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Extension of shelflife of the fermented fish product, shidal by packaging in glass bottle and low temperature storage

Authors:
  • ICAR Research Complex for North East Hill Region
  • ICAR Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology, Ludhiana, India

Abstract and Figures

Shidal is a very popular, salt free, semi-fermented traditional fish product of north-east India prepared using minor carps (Puntius spp.) in specially designed earthen pots (mutka). The prime quality of shidal is given by its characteristic aroma and flavor which is lost very fast, once it is taken out of mutka. A study was conducted to preserve the quality of shidal outside mutka, by packing in glass bottles and storing under refrigerated temperature. Microbiological, biochemical and sensory changes during storage period of 120 days were analysed at 15 days interval. The total plate count (TPC) did not change significantly (p>0.05) and remained near 7 log CFU g-1 during storage. The total fungal count (TFC) was negligible., The pH of shidal was initially acidic (4.42 ± 0.25) which increased significantly (p<0.05) towards the end of storage period. The non-protein nitrogen (NPN), free α-amino nitrogen (AAN) and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) increased significantly (p<0.05) during storage indicating hydrolysis and degradation of protein. Similarly, showing high hydrolytic rancidity, the peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) number significantly increased throughout the storage period (p<0.05). The sensory scores showed significant differences (p<0.05) during the storage period. Shidal retained good quality up to 60 days at room temperature whereas 90 days at refrigerated temperature showing significantly high sensory scores in the treatment.
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135
Extension of shelflife of the fermented fish product, shidal by packaging
in glass bottle and low temperature storage
P. MAHANTA AND A. U. MUZADDADI
College of Fisheries, Central Agricultural University, Lembucherra – 799 210, Tripura, India
e-mail: drarmaan@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
Shidal is a very popular, salt free, semi-fermented traditional fish product of north-east India prepared using minor carps
(Puntius spp.) in specially designed earthen pots (mutka). The prime quality of shidal is given by its characteristic aroma and
flavor which is lost very fast, once it is taken out of mutka. A study was conducted to preserve the quality of shidal outside
mutka, by packing in glass bottles and storing under refrigerated temperature. Microbiological, biochemical and sensory changes
during storage period of 120 days were analysed at 15 days interval. The total plate count (TPC) did not change significantly
(p>0.05) and remained near 7 log CFU g
-1
during storage. The total fungal count (TFC) was negligible., The pH of shidal was
initially acidic (4.42 ± 0.25) which increased significantly (p<0.05) towards the end of storage period. The non-protein nitrogen
(NPN), free α-amino nitrogen (AAN) and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) increased significantly (p<0.05) during storage
indicating hydrolysis and degradation of protein. Similarly, showing high hydrolytic rancidity, the peroxide value (PV), free
fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) number significantly increased throughout the storage period (p<0.05). The
sensory scores showed significant differences (p<0.05) during the storage period. Shidal retained good quality up to 60 days at
room temperature whereas 90 days at refrigerated temperature showing significantly high sensory scores in the treatment.
Keywords: Biochemical composition, Fermented fish, Puntius spp., Shidal, Storage characteristics
Introduction
Shidal is a salt free, semi- fermented and very popular
fish product of north-east India. With high rancid odour
and prepared from small carps mainly Puntius spp. shidal
is an unavoidable fish-based product as far as food security
of the people of north-east is concerned. There are several
similar products in different north-eastern states such as
seedal and hidal in Assam, sepaa and shidal in Tripura,
Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh and ngari in Manipur
(Muzaddadi, 2002; 2003a).The fish is semi dried and almost
anaerobically fermented in earthen pots. The fermentation
process takes around four to six months in anaerobic
condition till the product gains a characteristic odour,
texture and appearance. Neither food additives/
preservatives nor starter culture is added during the
processing steps (Muzaddadi and Basu, 2003b). This
product is also popular in Bangladesh which is known as
chepa shutki (Nayeem et al., 2010). Sarojnalini and
Viswanath (1998) reported about almost similar type of
fermented products in Manipur viz., hentak and ngari,
which are prepared from sun-dried freshwater fish.
The traditional products are generally contaminated
with dirt, filth, sand and dust during retail marketing.
Bamboo basket, jute bags and earthen pots are used for
storing the fermented fish. The materials are usually used
under poor sanitation and hygiene and these products often
Indian J. Fish., 60(2) : 135-143, 2013
9
turn brown to dark brown in colour and are heavily infested
with insects. Shidal has a very short storage life once it is
taken out from the mutka. Therefore, mutkas are used as
primary packaging and transporting vessels. Since glass is
inert material having highest impermeability to gas and
volatile substances, glass bottles might act as effective
packaging material which is expected to retain the volatile
flovour components of shidal. Though shidal is very
common in every household of north-eastern parts of India,
scientific information regarding storage are very scanty.
