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Coping availability and stress reduction for optimistic and pessimistic individuals

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Abstract

It has been noted that optimists adopt active coping strategies and pessimists employ passive coping strategies. Although active coping strategies are known as adaptive, these strategies under an uncontrollable situation are considered as maladaptive according to the goodness of fit hypothesis. The present study aimed to examine the effect of coping strategies adopted by both optimists and pessimists under a controllable and an uncontrollable situation. Participants were 32 optimists and 32 pessimists selected by the Life Orientation Test. Controllability of aversive situations was operated by ratios of answerable anagram tasks. Main findings were as follows. Optimists tended to adopt active coping strategies and showed lower subjective stress than pessimists. Under a controllable situation, coping strategies adopted by optimists were correlated with subjective stress significantly, while pessimists showed no relationship between coping strategies and stress. These results indicated that high stress shown by pessimists was due to the low efficacy of adopted coping strategies.

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... According to the Scheier and Carver (1985) optimistic people believe that things are going in the right direction, but pessimists always expecting everything to go adversely and cause bad results [11]. Pessimistic experience high stress, regardless of ability to control the stressful situation and reduce stress, connected with the use of active and problem oriented and increased stress related to the use of avoidance and coping strategies [12]. Regard this issue; Ghazanfari Poor (2012) stated that there is a significant relationship between coping strategies and public health. ...
... The findings of Scheier et al. (1986) showed a positive correlation between optimism and problem-oriented coping strategy [13]. Iwanaga et al. (2004) investigated the relationship between optimism and pessimism and Concluded that optimistic people show less stress and high stress has positive correlation with pessimism. Carver and Scheier (2014) stated that there is a significant relationship between optimism and mental health [7]. ...
... Contrariwise, whatever one's view is pessimistic about what's going on, mental health is less. These findings of this study are the same vine with the results [7] [11] [12]. Conversano et al. (2010) stated that optimistic people have healthier lifestyle, better cognitive responses and adaptive behavior and mental health and higher flexibility of mental health than others [8]. ...
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The present study is conducted to determine the relationship between optimism, pessimism and coping strategies and mental health and ability to predict these concepts in students mental health in the academic year 2014 in Lorestan University. 367 subjects sampling via stratified random were selected among students of Lorestan University. Tools for data collection in this study are mental health questionnaire (GHQ-28), Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) and a questionnaire dealing with stressful situations (CISS). The method of study is correlational and data are analyzed using the stepwise regression. Data analysis shows that there are significant relationships among optimism, pessimism, and mental health (p < 0.01). There is positive and significant relationship between problem-oriented coping strategies and subject’s mental health. Also there is a significant negative relationship between coping strategies and mental health (p < 0.01). The results of study show that optimism, pessimism, coping strategies and problem-oriented coping, differently explain variance related to mental health and its subscales significantly (p < 0.01). Generally speaking, optimistic people have more mental health because of following health lifestyles and behavior and confirming problem-oriented coping strategies. Those who follow have higher capacity of solving the problem, because they involve with the problem directly, so they have higher level of mental health.
... During the pandemic optimistic individuals also had higher levels of adherence to preventive behaviors (Adebayo et al., 2022). This implies that optimistic individuals look for activeinstrumental support during adversities while those having a pessimistic outlook look for passive-emotional support or opt for an avoidant approach (Hatchett and Park, 2004;Iwanaga et al., 2004;Yevdokimova and Okhrimenko, 2020). These mitigating factors are known as coping which are the efforts put in by an individual to manage inherently difficult psychosocial demands (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984). ...
... Results have shown that optimism has a significant positive relationship with problem-focused and emotion-focused coping while it has a negative relationship with avoidance coping, accepting hypothesis 1a. These findings are supported by previous research (Andersson, 1996;Hatchett and Park, 2004;Iwanaga et al., 2004;Yevdokimova and Okhrimenko, 2020). This is due to the reason that optimists have a generally active approach toward life and similarly coping. ...
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The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has not only brought the risk of death but has brought unbearable psychological pressures to the people. Mental health of COVID patients is expected to be affected by the continuous spread of the pandemic. This study aims to find the mediating role of coping styles in the relationship between life orientation and psychological distress among COVID recovered patients. It was hypothesized that: life orientation is likely to have a relationship with coping; coping is likely to have a relationship with psychological distress and coping is likely to mediate the relationship between life orientation and psychological distress among patients recovered from COVID. For this purpose, 378 COVID-10 recovered patients’ men (190) and women (188). Urdu translations of the Life Orientation scale revised, Brief Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced (COPE) and Impact of event scales were used to collect data. Results show that emotion-focused and avoidant coping mediate the relationship between life orientation and psychological distress. The research has implications for mental health practitioners and individuals dealing with health-related issues.
... Otra de las variables propuestas como intervinientes en la relación estrés-salud es la personalidad, la cual de acuerdo a varios autores es planteada tanto como mediadora (Furhham & Heaven, 1999) como moderadora (Cohen & Edwards, 1989) de dicha relación. Entre los constructos más estudiados se encuentran el neuroticismo (Wistow, Wakefield, & Goldsmith, 1990), la personalidad tipo A (Beech, Burns, & Sheffield, 1884), el pesimismo/optimismo (Iwanaga, yokoyama, & Seiwa, 2004;Scheier & Carver, 2002) y la empatía. A este respecto, Guarino (2004;2005) realizó una revisión de los constructos de neuroticismo y empatía, proponiendo uno nuevo más integrador que los anteriores denominado sensibilidad emocional (Guarino & Roger, 2005), constituido por tres dimensiones: sensibilidad egocéntrica negativa, sensibilidad interpersonal positiva y distanciamiento emocional, y determinando el rol de cada una de ellas en la moderación de la relación entre el estrés y el estado de salud. ...
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La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo predecir los síntomas físicos y psicológicos percibidos de médicos venezolanos en función de su estrés laboral, estilos de afrontamiento, sensibilidad emocional y características demográficas. La muestra estuvo conformada por 130 médicos que trabajan en unidades críticas de hospitales públicos de Caracas (Venezuela), a quienes se evaluaron los factores psicosociales indicados para determinar el patrón de relación de los mismos y su capacidad de predecir el estatus de los síntomas físicos y psicológicos autoreportados por los galenos. Los resultados de las regresiones múltiples indicaron que el uso del afrontamiento emocional y el ser residente incrementan los niveles de síntomas físicos; adicionalmente, los síntomas psicológicos fueron predichos por el uso del afrontamiento emocional, la condición de ser médico residente, mujer y el poco uso del desapego emocional. Por su parte, la característica de personalidad de mayor presencia en los médicos es la sensibilidad interpersonal positiva, involucrando la expresión y manifestación de sentimientos positivos. Finalmente, el modelo de estrés laboral de Karasek y Theorell permitió la clasificación de los profesionales de la medicina venezolanos en el cuadrante de aprendizaje activo.
... In addition to optimists' tendency to use more effective coping strategies, the coping strategies employed by optimists in controllable situations were associated with lower levels of subjective stress (Iwanaga, Yokoyama, & Seiwa, 2004). Chang (2002) also found that optimism moderated the relation between appraised stress and psychological symptoms, such that under high stress conditions, participants high in optimism showed far fewer symptoms than did those low in optimism. ...
Article
Parents of children with developmental delays consistently report higher levels of child behavior problems and also parenting stress than parents of typically developing children. This study examined how mothers' positive beliefs influence the relation between children's behavior problems and mothers' parenting stress among families of children who are developmentally delayed (DD: n = 72) or typically developing (TD: n = 95) and assessed at ages 3, 5, and 7 years. Positive beliefs had a main effect on parenting stress at all ages, which was mediated by child behavior problems for mothers in the DD group at every age and across time. In the TD group, mediation was found at age 3 years. Additionally, support was found for a moderation effect of positive beliefs on the relation between child behavior problems and parenting stress, but only in the DD group at age 3. These findings have implications for interventions drawing on Seligman's (1991)35. Seligman , M. E. P. 1991. Learned optimism, New York: Knopf. View all references work on learned optimism, the positive counterpart of learned helplessness.
... Otra de las variables propuestas como intervinientes en la relación estrés-salud es la personalidad, la cual de acuerdo a varios autores es planteada tanto como mediadora (Furhham & Heaven, 1999) como moderadora (Cohen & Edwards, 1989) de dicha relación. Entre los constructos más estudiados se encuentran el neuroticismo (Wistow, Wakefield, & Goldsmith, 1990), la personalidad tipo A (Beech, Burns, & Sheffield, 1884), el pesimismo/optimismo (Iwanaga, yokoyama, & Seiwa, 2004;Scheier & Carver, 2002) y la empatía. A este respecto, Guarino (2004;2005) realizó una revisión de los constructos de neuroticismo y empatía, proponiendo uno nuevo más integrador que los anteriores denominado sensibilidad emocional (Guarino & Roger, 2005), constituido por tres dimensiones: sensibilidad egocéntrica negativa, sensibilidad interpersonal positiva y distanciamiento emocional, y determinando el rol de cada una de ellas en la moderación de la relación entre el estrés y el estado de salud. ...
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This research aimed at predicting the perceived health of Venezuelan physicians based on their work stress, coping styles, emotional sensitivity and sociodemographic characteristics. Sample was 130 physicians working in critical units of public hospitals in Caracas, Venezuela, who were evaluated on the mentioned psychosocial factors in order to determine their interrelationship and their ability to predict the health status of the physicians. Results from multiple regressions analyses suggested that physical symtoms are predicted for using emotional coping and being resident. Also, using emotional coping, but low emotional detachment, being medical resident and woman, predicted increased psychological symptoms. On the other side, the positive interpersonal sensitivity was the most consistent personality characteristic of the physicians, involving the expression of positive affects. Finally, the Karasek and Theorell´s model of work stress allowed classifying the Venezuelan physicians on the active learning block. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo predecir los síntomas físicos y psicológicos percibidos de médicos venezolanos en función de su estrés laboral, estilos de afrontamiento, sensibilidad emocional y características demográficas. La muestra estuvo conformada por 130 médicos que trabajan en unidades críticas de hospitales públicos de Caracas (Venezuela), a quienes se evaluaron los factores psicosociales indicados para determinar el patrón de relación de los mismos y su capacidad de predecir el estatus de los síntomas físicos y psicológicos autoreportados por los galenos. Los resultados de las regresiones múltiples indicaron que el uso del afrontamiento emocional y el ser residente incrementan los niveles de síntomas físicos; adicionalmente, los síntomas psicológicos fueron predichos por el uso del afrontamiento emocional, la condición de ser médico residente, mujer y el poco uso del desapego emocional. Por su parte, la característica de personalidad de mayor presencia en los médicos es la sensibilidad interpersonal positiva, involucrando la expresión y manifestación de sentimientos positivos. Finalmente, el modelo de estrés laboral de Karasek y Theorell permitió la clasificación de los profesionales de la medicina venezolanos en el cuadrante de aprendizaje activo.
