptoms
.10 .17
**
.44
***
.35 (.15)
**
p< .01.
***
p< .001.
J.J. Flynn et al. / Personality and Individual Differences 49 (2010) 582–586 583
Depressive Symptoms when Gender and Non-Acceptance were
included. All the 2-way interactions were added in Step 2 and ac-
counted for an additional 3% of the variance in Depressive
Symptoms. This increase in prediction appeared to be driven by
the interaction between Suppression and Non-Acceptance. Finally,
with the addition of the 3-way interaction in Step 3, the final mod-
el accounted for an additional 2% of the variance in Depressive
Symptoms. To probe this three-way interaction, the regression
model was restructured on high (one standard deviation above)
and low values (one standard deviation below) of Suppression
and Non-Acceptance (Aiken & West, 1991). This interaction is illus-
trated in Fig. 1.
4. Discussion
The goals of this study were to: (1) replicate gender differences
in suppression and (2) examine gender and non-acceptance as
moderators of the relationship between suppression and depres-
sion. Some gender differences in our sample were consistent with
previous research: men suppressed more than women (Gross &
John, 1995, 1997, 2002, 2003; Kring & Gordon, 1998) and women
reported more depressive symptoms than men (Kessler et al.,
1994; Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001; Regier et al., 1993; Young et al.,
1990). However, the suppression–depression association was not
present for women or the full sample but it was present for men.
Previous research has not reported separate associations for men
and women, but instead on the full sample regardless of gender
(Gross & John, 2003). Thus, it is possible that the males were driving
those positive bivariate correlations. This further implicates emo-
tion suppression as an important factor in male depression (Addis,
2008). Given the stark contrast between depressive affect and cul-
tural norms of masculinity, suppression may be a consequence of
depressive symptoms as men try to avoid rejection for being unable
to ‘‘take it like a man’’ (e.g., Joiner, Alfano, & Metalsky, 1992). This
may also help to explain the strong correlation between non-accep-
tance of emotions and depressive symptoms for men.
Our moderation analyses illuminated these relations further.
Suppression was only related to depressive symptoms when mod-
erated by gender and/or non-acceptance. These results further
implicated separate emotional processes for men and women.
Lower acceptance of emotions in both men and women was asso-
ciated with more symptoms of depression and suppression had lit-
tle effect on this association. However, for women who accept their
emotions, more expressive suppression was associated with lower
depressive symptoms. Thus, these emotion-accepting women may
be constraining their emotional responses for more prosocial rea-
sons, rather than trying to stifle or deny painful emotional states.
Butler et al. (2007), for example, found that culturally-mediated
norms of emotional expressivity differentiated women’s suppres-
Table 2
t-Test comparison by gender with means (and standard deviations).
tdf Men Women
Suppression 4.52
***
273.96
a
3.80 (1.07) 3.21 (1.25)
Reappraisal .63 325 4.91 (.96) 4.93 (1.10)
Non-acceptance 2.17
*
325 2.02 (.76) 2.26 (.93)
Depressive symptoms 2.50
*
326 2.23 (.86) 2.45 (.86)
Note: All means are reported as raw values but tests were run on transformed
variables.
a
Df adjusted for unequal variances.
*
p< .05.
***
p< .001.
Table 3
Correlations among all variables for men (top right) and women (bottom left).
Suppression Reappraisal Non-
acceptance
Depressive
symptoms
Suppression .02 .07 .19
*
Reappraisal .06 .08 .10
Non-
acceptance
.31
***
.02 .51
***
Depressive
symptoms
.11 .22
**
.39
***
*
p< .05.
**
p< .01.
***
p< .001.
Table 4
Hierarchical regression results.
Step Predictors Total
R
2
R
2
change
bse b
1.21
***
.21
***
Gender .03
a
.02 .09
Suppression .01 .01 .03
Non-accept .07
***
.01 .44
2.24
***
.03
*
Gender .03 .02 .08
Suppression .03
a
.02 .17
Non-accept .08
***
.02 .55
Gender suppression .03
a
.02 .16
Gender non-accept .03 .02 .13
Suppression non-accept .02
*
.01 .11
3.26
***
.02
**
Gender .02 .02 .06
Suppression .02 .02 .13
Non-accept .11
***
.02 .69
Gender suppression .03 .02 .14
Gender non-accept .05
*
.02 .25
Suppression non-accept .03
a
.02 .22
Gender suppression non-
accept
.06
***
.02 .35
a
p< .10.
*
p< .05.
