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Metamorphosis in hospitality: A tradition of sexual harassment

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Abstract

This study measures the incidence and tolerance of sexual harassment in hospitality in an effort to understand its causes. It examines the tradition of sexual behaviour in hospitality, exacerbated by hierarchical structures, the nature of hospitality work, the characteristics of typical front line workers, customers’ reduced sense of responsibility, and an emphasis on meeting customers’ needs. Customer contact is shown to be a key predictor of harassment, especially for young European women. The typical profiles of hospitality staff and the nature and traditions of the industry are considered important causes of harassment in hospitality.

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... Given the advantaged position the Supervisor in the above account occupied, it may be difficult for most promoters to resist in the context of performing sexualized labour (Poulston, 2008). This is primarily because of the consequences of losing a source of income, which shows how the precarious work of beer promotion could create a context of risk for sexual exploitation. ...
... We found that although the multinational alcohol companies occasionally use a few young men to promote beer, the strategy is a recent development, which may be to further their denial of still using young women as beer promoters in Africa, following van Beemen's (2019) important work. We found that young women are primarily and strategically employed to perform what Poulston (2008) described as sexualized labour for the industry. That is, young women are purposefully deployed to perform 'femininized' affective labour (Coffey et al., 2018) of socializing with and encouraging men to buy more drinks, which increases the industry profit. ...
... Given that beer promoters must meet their daily targets (Lubek, 2005), they face the dilemma of drinking alcohol with customers against their wish or failing to make enough sales, culminating in losing their jobs. This highlights the extent of this precarious, femininized, and sexualized labour (Poulston, 2008), and how this contributes to alcohol consumption in the context of products promotion. Future research could investigate how alcohol consumption in the context of product promotion contributes to the risk of sexual exploitation for female beer promoters. ...
Article
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The alcohol industry in Nigeria uses sophisticated marketing strategies to influence drinking, and alcohol marketing regulations do not exist. This study examined the alcohol industry's strategy of using young women to promote beer in Benin City, Nigeria, and how sexualized beer marketing, as precarious employment , creates a context of risk for sexual exploitation. We conducted interviews and focus groups with beer promoters and their patrons and analysed data thematically. Some of the criteria for recruiting beer promoters include confidence, physical beauty, intelligence, and outspokenness. Beer promoters narrated that young women are mainly employed to promote beer as a strategy to convince men to buy more alcohol. Beer promoters cited the relatively high salary as their motivation for accepting to promote beer but highlighted multiple risks associated with this precarious work. First, promoters close late at night, and no provisions are made for their transport to their homes. Second, most male customers perceive beer promoters as sex workers and thus, attempt to persuade them to spend the night with them. Third, promoters also face physical and sexual harassment through unwanted contact and advances and are instructed to condone such behaviours during training. This strategy 'sexualizes' beer marketing and exposes beer promoters to health and social risks because they may be coerced into unwanted relationships as a condition for some men to purchase their brands (or sell more and meet their targets). There is a need to implement alcohol policies in Nigeria and tailor responses to beer promoters' unique risks.
... Whereas bullying behaviour and research into the phenomenon has in the past focused primarily on inter-staff relations, research interest in the shift from inter-staff bullying to client/guest-staff bullying has seen a steady rise with guests being found more and more to be the culprits of bullying especially in the service industry. Consequently, several researchers have trumpeted the call for policy to deal with customer-originated workplace bullying in the hospitality industry in countries such as the UK (Guerrier and Adib, 2000); Australia (Bratuskins et al., 2013;Cooper, 2014, 2016;Kensbock et al., 2015); China ; New Zealand (Poulston, 2008), Taiwan (Liu-Ming, 2014;McDonald, 2012;Poulston, 2008), etc. However, though the hospitality industry in Ghana has spanned several years, there is a woeful dearth of research into guest-bullying behaviour and how it affects organisational outcomes, business performance as well as its impact on the proverbial Ghanaian hospitality (Ghanaweb, 2021;Yamoah, 2015). ...