... Individuals who feel confident about the outcomes of their actions are more likely to make an effort than those who feel doubtful. Consequently, dispositional optimism seems to be associated with a general preference for engagement coping (Brissette, Scheier, & Carver, 2002;Carver et al., 1993;Fontaine, Manstead, & Wagner, 1993;Iwanaga, Yokoyama, & Seiwa, 2004;Scheier, Weintraub, & Carver, 1986;Solberg Nes & Segerstrom, 2006). Optimists are also more likely to perceive a stressful situation as controllable and therefore to rely on problemfocused coping (Chang, 1998;Fontaine et al., 1993;Peacock & Wong, 1996). ...
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We investigated the relationship between dispositional optimism and coping with growing occupational uncertainty, drawing on the life span theory of control to assess coping. Participants were 606 German adults with various sociodemographic backgrounds, aged 16–43. They were interviewed at the end of 2005 (Time 1) and at the beginning of 2007 (Time 2). We regressed each control strategy at Time 2 on its scores at Time 1, optimism at Time 1, three moderating variables, and their interactions with optimism. Dispositional optimism predicted an increase in both goal engagement strategies (selective primary and compensatory primary control) only under favorable conditions (low regional unemployment rate, low perceived growth in occupational uncertainty, and high perceived controllability of this stressor). Specific conditions moderating the effects of optimism differed between the two engagement strategies. In addition, an unfavorable labor market situation as such prompted an increase in goal engagement. No effects of optimism on goal disengagement (compensatory secondary control) at Time 2 were found. The effects of dispositional optimism on the change in control strategies were contingent on the labor market situation, which supports the view that optimists are better able to tailor their coping responses to available opportunities.
... Several studies have shown that dispositional optimism plays a role in influencing whether a person persists in goal-directed behavior (Strack, Carvery, & Blany, 1987). Iwanaga, Yokoyama, and Seiwa (2004) used the Life Orientation Test (LOT; Scheier & Carver, 1985), a measure of dispositional optimism, to show that optimists generally tend to deal with stressful events by using active coping strategies and problem-focused coping strategies, whereas pessimists tend to adopt denial and avoidance coping strategies. Thus, Kricos et al. (2007) were interested in whether a measure of dispositional optimism, namely the LOT, might predict whether a person is more likely to continue use of their hearing aids after the initial fitting, and whether optimism is correlated with adjustment to hearing loss. ...
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Psychosocial and Sociological Considerations Just over ten years ago, Gatehouse (1994) provided research evidence of the powerful impact that psycho-logical variables may have on adjustment to hearing loss, as well as hearing aid benefit, use, and satisfaction. Using a regression model analysis, Gatehouse found that none of the audiological variables that he included in his study actually entered into the equation for social and psychological effects of hearing disability, whereas over 20% of the variance was explained by age and as-pects of personality, particularly anxiety, and to a lesser extent depression. Gatehouse found that four psycho-logical variables accounted for over 30% of the variation of hearing aid satisfaction ratings: hysteria, depression, sickness, and anxiety. Perceived help from hearing aids was also strongly influenced by certain aspects of per-sonality. Thus, it appeared from Gatehouse's analyses that psychological and social variables may be more closely linked to hearing aid success than audiological and electro-acoustic parameters. Since Gatehouse's groundbreaking research study, there have been a number of other research efforts regard-ing psychosocial and sociological effects on treatment out-comes (Kricos, 2000; Kricos, 2006a). For example, the fol-lowing personality traits have been linked to successful hearing aid use: external locus of control (Cox, Alexander, & Gray, 1999; Cox, Alexander, & Gray, 2005; Garstecki & Erler, 1998); anxiety/neuroticism (Gatehouse, 1994; Saun-ders & Cienkowski, 1996; Cox, Alexander, & Gray, 2007); introversion/extroversion (Cox et al., 1999; Saunders & Cienkowski, 1996); self-esteem (Saunders & Cienkowski, 1996); and lethargy/depression (Garstecki & Erler, 1998), and other personality traits, such as openness and consci-entiousness (Cox, et al., 2007).
... Optimism is the tendency to believe that one will generally experience good outcomes in life, and it has been related, for example, to higher well-being levels (33). Optimists are better able to confront threatening situations because they adopt active coping strategies (34), and as a result, they adapt well at work (35). Moreover, several studies have shown that optimism, as an important personal resource, has acted as a moderator between demanding situations and well-being and health outcomes (36,37). ...
Article
Objective In this study, we hypothesized that dentist' interpersonal resources (good cooperation with one's assistant) together with their personal resources (optimism) buffer the negative effects of emotional dissonance (a demand that occurs when there is a difference between felt and displayed emotions) on job performance (in-role and extra-role performance) over time. Method We carried out Hierarchical Regression Modeling on a sample of 1954 Finnish dentists who participated in a two-wave 4-year longitudinal study. ResultsResults showed that good cooperation with dental assistants buffered the negative effects of emotional dissonance on both in-role and extra-role performance among the dentists in the long term. However, unexpectedly, dentists' high optimism did not buffer their in-role nor extra-role performance over time under conditions of experiencing high emotional dissonance. Conclusions We conclude that interpersonal job resources such as good cooperation with one's colleagues may buffer the negative effect of emotional dissonance on dentists' job performance even in the long term, whereas the role of personal resources (e.g., optimism) may be less important for maintaining high job performance under conditions of emotional dissonance. The study novelties include the test of the negative effects of emotional dissonance on long-term performance in dentistry and the identification of the job rather than personal resources as the buffers against the negative effects of emotional dissonance on long-term performance.
... Several researches have documented that 5-HT exerts an inhibitory influence on the positive and negative effects rather than only inhabiting negative state in healthy males [30,31]. It is possible that the pessimistic students were more prepared to enter a state of protective inhibition due to high level serotonergic neurotransmission when presented with high intensity stimuli in an uncontrollable situation [32], while students in the optimistic group may have a weak cortical inhibitory system to protect against overstimulation due to low inhibition function of 5-HT [33]. ...
Article
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Positive psychology focuses were on the merits of individuals, such as optimism and positive attitude, and the subsequent cultivation of these virtues. Optimism or pessimism is a significant predictor of physical health outcomes. The present study examined whether optimism or pessimism is associated with the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), a biological indicator of serotonergic neurotransmission, for the N1, P2, and N1/P2 peaks in college students. The amplitudes and amplitude-stimulus intensity function (ASF) slopes of the N1, P2, and N1/P2 peaks were determined in the 24 (10 males) high optimistic and 24 (14 males) high pessimistic individuals. Significantly higher P2 ASF slopes were found in the optimistic group relative to the pessimistic group. Concerning peaks and ASF slopes of N1 and N1/P2, no significant differences were observed. Our results suggest that the serotonergic neurotransmission of the high optimistic college students was inferior to that of the pessimistic ones. Further investigations are needed to provide sufficient support for our results.
... Pessimism is the expectation that events in the future will be negative (Ey et al., 2005); therefore, in the context of involvement in peer victimization, theoretically, pessimistic youth would perceive negative peer interactions as likely to continue to occur in the future and thus may have an augmented stress response. Additionally, pessimism has been tied to both stress (Iwanaga, Yokoyama, & Seiwa, 2004) and negative health outcomes (Maruta, Colligan, Malinchoc, & Offord, 2002) in previous research, suggesting it may play a more sophisticated role as a mechanism of the stress-health relationship. In fact, research has examined pessimism as a moderator between stress and health in adults, finding that pessimistic explanatory style interacts with stress to predict augmented physical illness symptoms (Jackson, Sellers, & Peterson, 2002). ...
Article
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Involvement in peer victimization has been associated with numerous negative consequences, including poor physical health. The purpose of this study is to improve on previous research evaluating the victimization-health relationship by examining the health (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], medical service utilization) of both victims and aggressors and examining individual variation in this relationship through the moderating effect of pessimism. The sample included 125 ethnically diverse youth aged 8-11 years recruited from a low-income medical practice. Child-report of involvement in peer victimization and pessimism was assessed along with parent-report of HRQoL. 2-year medical service utilization was extracted from medical records. Although not all hypotheses were supported, victims and aggressors were found to be at increased risk for certain poor health outcomes, which were exacerbated by high levels of pessimism. Findings expand on research into peer victimization and health and provide important implications for identification, prevention, and intervention strategies with at-risk youth.
... juga menyelidiki hubungan antara optimisme dan pesimisme dan menyimpulkan bahwa 218 orang yang optimis menunjukkan lebih sedikit stres dan stres tinggi memiliki korelasi positif dengan pesimisme. (Iwanaga et al., 2004) Safrudin, dkk, dalam (Partono & Rosada, 2020) menguraikan bahwa hasil riset para ilmuwan menunjukkan bahwa seseorang yang optimis akan lebih sehat dan panjang umur dibanding orang yang pesimis. Para peneliti memperhatikan seseorang yang optimis lebih sanggup menghadapi stress dan kemungkinan kecil untuk depresi. ...
Chapter
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Book chapter ini berisi tinjauan psikologis terhadap Q.s. 2: 28 yang berisi tentang siklus kehidupan dan kematian. Dari perspektif psikologis, ayat ini menyiratkan tentang penting memahami makna hidup yang esensial. Memahami hal ini relevan dalam menghadapi kondisi pandemi covid-19.