**
p< .01.
***
p< .001.
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
HighLow
Depressive Symptoms
Suppression
Men, Low NA Men, High NA
Women, Low NA Women, High NA
Fig. 1. Display of the 3-way interaction between gender, suppression and non-
acceptance on depressive symptoms. Note: NA = Non-acceptance.
584 J.J. Flynn et al. / Personality and Individual Differences 49 (2010) 582–586
sion as either an act of prosocial self-regulation associated with po-
sitive outcomes (with norms dictating low expressivity) or an iro-
nic process of unsuccessful regulation associated with elevated
negative affect and poor outcomes (with norms of high expressiv-
ity). In contrast, depressive symptoms in men who accept their
emotions appear to be exacerbated by suppression. When these re-
sults are taken together with those of the current study, different
patterns of emotion regulation by gender seem to be associated
with healthy outcomes (i.e., low depressive symptoms). The
healthiest outcomes for women were associated with accepting
and suppressing emotions and for men with accepting and not
suppressing emotions.
There is a strong theoretical and empirical basis for the role of
cognitive processes, such as negative schemas and dysfunctional
attitudes, in the onset and maintenance of depression (Beck,
1967). There is a less comprehensive understanding of the patterns
of emotional responding and expression associated with both
these cognitive patterns and symptoms of depression. Depression
has been associated with a rigid pattern of emotional expression
(i.e., suppression; Gross & John, 2003) and a flattening of emotional
responding (e.g., Rottenberg, Gross, & Gotlib, 2005). However,
other research has shown that suppression is not always related
to negative outcomes (Butler et al., 2007). Thus, the present results
confirm the complex interactions among negative emotionality,
emotion regulation habits, and various aspects of the social context
(e.g., cultural norms, social goals, expectations). Instead of being a
maladaptive strategy of emotional expression, suppression may be
one of many emotion regulation techniques whose outcomes de-
pend on other factors.
The present study was only preliminary. The next step is to go be-
yond self-report to examine these emotional processes in vivo. For
any study of emotion regulation, it is most useful to be able to distin-
guish emotional arousal processes from regulatory efforts to de-
crease that arousal (Cole, Martin, & Dennis, 2004). Experimental
manipulation of social goals and interaction partners may help to
disentangle these processes. From our data, for example, it is not
clear whether those who accept their emotions do so because their
emotions are less intense. Thus, suppression and low acceptance of
emotions may be functional or adaptive for those who experience in-
tense emotions. It could also be argued that because patterns of emo-
tion experience and expression are constrained by social and gender
norms (e.g., Brody, 1993) that these same forces also affected the
self-report of emotional experience and expression in this study.
Although this is possible, it does not preclude the possibility that
these results accurately represent emotional responding. However,
studies with experimental manipulation of strategies by sex will
provide a stronger evidence base for the conclusions of this paper.
Furthermore, instead of measuring suppression and non-acceptance
of emotions vaguely identified by valence, it would be useful in fu-
ture studies to distinguish between different emotional states. Per-
haps women are more likely to suppress socially accepted
emotions of men (e.g., anger) while men would suppress socially ac-
cepted emotions of women (e.g., sadness).
The impetus of this study was to resolve a conundrum. If men
suppress more than women and suppression is associated with
depressive symptoms, then why do women have more depressive
symptoms than men? Our results did not unequivocally resolve
this conundrum but instead indicated the possibility that the sup-
pression-depression link is more relevant for men than for women.
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... This may be because youth who attempt to suppress their emotions can experience an increase in emotion dysregulation (Hofmann et al., 2009). Suppression has also been linked to anxious and depressive symptomatology (Flynn et al., 2010;John & Gross, 2004;Sch€ afer et al., 2017). Conversely, reflection helps to inhibit impulsive behaviors in the context of emotional circumstances (Fonagy & Luyten, 2018). ...
... Specifically, expressive suppression is confined to expression of emotion, and both the physiological and subjective experience of emotion may be heightened (Gross, 1998a(Gross, , 2002. Our findings add to this research demonstrating that suppression is associated with both greater externalizing and internalizing problems (Flynn et al., 2010;Scott et al., 2015). Future research should continue to examine the use of suppression in clinical versus community youth samples. ...