... Whereas bullying behaviour and research into the phenomenon has in the past focused primarily on inter-staff relations, research interest in the shift from inter-staff bullying to client/guest-staff bullying has seen a steady rise with guests being found more and more to be the culprits of bullying especially in the service industry. Consequently, several researchers have trumpeted the call for policy to deal with customer-originated workplace bullying in the hospitality industry in countries such as the UK (Guerrier and Adib, 2000); Australia (Bratuskins et al., 2013;Cooper, 2014, 2016;Kensbock et al., 2015); China ; New Zealand (Poulston, 2008), Taiwan (Liu-Ming, 2014;McDonald, 2012;Poulston, 2008), etc. However, though the hospitality industry in Ghana has spanned several years, there is a woeful dearth of research into guest-bullying behaviour and how it affects organisational outcomes, business performance as well as its impact on the proverbial Ghanaian hospitality (Ghanaweb, 2021;Yamoah, 2015). ...
... This traditional notion of the customer presents an environment which puts excessive pressure on staff to exceed customer expectation and needs no matter the cost (Gettman and Gelfand, 2007). Thus, the bid to grant customer gratification to meet Management's high expectations of customer satisfaction can overtly excuse customer excesses (Karatepe et al., 2009;Poulston, 2008). ...
Article
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Purpose The hospitality industry is one of Ghana's key economic contributors. It is an industry that has significant indigenous investment. The sector also brings in foreign exchange for Ghana. In 2019, it generated $325 m through tourist visits. This makes the hospitality industry critical for the attraction of foreign direct investments. The research was therefore aimed at examining the business environment of the hospitality industry for evidence of negative factors that can hamper its greater contribution to the attainment of Goal 8 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the UN such as guest-bullying and the incivility in hospitality occupations. Design/methodology/approach A convenience sampling method was used to select 346 samples out of the accessible 3,500 targeted population from 38 hotels in the capital city of Ghana, Accra, comprising of junior to senior employees of various departments. The questionnaires were scripted from a paper-based to digital format supported by the Opine software installed on tablets and smartphones, to enable complete adherence to all coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) safety protocols. The study used a regression to ascertain the relationships between the dependent variables and the independent variables. Findings The study found the “Level of Permissiveness for Guests” positively and significantly “encouraged” guests to bully staff, while “Management and Staff Laxity” negatively but significantly explained guest bullying behaviour. Originality/value The study makes the first attempt in context to shed light on workplace bullying which represents one of the main factors that can inhibit or erode any gains or attempts to foster the achievement of Goal 8 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the UN which is to create “Decent Work and Economic Growth”.
... According to Poulston (2008), the incidence of SH in the hospitality industry is of legendary proportions worldwide. An online Australian survey conducted by United Voice Victoria (2017) involving 306 hospitality workers revealed that 89% of the research participants had experienced SH at work. ...
... However, as portrayed in the general SH literature, the association between age and SH experiences is inconclusive in hospitality-related studies. In Poulston's (2008) study in New Zealand, the likelihood of being harassed decreases as age increases. On the contrary, age did not influence the propensity to be harassed in Lin's (2006) student sample. ...
... SH prevalence was higher among participants with bachelor's degrees in nursing and the graduates of other university programs compared to nurses who were graduates of vocational health schools (Celik & Celik, 2007). Within hospitality studies, Poulston (2008) found an association between reported SH and education. Education and SH vulnerability has received minimal empirical attention in the hospitality SH empirical studies. ...
This study examined the influence of job-client gender context and personal characteristics on sexual harassment vulnerability of hotel employees in Accra, Ghana. Data for the study were solicited from 583 employees working in 55 hotels and analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test of independence and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Result of the study indicates that young and unmarried front office and food and beverage female employees are relatively predisposed to sexual harassment in hotel workplaces. Sexual harassment victimization in the hotel workspaces is associated with daily routine activities of employees as well as demographic characteristics whereas job-client gender context appears limited in explaining the sexual harassment vulnerability of hotel employees.
... Studies (qualitative and quantitative alike) have investigated the phenomenon of customer sexual harassment in case studies of women in various countries who are engaged in various types of service work. These include retail service workers in Canada (Hughes & Tadic, 1998), students working in retail and hospitality in Australia (Good & Cooper, 2014, retail and bank workers in "small-town" New Zealand (Handy, 2006), insurance sales workers in Taiwan (Lu-Ming, 2013), frontline restaurant employees in China (Liu, Kwan, & Chiu, 2014), hospitality workers in New Zealand (Poulston, 2008), hotel workers in the UK (Guerrier & Adib, 2000(, and room attendants in luxury hotels in Australia (Kensbock, Bailey, & Jennings, 2015). ...