... Similarly, optimism, which is the tendency to believe that one will generally experience good outcomes in life, is related to higher levels of wellbeing (Scheier et al., 2001). Optimists are better able to confront threatening situations because they adopt active coping strategies (Iwanaga et al., 2004), and as a result they adapt well at work (Luthans and Youssef, 2007), and feel more engaged at work (e.g. Xanthopoulou et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Purpose – The main objective of this study is to apply broaden‐and‐build theory to occupational wellbeing. More specifically, it seeks to test whether positive emotions “build” resources and to what extent they contribute to work engagement through an increase in personal or job resources. Additionally, it aims to hypothesize that positive emotions, resources, and work engagement are reciprocally related to each other in a way akin to a gain cycle. Design/methodology/approach – In order to test whether positive emotions, personal and job resources, and work engagement are related over time, a structural equation model was constructed. The model was based on two waves of data, with a time lag of six months. Findings – Results show a reciprocal relationship between positive emotions and personal resources. Furthermore, there is a causal effect of personal resources on work engagement and a reversed causal effect of work engagement on positive emotions. Most surprising is the fact that no relationships with job resources are found to be significant. Research limitations/implications – Because the authors exclusively used self‐report measures to assess positive emotions, resources, and work engagement, the cross‐paths might have been inflated. Practical implications – The results underline the importance of increasing both positive emotions and the level of personal resources in order to create an engaged workforce. Originality/value – The study adds to the existing literature in the sense that the research model entailed positive emotions as a “novel” variable in the context of resources and work engagement. The model recognized the building capacity of positive emotions as well as the potential of personal resources in predicting work engagement.
... Optimism is the belief that one will expect positive outcomes in life. Optimists are better able to face threatening situations positively and as a result have effective coping skills (Iwanaga et al. 2004). Barsh and Cranston (2011) described optimism as a fuel that energizes an individual and drives him/her to attain higher levels of success. ...
Article
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Teachers who possess high levels of psychological capital and collective self-esteem are better able to cope with the spate of school violence, student/student bullying, and other current issues confronting the education system globally, regionally, and nationally. A teacher psychological capital high in hope, optimism, self-efficacy, resilience, and collective self-esteem translates into educators who possess a more positive outlook and can impart and influence how their students perceive themselves. No known research exists in the Trinidadian context linking both psychological capital and collective self-esteem. This study expands the body of research in these two areas, locally, by reporting the findings of a psychological questionnaire and the Collective Self-Esteem Survey (CSES, Luhtanen and Crocker, 1992). Results indicated that Trinidadian female participants were optimistic, hopeful, and resilient, filled with self-efficacy, and contained high levels of collective self-esteem.
... According to Seligman (1998), an optimistic explanatory style is one that attributes positive events to personal, permanent, and pervasive causes, and negative events to external, temporary, and situation-specific ones. Optimists are better able to confront threatening situations because they adopt active coping strategies (Iwanaga et al., 2004). As a result, they adapt well at work . ...
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In recent years, work engagement has attracted a lot of attention among practitioners and researchers in India. Against the backdrop of resource conservation, this study attempts to examine and understand the role of work engagement in mediating the relationship between job, personal resources and work related outcomes. This research is significant due to the growing importance of work engagement in the business world today and the lack of relevant literature in the Indian context. With a total sample of more than 200 middle and senior level executives, the findings of this study show a strong relationship between job, personal resources, job satisfaction, affective commitment and turnover. Work engagement was found to be a mediator between job and personal resources, which has an impact on employees' work attitudes. The findings of this study, therefore, have profound implications for researchers as well as for the practicing managers who need to understand the importance of an enabling work environment to harness employees' full potential. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Priyadarshi, P. and Raina, R. (2014) 'The mediating effects of work engagement: testing causality between personal resource, job resource and work related outcomes', Int. Biographical notes: Pushpendra Priyadarshi is an Assistant Professor in the area of Human Resource Management at the IIM Lucknow. His work engagement, coaching and mentoring, positive psychology and work-life interface are his current research areas. Beside practice-based course on coaching and mentoring, he also teaches organisational structure and design, organisational behaviour and human resource management. He has been involved in executive education of senior and middle level executives of leading organisations where leadership, coaching and mentoring and
... Optimism represents the tendency to believe that one will generally experience good outcomes in life and is related to higher well-being levels (Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994). Individuals high on optimism are found to be better able to confront threatening situations because they seem to adopt more active coping strategies (Iwanaga, Yokoyama, & Seiwa, 2004), and as a result they adapt well at work (Luthans & Youssef, 2007). Similarly, optimists are more likely to appraise their resources as sufficient to deal with their demands (Grawitch et al., 2010). ...
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Although work and family are undoubtedly important life domains, individuals are also active in other life roles which are also important to them (like pursuing personal interests). Building on identity theory and the resource perspective on work-home interface, we examined whether there is an indirect effect of work-self conflict/facilitation on exhaustion and task performance over time through personal resources (i.e., self-efficacy and optimism). The sample was composed of 368 Dutch police officers. Results of the 3-wave longitudinal study confirmed that work-self conflict was related to lower levels of self-efficacy, whereas work-self facilitation was related to improved optimism over time. In turn, self-efficacy was related to higher task performance, whereas optimism was related to diminished levels of exhaustion over time. Further analysis supported the negative, indirect effect of work-self facilitation on exhaustion through optimism over time, and only a few reversed causal effects emerged. The study contributes to the literature on interrole management by showing the role of personal resources in the process of conflict or facilitation over time. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Such negative feelings and stressful life students experience can lead to various mental problems, decrease in academic success, and emotions such as hopelessness for the future and desperateness (4,20). Nevertheless, the researches show that individuals, who use of effective communication skills and adopt optimistic life orientation, cope with stress more effectively, and protect their physical and mental health better (21,22). According to the findings of the study, it was found that students' life orientations lie in optimistic direction and on average. ...
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Methods learnt by nursing and midwifery students' such as communication skills, optimisim and coping with stress would be used in their profeesional life. It is very important to promote their positive thinking and communication skills to raise coping with stress. This cross sectional study was performed to examine the nursing and midwifery students' communication skills and optimistic life orientation and its correlation with coping strategies with stress. The study population included 2572 students who were studying in departments of nursing and midwifery in Istanbul. The sample was included 1419 students. Three questionnaires including Communication Skills Test, Life Orientation Test and Ways of Coping Inventory were used for data collection. The data were evaluated by calculating frequency, percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation and Pearson correlation coefficient. Students' total mean score from the Communication Skills Scale was 165.27 ± 15.39 and for the Life Orientation Test was 18.51 ± 4.54. There was a positive correlation between their Life Orientation scores and the scores for self confidence (r = 0.34, P < 0.001), optimistic approach (r = 0.42, P < 0.001), and seeking social help (r = 0.17, P < 0.001). Also there was a significant positive correlation between Communication skill scores and self confidence (r = 0.46, P < 0.001), optimistic (r = 0.37, P < 0.001) and seeking social help approaches (r = 0.29, P < 0.001), but there was a significant negative correlation between communication skill scores and scores for helpless (r = -0.29, P < 0.001) and submissive approaches (r = -0.36, P < 0.001). As scores of students in optimistic life orientation and communication skills increased self confidence approach, optimistic, and social support seeking scores increased, whereas helpless, and submissive scores decreased.
... In general it can be argued that optimism links to particular coping strategies. A growing body of literature showed that higher level of optimism was related to active coping behaviors such as problem-focused coping (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989;Iwanaga, Yokoyama, & Seiwa, 2004;Scheier, Weintraub, & Carver, 1986), approach type and confrontational coping (Nes & Segerstrom, 2003), taskoriented coping, and social support as a coping (Hatchett & Park, 2004). Whereas lower level of optimism was associated with emotion-focused (Scheier, Weintraub, Carver, 1986), and avoidance as a coping (Nes & Segerstrom, 2003). ...
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Many previous studies suggest that optimism (that is, a generalized positive expectancy of the future) is related to better health outcomes, more adaptive coping, and health behaviors. These relationships may have a mutual reinforcing nature. In this study primarily we focus on the health protective nature of optimism in adolescence. In addition, while the health protecting effects of optimism have been already justified, we know much less about the background variables (such as parent - child relationship or socioeconomic status and school-related factors) influencing adolescent dispositional optimism. Previous findings suggest that some social factors, particularly social support may be positively related to optimism. Thus, in the first part of this study, we have examined which social variables of the two major contexts of socialization (family and school) predict optimism. Many investigations revealed that optimism was positively associated with positive health outcomes such as mental health and quality of life. Thus, in the second part of our research we have concentrated on detecting associations between optimism and a set of health variables, namely, depression, self-perceived health (SPH), satisfaction with life (SWL) and substance use, such as alcohol consumption, smoking, and drug use. 881 secondary school students in Szeged, Hungary completed a battery of questionnaires that contained items on optimism (measured by the Life Orientation Test, LOT), health-compromising and health-enhancing behaviors as well as family and school-related protective factors. Results indicated that different forms of family support, parents' schooling, socioeconomic status (SES), and being happy with school significantly but slightly predicted optimism. Furthermore, optimism was positively correlated with satisfaction with life and self-perceived health and negatively with depression. In terms of substance use, optimism proved to be a protective factor against adolescent substance use except for smoking. In addition optimism was also a significant predictor of adolescent regular physical activity and diet control. We may conclude that findings support a mutual, reinforcing relationship between optimism and positive health outcomes. The negative correlation between optimism and depression is in consonance with previous results demonstrating the stress buffering nature of optimism in adolescent life. These findings are discussed in the light of the health protective power of optimism.
... Coping style is the mental self-adaptation and psychological support mechanism that helps patients reduce mental stress, and it plays an important role in psychological health [32]. In terms of positive coping styles, confrontment, optimism, appeasement, and self-reliance are able to release psychological distress, thereby helping treatment and recovery [33], in which optimism helps patients to receive treatment positively and activate the immune system [34]. In addition, predestination and emotional expression were negative coping styles in which emotional expression manifests as losing temper, blaming others, and impulsiveness; however, these behaviors and emotions cannot change the status quo and reduce stress at all, but rather affect their relationship with others so as to result in psychological burden and damage to health [35]. ...
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Background This study aimed to explore the factors affecting the level of hope and psychological health status of patients with cervical cancer (CC) during radiotherapy. Material/Methods A total of 480 CC patients were recruited. Psychological distress scale, Herth hope index, functional assessment cancer therapy-cervix, and Jolowiec coping scale were used to conduct surveys on psychological distress, level of hope, quality of life (QOL), and coping style to analyze the factors affecting the level of hope and psychological health status of CC patients. Results The morbidity of significant psychological distress in 480 CC patients during radiotherapy was 68%, and the main factors causing psychological distress were emotional problems and physical problems. During radiotherapy, most patients had middle and high levels of hope, and the psychological distress index of patients was negatively correlated with the level of hope. The QOL of CC patients during radiotherapy were at middle and high levels, and the QOL was positively correlated with confrontment, optimism, appeasement, and self-reliance, but it was negatively correlated with predestination and emotional expression. Conclusions For CC patients during radiotherapy, the morbidity of psychological distress was high, but they were at middle and high levels of hope.