Article
The Affect Regulation Checklist (ARC) was designed to capture affect dysregulation, suppression, and reflection. Importantly, affect dysregulation has been established as a transdiagnostic mechanism underpinning many forms of psychopathology. We tested the ARC psychometric properties across clinical and community samples and through both parent‐report and youth self‐report information. Clinical sample: Participants included parents (n = 814; Mage = 43.86) and their child (n = 608; Mage = 13.98). Community sample: Participants included independent samples of parents (n = 578; Mage = 45.12) and youth (n = 809; Mage = 15.67). Exploratory structural equation modeling supported a three‐factor structure across samples and informants. Dysregulation was positively associated with all forms of psychopathology. In general, suppression was positively associated with many forms of psychopathology, and reflection was negatively associated with externalizing problems and positively associated with internalizing problems.
... This is partially consistent with previous findings that perceived social support may be a protective factor for males (Shaheen et al., 2019). This may be because males often avoid expressing their feelings (Flynn et al., 2010). When they don't feel social support, they don't express their need for help and therefore they may be more vulnerable to bullying. ...
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Childhood maltreatment has been evidenced to be a risk factor for adolescent victimization or bullying. However, the impact of different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional and physical abuse) on adolescent victimization/bullying and its underlying mechanisms are not yet well clarified. Therefore, based on the framework of “Family-Individual-School”, we explored the mediating roles of perceived social support and loneliness in the effect of childhood emotional/physical abuse on adolescent victimization/bullying. Meanwhile, we also examined the gender differences that exist in the mechanisms. A total of 3600 Chinese adolescents (M (SD) = 16.21 (0.99), 63.36% males) completed questionnaires. The findings found that perceived social support and loneliness played a chain mediating role in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent victimization/bullying. The abuse discrepancy results suggest that only emotional abuse couldn’t predict adolescents’ bullying. Childhood physical abuse has a greater impact on bullying than on victimization. Compared with physical abuse, emotional abuse is more likely to influence adolescents’ victimization/bullying through loneliness. Gender difference results showed that male adolescents’ perceived social support is a better predictor of their bullying behavior than females. Females’ physical abuse couldn’t predict loneliness and females’ perceived social support couldn’t predict their victimization. Enhancing the perceived social support and reducing loneliness should be emphasized in interventions to reduce the school bullying of Chinese adolescents who have suffered childhood maltreatment. The results also provide insights into the intervening measures for school bullying based on gender differences.
... Karaçam et al., (2022), in their study on basketball referees, reached the opposite conclusion of the research. When the studies outside the referee group were examined in the literature, it was seen that results were obtained in parallel with the study (Demirtaş, 2018;Seç, 2020) and contrary to the study (Gross, 1998;Flynn, Hollenstein and Mackey, 2010;Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012;Rogier, Garofalo and Velotti, 2017). It is thought that these different results in the literature are due to the specific characteristics of the referee group studied and other groups. ...
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The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between the emotion regulation status of referees and their self-efficacy with some demographic variables. The research is a descriptive study in relational screening model. The sample of the research was formed by the convenience sampling method. 18.9% (n = 62) of the referees participating in the research were female and 81.1% (n = 266) were male referees. Of these referees, 24.7% (n = 81) are referees in basketball, 56.4% (n = 185) in football and 18.0% in handball. Personal information form, "The Referee Self-Efficacy Scale (REFS)" developed by Karaçam and Pulur (2017) and "The Referee Emotion Regulation Scale" developed by Karaçam et al. (2021) were used as data collection tools in the research. Analysis of the data was done using SPSS 25 program. In the study, t-test was used in paired comparisons and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationships between variables. The level of significance was taken as p
... Third, we considered gender differences in context-dependent suppression use that are not well understood. Males use suppression more than females (Flynn et al., 2010;Gross & John, 2003), as parents often encourage their sons to suppress negative emotions (Cassano et al., 2007). However, we do not know whether males and females differ in their context-dependent use of suppression. ...
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Adolescence is characterized by frequent emotional challenges, intense emotions, and higher levels of expressive suppression use than found in older populations. While evidence suggests that contingent expressive suppression use based on context is the most functional, it remains unclear whether adolescents use expressive suppression differentially based on social context. Because the peer relationship is highly salient in adolescence, the current study was designed to assess whether adolescents use expressive suppression differentially based on their social context. Adolescents ( N = 179, M age = 13.94, 49.2% female) reported emotional events using experience sampling via a smartphone application for 14 days. Multilevel modeling revealed that adolescents used less expressive suppression when they were alone compared with when they were with people, and used more expressive suppression when they were with their peers compared with when they were with family. In addition, more closeness with family predicted less overall expressive suppression use, while closeness with peers did not influence the level of expressive suppression use within the peer context. We discuss the importance of peer relations in adolescence and the relationship between closeness and emotional expression.