Moreover, shidal has not been explored scientifically in
India. The present study is expected to provide a
comprehensive information on low cost packaging method
for retailing and house hold storage of shidal. The study
aimed to analyse the preservative action of low temperature,
under packaged condition.
Materials and methods
The study was carried out in the fish processing
technology laboratory, College of Fisheries, Central
Agricultural University, Lembucherra, Tripura west.
Required amount of first grade commercial shidal prepared
using four species of Puntius (P. chola, P. sarana,
P. sophore and P. ticto) were collected aseptically in sterile
polyethylene bags immediately after opening the mutka
from the production centres in Agartala. For storage study,
2 kg shidal was packed in glass bottles (3l capacity,
136
19.5 cm X 13.5 cm height X, 10 cm outer mouth dia and
0.5 cm glass thickness, with cork and polythene lined
stainless steel screw caps) and then stored at 4 ºC (T) and
also at ambient temperature separately which served as
control (C) (Table 1).
Table 1. Sampling schedule of shidal along with ambient
temperature recorded
Sampling Date Ambient Temperature (
0
C)
1 20 August 2010 30-34
2 5 September 2010 28-33
3 20 September 2010 28-33
4 5 October 2010 24-28
5 20 October 2010 24-28
6 5 November 2010 20-28
7 20 November 2010 20-28
8 5 December 2010 18-25
9 20 December 2011 18-25
The sampling was done aseptically in sterile
petridishes, from each glass bottles for different
microbiological, biochemical and sensory analysis. The
container was closed immediately after sampling and the
sampling was continued at 15 days’ interval up to 120 days
of storage.
Total plate count (TPC) and total fungal count (TFC)
were done by spread plate technique (APHA, 1995). For
this, 10 g of shidal sample was introduced aseptically in a
sterile stomacher bag (Seward stomach BA6141CPG
standard bags) and macerated for 2 min with 90 ml of sterile
diluent (0.85% NaCl) using a stomacher (Seward stomacher
400 circulator, England). Serial dilutions were made and
plated onto Soybean Casein Digest Agar (SCDA,
HIMEDIA) for TPC and onto Rose Bengal Chloramphenical
agar (RBCPA, HIMEDIA) plates for TFC.
The samples were analysed in triplicate for moisture,
ash, pH and free fatty acids (FFA) following AOAC (2000),
lipid content by the Soxlet method (AOAC, 2000), protein
and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) by the Kjeldahl method
(AOAC, 2000); total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N)
content according to the Conway’s micro-diffusion method
(Conway, 1947); the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value
following Tarladgis et al. (1960); peroxide value (PV) as
per Jacob (1958); and the free
α
-amino nitrogen (AAN)
by the method of Pope et al. (1939).
Sensory studies of shidal were carried out by an expert
panel of 10 expert judges by 5-points Hedonic scale
(Table 2). The overall acceptability was calculated by taking
arithmetic average from score-sheet.
Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis was done by performing one way
ANOVA (Post Hoc, Duncan) and student’s t-test to compare
the means using SPSS 15.0 (2005) at 5% confidence level.
All bacteriological counts were converted to log10
CFU g
-1
for statistical analysis.
Results and discussion
Total plate count (TPC) was analysed during the study
period to see the effect of temperature on the survival of
Table 2. Quality scores for the sensory evaluation of shidal
Quality attributes Characteristics Sensory scores Quality
Appearance Bright, moist and shining surface 5 Excellent
Slight dullness with shining surface 4 Good
Dull with soft surface 3 Fair
Definite dullness with soft surface 2 Average
Dry fish like, loss of weight, fungal growth 1 Poor
Colour Dark brownish or slight yellowish colour 5 Excellent
Gray yellowish or black colour 4 Good
Pale brown or gray colour 3 Fair
Colour become fade and off-white 2 Average
Whitish colour 1 Poor
Odour Strong characteristic Shidal odour 5 Excellent
Light characteristic Shidal odour 4 Good
Slight Shidal odour with no sour odour 3 Fair
Faint sour odour 2 Average
Strong sour odour, rancid, ammonia smell 1 Poor
Texture Firm elastic muscle, sticky surface and muscle not 5 Excellent
detached from the backbone
Soft abdomen and fairly firm muscle 4 Good
Muscle with no elasticity and firmness 3 Fair
Limp and flaccid muscle 2 Average
Melting abdomen, muscle easily bruised and broken 1 Poor
P. Mahanta and A. U. Muzaddadi
137
bacteria under refrigerated condition in comparison with
ambient temperature storage of 120 days and expressed as
log CFU g
-1
. The TPC of control (C) showed significant
differences (p<0.05) with that of the treatment (T)
(Fig. 1).. Initial decrease in TPC was recorded in T, which
may be due to the cold shock to the mesophilic bacteria at
lower temperature and the psychrotrophic bacteria took time
under chilled temperature for adapting themselves to cold
environment and the growth was observed during further
storage period. Similar observations were reported in
fermented cassava fish wherein the mesophilic bacterial
count decreased from 6.25 to 4.94 log CFU g
-1
during initial
fermentation (Anihouvi et al., 2007). It was observed that
the counts in C and T were almost same during initial
15 days of storage and subsequently the count of T became
higher than that of C. During the end of the storage period
the count in T was significantly (p<0.05) different from
that of C. The reason for this may be attributed to the
overgrowth of bacteria in C at ambient temperature, which
resulted in reaching the lag phase of growth during the
end of the storage period. However, low temperature
preservation retarded the growth of psychrotrophic and
mesophilic bacteria which in turn, prolonged the log phase
and hence the growth of bacteria continued till the end of
the storage period. Sarojnalini and Suchitra (2009) reported
a similar increasing trend of Gram positive bacteria in
fermented Setipinna sp. of Manipur. The findings of Thapa
and Tamang (2004) in ngari, hentak and tungtap of
north-east India also agree with the present findings.