... juga menyelidiki hubungan antara optimisme dan pesimisme dan menyimpulkan bahwa 218 orang yang optimis menunjukkan lebih sedikit stres dan stres tinggi memiliki korelasi positif dengan pesimisme. (Iwanaga et al., 2004) Safrudin, dkk, dalam (Partono & Rosada, 2020) menguraikan bahwa hasil riset para ilmuwan menunjukkan bahwa seseorang yang optimis akan lebih sehat dan panjang umur dibanding orang yang pesimis. Para peneliti memperhatikan seseorang yang optimis lebih sanggup menghadapi stress dan kemungkinan kecil untuk depresi. ...
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Ketika buku ini disusun, masyarakat Indonesia sudah menjalani setahun lebih masa pandemi Covid-19. Tentunya pandemi ini sudah banyak membawa dampak dan perubahan dalam tatanan kehidupan masyarakat kita. Sebagai manusia sudah semestinya untuk membangun makna, karena sesungguhnya pada suatu peristiwa atau fenomena pasti memiliki makna. Pada dasarnya setiap manusia sudah dibekali potensi untuk membaca dan memahami makna. Ketika manusia memahami dan mengetahui nilai atau makna maka ia akan dapat beradaptasi. Ketika manusia tidak mampu membaca dan memahami nilai/makna maka ia akan menjadi stress dan frustasi, maka carilah makna dan jadilah bermakna. Dalam rangka mewujudkan tradisi akademik guna merespon perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan terkait Covid-19, maka Fakultas Ushuluddin dan Humaniora, Prodi Psikologi Islam UIN Antasari Banjarmasin mengundang para akademisi, peneliti dan praktisi untuk memberikan sumbangan pemikiran dalam bentuk opini, refleksi, ataupun review mengenai Covid-19 dalam perspektif Psikologi Islam. Call for chapter buku Covid-19 dan Psikologi Islam dibuka pada bulan September 2020 melalui website http://pi.fuh.uin-antasari.ac.id. Antusiasme sangat tinggi yang dibuktikan dengan banyaknya artikel yang masuk, tidak hanya dari internal saja, tapi juga dari kolega-kolega lain. Pada Bulan Desember-Maret 2021, kami melakukan proses review dan edit. Tercatat ada 26 artikel dengan topik relevan dengan tema Covid-19 dan Psikologi Islam.
... For example, optimism during a crisis (e.g., terrorist attack, natural disasters, cancer) is associated with greater resiliency, better mental health, lower stress, and greater engagement in problem-solving (Auerbach et al., 2005;Bleich et al., 2006;Peled et al., 2008;Carbone and Echols, 2017). Even more broadly, optimism has been linked to more adaptive coping (Fontaine et al., 1993;Iwanaga et al., 2004), and greater post-traumatic growth (Britton et al., 2019). ...
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In a sample of 916 doctoral students from 144 universities across the United States, we examined psychology graduate students’ experiences in their programs, as well as their mental health, well-being, and optimism during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. In a path model, we found that students’ psychological experiences in their programs (i.e., social belonging, threat, and challenge) were associated with better mental health and well-being, which in turn was associated with greater optimism about the future during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings were also corroborated in students’ open-ended responses regarding how COVID-19 has impacted their lives. Findings varied by racial, gender, and sexual identities, as racial minorities, LGBTQ+ students, and women expressed more negative psychological experiences in their programs. We outline suggestions for graduate programs to support their graduate students, which include facilitating social connection, providing encouragement, and emphasizing students’ well-being over their productivity as the current pandemic persists.
... (<.6). Pessimism and optimism have been considered as two different concepts in past research (Iwanaga, Yokoyamab, & Seiwaa, 2004; W. C. . Reliability analysis for the pessimism items was α = .51, ...
Thesis
The clinical literature recognizes that the effects of extreme events on well being are not universal, due to a number of complex factors. The current research identified the need to investigate the role of social factors on well-being following extreme events, by taking into account the cultural and political context. Drawing on two approaches, the social identity/self–categorisation model of stress and the stress and coping model of Lazarus and Folkman, this thesis aimed at investigating how meaning given to events in terms of the salient identities, affects appraisal of the severity of events, social support, coping strategies, and health outcome. The methodological approach undertaken was qualitative (composed of an interview and an ethnographic study) and quantitative (composed of a questionnaire study). The studies were conducted with Kosovo Albanians 4-6 years after the end of the ethnic conflict in 1998-1999. The first two studies were exploratory and aimed at investigating the meaning attributed to events, appraisal of the severity of the event, social support, coping and well-being. Result showed that all these processes are strongly influenced by the cultural and political context where the events were experienced. The third study investigated the findings of the qualitative studies more systematically. Analysis of the all the three studies revealed that meanings attributed to events in terms of the Kosovo Albanian identity affected the appraisal of the severity of events, social support exchanged, coping strategies, and outcome (both well-being and psychological outcome). In addition, analysis suggests that the relationship between meaning attributed to events and outcome was mediated via appraisal of events, social support and coping strategies. Important gender differences in the way all these processes operate are identified too. Findings are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications.
... Seligman describes it as individuals with a fairly positive general view of their futures (Isaacowitz & Seligman, 2002). It meant that teachers with a higher level of optimism have a positive attitude toward life and job and optimistic teachers are better able to face threatening frustration with positive emotions so that have effective coping skills to deal with all challenges (Iwanaga et al. 2004). Hence, on the basis of optimism, teachers with high optimism could be more positive, increase teaching efficiency and motivation, and develop a good relationship with students. ...
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The purpose of this research mainly investigates the level of psychological capital in Chinese university EFL lecturers. And the related level of aspects of psychological capital – optimism, hope, self-efficacy, and resilience. 556 Chinese university EFL teachers in Zhejiang province have involved in this study and there is a high level of psychological capital. The mean value for the four dimensions, hope, and resilience, belong to the moderator level, while; efficacy and optimism are high levels. And then some discussions are proposed.
... Personal resources refer to positive self-evaluations of one's ability to exert control over one's environment (Hobfoll, Johnson, Ennis & Jackson, 2003). Optimism suggests that individuals mostly expect positive outcomes, and they generally adapt well in the workplace since their positive outlook allows them to deal with stressful situations (Iwanaga, Yokoyama & Seiwa, 2004;Luthans & Youssef, 2007;Scheier, Carver & Bridges, 2001). Similarly, self-efficacy refers to the extent to which a person believes that he or she will be successful in controlling demanding situations and by taking adaptive action (Schwarzer, 1993). ...
... One personality variable that has received scant attention from audiology researchers is dispositional optimism. Several studies cited by Iwanaga et al (2004) used the Life Orientation Test (LOT; Scheier and Carver, 1985), a measure of dispositional optimism, to show that optimists generally tend to deal with stressful events by using active coping strategies and problem-focused coping strategies, whereas pessimists tend to adopt denial and avoidance coping strategies. Dispositional optimism has also been found to play a role in influencing whether a person persists in goal-directed behaviors (Strack et al, 1987;Carver et al, 1989;Scheier et al, 1989;Aspinwall and Taylor, 1992). ...
Article
Despite considerable evidence regarding the detrimental effects of untreated hearing loss, there continues to be an underutilization of hearing aids by adults. The Long Term Follow-Up of Patients in the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders/Veterans Affairs (NIDCD/VA) Hearing Aid Clinical Trial (Cooperative Studies Program [CSP] 418-A) provided the opportunity to compare a number of potential psychosocial influences and outcomes for hearing aid users and nonusers from the original CSP 418 study. The Communication Profile for the Hearing Impaired (CPHI) results provide compelling evidence of hearing aid benefit. Mean Communication Performance (CP) scores for hearing aid users on the Social, Work, and Home scales improved significantly from the original CSP 418 administration. For nonusers, there were no significant CPHI changes from the previous administration. Although hearing aid users and nonusers did not differ in optimism, this parameter was correlated with personal adjustment, measured via the CPHI. Hearing aid use was associated with the perception of major life events, such as illness, retirement, and so forth.
Article
Fuzziness is inherent in decision data and decision making process. In this paper, interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set is used to capture fuzziness in multi-criteria decision making problems. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for solving multi-criteria decision making problem in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy environments. First, we introduce and discuss the concept of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy point operators. Using the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy point operators, we can reduce the degree of uncertainty of the elements in a universe corresponding to an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set. Then, we define an evaluation function for the decision-making problem to measure the degrees to which alternatives satisfy and do not satisfy the decision-maker's requirement. Furthermore, a series of new score functions are defined for multi-criteria decision making problem based on the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy point operators and the evaluation function and their effectiveness and advantage are illustrated by examples.
Article
This paper presents a useful method of relating optimism and pessimism to multiple criteria decision analysis in the context of intuitionistic fuzzy sets based on the unipolar bivariate model. We use eight point operators to estimate the adaptational outcome expectations of optimism and/or pessimism and then determine the net predisposition, the aggregated effect of positive and negative evaluations. A series of new net predispositions for bivariate evaluations are proposed for neutrality; for complete, moderate, and rational optimism; for complete, moderate, and rational pessimism; and for complete and moderate optimism–pessimism. The suitability function, which measures the overall evaluation of each alternative, is then presented. Because positive or negative leniency may exist, such that most of the criteria may be assigned unduly high or low ratings, respectively, we introduce deviation variables to mitigate the effects of such ratings on the apparent importance of various criteria. Based on the two objectives of maximal weighted suitability and minimal deviation values, an integrated programming model is used to compute the optimal weights for the criteria and the corresponding degrees of suitability of the alternative rankings. We establish flexible algorithms that incorporate both objective and subjective information to compute the optimal optimistic and pessimistic decisions. The proposed methods are illustrated and discussed using a numerical example, a multi-criteria supplier selection problem. Finally, an empirical study of job choices is conducted to establish the feasibility and applicability of the current method.