... It is possible this is due to different implications of the ER strategies most frequently used by females versus males (e.g., McRae et al., 2008). Specifically, several studies have demonstrated that females are more likely to engage in rumination and seeking social support, whereas males are more likely to engage in suppression or avoidance to regulate emotions (Johnson & Whisman, 2013;Flynn et al., 2010;Tamres et al., 2002). Gender differences in strategy use persist even after emotional intensity is controlled (Zimmermann & Iwanski, 2014). ...
Article
The present study examined the relationships among three psychological constructs: self-regulation (SR), emotion regulation (ER), and social problem-solving (SPS), and their connection to depressive symptomology. SR, ER, and SPS arose from independent, well-established literature bases and each has demonstrated links to psychopathology. The theories underlying these constructs, however, suggest overlap in their operationalization and measurement. Despite these concerns, no empirical investigations to date have examined the measurement and predictive validity of measures of SR, ER, and SPS in the context of one another. Undergraduate students aged 18-29 (N = 592) completed three self-report measures each of the constructs interest, as well as a measure of depressive symptoms. First, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted, and four rival CFAs reflecting differing levels of convergence and divergence were tested against one another. Then, the best fitting measurement model was used to test a latent variable structural equation model (SEM). Findings from the first-order CFA model indicated that seven out of nine measures loaded on to their intended factors. Contrary to prediction, the bifactor model was identified as the best-fitting CFA model. This suggests that each construct is comprised of distinct variance, as well as common variance that is shared among all nine measures. Interestingly, only the common factor variance and distinct variance of ER significantly predicted depressive symptoms in the final SEM model. This study was the first to demonstrate and explore the high levels of convergence among SR, ER, and SPS as commonly measured in practice. Overall, the results indicated a substantial amount of shared variance and offered a complicated picture of construct validity. It appears that measures often used to assess these constructs are capturing more common features than investigators may be aware of, which has notable implications for the interpretation of findings. Future investigations that include a multitrait-multimethod examination of common and distinct pathways from SR, ER, and SPS to depressive symptoms would serve to further clarify these relationships.
... Specifically, internalizing symptoms often involve elements of poor emotion regulation, and some adolescents also respond to poor emotion regulation with internalizing symptoms, suggesting there may be an interactive effect that associates with more severe suicide ideation. For example, depressive symptoms often involve feelings of non-acceptance or unawareness of emotions [28,29], both of which are aspects of emotion dysregulation [30]. Experiencing depressive symptoms in response to emotion dysregulation may increase the severity, amount, and duration of negative emotions, consequently leading to an increased inability to regulate negative emotions and higher risk of suicide ideation [31]. ...
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The relationship between emotion dysregulation and suicide ideation may depend on the level of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. It was expected that both internalizing and externalizing symptoms would moderate the relationship between emotion dysregulation and suicide ideation, such that greater symptoms would strengthen the relationship between emotion dysregulation and suicide ideation. Adolescent participants (n = 559, Mage = 15.40, 85.0% white, 57.2% female) completed self-report measures that assessed emotion dysregulation, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and recent suicide ideation. Both internalizing and externalizing symptoms moderated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and suicide ideation; this relationship strengthened as internalizing and externalizing symptoms increased. The results of this study indicate that internalizing and externalizing symptoms may both affect the connection between emotion dysregulation and suicide ideation. Future research should focus on targeting both internalizing and externalizing symptoms in treatment to help reduce emotion dysregulation and suicide ideation in adolescents.
... Bu durum cinsiyetlerinin hakemlerin duygu düzenleme düzeylerinde etkili bir değişken olmadığı şeklinde yorumlanabilir. Alan yazında hakem grubu dışındaki çalışmalara bakıldığında çalışmanın parelelinde (Demirtaş, 2018;Seçim, 2020) ve çalışmanın aksine (Flynn, Hollenstein & Mackey, 2010;Gross, 1998;Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012;Rogier, Garofalo & Velotti, 2017) sonuçlara ulaşıldığı görülmüştür. Alan yazındaki bu farklı sonuçların çalışılan hakem grubunun ve diğer grupların kendine özgü özelliklerinden kaynaklandığı düşünülmektedir. ...