Total fungal counts (TFC) recorded were <2500 CFU g
-1
in most of the samples, and in many samples TFC was
undetectable. Similar trend was observed by Anihouvi et
al. (2007) in fermented cassava fish.
Proximate composition (Table 3) clearly showed that
shidal is a highly nutritious food item. The pH showed
significant differences (p<0.05) during the storage period
(Fig. 2). The initial decrease in pH indicates fermentation
process and formation of organic acids. The decrease in
pH may also be due to the high buffering capacity of the
fish flesh (Dakwa et al., 2005). Nevertheless, fermentation
Shelflife of the fermented fish product, shidal
Table 3. Desirable microbial and biochemical quality parameters of shidal
Parameters Values (mean + SD)
Total plate count (log CFU g
-1
) 7.1 ± 0.12
Total fungal count (log CFU g
-1
) ETFC <2500
pH 4.42 ± 0.43
Moisture (w/w %) 34.02 ± 1.55
Ash (w/w %) 13.80 ± 0.32
Protein (w/w %) 31.06 ± 0.05
Fat (w/w %) 18.87 ± 0.42
Acid-insoluble ash (w/w %) 0.53 ± 0.02
Non-protein nitrogen (w/w %) 5.49 ± 0.24
Free alpha amino acid (w/w mg %) 6.67 ± 4.67
Total volatile base nitrogen (mg %) 223.67 ± 3.28
Peroxide value (milliequivallent peroxide oxygen per 1000 g) 17.03 ± 0.32
Free fatty acid (% as oleic acid) 20.62 ± 0.17
Thiobarbituric acid number (mg malonaldehyde per 1000 g) 0.51 ± 0.01
Fig. 1. Changes in TPC (log CFU g
-1
) of shidal during storage,
values = mean ± SE (error bars), n = 3
Fig. 2. Changes in pH of shidal during storage,
values = mean ± SE (error bars), n = 3
138
could not continue for longer period due to the absence of
fermenting bacteria in the later stages due to aerobic storage
condition. Thus, in the later period of storage, fermentation
stopped and protein was further degraded to form some
volatile bases which led to increased pH. It may be
attributed to putrefaction leading to formation of basic
nitrogenous compounds (Kilinc et al., 2006). Low
temperature influenced the pH value which may be due to
restriction in growth of fermenting bacteria. These findings
agree with that of Sarojnalini and Suchitra (2009) in
fermented fish of Manipur.
There were significant differences in moisture and ash
(p<0.05) (Fig. 3 and 4). The moisture content decreased
gradually and the reason may be the initial low pH which
electrically neutralised the proteins which might have
caused decrease in water holding capacity of fish meat
(Akahane and Shimizu, 1989). Itou et al. (2006) also
reported a decreasing trend in moisture in narezushi
(a Japanese fermented mackerel product) during processing.
The ash content was too high which indicates sand
adulteration as well as unhygienic conditions during
preparation in traditional production centers. Sarojnalini
and Suchitra (2009) also reported high content of ash in
fermented Setipinna sp. of Manipur. Majumdar et al. (2006)
reported similar trends in ash content of lona ilish (salted
and fermented hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) from north-east
India) during fermentation.
Being the major component of shidal, protein content
differed significantly (p<0.05) during storage (Fig. 5) and
gradually decreased at a constant rate during entire storage
period. It may be due to hydrolysis of protein by intrinsic
and microbial enzymatic action (Majumdar et al., 2006).
The initial decreases in protein percentage may be due to
the increment in total weight by the increased moisture
content. Nayeem et al. (2010) also reported similar decrease
in protein content of chepa shutki collected from producer,
whole-seller and retailer, with increasing storage period.
Some volatile nitrogenous compounds might escape to the
atmosphere due to which a reduction in total nitrogen
content resulted and thus reduction in protein content.
Similar observation was also reported by Taira et al. (2007)
during fermentation of fish sauce.