... These studies show that customer sexual harassment is widespread and common, and experienced by many female service workers (Guerrier & Adib, 2000;Handy, 2006;Hughes & Tadic, 1998;Kensbock et al., 2015;Poulston, 2008). The high levels of exposure to customer sexual harassment have an adverse effect on service workers' physical and mental welfare (CBS, 2018;Gettman & Gelfand, 2007;Gilbert, Guerrier, & Gay, 1998;Hughes & Tadic, 1998). ...
... Studies on service workers' responses to customer sexual harassment report that the victims tend to ignore and trivialize these behaviors, thereby framing sexual harassment as "harmless" (Good & Cooper, 2016;Handy, 2006;Hughes & Tadic, 1998), "typical male behavior" (Kensbock et al., 2015), or inevitable, i.e., an inherent part of service work (Kensbock et al., 2015;Poulston, 2008). Under these circumstances, service workers tend to develop passive or indirect tactics to cope with the harassment, which include detachment, avoiding interactions with male customers, altering their workplace behavior, making fun of customers behind their backs, and sharing their harassment experiences with coworkers, friends, or family members (Guerrier & Adib, 2000;Handy, 2006;Kensbock et al., 2015). ...
... This is because of several factors including the highly gendered environment of tourism, the intense interaction between service ends (i.e. employees and customers), the job expectations, and the imbalance of power between customers and employees (Guerrier and Adib, 2000;Albano and Kleiner, 2007;Poulston, 2008;Kensbock et al., 2015). Academic research on sexual harassment has concentrated predominantly on the influence of sexual harassment on victims (e.g. ...
... This supports the notion that employees in the tourism and hospitality workplaces may be less sensitive and more resilient to sexual harassment incidents (Folgerø and Fjeldstad, 1995;Giuffre and Williams, 1994). Poulston (2008) suggested that some tourism and hospitality employees are likely to tolerate anti-social behaviour and therefore they tend to consider sexual harassment as part of their job. Interestingly, informants initially tended to deny any sexual harassment experiences, however, in the course of the interview, most of them ended up sharing personal experience of sexual harassment. ...
... The world doesn't revolve only around us". This supports the notion that anti-social behaviour such as sexual harassment may be tolerated by tourism and hospitality employees (Poulston, 2008). ...
Chapter
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Drawing on a qualitative study approach involving 19 interviews with professional female tour guides in Turkey, the current investigation delves into sexual harassment and its impacts on the quality of work-life and subjective wellbeing of female tour guides. Despite the wide agreement that sexual harassment is common in tourism and hospitality workplaces, our findings indicate that female tour guides do not perceive sexual harassment as a pervasive phenomenon. The findings also confirm that tourism employees are less sensitive to unwanted sexual attention and thus are more resilient to sexual harassment. Similar to other sectors like hotels, sexual harassment seems to be normalized in tour guiding services. Tour guides tolerate unwanted sexual attention and seem to manage and overcome its potential consequences on their professional and personal life.
... In some societies, there appears to be misinterpretation about hospitality workers across different societies. For example, in many societies, hospitality work appear to have special connotations (Poulston, 2008). The public, who may not differentiate between the many hospitality organisations (legal or otherwise), perceive the hospitality industry as being all about prostitution, drugs and alcohol. ...
... The vulnerability of students on internships to sexual predators is an issue of concern for hospitality researchers (Mkono, 2010;Poulston, 2008). Although there are policies and laws safeguarding against sexual harassment, Mkono (2010) found that the older hospitality workers may not be aware of the consequences of sexual harassment due to lack of sensitisation and archaic cultural practices in Zimbabwe. ...
... Baum (2013) confirms discrimination against female hospitality workers globally, blaming policies within hospitality organisations that result in gender biases. Gender discrimination appears to be widespread in the kitchen (Mkono, 2010;Poulston, 2008;Zhong, Couch, & Blum, 2011). According to literature, discrimination in the kitchen take two forms. ...