Article
To describe the coping strategies used by the spouses of cardiac patients who are pursuing heart transplant and to determine whether coping strategies predict depression in these spouses. This is a cross-sectional design with 28 spouses (86% female) of cardiac patients who were being evaluated for heart transplant at a large medical center. Coping styles were measured using the COPE Inventory (Carver CS, Scheier MF, Weintraub JK, J Pers Soc Psychol 1989: 56: 267). Depression was assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (Radloff LS, Appl Psychol Meas 1977: 1: 385). Spouses reported using adaptive coping strategies more than the less adaptive strategies. Increased levels of depression were positively correlated with 'behavioral disengagement' and negatively correlated with 'planning' coping strategies. Most studies find that maladaptive coping styles are associated with psychological distress. Consistent with these findings, we found that behavioral disengagement was associated with increased levels of depression. However, in the present study the more adaptive coping strategy of planning was associated with lower levels of psychological distress. These findings suggest that in the spouses of heart transplant candidates, both maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies may serve as markers of the presence or absence of emotional distress and thus may help in identifying spouses who may benefit from psychological, social work, or nursing interventions.
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In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether core self-evaluations (CSE) serve as an integrative framework for understanding individual differences in coping processes. A meta-analytic review demonstrated that CSEs were associated with fewer perceived stressors, lower strain, less avoidance coping, more problem-solving coping, and were not strongly related to emotion-focused coping. Consistent with the meta-analytic results, a daily diary study demonstrated that individuals with high CSE perceived fewer stressors, experienced less strain after controlling for stressors, and engaged in less avoidance coping. However, both studies demonstrated that emotional stability was uniquely related to the stress and coping process and that emotional stability moderated the relationship between stressors and strain. The discussion focuses on the distinction between depressive self-concept represented by CSE and the anxiety and worry represented by emotional stability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
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To identify and evaluate coping strategies advocated by experienced animal shelter workers who directly engaged in euthanizing animals. Cross-sectional study. Animal shelters across the United States in which euthanasia was conducted (5 to 100 employees/shelter). With the assistance of experts associated with the Humane Society of the United States, the authors identified 88 animal shelters throughout the United States in which animal euthanasia was actively conducted and for which contact information regarding the shelter director was available. Staff at 62 animal shelters agreed to participate in the survey. Survey packets were mailed to the 62 shelter directors, who then distributed them to employees. The survey included questions regarding respondent age, level of education, and role and asked those directly involved in the euthanasia of animals to provide advice on strategies for new euthanasia technicians to deal with the related stress. Employees completed the survey and returned it by mail. Content analysis techniques were used to summarize survey responses. Coping strategies suggested by 242 euthanasia technicians were summarized into 26 distinct coping recommendations in 8 categories: competence or skills strategies, euthanasia behavioral strategies, cognitive or self-talk strategies, emotional regulation strategies, separation strategies, get-help strategies, seek long-term solution strategies, and withdrawal strategies. Euthanizing animals is a major stressor for many animal shelter workers. Information regarding the coping strategies identified in this study may be useful for training new euthanasia technicians.
Article
One approach to reduce the "response burden" in applied psychological research is to create short versions of inventories. The present study reports the reliability of the Swedish versions of two short inventories; Brief COPE (Carver, 1997) and LOT-R (Scheier, Carver & Bridges, 1994). Brief COPE consists of 14 coping scales comprising 2 items per scale. LOT-R contains six items assessing generalized optimism. Altogether 332 undergraduate students participated in the study. The reliability coefficients indicated that a majority of the Brief COPE scales, as well as LOT-R possessed adequate reliabilities. Overall, the results of the study support the use of the Swedish versions of Brief COPE and LOT-R. Nyckelord: Brief COPE, LOT-R, reliabilitet.
Article
Objective: The current study examines the relationships between change in depressive symptoms and locus of control orientations among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants: A sample of 341 undergraduate students were recruited from a large Midwestern United States university.Methods: Participants completed an online cross-sectional survey with self-report measures of current depressive symptoms, retrospective pre-pandemic depressive symptoms, and locus of control.Results: Depressive symptoms changed significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic (t(340) = 7.49, p < 0.01). Pre-pandemic depressive symptoms predicted symptom change with the greatest changes among students who had fewer pre-pandemic symptoms (b = -0.58, p < 0.01) and higher external locus of control orientation (b = 0.24, p < 0.01).Conclusions: An increased presence of mental health resources is needed on college campuses and external locus of control should be targeted through clinical intervention as a risk factor for adverse depressive responses to stressors among college students.
Article
Four hundred questionnaires were handed out, of which 282 were effective and used for the purposes of this research. After data coding, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS for Windows XP) was used to carry out exploratory factor analysis. After eliminating unwanted information from the results of analysis, the four factors extracted were: active problem coping, active emotional coping, passive problem coping and passive emotional coping. The total variance explained in this inventory was 63.26%. The Cronbach reliability test was carried out and a value obtained was between 0.860-0.876. An a value of the overall stress coping style questionnaires was 0.830. The Pearson correlation analysis was used for this research to obtain the significant level of related coefficients of various factor components and total (0.557-0.589).
Article
The frequently used methods of handling optimism and pessimism in multiple criteria decision analysis are Hurwicz’s and Yager’s approaches. Despite their wide usage, a critical issue has been raised about unidimensionality. Numerous psychological researches and empirical findings have convincingly supported that optimism and pessimism do not represent opposite poles on a single, bipolar dimension, but they are conceived as two partially independent dimensions instead. The focus of this paper is a two-dimensional approach by adequately employing the degrees of membership and non-membership based on Atanassov fuzzy sets. This study develops optimistic and pessimistic estimations with several fuzzy point operators to draw the influences of optimism and pessimism on multicriteria decision making for the sake of a better fit than the unidimensional model. Given a typology from empirical grounds, the appropriate point operators specific to each type are suggested to identify adaptational outcomes. Base upon a series of new score functions, a useful method for multiple criteria decision analysis is provided to efficiently facilitate decision analysis with a multimeasure approach. Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods are illustrated by a practical example.
Article
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The separate and relative contributions of personal resources to well-being and mental health were examined in a convenience sample of full-time employees. Optimism, self-efficacy and humour as a coping style were each strongly associated with greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being and reduced symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. However, the effect of humour was mediated by optimism and self-efficacy in the regression analyses, except for depression. Further analysis found that those with more severe symptoms still endorsed using humour without seeming to benefit from its use for coping. Therapists could therefore encourage and nurture positive affect associated with humour in addition to reinforcing self-confidence and positive cognitions, to foster and support the development and maintenance of good psychological health.
Article
This study examined longitudinal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. On the basis of Conservation of Resources theory, we hypothesized that job resources, personal resources, and work engagement are reciprocal over time. The study was conducted among 163 employees, who were followed-up over a period of 18 months on average. Results of structural equation modeling analyses supported our hypotheses. Specifically, we found that T1 job and personal resources related positively to T2 work engagement. Additionally, T1 work engagement related positively to T2 job and personal resources. The model that fit best was the reciprocal model, which showed that not only resources and work engagement but also job and personal resources were mutually related. These findings support the assumption of Conservation of Resources theory that various types of resources and well-being evolve into a cycle that determines employees’ successful adaptation to their work environments.
Article
The concept of Atanassov’s intuitionistic fuzzy sets is a generalization of ordinary fuzzy sets. Under the intuitionistic fuzzy decision environment, this paper develops optimistic and pessimistic point operators to draw the influences of optimism and pessimism on multiple criteria decision analysis. We propose the optimistic and pessimistic score functions based on point operators to measure evaluations of the alternative with respect to each criterion. The suitability function can then be established to determine the degree to which the alternative satisfies the decision maker’s requirement. An optimization model with suitability functions is propounded on account of ill-known membership grades to generate optimal weights for criteria. Finally, an outcome-oriented approach is adopted to validate the proposed methods. Several multiattribute evaluation cases in consumer decision making reality are addressed to examine the feasibility and applicability of the current method. From the empirical results of effectiveness examination, the proposed intuitionistic fuzzy multicriteria decision making method with optimistic/pessimistic score functions performed significantly better than the method without consideration of optimism/pessimism. Therefore, we can conclude that the proposed methods by using intuitionistic fuzzy optimistic/pessimistic point operators have desirable potentials in practice.
Chapter
Higher education has a positive effect on students' and society's human and psychological capital. However, higher education funding is an issue for both students and Government. Qualitative study, using interviews, presents the views of 81 students at a technical vocational tertiary educational institution in Trinidad on the Government Assistance for Tertiary Education. Demographic information indicates that 47 students belonged to nuclear families, 62 students completed the Caribbean Secondary Schools Examination Council (CSEC), and 31 were first generation tertiary level students. Most participants indicated that their mothers were employed in the service industry and most participants indicated "none" for their fathers' occupations. Findings from the data, after coding, were: 1) improvement of human capital-relief from financial burdens, national service, continuation of GATE; 2) betterment of psychological capital-hope/self-improvement, career, and optimism. Recommendations made are for a more expansive study with students currently in the program as well as those who have benefitted from GATE.
Article
Interval-valued fuzzy sets have been developed and applied to multiple criteria analysis. However, the influence of optimism and pessimism on subjective judgments and the cognitive dissonance that accompanies the decision making process have not been studied thoroughly. This paper presents a new method to reduce cognitive dissonance and to relate optimism and pessimism in multiple criteria decision analysis in an interval-valued fuzzy decision environment. We utilized optimistic and pessimistic point operators to measure the effects of optimism and pessimism, respectively, and further determined a suitability function through weighted score functions. Considering the two objectives of maximal suitability and dissonance reduction, several optimization models were constructed to obtain the optimal weights for the criteria and to determine the corresponding degree of suitability for alternative rankings. Finally, an empirical study was conducted to validate the feasibility and applicability of the current method. We anticipate that the proposed method can provide insight on the influences of optimism, pessimism, and cognitive dissonance in decision analysis studies.
Article
In this paper, we extend the generalized weighted geometric and generalized ordered weighted geometric operators to intuitionistic fuzzy environments, that is, we develop a series of generalized intuitionistic fuzzy geometric operators to aggregate input arguments that are expressed by intuitionistic fuzzy values based on Archimedean t-conorm and t-norm. Then some desired properties of these aggregation operators are investigated. The relations between these operators and some existing intuitionistic fuzzy geometric aggregation operators are discussed in detail. Furthermore, applying these proposed operators, we develop an approach for multi-criteria decision making with intuitionistic fuzzy information. Finally, a practical example is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.