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Referees have to regulate the psychological pressure and variable emotional states theyexperience during a competition. In this context, the emotional regulation levels of thereferees and some variables that are thought to affect this level were discussed in thisstudy. The research is descriptive in with a survey model. The sample for the researchconsists of field referees who have been actively refereeing in Turkish basketball,handball, volleyball and football leagues in 2021-2022, selected with the accessiblesampling method. A personal information form and Referee Emotion Regulation Scaledeveloped by Karaçam et al. (2021) were used as data collection tools in the study. Theanalysis of the data was done using the SPSS 21 program. No significant differenceswere found between the sub-dimensions of the emotion regulation status of thereferees and their gender, refereeing levels or branches. A significant difference wasfound between the sub-dimensions of the emotion regulation status of the refereesand their graduation status in favor of those with a graduate degree[F (2, 267) = 2.94/ 11.96]. There was no significant relationship between Cognitive Reappraisal, which isone of the emotion regulation sub-dimensions, and age and experience, and betweenthe Suppression sub-dimension and experience. A significant negative relationshipwas found between suppression sub-dimension and age(r= -.15).As a result of theresearch, it can be said that the gender, refereeing levels, branches and experiencesof the referees are not important variables on the emotion regulation levels. In addition,it was observed that the level of emotion regulation of the postgraduate graduateswas higher than the other referees. This situation can be interpreted as the emotionregulation skills of the referees increase as the education level increases., theysuppress their emotions less during the competition
Article
Background Families of children and adolescents living with sickle cell disease face several challenges ranging from psycho-social to social-economic challenges. This study aimed to explore psycho-social challenges experienced by caretakers of children and adolescents aged 0–19 years with SCD and the various coping mechanisms. Methods A mixed-methods cross-sectional study was carried out among caregivers of children with SCD who were admitted to the pediatric wards of the Mbale Regional Referral Hospital from September 2019 to November 2019. A total of 333 participants were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire and 11 in-depth interviews were conducted. Results Most participants 285(85.59%) reported that they experienced psychological challenges and almost all the participants in this study 297(89.19%) experienced social challenges during the care of their patients. Only 36(10.81%) reported not experiencing any social challenges. Almost all the participants reported coping with the situation in various ways of which, 296(88.89%) used acceptance, 9(2.7%) still lived in denial, while 9(2.7%) used talking with others and getting counseled to reduce the intensity of the feelings experienced. Three themes were generated from the in-depth interviews; knowledge of the child's health condition; common symptoms and care, the experience of psycho-social challenges, and coping strategies. Conclusion Sickle cell disease has affected two sets of people; the people living with the disease and those who are caring for their loved ones. Being conscious of this will help health practitioners to be more empathetic to patients and caregivers when treating people living with sickle cell disease. The biggest proportion of caretakers of children and adolescents 0–19 years experienced psycho-social challenges. The main coping strategy used by the caretakers was acceptance.
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The aim of the study is to examine the relationship between emotion regulation skills and decision-making skills of orienteering athletes together with some demographic characteristics. This research is descriptive research in relational screening model. The sample of the study consisted of orienteering athletes over the age of 18 who were active in 2021-2022 in Istanbul. The sample of the research consists of 300 active orienteering athletes selected by convenience sampling method. Of these athletes, 82% (n: 246) are male and 18% (n: 18) are female. The "Rational and Intuitive Decision-Making Styles" scale developed by İme et al. (2020) was used to measure the decision-making skills of orienteering athletes, and the Athlete Emotion Regulation Scale developed by Tingaz and Altun (2021) was used to measure the emotion regulation skills of orienteering athletes. SPSS 25.0 program was used in the analysis of the data. In the analysis of the data, descriptive statistics, pairwise comparisons t test and Pearson Correlation test were used. When the change of the athlete emotion regulation scale according to gender is examined; female athlete emotion regulation level is significantly higher than males. When the rational and intuitive decision-making styles scale according to gender is examined, it has been observed that the total of the scale differs significantly in favour of male according to gender. The total rational and intuitive decision-making scale was positively correlated with the overall athlete emotion regulation scale at the level of .327, with the suppression sub-dimension at the level of .302, and with cognitive reappraisal at the level of .241. It was found that the rational sub-dimension was positively correlated with the athlete's emotion regulation scale at the level of .242, positively at the level of .181 with the suppression sub-dimension, and positively at the level of .234 with the cognitive reappraisal. It was found that the intuitive sub-dimension had a positive correlation at the level of .256 with the athlete's emotion regulation scale, a positive correlation at the level of .266 with the suppression sub-dimension, and a positive correlation at the level of .149 with the cognitive reappraisal.