... Internal bullying, where sources within the workplace are perpetrators (D'Cruz, 2015(D'Cruz, , 2016D'Cruz & Noronha, 2016), can unfold in myriad ways. Literature examining dirty occupations such as nursing (Jervis, 2001), cleaners (Soni-Sinha & Yates, 2013), private security officers (Hansen Löfstrand, Loftus, & Loader, 2016) and restaurant staff (Poulston, 2008) demonstrates the presence of abuse from organizational insiders. Dirty workers are bullied by supervisors or senior colleagues due to the dirt associated with the tasks the former perform. ...
... Owing to multiple taints, bartenders were not viewed as human beings but rather were yelled at, discriminated against and summoned and dismissed at the will of customers. In the hospitality industry in New Zealand, Poulston (2008) observed that workers, being ascribed an inferior status due to the physical taint (from cleaning after customers ate, drank, slept and so on), moral taint (from being associated with barmaids providing sexual favours) and social taint (from the customer-server relationship) which characterized their work, were commodified and mistreated by their superiors and customers. The performance of tasks involving material dirt and the conflation of a service orientation with servitude jointly resulted in workers being abused by those who held power over them. ...
... On the same lines, Poulston (2008) identified that in the hospitality industry, managers and staff had a relaxed attitude to sexual misbehaviour exhibited by customers to frontline workers and did not consider it necessary to take action or support employees who face these inappropriate situations. Frazer (2017) indicated that, for women bartenders, it was part of their job to flirt with customers and let customers hold their hands and hug them-actions which also aided the women in getting tips from customers. ...
Chapter
Dirty work is marked by the intersection of tainted work, marginalized social identities and difficult work environments characterized by precarity and sometimes obscure legal status of occupations. These multiple factors together make dirty workers vulnerable to workplace bullying, emotional abuse and harassment, which further exacerbates the distress arising out of doing a stigmatized job. This chapter, drawing on international literature, explores the interface between dirty work and workplace bullying, highlighting how the stigmatized status of dirty workers leads to bullying in occupational and organizational contexts. Internal, external and depersonalized bullying in relation to both low- and high-prestige dirty occupations is discussed. Etiological factors specific to dirty occupations, namely, taint and marginalized social identities, triggering harassment as well as taint management strategies and sources of prestige aiding dirty workers’ coping with abuse are elaborated. Notwithstanding the acute distress and feelings of powerlessness dirty workers experience, they engage in agentic behaviour and attempt to regain mastery and realize well-being. The chapter offers a new research agenda to the field of workplace bullying, since the lens of dirty work has not been deployed in the substantive area so far. The relevance of decent work, organizational governance and collective action as interventions to tackle workplace bullying, emotional abuse and harassment in the context of dirty work is discussed.
... Although this promoter may have cashed in on this opportunity for personal gain, given the advantaged position the Supervisor in the above account occupied, it may be difficult for most promoters to resist in the context of performing sexualized labour (Poulston, 2008) in Nigeria. This is primarily because of the consequences of losing a source of income, which further illustrates the precarity of doing Amba jobs in Nigeria. ...
... We found that although the multinational alcohol companies occasionally use a few young men to promote beer, the strategy is a recent development, which may be to further their denial of still using young women as beer promoters in Africa, following van Beemen's (2019) seminal work. We found that young women are primarily and strategically employed to perform what Poulston (2008) described as sexualized labour for the industry. That is, young women are purposefully deployed to perform 'femininized' affective labour (Coffey et al., 2018, p.729) of socializing with and encouraging men to buy more drinks, which in turn, increases the industry profit, and this confirms previous research (Dumbili, 2016). ...
... Given that beer promoters must meet their daily targets (Lubek, 2005), they face the dilemma of drinking alcohol with customers against their wish or failing to make enough sales, culminating in losing their jobs. This highlights the extent of this precarious, femininized, and sexualized labour (Poulston, 2008), and how this contributes to alcohol consumption in the context of products promotion. ...