P. Mahanta and A. U. Muzaddadi
Fig. 3. Changes in moisture content of shidal during storage
values = mean ± SE (error bars), n = 3
Fig. 4. Changes in ash content of shidal during storage
values = mean ± SE (error bars), n =3
Fig. 5. Changes in protein content of shidal during storage
values = mean ± SE (error bars), n = 3
NPN, AAN and TVB-N showed significant
differences (p<0.05) with increasing storage period. The
significant increase in all these products may be the result
of degradation of protein during storage (Fig. 6, 7 and 8).
The TVB-N content was observed high (>200 mg%) in the
treatment and differed significantly from control (p<0.05).
The findings of Karthikeyan et al. (2007) and Majumdar
and Basu (2010) agree with the present findings. TMA-N
and TVB-N are products of bacterial spoilage and the
content is often used as an index to assess the keeping
quality and shelflife of seafood products (Vareltzis et al.,
1997). Karacam et al. (2002) reported similar increasing
trend in TVB-N showing no temperature effect on brined
139
Shelflife of the fermented fish product, shidal
Fig. 9. Changes in fat content of shidal during storage
values = mean ± SE (error bars), n = 3
Fig. 10. Changes in peroxide value (PV) of shidal during storage
values = mean ± SE (error bars), n = 3
Fig. 11.Changes FFA content of shidal during storage
values = mean ± SE (error bars), n = 3
Fig 12. Changes in TBA number of shidal during storage
values = mean ± SE (error bars), n = 3
Fig. 6. Changes in NPN of shidal
during storage, values = mean ±S E
(error bars), n = 3
Fig. 7. Changes in AAN of shidal
during storage, values = mean ± SE
(error bars), n = 3
Fig. 8. Changes in TVBN content of
shidal during storage,
values =
mean ±S E (error bars), n = 3
anchovies. Ndaw et al. (2008) also reported increased
TVB-N values in fermented Moroccan sardines (Sardinella
pilchardus). TVB-N values recorded in the present study
clearly indicate deterioration of proteins. The increase in
AAN throughout the period may be because of the
combined effect of autolysis and microbial degradation of
the fish muscle (Voskresensky, 1965; Ijong and Ohta, 1996).
This may be implicated in the activities of enzymes which
originated from fish gut, muscle and bacteria (Majumdar
et al., 2006). The contents of NPN and TVB-N of Shidal
were indicative of high degree of fermentation.
The lipid content and different lipid degraded products
like PV, FFA and TBA showed significant differences
(p<0.05) during the storage period (Fig. 9 - 12). The fat
content gradually decreased throughout the period, may
140
be due to oxidative and hydrolytic rancidity of fat during
storage. Considerable decomposition of triglyceride and
phospholipids in the lipid may occur, accompanied by the
production and accumulation of large amounts of free fatty
acids throughout processing (Kilinc et al., 2006). The high
amount of fat may be due to additional fish oil which is
normally used for smearing mutka and the raw material,
and also Puntius spp. contain high amount of fat and they
are caught during monsoon period (Sarojnalini and
Vishwanath, 1994). The decreasing trend in fat content was
also observed by Karthikeyan et al. (2007) in smoked
P. Mahanta and A. U. Muzaddadi
Colisa fasciata of Manipur, by Rahman et al. (1999) in
salted Hilsa sp. and by Nayeem et al. (2010) in chepa shutki
with increasing storage time. There are formal chemical
definitions of oxidation, involving electron transfer and free
radical reactions but, in the context of fish technology, it
can be considered as the chemical reaction in which oxygen
combines with a compound (Kilinc et al., 2006). Among
the different lipid degraded products, the primary oxidation
indicator PV which is the index to assess the lipid oxidation
of shidal significantly differed (p<0.05) in the treatment
and the control (Fig. 10). The gradual increase in PV values
Fig. 13. Changes in sensory scores for different sensory parameters (appearance, colour, texture, odour and overall acceptability) of
shidal during 120 days of storage, values = mean ± SE (error bars), n = 10
141
Shelflife of the fermented fish product, shidal
may be due to more amount of initial fat oxidation and it
also indicates the formation of peroxide or hydroperoxide
(Vernam and Sutherland, 1995).
The FFA content increased throughout the storage
period (Fig. 11). FFA showed less values in refrigerated
samples indicating that low temperature storage could
reduce lipid hydrolysis. These findings agree with the
findings of Srikar et al. (1993) who reported lower PV and
lower content of FFA in salted mackerel and pink perch
when stored at 2.5
o
C after 35 days of storage. The high
TBA values represent the degree of rancidity in the products
and the values above 3-4 indicate quality loss (Karacam
and Boran, 1996). It was observed that in the present study,
the values are in the acceptable range.
Primary and secondary lipid oxidation products are
the biological amino compounds, protein, peptides, free
amino acids and phospholipids; they react to produce
interaction compounds and this make the colour of the
product brown, causes a change in flavour and loss in
aromatic nutrient elements (Aubourg, 1998).