Article
Adverse experiences in childhood may set the stage for future response to stress, emotion regulation, and interaction with partners in intimate relationships. This study examines the moderating role of childhood adversity on the association of daily marital stress with emotion work provision (intentional activities devoted to enhancing others’ emotional well-being) and considers whether the association varies for men and women in same- and different-sex marriages. Specifically, I use ten days of dyadic diary data collected from 378 midlife same- and different-sex married couples (n = 756 individuals) and conduct multilevel regression models. The results show marital stress is positively associated with emotion work provision, and that the association is stronger for respondents who report more adverse childhood experiences. For respondents with low childhood adversity, the association of marital stress with emotion work is greater for same-sex couples compared to different-sex couples; for those with high childhood adversity, the association is equally strong. Findings from this study suggest that both men and women in same- and different-sex relationships do more emotion work in response to increased daily marital stress. Furthermore, early experiences of adversity are linked to stress responses in adulthood, with differing implications for men and women in different-sex and same-sex unions.
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Acceptance approaches, which have been receiving increased attention within behavior therapy, seek to undermine the linkage between private events and overt behavior, rather than attempting to control the form or frequency of private events per se. Research comparing control versus acceptance strategies is limited. The present study examined the behavioral and subjective impact of a control-based versus acceptance rationale, using a cold pressor task. Subjects in the acceptance group demonstrated greater tolerance of pain compared to the control-based and placebo groups. Only the control-based rationale targeted the subjective experience of pain but it did not differ across rationales. Results confirmed that acceptance was effective in manipulating the believability of reason giving, a key process measure. By encouraging individuals to distance themselves from their private events, acceptance methods may help reduce the use of emotional reasons to explain behavior and hence shift concern from moderating thoughts and feelings to experiencing the consequences of one's action. Acceptance is a promising new technique. Its effect is all the more surprising given that it teaches principles (e.g., "thoughts do not cause behavior") that run counter both to the popular culture and to the dominant approaches within empirical clinical intervention.
Article
Full-text available
Acceptance approaches , which have been receiving increased attention within behavior therapy, seek to undermine the linkage between private events and overt behavior, rather than attempting to control the form or frequency of private events per se. Research comparing control versus acceptance strategies is limited. The present study examined the behavioral and subjective impact of a control-based versus acceptance rationale, using a cold pressor task. Subjects in the acceptance group demonstrated greater tolerance of pain compared to the control-based and placebo groups. Only the control-based rationale targeted the subjective experience of pain but it did not differ across rationales. Results confirmed that acceptance was effective in manipulating the believability of reason giving, a key process measure. By encouraging individuals to distance themselves from their private events, acceptance methods may help reduce the use of emotional reasons to explain behavior and hence shift concern from moderating thoughts and fee lings to experiencing the consequences of one's action. Acceptance is a promising new technique. Its effect is all the more surprising given that it teaches principles (e.g., "thoughts do not cause behavior") that run counter both to the popular culture and to the dominant approaches within empirical clinical intervention.
Article
Given recent attention to emotion regulation as a potentially unifying function of diverse symptom presentations, there is a need for comprehensive measures that adequately assess difficulties in emotion regulation among adults. This paper (a) proposes an integrative conceptualization of emotion regulation as involving not just the modulation of emotional arousal, but also the awareness, understanding, and acceptance of emotions, and the ability to act in desired ways regardless of emotional state; and (b) begins to explore the factor structure and psychometric properties of a new measure, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Two samples of undergraduate students completed questionnaire packets. Preliminary findings suggest that the DERS has high internal consistency, good test–retest reliability, and adequate construct and predictive validity.
Book
An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello
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Remember when categorizations for emotional responsiveness were simple—type A vs type B, or introverted vs extroverted? Once you read Handbook of Emotion Regulation, edited by respected Stanford psychologist James J. Gross, you’ll long for those days of simplicity. As stated in the book, the complexity of emotion regulation is like a “riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma” (p 87), words used by Churchill to describe Russia. Although several definitions are presented in the text, emotion regulation generally refers to the modification of emotional reactions in the form of activation, inhibition, or more graded modifications.
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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thoroughly reviews the existing literature on sex role and gender differences in affective development, and presents some of her own current research on this important topic [focusing on children] / presents consistent research findings that boys and girls significantly differ in emotional expression / Brody appreciates that these gender differences arise from various sources, such as genetics, biological constitution, and socialization / she believes, however, that socialization makes the main contribution to gender differences / discusses historical differences in gender roles that contribute to this differentiated socialization (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)