Article
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Цель. В предлагаемой работе целью исследования стало изучение профессионального выгорания и его взаимосвязи с личностными ресурсами на выборке библиотекарей Московской области. Метод. Выборка включала 504 респондента в возрасте от 17 до 72 лет. Подавляющее большинство участников исследования — женщины (96%). Для измерения выгорания была использована модель, предложенная В. Шауфели и Ш. Дезарт. Основными конструктами для описания личностных ресурсов выступили оптимизм, жизнестойкость и самоэффективность. В качестве основного метода анализа использовалась многоуровневая регрессия, которая является оптимальной при анализе сгруппированных данных, чтобы не происходила переоценка вклада каких-либо переменных. В качестве предварительного анализа была проведена валидизация измерительной модели выгорания с помощью конфирматорного факторного анализа (с факторами первого и второго порядка). Результаты. Было показано,что уровень выгорания у испытуемых достаточно низкий, личностные ресурсы связаны с выгоранием тесно и отрицательно (rs = – .64, p < .01). Эффект личностных ресурсов различается в среднем по библиотекам (β = – .08, 95% CI[– .04; – .12]), но одинаков у работников сельских и городских библиотек (β = .03, 95% CI[– .15; .21]). Помимо личностных ресурсов, значимым предиктором уровня выгорания выступил возраст (β = – .10, 95% CI[– .18; – .02]), при этом вклад стажа работы оказался незначим. Выводы. Впервые было показано, что эффект личностных ресурсов изменяется по группам: чем выше отклонение по уровню выгорания, тем ниже вклад личностных ресурсов. В заключение обсуждаются результаты этой работы с ранее проведёнными исследованиями, а также говорится о возможности профессионального развития библиотекарей с учётом психологического состояния.
Article
Jonne Vink, Else Ouweneel en Pascale LeBlanc, Gedrag & Organisatie volume 24, June 2011, nr. 2, pp. 101-120. This study focused on the role of personal resources, operationalized as 'psychological capital' (PsyCap), in the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. PsyCap consists of self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resiliency. As a single construct, these four components have been linked to positive outcomes for organizations, but they have never been studied in relation to work engagement (as conceptualized by Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003). Academic and administrative staff of a Dutch university (N=301) filled in an online questionnaire. The study results showed that job resources, PsyCap, and work engagement are distinct constructs which are significantly related. Job resources were related to work engagement both directly and indirectly via PsyCap. This study confirms the theoretical importance of including personal resources in the JD-R model, as well as the practical relevance of the construct of PsyCap.
Article
Research has shown that psychological skills training can be effective in enhancing athletes’ performance and positively influencing cognitive and affective states (cf. Williams & Krane, 2001). However, to date, little work has been conducted investigating such processes with adolescent high‐performing swimmers. The present study examined the effects of a seven‐week psychological skills training (PST) program on competitive swimming performance and positive psychological development. Thirty‐six national level swimmers (13 boys, 23 girls; M = 13.9 years old) followed a PST program for 45 minutes per week. The intervention consisted of goal setting, visualization, relaxation, concentration, and thought stopping. Performance times were obtained from official meets. Participants completed seven inventories measuring quality of performance, and six positive psychological attributes: mental toughness, hardiness, self‐esteem, self‐efficacy, dispositional optimism, and positive affectivity. Findings demonstrated that there was a significant post‐PST program improvement in three separate swimming strokes, each over 200 m. Non‐significant improvements were shown in 10 other events. There was also an overall significant improvement in participants’ post‐intervention positive psychological profiles
Article
Following the unipolar bivariate model, this paper presents a useful method of relating optimism and pessimism to multiple criteria decision analysis within the context of Atanassov fuzzy sets. We utilize four point operators to readily estimate the adaptational outcome expectancies generated by optimistic and pessimistic attitudes. We then determine the net predisposition to represent the aggregated effects of positive and negative evaluations. On the basis of the net predispositions, we calculate the suitability function to evaluate each alternative. Accordingly, we propose the optimization model with suitability functions to deal with ill-known grades of importance. We develop algorithms to aid multicriteria decision-making processes under neutral, completely optimistic, moderately optimistic, completely pessimistic, and moderately pessimistic conditions. Furthermore, we present experimental analysis on randomly generated decision problems to investigate the ranking system's consistency and the ranking irregularity issues found in the proposed methods. We establish several valuable test criteria to discuss some types of ranking consistency and irregularities (e.g., ranking consistency, ranking correlations, ranking contradictions, and ranking inversions) that occur when the different methods are used. We designed three computational experiments to compare the ranking orders yielded by different methods and examined several comparison indices, including the consistency rate of the total orders, the contradiction rate of the best choice, and the inversion rate between the better choices and the worse ones. Finally, we provided a second-order regression model to highlight the effects of variant parameter settings on the average Spearman rank correlation coefficients.
Article
Through their empathy, care and nurturance, benevolent leaders can help employees with disabilities surmount their disability stigma and smile at their work and work environment. The primary aim of our research is to examine how benevolent leadership contributes to the well-being of employees with disabilities. The participants in our study comprised employees with disabilities from firms located in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our results revealed the relationships between benevolent leadership and the three components of the well-being among employees with disabilities including perceived discrimination, job satisfaction and need for recovery. Disability inclusive climate was also found to mediate these relationships. Moreover, attachment anxiety acted as an enhancer for the effects of disability inclusive climate on the well-being while attachment avoidance was found to attenuate these effects except for the impact on need for recovery.
Article
Purpose Global brands are attracted to emerging markets because of increasing wealth among their middle classes. However, amid increasing levels of consumer financial stress in many emerging markets, evidence points towards increased preferences for domestic products. The purpose of this paper is to examine the psychological constructs that mediate and moderate the relationship between reduced perceived financial well-being (PFWB) and domestic product purchases. Design/methodology/approach The authors develop a model drawing from three theoretical perspectives: consumer stress and coping, consumer information processing and social identity theory. Hypotheses are tested via structural equation modelling and moderated mediation analyses using data from a survey of Brazilian consumers (n=1,043). Findings Results show that the positive relationship between reduced PFWB and domestic product purchases is partially mediated by perceived value of global brands and frugality descriptive norm. Further analyses demonstrate that consumer confidence moderates the mediating effects of perceived value of global brands and pro-social consumer ethnocentrism on the relationship between reduced PFWB and domestic product purchases. Research limitations/implications The antecedents of domestic product purchases identified in this study indicate opportunities for marketers of domestic and foreign products to respond to reduced PFWB, especially in relation to pricing, branding and communications. Future research should examine implications of PFWB on different populations, including other emerging markets, developed markets and lower-income consumers. Originality/value This study contributes to international marketing literature by examining the hitherto unexplored influence of reduced PFWB on domestic product purchases.
Article
Contemporary psychiatric theory holds that a precipitant of major mental illness is the inability of some vulnerable individuals to cope with the difficulties of everyday life. Such mentally ill people are characterized as having deficient, dysfunctional, or absent coping skills. Recently, researchers have exerted considerable effort to distinguish between productive and nonproductive coping. In this article, we argue that not only are such conceptualizations reliant on reductive, circular logic, but they also miss the essentially rational, local, and individual nature of coping in psychiatric patients' lives. We used semistructured interviews and thematic analyses of psychiatric patients' descriptions of their coping. Patients reported that professional intervention reduced their ability to cope, that they distrusted the mental health system and its professionals, that coping mechanisms were misinterpreted, that situational crises modulated coping, and that sometimes coping was just "not coping." We argue for a more respectful, nuanced understanding of coping among mental health professionals.
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Durante la última década se ha observado un creciente interés por el análisis de las políticas educativas en relación con el desarrollo socio afectivo de los alumnos y los procesos de convivencia en la escuela.Los episodios recurrentes de agresividad, falta de respeto,indiferencia y apatía de los alumnos desafían a los docentes a utilizar estrategias integrales que estimulen, al mismo tiempo, el aprendizaje y desarrollo de las competencias afectivas y sociales. Sin embargo, en nuestro país no abundan las instancias de formacion docente, ni los materiales de lectura que aporten herramientas concretas para llevar a cabo esta importante labor.Los educadores ensayan diversas estrategias basadas en sus propias experiencias o en el sentido comun y, aunque muchas de ellas resultan exitosas,desconocen los fundamentos teóricos y los mecanismos psicológicos por los cuales tales procedimientos funcionan o fracasan.Se hace necesario contar con espacios de formación de formadores y programas de intervención en el ámbito escolar.Estos programas deberían ser cuidadosamente planificados por profesionales competentes en las áreas del desarrollo psicológico y pedagógico y estar fundamentados en la investigación educativa.Si bien ha habido inicitaivas interesantes en los ultimos años,algunos de los proyectos que se han implementado en las escuelas argentinas no han resultado sostenibles.Los resultados obtenidos no son producto de verdaderos procesos de internalizacion y , por lo mismo, no son duraderos, a menos que las actividades se inserten en el currículo escolar y el docente incorpore los objetivos del programa como un estilo de enseñanza y los mantenga durante todos los días del año.Esta demostrado que los programas esporádicos, discontinuos y que no reciben el apoyo del equipo de conducción no generan un impacto significativo o, si lo ejercen este tiende a diluirse con el paso del tiempo. La escuela provee un medio facilitador para el entrenamiento social y afectivo, y nutre, mediante la acción de los maestros, muchos de los factores protectores del desarrollo infantil.Es importante saber encauzar adecuadamente este potencial con el fin de favorecer medios escolares positivos.Este libro se extiende a manera de orientación para que los docentes de Educacion Inicial y Primaria (1º a 3º año) puedan articular el desarrollo afectivo a la enseñanza de contenidos basicos y para que puedan ofrecer sugerencias a los padres con el fin de que la escuela y familia trabajen juntos en en este contenido.El docente encontrará los fundamentos conceptuales que rigen nuestra propuestas, las estrategias metodológicas y las acciones operativas del proyecto,las cuales constituyen apenas una sencilla guía que deberá ser nutrida con las ideas,experiencias e iniciativas de cada educador.