The sensory score for all sensory characters
significantly differed (p<0.05). The scores for appearance,
colour, texture, odour and overall acceptability (Fig. 13)
of shidal significantly differed (p<0.05) and gradually
decreased at a higher rate.
It was observed that the low temperature storage of
shidal had positive effects on extending shelflife of shidal.
Low temperature stored shidal showed less fluctuations in
the scores of all the sensory parameters which denotes a
stable quality of shidal during the storage period (Fig. 13).
The product remained acceptable up to 90 days of storage
with an overall acceptability score of >3.0. Shidal after
90 days storage under refrigerated condition is shown in
Fig. 14. This agrees with the findings of Akande et al. (1991)
in spiced minced fish cake and Koral et al. (2010) in hot
smoked Atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda) packed in aluminium
foil during storage. Ozden and Erkan (2006) also reported
that sensory evaluation has an important role in determining
the quality of fish and seafood. After analysing and
observing all the parameters it was inferred that shidal
may be kept at low temperature up to 90 days without losing
its characteristic odour and biochemical quality. It became
unacceptable after 120 days of storage under both
conditions (Fig. 15).
Fig. 14. Good quality Shidal after 90 days of storage under
refrigerated condition
Fig. 15. Shidal after 120 days of storage
Though shidal is one of the important fermented
products available in north-eastern part of India, it does
not have proper packaging and preservation methods and
it loses its typical flavour within a short period after taking
out from the mutka. The present study expected to provide
basic scientific information to develop a suitable packaging
and preservation technology for shidal. Limited research
work has been done on all aspects of fermented fish
products of north-east India. and there is a need for future
research especially in developing better packaging methods
utilising polythene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or
modified atmospheric packaging (MAP).
Acknlowledgements
Authors are thankful to the Vice Chancellor, Central
Agricultural University and Dean, College of Fisheries,
Agartala for providing infrastructural and financial support
to carry out the research.
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Date of Receipt : 03.09.2011
Date of Acceptance : 26.12.2012
... Fermentation is one of the main ways of the deep processing and preservation of aquatic products [1]. Fermented aquatic products have been favored by consumers in various regions because of their unique texture and flavor, such as Thai Plaa-som [2], Indian Bakasang [3], Indian Ngari [4], Chinese Suanyu [5][6][7], and Chinese fermented mandarin fish [8,9]. ...
... The safety, nutritional, textural, and flavor properties of these fermented fish products were evaluated. The objectives of this research were (1) to investigate the effects of inoculation amounts and LAB species on the Zhayu products' quality and (2) to compare the effects of different kinds of LAB on the quality improvement of the fermented Zhayu products. This study will provide some Traditional fermented fish products were usually manufactured by spontaneous fermentation without the addition of starter cultures in small-scale processing units. ...
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To investigate the effects of inoculation fermentation on the quality of Zhayu (a traditional fermented fish product in China), different amounts of L. plantarum, P. acidilactici, and P. pentosaceus were inoculated into samples, and the safety, nutritional, textural, and flavor properties of the samples were evaluated. Fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) decreased pH values and total volatile basic nitrogen content. The addition of 108~109 cfu/100 g LAB significantly increased the content of crude fat and water-soluble proteins in Zhayu. The addition of L. plantarum and P. acidilactici increased the content of soluble solids in Zhayu. Moreover, fermentation with LAB made the products tender and softer, and the samples prepared with 109 cfu/100 g LAB presented better overall qualities. Additionally, Zhayu fermented with L. plantarum and P. acidilactici showed the strongest sourness, while the samples prepared with P. pentosaceus showed the strongest umami taste, consistent with the highest contents of Asp (25.1 mg/100 g) and Glu (67.8 mg/100 g). The addition of LAB decreased the relative contents of aliphatic aldehydes, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and 1-octen-3-ol, reducing the earthy and fishy notes. However, LAB enhanced the contents of terpenoids, acids, esters, and S-containing compounds, increasing the sour, pleasant, and unique odors of Zhayu.
... The analyses performed (physical/chemical, sensory, microbiological) found no differences in sensory properties during storage of 120 days. Mahanta and Muzaddadi (2013) carried out an experiment on the extension of shelf life of the fermented fish product, shidal by packaging in glass bottle and low temperature storage. Microbiological, biochemical and sensory changes during storage period of 120 days were analyzed at 15 days interval. ...
