Frequency Characteristics of Visually Induced Motion Sickness

Coventry School of Art and Design, Department of Industrial Design, Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK.
Human Factors The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (Impact Factor: 1.69). 06/2013; 55(3):595-604. DOI: 10.1177/0018720812469046
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to explore the frequency response of visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) for oscillating linear motion in the fore-and-aft axis.
Simulators, virtual environments, and commercially available video games that create an illusion of self-motion are often reported to induce the symptoms seen in response to true motion. Often this human response can be the limiting factor in the acceptability and usability of such systems. Whereas motion sickness in physically moving environments is known to peak at an oscillation frequency around 0.2 Hz, it has recently been suggested that VIMS peaks at around 0.06 Hz following the proposal that the summed response of the visual and vestibular self-motion systems is maximized at this frequency.
We exposed 24 participants to random dot optical flow patterns simulating oscillating fore-and-aft motion within the frequency range of 0.025 to 1.6 Hz. Before and after each 20-min exposure, VIMS was assessed with the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Also, a standard motion sickness scale was used to rate symptoms at 1-min intervals during each trial.
VIMS peaked between 0.2 and 0.4 Hz with a reducing effect at lower and higher frequencies.
The numerical prediction of the "crossover frequency" hypothesis, and the design guidance curve previously proposed, cannot be accepted when the symptoms are purely visually induced.
In conditions in which stationary observers are exposed to optical flow that simulates oscillating fore-and-aft motion, frequencies around 0.2 to 0.4 Hz should be avoided.

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Available from: Cyriel Diels, Jul 23, 2015
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    • "As a result, they were able to show that sickness not only increases with motion amplitude, but also that the average sickness incidence peaks at a frequency of 0.16 Hz. This observation has thereafter been confirmed repeatedly, also for other degrees of freedom, and no matter whether the motion was induced physically (Dai et al., 2010; Donohew and Griffin, 2004; Golding et al., 2001; Griffin and Mills, 2002; Howarth and Griffin, 2003; Lawther and Griffin, 1987) or visually (Diels and Howarth, 2013; Golding and Gresty, 2013). The fact that physical motions with a frequency content above 1 Hz are hardly or not sickening at all, has furthermore been shown to be even beneficial when added to low frequency motion, the combination being less sickening than the low frequency motion alone (Bos, 2015). "
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