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate the direct and moderating effect of negative affectivity (NA) (Study 1) and self-efficacy (Study 2) on the relationship between customer verbal aggression and three forms of emotion-focused coping strategies: behavioral disengagement, seeking emotional support, and venting negative emotions. Design/methodology/approach: Two samples of service workers were recruited from northern Israel in 2007-2008 (n=178 and n=516), and data were collected using self-reported questionnaires. Research hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. Findings: The results show that under high levels of exposure to customer aggression, employees with high NA were more likely to use behavioral disengagement than low-NA individuals, employees with low NA were less likely to vent negative emotions than high-NA individuals, and employees with high self-efficacy were less likely to use venting and emotional support than employees with low self-efficacy. In addition, self-efficacy was found to reduce the negative impact of customer aggression on emotional exhaustion. Practical implications: Through appropriate training programs, service organizations can foster their employees' sense of trust in their own ability to cope with customer misbehavior and consequently reduce reliance on dysfunctional coping strategies. Originality/value: While it has been established that verbal abuse from customers constitutes a common experience for many service workers, little is known about the manner in which workers cope with this particular job stressor and even less about the individual differences that may explain coping behaviors in this context. The present paper begins to bridge this gap and contributes to existing literature by showing that in addition to being predictors of dysfunctional coping strategies, both NA and self-efficacy may play a moderating role in the relationship between customer aggression and coping behaviors.
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Determined whether relations between appraisal and 5 coping schemata were consistent with predictions from the congruence model (CM) of effective coping. Participants were 185 undergraduates in search of employment. Multiple regression analyses revealed that appraisals of challenge and controllability significantly predicted strategies representative of the problem-focused schema, whereas threat appraisals significantly predicted emotion-focused coping. The existential coping schema was positively associated with appraisals of challenge and low threat. Spiritual coping was also significantly predicted by appraised uncontrollability. Results extend evidence of appraisal-coping relations to a broader range of coping strategies and demonstrate the heuristic value of the cognitive schema approach to coping and of the CM in predicting appraisal–coping relations. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies investigated the hypothesis that individuals using the cognitive strategy of defensive pessimism will perform better and feel better when allowed to play through possible outcomes and reflect on their progress. In contrast, individuals using an optimistic strategy will perform more poorly and feel worse when they are encouraged or required to reflect on themselves and their goals. A laboratory experiment and a study using experience-sampling methodology (ESM) revealed this pattern for self-reported mood, appraisal of tasks, and progress toward goals; objective performance; and a physiological measure, though the interaction was not always statistically significant. Discussion focuses on the probable content of reflective thought for these individuals, the relative costs and benefits of each approach, and the usefulness of a strategy-oriented approach to the study of individual differences and self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The primary purpose of this paper is to review recent research examining the beneficial effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being. The review focuses on research that is longitudinal or prospective in design. Potential mechanisms are also identified whereby the beneficial effects of optimism are produced, focusing in particular on how optimism may lead a person to cope more adaptively with stress. The paper closes with a brief consideration of the similarities and differences between our own theoretical approach and several related approaches that have been taken by others.
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The structure of coping was examined in three studies by means of Wherry's approach to hierarchical factor analysis. A hierarchical model with three levels was identified that included eight primary factors, four secondary factors, and two tertiary factors. The eight primary factors (problem solving, cognitive restructuring, emotional expression, social support, problem avoidance, wishful thinking, self-criticism, and social withdrawal) identified dimensions of coping found in previous empirical research and theoretical writing. The emergence of the four secondary and two tertiary factors provided empirical support for two theoretical hypotheses concerning the structure of coping. Support for the constructs of problem- and emotion-focused coping hypothesized by Lazarus was obtained at the secondary level, and support for the constructs of approach and avoidance coping hypothesized by many theorists was obtained at the tertiary level. These findings suggest that both formulations may describe the structure of coping, albeit at different levels of analysis.
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This article explores the implications that dispositional optimism holds for physical well-being. Research is reviewed that links optimism to a number of different positive health-relevant outcomes, ranging from the development of physical symptoms to recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery. Additional findings are described which suggest that these beneficial effects are partly due to differences between optimists and pessimists in the strategies that they use to cope with stress. A number of other potential mediators are also discussed, including some that are physiologic in nature. The article closes with a discussion of the relationships between our own theoretical account of the effects of optimism and several other conceptual approaches.
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We developed a multidimensional coping inventory to assess the different ways in which people respond to stress. Five scales (of four items each) measure conceptually distinct aspects of problem-focused coping (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, restraint coping, seeking of instrumental social support); five scales measure aspects of what might be viewed as emotional-focused coping (seeking of emotional social support, positive reinterpretation, acceptance, denial, turning to religion); and three scales measure coping responses that arguably are less useful (focus on and venting of emotions, behavioral disengagement, mental disengagement). Study 1 reports the development of scale items. Study 2 reports correlations between the various coping scales and several theoretically relevant personality measures in an effort to provide preliminary information about the inventory's convergent and discriminant validity. Study 3 uses the inventory to assess coping responses among a group of undergraduates who were attempting to cope with a specific stressful episode. This study also allowed an initial examination of associations between dispositional and situational coping tendencies.
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Previous research has shown that dispositional optimism is a prospective predictor of successful adaptation to stressful encounters. In this research we attempted to identify possible mechanisms underlying these effects by examining how optimists differ from pessimists in the kinds of coping strategies that they use. The results of two separate studies revealed modest but reliable positive correlations between optimism and problem-focused coping, seeking of social support, and emphasizing positive aspects of the stressful situation. Pessimism was associated with denial and distancing (Study 1), with focusing on stressful feelings, and with disengagement from the goal with which the stressor was interfering (Study 2). Study 1 also found a positive association between optimism and acceptance/resignation, but only when the event was construed as uncontrollable. Discussion centers on the implications of these findings for understanding the meaning of people's coping efforts in stressful circumstances.
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In this article we discuss the strategies that people may use to cope with situations that are risky in that they present the possibility for failure and potential threats to self-esteem. Previous research has indicated that anxiety (Sarason, 1980) and explicitly set low expectations (Sherman, Skov, Hervitz, & Stock, 1981) may lead to performance deficits in these situations. Experiment 1 indicates, in contrast, that with a strategy called defensive pessimism (Norem & Cantor, 1986), individuals may sometimes use low expectations to cope with their anxiety so that it does not become debilitating. A second experiment further supports the contention that low expectations may help individuals negotiate risky situations by showing that interference with the defensive-pessimism strategy impairs performance. Subjects whose strategic construction of the situation was not interfered with do not show impaired performance. These data are interpreted as evidence that the effects of low expectations and high anxiety on performance may be mediated by the strategies individuals use when approaching risky situations.
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This article describes a scale measuring dispositional optimism, defined in terms of generalized outcome expectancies. Two preliminary studies assessed the scale's psychometric properties and its relationships with several other instruments. The scale was then used in a longitudinal study of symptom reporting among a group of undergraduates. Specifically, respondents were asked to complete three questionnaires 4 weeks before the end of a semester. Included in the questionnaire battery was the measure of optimism, a measure of private self-consciousness, and a 39-item physical symptom checklist. Subjects completed the same set of questionnaires again on the last day of class. Consistent with predictions, subjects who initially reported being highly optimistic were subsequently less likely to report being bothered by symptoms (even after correcting for initial symptom-report levels) than were subjects who initially reported being less optimistic. This effect tended to be stronger among persons high in private self-consciousness than among those lower in private self-consciousness. Discussion centers on other health related applications of the optimism scale, and the relationships between our theoretical orientation and several related theories.
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Longitudinal data on the coping strategies used by 151 41–89 yr old middle-aged and older adults faced with 1 of 4 chronic illnesses were used to evaluate the role of coping in the explanation of psychological adjustment. The authors distinguished between illnesses that offer few opportunities for control (rheumatoid arthritis and cancer) and those more responsive to individual and medical efforts at control (hypertension and diabetes) and evaluated the emotional consequences of 2 coping strategies—information seeking and wish-fulfilling fantasy—expected to play different roles in adjustment. Results show that information seeking had salubrious effects on adjustment and that wish-fulfilling fantasy had deleterious consequences; contrary to expectation, neither strategy's effects were modified by illness controllability. Analyses of the direction of causation between coping and adjustment suggest that wish-fulfilling fantasy is linked to poor adjustment in a mutually reinforcing causal cycle. The modesty of the effects of coping, however, demands replication of results to confirm the conclusions drawn in the present study. (36 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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At diagnosis, 59 breast cancer patients reported on their overall optimism about life; 1 day presurgery, 10 days postsurgery, and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups, they reported their recent coping responses and distress levels. Optimism related inversely to distress at each point, even controlling for prior distress. Acceptance, positive reframing, and use of religion were the most common coping reactions; denial and behavioral disengagement were the least common reactions. Acceptance and the use of humor prospectively predicted lower distress; denial and disengagement predicted more distress. Path analyses suggested that several coping reactions played mediating roles in the effect of optimism on distress. Discussion centers on the role of various coping reactions in the process of adjustment, the mechanisms by which dispositional optimism versus pessimism appears to operate, third variable issues, and applied implications.
Article
This paper examined the locus of control beliefs and optimism as predictors of control appraisals and coping associated with three different anticipatory stressful situations (employment decisions, teacher bias, and natural disaster). The 118 undergraduate participants completed measures of locus of control (Rotter I-E), optimism (Life Orientation Test) and control appraisals (Stress Appraisal Measure) 2 weeks prior to completing the Inventory of Coping Schemas to report their coping strategies used in dealing with each stressor. Regression analyses indicated that optimism and locus of control were relatively independent predictors of control appraisals and that control appraisals were generally better predictors of coping than either locus of control or optimism. As expected, somewhat different patterns of significant predictors were obtained for the three stressors. Results are discussed in terms of the congruence model of effective coping, which predicts relations among control appraisals and coping for various types of stressful situations.
Article
This study was designed to test the goodness of fit hypothesis, which proposes that the effectiveness of different coping strategies will be dependent on the appraised controllability of the event. Problem-focused strategies are proposed to be adaptive in situations perceived to be controllable and maladaptive in situations perceived to be uncontrollable. In contrast, high levels of emotion-focused coping are proposed to have positive effects on adaptation in uncontrollable situations and negative effects in controllable situations. Data obtained from a sample of university students and community residents (n = 101), provided some support for these hypotheses. High relative levels of problem-focused coping were associated with favourable ratings of coping efficacy only in situations appraised to be controllable, while the negative effects of self-denigration were more marked in controllable than uncontrollable situations. There was, however, no support for the expectation that high levels of problem-focused coping would be maladaptive in situations appraised to be uncontrollable, or for the expectation that the use of emotion-focused coping would be adaptive in such situations. There was also no support for the proposal that the effectiveness of escapism (an emotion-focused strategy) would be moderated by the appraised controllability of the event. Irrespective of the level of appraised control, escapism was associated with low levels of adaptation.