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The study was conducted to observe the shelf life Nga-pi, produced with improved method, under various storage conditions. Acetes and Mysid shrimps collected from Chowfalldandi fish-landing center of Cox's Bazar were subjected to improved processing technique for 15 days and Nga-pi was prepared. Then it was srored for 180 days in three packing conditions (locally available mospata which is used to cover Nga-pi at Cox's Bazar region, open polythene pack and airtight plastic pack) at three storage temperatures (room, refrigeration and frozen temperature). Initial moisture content of Nga-pi was 57.18% which reached to 63.03% in airtight polythene pack at frozen temperature (−18±0.1°C) at the end of storage. The initial value of protein content was 29.78% which decreased to 15.86% in open polythene pack at frozen temperature and lipid content decreased to 4.0% in open polythene pack at refrigeration temperature (5±0.5°C) from initial value of 5.05% at the end of storage. Initial value of TVB-N was 18.0 mg 100g −1 ; at the end of storage the highest value was found 36.3 mg 100g −1 in mospata at room temperature (28±2°C) and the initial value of NPN 2.12 mg 100g −1 increased to 4.0 mg 100g −1 at room temperature in open polythene pack at the end of the storage. The pH value of Nga-pi was 8.1 at initial stage; which declined to 5.42 in mospata at room temperature at the end of storage period. For aerobic plate count the initial value was 2.11×10 3 (CFU g −1); which reached to 8.60×10 9 (CFU g −1) in mospata at room temperature at the end of storage.The results showed that the moisture content, TVB-N value and bacterial load increased during 180 days of storage at all the storage temperatures but quite slowly at frozen temperature in improved Nga-pi and airtight polythene pack was better for it's storage than mospata or open polythene pack.
... The analyses performed (physical/chemical, sensory, microbiological) found no differences in sensory properties during storage of 120 days. Mahanta and Muzaddadi (2013) carried out an experiment on the extension of shelf life of the fermented fish product, shidal by packaging in glass bottle and low temperature storage. Microbiological, biochemical and sensory changes during storage period of 120 days were analyzed at 15 days interval. ...
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This study was conducted on the improvement of production method of Nga-pi and to observe the shelf life of laboratory prepared Nga-pi under various storage conditions in the Department of Fisheries Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. For the production of Nga-pi in laboratory applying improved techniques, Acetes and Mysid shrimp were used as raw material which were collected from Chowfalldandi fish-landing center at Cox’s Bazar and were preserved in ice, then transported to Mymensingh in an insulated box. Whole process of Nga-pi production was completed within 15 days. Initial value of percent moisture content of laboratory prepared improved Nga-pi was found 57.18 which reached to 63.03 in air-tight polythene pack at frozen temperature (-18±0.1)°C after 180 days of storage. The initial value of percent protein content obtained 29.78 which decreased to 15.86 in open polythene pack at frozen temperature (-18±0.1)°C after 180 days of storage. In the case of percent lipid content the initial value was found 5.05, after 180 days of storage which decreased to 4.00 in open polythene pack at refrigeration temperature (5±0.5)°C. Initial value of TVB-N was 18.00 (mg/100g); after 180 days of storage the highest value was found 36.30 (mg/100g) in mospata at room temperature (28±2)oC and the initial value of NPN was 2.12 (mg/100g), after ‘180’ days of storage the highest value was found 4.00 (mg/100g) at room temperature (28±2)°C in open plastic pack. The pH value of Nga-pi was 8.10 at initial stage; after ‘180’ days of storage the value was declined to 5.42 in mospata at room temperature (28±2)oC. For aerobic plate count the initial value was 2.11 × 103; after ‘180’ days of storage the value reached to 8.60× 109 in mospata at room temperature (28±2)oC. The results showed that the moisture content, TVB-N value and bacterial load increased during ‘180’ days of storage at all the storage temperatures but at frozen temperature (-18±0.1)oC. the rate was slower. [Fundam Appl Agric 2020; 5(2.000): 270-280]
... mg/100g, respectively [19]. Some previous studies also revealed the similar preceding outcomes [20,28,29,22,26]. Majumdar et al. reported that the high concentration of TVB-N usually does not manifest any ammonia-like odor in the product [28]. ...
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The present study was conducted to evaluate nutritional and microbiological quality of the semi-fermented fish product, locally known as Chepa Shutki. Samples were collected from producers and retailers in Kuliarchar upazilla of Kishoreganj and Ashuganj upazilla of Brahmanbaria district as well as control sample were prepared with proper hygiene and sanitation. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (p< 0.05) among the samples. Lower levels of protein, lipid, fiber and nitrogen free extract content in the product obtained from retailers were probably related to the losses occurring at different stages of marketing chain during handling, transportation and preservation. The highest ash and the lowest moisture content were found in control. It was also found that total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) values were the highest in retailer and the lowest in control samples. Microbiological analysis revealed that the total bacterial count of samples was ranged from 6.01±0.28 to 8.10±0.18 log cfu g-1. Higher moisture content along with higher microbial load in the retailer’s samples reflected poor quality, whereas those obtained from producer’s and control samples were within the acceptable limit. This present study can easily be concluded that the nutritional and microbiological quality of control sample was comparatively good than the commercially produced semi-fermented fish products.
... mg/100g, respectively [19]. Some previous studies also revealed the similar preceding outcomes [20,28,29,22,26]. Majumdar et al. reported that the high concentration of TVB-N usually does not manifest any ammonia-like odor in the product [28]. ...