Conference Paper
Introduction The alcohol industry in Nigeria uses sophisticated marketing strategies to influence drinking, and alcohol marketing regulations do not exist. This study examined the alcohol industry's strategy of using young women to promote beer in Benin City, Nigeria, and how sexualized beer marketing, as precarious employment, creates a context of risk for sexual exploitation. Methods Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 72 young people (beer promoters and their patrons), and the data were analyzed thematically. Results To be recruited as a beer promoter, an applicant must be tall, slim, smart, confident, good-looking, intelligent, and outspoken. Promoters wear branded T-shirts and black trousers for easy identification in alcohol outlets. Outlet owners register with the drinks industry for promoters to be posted to their bars, but the drinks industry does recruitment and training. Beer promoters narrated that young women are mainly employed to promote beer as a strategy to convince men to buy more alcohol. Beer promoters cited the relatively high salary as their motivation for accepting to promote beer but highlighted multiple risks associated with this precarious work. First, promoters close late at night, and no provisions are made for their transport to their homes. Second, most male customers perceive beer promoters as prostitutes and thus, persuade them to spend the night with them. Promoters also face physical and sexual harassment through unwanted physical contact and advances and are instructed to condone such behaviours during training. Conclusion This strategy 'sexualizes' beer marketing and exposes beer promoters to health and social risks because they may be coerced into unwanted relationships as a condition for some men to purchase their brands (or sell more and meet their targets). There is a need not only to implement alcohol policies but also to tailor responses to beer promoters' unique risks.
... Women in Malaysia comprise 47.3 percent of the nation's workforce and the government is working towards increasing this to 55 percent by 2015 (Gomez, 2011). The hospitality industry is particularly vulnerable to sexual harassment (Lin, 2006;Poulston, 2008). The existing empirical evidence indicates that sexual harassment is more widespread in the hospitality industry than in society at large (Cho, 2002). ...
... Sexual harassment in the hospitality/restaurant industry is not clearcut (Agrusa and others, 2002) as the nature of the service involves close relationships between employees and customers (Poulston, 2008).The number of lawsuits on sexual harassment led by women employed in the hospitality industry has become a matter of great concern (Coats, Agrusa and Tanner, 2004). The rst reported and led case of sexual harassment in the Malaysian hotel industry involved a general manager of Copthorne Orchid Hotel in Penang. ...
... Poulston (2008) explained that among the mature hospitality academics, there is a strong ethos of 'it's just part of the industry', when it came to issues of sexual harassment. Poulston's (2008) study on levels of sexual harassment in New Zealand hospitality workplaces found that sexual harassment was most common in front-of-house positions such as food and beverages, and the front of ce, particularly affecting casual and part-time female staff. Most of the harassment was caused by guests, peers, junior and senior staff. ...
Article
Full-text available
Malaysians from diverse ethnic backgrounds interpret verbal and nonverbal cues in relation to sexual harassment differently. This arises from differences in religious and socialisation practices despite a shared commonality of a Malaysian culture (Li and Lee-Wong, 2005). The study investigats perceptions of female hotel employees in Ma-laysia concerning sexual harassment. It explores how age, race, marital status, educational level, occupational position, department, and the number of years employed in u-ence perception of sexual harassment. Understanding hotel employees' perceptions of sexual harassment will help managers prepare appropriate sexual harassment policies and know what areas of the issue to focus on during training and in the long run, help reduce sexual harassment lawsuits (Agrusa and others, 2002). Ponmalar N. Alagappar is with
... The occurrence of SH in hospitality and tourism workplaces is endemic and exceptionally high (Poulston, 2008). In 2000, New Zealand hospitality employees were relatively more likely than workers of other sectors to file SH complaints with the New Zealand Human Rights Commission (HRC, 2001) although the industry employed only 4.5 per cent of the workforce at the time. ...
... It is the attitude in the workplace that is supportive of SH or those attitudes that are definitely and overtly negative towards SH (Sigal and Jacobsen, 1999). According to Poulston (2008), hospitality organisations with climate of high tolerance of SH will report higher levels of SH among employees. Repeatedly, hospitality workers have been reported to tacitly tolerate sexual behaviours from guests because of the fear of losing out on good tips (McColl, 2017) that are considered critical to the income of hospitality workers given the low wages that characterise the sector (Aynalem et al., 2016). ...