Article
Previous research has shown that dispositional optimism (M. E Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985) is linked to both coping and adjustment but has failed to consider the potential influence of appraisals in the stress and coping process (R. S. Lazarus & S. Folkman, 1984). The present study examined the influence of optimism and appraisals on coping and psychological and physical adjustment in 726 college students. Results from correlational analyses indicated that stress-related appraisals were associated with optimism, coping, and adjustment. Comparative analyses further indicated that optimists ( n = 109) and pessimists ( n = 110) differed significantly in secondary (but not primary) appraisal, coping, and adjustment. In addition, optimism was found to add significant incremental validity in predicting adjustment, beyond what was accounted for by appraisals and coping. The implications of these findings for understanding the influence of dispositional optimism are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
265 female and 143 male undergraduates completed the Brief College Student Hassles Scale to examine the association between daily hassles and an index of the persistence of psychological symptoms in college and to examine the relations among daily hassles, adaptational outcomes, and a measure of generalized outcome expectancies. No gender differences were present, although female Ss reported higher persistence ratings for certain hassles and gave higher ratings for academic deadlines. Greater perceived hassles were associated with a pessimistic outlook and more persistent symptoms of poor psychological adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Anticipatory thoughts and feelings of defensively pessimistic and moderately depressed college students were compared in order to identify factors that distinguish effective strategies of negative thinking from those that may be maladaptive. Three components of anticipatory strategies — expectations, anxiety, and extent of preparation — were assessed at three times over the course of stressful social situations in the subjects' own lives. Defensive pessimists were similar to the moderately depressed subjects in that they reported negative expectations and high levels of anxiety before their events occurred. However, defensive pessimists (like optimists) did not share the depressed subjects' avoidant ways of coping. Although there were no apparent differences in the severity of the situations described by defensive pessimists and depressed subjects, only depressed subjects experienced residual anxiety and rumination after their events were over. Effective preparation before situations occur and nonavoidant ways of coping seem to distinguish the defensive pessimists' negative strategy from that of moderately depressed persons.
Article
The purpose of the present study was to examine episodic coping and situational anger-reactivity in relation to optimism and pessimism while correcting for some of the limitations of previous research. In the present investigation, optimism and pessimism were operationalized as separate constructs. In addition, an attempt was made to ‘standardize’ the nature of the Stressor that subjects reported on, and to assess short-term emotional reactivity. Semipartial correlational analyses that corrected for multicollinearity among the coping subscales indicated that, independent of variability in the contextual features of the Stressors, scores on the optimism subscale of the Life Orientation Test (LOT) were positively correlated with confrontive coping and accept-responsibility coping, and inversely related to escape-avoidance coping. Pessimism scores were positively related to escape-avoidance coping and inversely related to confrontive coping and planful problem solving coping. Neither optimism nor pessimism were related to levels of ‘stress-induced’ anger reactivity. These data suggest that optimism and pessimism are distinct constructs, that each construct is associated with different coping strategies, and that coping differences between optimists and pessimists are not necessarily associated with differences in emotional reactivity. These findings have implications for future research examining dispositional optimism and pessimism as stress-moderating personality factors.
Article
The concept of cognitive strategies is proposed as a model for the process by which individuals cushion themselves against threats to self-esteem in “risky” situations. Two strategies are discussed. The first is defensive pessimism, an anticipatory strategy that involves setting defensively low expectations prior to entering a situation, so as to defend against loss of self-esteem in the event of failure. The second is an optimistic strategy, where expectations are high at the outset, and post hoc restructuring of the situation is done when the outcome is known. Expectations about performance on an anagram task were collected from prescreened optimistics and defensive pessimists. After completion of the task, subjects were given false failure or success feedback. A posttest measuring self-reported satisfaction, feelings of control, and performance evaluations was administered. As predicted, subjects selected for defensive pessimist attitudes expected to perform significantly worse than did those selected for optimistic attitudes, even though there was no difference in actual performance. Moreover, optimists demonstrated attributional egotism in claiming significantly more control over their performance in the success condition than in the failure condition. Pessimists did not show this pattern. The data provide evidence of post hoc cushioning efforts among optimists, whereas defensive pessimists seem to be cushioned by their initial structuring of the situation. It is argued that these strategies can be understood as motivated attempts to solve the “problem” of a “risky” situation. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/44330/1/10608_2005_Article_BF01173471.pdf
Article
Although personal resources of caregivers, such as coping skills and social support, have been shown to be important in understanding caregiver stress and health outcomes, personality traits have not previously been considered. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the personality traits of neuroticism and dispositional optimism and mental and physical health outcomes. It was predicted that personality would have direct effects, and indirect effects through perceived stress, on health outcomes. Participants were spouse caregivers of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Results showed that neuroticism and optimism were significantly related to mental and physical health. Furthermore, neuroticism had significant direct effects on all of the health outcomes, and substantial indirect effects, through perceived stress, on mental health outcomes. Optimism showed stronger indirect than direct effects on all health outcomes. These findings demonstrate the importance of including personality of the caregiver in theoretical and empirical models of the caregiving process.
Article
Drawing on cognitive adaptation theory, optimism, psychological control, and self-esteem were explored as longitudinal predictors of adjustment to college in a sample of 672 freshmen. Although a direct effect of optimism on adjustment was found, most of the predicted effects were mediated by coping methods. Controlling for initial positive and negative mood, the beneficial effects of optimism, control, and self-esteem on adjustment were mediated by the nonuse of avoidance coping, greater use of active coping, and greater seeking of social support. Alternative models of the causal relations among these variables did not fit the data as well as the a priori mediational model. The results of a 2-year follow-up indicated that self-esteem and control predicted greater motivation and higher grades, controlling for college entrance exam scores. Implications for cognitive adaptation theory and for interventions with populations under stress are discussed.
Article
The effect of dispositional optimism on recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery was examined in a group of 51 middle-aged men. Patients provided information at three points in time--(a) on the day before surgery, (b) 6-8 days postoperatively, and (c) 6 months postoperatively. Information was obtained relating to the patient's rate of physical recovery, mood, and postsurgical quality of life. Information was also gathered regarding the manner in which the patients attempted to cope with the stress of the surgery and its aftermath. As expected, dispositional optimism proved to be an important predictor of coping efforts and of surgical outcomes. More specifically, dispositional optimism (as assessed prior to surgery) correlated positively with manifestations of problem-focused coping and negatively with the use of denial. Dispositional optimism was also associated with a faster rate of physical recovery during the period of hospitalization and with a faster rate of return to normal life activities subsequent to discharge. Finally, there was a strong positive association between level of optimism and postsurgical quality of life at 6 months.
Article
This study examined personal and contextual predictors of active and avoidance coping strategies in a community sample of over 400 adults and in a sample of over 400 persons entering psychiatric treatment for unipolar depression. Sociodemographic factors of education and income (except for active-cognitive coping), personality dispositions of self-confidence and an easy-going manner, and contextual factors of negative life events and family support each made a significant incremental contribution to predicting active and avoidance coping. Among both healthy adults and patients, active and avoidance coping were positively associated with negative life events. Individuals who had more personal and environmental resources were more likely to rely on active coping and less likely to use avoidance coping. Moreover, for both groups, most of the predictors continued to show significant relations with active and avoidance coping strategies even after the stable component in coping was controlled in a longitudinal design. A comprehensive framework to understand the determinants of coping can be of practical value in suggesting points for therapeutic interventions aimed at fostering more adaptive coping efforts.
Article
Longitudinal data on 267 married couples are used to examine the interrelationships among predisposing factors, stress, moderating factors, and subsequent functioning. A model of the stress process that considers spouse symptoms and coping was estimated separately for three functioning criteria (depressed mood, physical symptoms, and alcohol consumption) and across gender groups. Predisposing factors such as low social status and poor initial functioning were related to higher levels of stress. Women were more responsive to stressors and social resources (family support) than were men. The stress-illness relationship was strengthened by the use of avoidance coping responses, particularly if both partners relied on avoidance coping. There were no stress-buffering effects of family support. The associations between self-esteem, coping responses, and later functioning depended on the partner's corresponding coping levels. These findings underscore the value of considering a significant other's symptoms and behavior as salient aspects of the stress process.
Article
The nature of individual coping responses to stressful life events was explored in a representative adult community sample. Two approaches to the classification of coping strategies were operationalized. Using these measures, small but significant gender and contextual differences in coping were identified. Mood and symptom levels were related to coping responses and to quantitative and qualitative measures of social resources. Measures of coping and social resources attenuated the relationship between undesirable life events and personal functioning.
A validation of three-dimensional model of coping response and the development of the Tri-axial Coping Scale (TAC-24)
  • E Kamimura
  • Y Ebihara
  • K Sato
  • Y Togasaki
  • Y Sakano
Kamimura, E., Ebihara, Y., Sato, K., Togasaki, Y., & Sakano, Y. (1995). A validation of three-dimensional model of coping response and the development of the Tri-axial Coping Scale (TAC-24). Bulletin of Counseling and School Psychology, 33, 41–47 (in Japanese with English summary).
Assessing coping strategies
  • Carver
Optimism and pessimism
  • Hart
The brief college student Hassles Scale
  • Blankstein
Dispositional optimism and primary and secondary appraisal of a stressor
  • Chang
Strategy-dependent effects of reflecting on self and tasks
  • Norem
Mental and physical health of spouse caregivers
  • Hooker
Dispositional optimism and recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery: the beneficial effects on physical and psychological well-being
  • Scheier
Distinguishing defensive pessimism from depression
  • Showers
Modeling cognitive adaptation
  • Aspinwall
Coping with chronic illness
  • Felton
A validation of three-dimensional model of coping response and the development of the Tri-axial Coping Scale (TAC-24)
  • Kamimura
Anticipatory and post hoc cushioning strategies
  • Norem
Optimism, coping, and health
  • Scheier
Dispositional optimism and physical well-being
  • Scheier
Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being
  • Scheier