... It is originated in the erstwhile undivided India (now Bangladesh). A good number of research studies have been highlighted various aspects related to shidal and other fermented fish products of NE region such as assessment of nutritional quality of shidal (Majumdar et al., 2009); indigenous processing method and quality control of shidal, Comparative study of fermented fish products of Northeast India (Seedal and Shidal); extension of shelf life of shidal (Muzaddadi and Basu 2012;Muzaddadi, 2013, Mahanta andMuzaddadi, 2013), Microbial profile of starter culture fermented fish product 'Ngari' (Sarojnalini and suchitra 2009), Indigenous knowledge on processing of 'Godak'-a delicacy of the tribal population in Tripura and its nutritional quality (Dhar et al., 2012), Production process, nutritional composition, microbiology and quality issues of shidal (Ahmed et al., 2016); micro-organisms and the nutritive value of traditional fermented fish products of Northeast India ( Kokati and Goswami, 2013). Traditional fermented foods of Manipur (Jeyaram et al., 2009), (Ngari: an indigenous fermented fish product from Manipur ), Phassya Shidal (Anon, 2007. ...
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Shidal is a traditional fermented value added fish product highly demanded by the people of NE region. This study aimed to highlight commercial processing methods, cost and margin in processing of Matka shidal and constraints faced by the processors of Sidal. This study was conducted by collecting information of 28 processors of Tripura and 8 processors of Manipur through focussed Group Discussion (FGD). Commercial shidal processing includes procurement of dry fish, sorting and grading, curing of Matka, filling, sealing and marking of Matka, storage of for fermentation and trading of Shidal. The cost-benefit analysis of shidal indicated net return of 77065.31/t and 52593.8/t in case of puthi shidal in Manipur and Tripura, respectively. Whereas, the net return in Baspati in Tripura was 59616.17/t. The percentage shares of producer in consumer's rupee were ranged between 55–64%. The small scale processing units of fermented value added fish product shidal in Tripura and Manipur have greater potential and employment opportunities which can be exploited through development of better financial, technical and input support system.
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In this study, changes in chemical and sensorial quality of hot smoked Atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda, Bloch, 1838) during the storage at 4±1°C and 17±3°C were investigated. In addition, biochemical composition and yield after processing were determined. The values for moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash and salt were found as 67.71, 14.55, 12.87, 1.76 and 0.70% for fresh bonito, while 57.13, 20.55, 13.97, 3.69 and 3.33% for smoked bonito, respectively. The yield after smoking was calculated as 78.02%. Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbutiric acid (TBA) and total trimethlyamine (TMA) of smoked bonito increased significantly during storage at both temperatures while sensory scores decreased (p<0.05). According to sensory values, samples showed 4 days shelf life at 17±3°C and 10 days at 4±1°C. TVB-N values supported sensory analysis results and samples spoiled on 4th day of storage at ambient temperature and 11th day of storage at cold storage conditions (4±1°C). TMA and TBA results were within the acceptable levels throughout the storage period for all analyzed samples. Therefore, TVB-N was found as a reliable parameter to measure chemical changes and determine quality of fish samples. This study shows that smoked bonito packed in aluminium foil can be stored at 4±1°C for 10 days. © Published by Central Fisheries Research Institute (CFRI) Trabzon.
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Proximate composition of semi-fermented fish products (locally known as Chepa shutki) obtained from producer, wholesaler and retailer were analyzed. Moisture content varied from 39.62 to 46.89% with the highest value recorded in the products obtained from retailer and lowest in that obtained from producer. Protein, the most important component among the chemical composition, ranged from 32.46 to 33.83% with highest value recorded in product obtained from producer and lowest value in those obtained from retailer. Lipid content, on the other hand, varied from 19.25 to 24.97% with highest value recorded for the products obtained from producer and lowest value in products obtained from retailer. Similar trend was also observed when the values of protein and lipid were recalculated on dry weight basis. Ash content varied from 0.81 to 1.01% with highest value observed in product obtained from wholesaler and retailer and lowest values in product obtained from producer. Lower levels of protein and lipid content in the products obtained from retailers and wholesalers were probably related to the losses occurring at different stages of marketing chain during handling, transportation and preservation. It was found that TVB-N value was 1.12 mg/100g in products obtained from producer whereas that value increased with the increase of intermediaries in the value chain. TVB-N value in product obtained from retailer was 3.12mg/100g although the values which were within the acceptable limit as suggested for fishery product.
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In Manipur, traditional fermented soybean (Hawaijar), bamboo shoot products (Soibum/Soijim, Soidon), fish products (Ngari, Hentak), mustard leaf extract (Ziang Sang, Ziang Dui) and fermented beverages, viz. Atingba and fruit wines have been consumed as a regular food in different recipes over a long period of time. These household arts are handed down through generation by generation. In the study, the traditional preparation processes of fermented foods of Manipur were documented.
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‘Lona ilish,’ a traditional salt-fermented fish product made exclusively from Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha), is widely consumed in Bangladesh and adjoining northeastern part of India. No detailed scientific studies have been made on ‘lona ilish.’ To understand the science behind this traditional preservation process, the product was prepared in the laboratory following traditional method, and biochemical changes during fermentation period of 150 days were studied at two-week intervals. The protein and protein degradation products as well as lipid and its degradation products were among the important parameters studied. Increase in non-protein nitrogen (NPN), free alpha amino nitrogen (FAN), and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) contents during fermentation indicated hydrolysis of protein. However, the decrease in protein nitrogen content was not significant. A value of NPN/TN of 18% in the fish muscle was found indicative of the ripening point. The loss of lipid in the product was found to be significant. The first rise of peroxide value (PV) immediately after dry salting followed a gradual decrease, and thereafter a second rise was observed in the later half of fermentation period. However, this increase of PV did not impart any rancid taint to the end product. High salt content (15.48%), intermediate moisture content (49.89%) and low pH (5.28) of the final product was found to be satisfactory for stability of the ‘lona ilish’ at ambient temperature.
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A study was conducted to evaluate the overall quality in terms of proximate composition, rancidity, NPN (non protein nitrogen) content, protein digestibility, and sensory characteristics of hilsa (Hilsa ilisha) salted by different methods at ambient temperature (26-30°C). The salting methods included, salting of hilsa with dry crystalline salt, salting with previously prepared unsaturated brine (25g salt in 100ml water w/v) and salting with previously prepared saturated brine (dissolving salt in water until saturation). The hilsa salted with saturated brine showed longest shelf life (12 weeks) while the products by other two methods had shelf lives of 8 weeks only. Rancidity was maximum in the dry salted hilsa. The non-protein nitrogen content was also highest in the dry salted fish. However, the sensory characteristics of the dry salted hilsa was the best among the three different types, although the sensory characteristics were altered after 8 weeks. Hilsa salted with saturated brine retained its sensory characteristics up to 12 weeks. Despite some biochemical changes and sensory characteristics, hilsa salted with saturated brine is good and ensures a longer shelf life.
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Water in Alaska pollack surimi and its gel was categorized into types Ip-A (“free water”), Ip-B (Loose “entrapped water”), and lip (tight “entrapped water”) plus IIIp (“immobilized water”) by our press method. The maximal Ip-A and the minimal Ip-B and IIp plus IIIp in amounts were estimated in both non-salt-ground and salt-ground surimi at a pH of about 5; that is, the water holding capacity (WHC) of surimi was minimal at this pH. The amount of Ip-A in salt-ground surimi with pHs below 5 was larger than in the non-salt-ground one. With the increase of pHs above 5, WHC of surimi markedly increased and the amount of Ip-A decreased more in the salt-ground surimi than in the non-salt-ground material. The amount of Ip-A in surimi at pH 7, near the ordinary pH value of surimi for kamaboko, reached a minimum after the addition of 2-3% NaCl. After heating surimi with pHs between 5 and 9 at 90°C for 40 min, amounts of Ip-A were also less in salt-ground surimi gels than in non-salt-ground ones. Especially small amounts of Ip-A and large amounts of Ip-B were determined in the salt-ground surimi gel at pH 7, near the ordinary pH value of kamaboko with a high WHC. The salt-ground surimi gel with large amount of Ip-A and the low gel-strength was significantly saltier than that with a small amount of Ip-A and the high gel-strength. © 1989, The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science. All rights reserved.
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The effects of packing in oil and under vacuum on sensory, chemical and microbiological changes in marinated rainbow trout stored at chill temperatures (+4 ± 1 °C) were studied. The quality assessment of marinated trout stored in oil and under vacuum was performed by monitoring sensory quality, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA), psychrotrophic bacteria count and mesophilic bacteria count during storage. The observed organoleptic shelf-life of rainbow trout was found to be 105 days in oil and 90 days in vacuum packed samples. At the beginning of storage, the TVB-N value was 6.78 mg/100 g for marinated trout packed under oil and 7.35 mg/100 g for the vacuum packed samples. The TVB-N values increased to 12.08 mg/100 g and 11.98 mg/100 g by the end of the storage period for marinated rainbow trout packed in vacuum and in oil, respectively. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two groups of samples were found in TVB-N concentrations during the storage period. The fat degradation pattern (peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid content) was found to be similar for all storage conditions, showing a continuous increase reaching critical levels after ca. 60 days of storage for both packing types. Psychrotrophic bacteria count and mesophilic bacteria count of marinated trout were < 10 log CFU/g, throughout the storage period. The results of this study indicate that the shelf-life of marinated rainbow trout stored in cold storage (+4 °C), as determined by overall acceptability sensory scores, is 105 days for oil and 90 days for vacuum packaged samples.