... In a study involving 301 Taiwanese hospitality students, about 97 per cent of the research participants reported incidents of SH (Lin, 2006). Another study conducted in the New Zealand hospitality sector, 24 per cent of 543 research participants were sexually harassed (Poulston, 2008). In a sample of New York and New Orleans restaurant workers, Agrusa et al. (2002) reported the SH incidence rate of 48.9 per cent. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between perceived dependence on tips and vulnerability to sexual harassment (SH) among hotel employees in Accra Metropolis, Ghana. Design/methodology/approach Within a cross-sectional research design, 583 employees from 55 hotels completed self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, χ² test of independence, Kruskal–Wallis test were used to analyse collected data. Findings Results of the study reveal that dependence on tips is related to SH vulnerability of food and beverage staff. Furthermore, dependence on tips engenders a perception of SH climate. Compared to guests and co-workers, supervisors were least identified as perpetrators of SH in hotel workspaces. Guests were responsible for unwanted sexual attention, whereas co-workers pose the greatest risk for gender harassment. Practical implications Hotel management should invest in the publication of educational materials such as leaflets and posters indicating unacceptability of inappropriate sexual behaviours. Originality/value This paper is one of the pioneers to have assessed the relationship between dependence on tips and perceived climate for SH as well as vulnerability to SH in a hotel context.
... Responses from American hospitality graduates working in or with hospitality showed that 39% of male respondents and 65% of female respondents thought most women in their field had been harassed (Paulson, 2008). Because sexual harassment is common in the restaurant industry, the standard for what is acceptable is more lenient than in other industries. ...
... The research has shown some sentiments of a differing standard of SH within the industry and was continued in research involving New Orleans restaurant employees, who believed that sexual harassment occurred more often and is more accepted in the restaurant industry than in other industries (Agrusa, 2002). It was found that harassment occurred less where staff had codes of ethics, training was adequate, and managers actively discouraged harassment (Paulson, 2008). Restaurants frequently provide the first workplace for young women as well as their first experience with institutionalized sexual harassment and the Restaurant Opportunities Centers United (2014) reported that women who currently or previously worked as tipped restaurant workers reported similar rates of sexual harassment. ...
Article
The media make it impossible to deny the sexual harassment crisis. Given the economic significance and demographic change in the labor pool, managing sexual harassment in the workplace is critical. Findings illustrate the volume of news coverage across America that focused on sexual harassment, with different industry sectors demonstrating significant increases of reported incidents after the Harvey Weinstein story. Critical Mass Theory is used to explain how the #MeToo Movement fostered industry-wide sexual harassment legislation. ANOVA identified significant differences before and after Weinstein as well as by the industry sector. Select literature with recommendations is also presented.
... As a vexing issue influencing both individuals and organizations with various social, organizational and legal implications, sexual harassment has received increasing attention in academia. While few would disagree that sexual harassment occurs in almost all workplaces (Kiely & Henbest, 2000), its existence and frequency are far more prevalent in the services industries in general, and tourism and hospitality in particular (Morgan & Pritchard, 2019;Poulston, 2008). Jobs in the tourism and hospitality industry have several distinct features which can potentially stimulate sexual harassment. ...
... Research indicates that the nature of jobs within tourism and hospitality (e.g. sexualized role of employees, antisocial working hours) may significantly encourage the occurrence of sexual harassment incidents (Guerrier & Adib, 2000;Kensbock et al., 2015;Morgan & Pritchard, 2019;Poulston, 2008). However, despite its prevalence, sexual harassment goes largely unreported, making it difficult to accurately determine its extent and influence (Morgan & Pritchard, 2019). ...
Article
Drawing on the Conservation of Resources Theory (COR), and a gender perspective, this study proposes and tests a conceptual model postulating relationships between sexual harassment, burnout, perceived social and organizational support, psychological well-being, and job satisfaction. A survey of Turkish female tour guides resulted in 221 valid questionnaires. The results reveal that female tour guides’ sexual harassment experience has a negative impact on their job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Unlike perceived social support, perceived organizational support plays a significant and negative role in triggering sexual harassment. The findings also confirm the mediating effects of burnout on the relationship between sexual harassment and job satisfaction as well as the relationship between sexual harassment and psychological well-being. The study contributes to gender equality and sustainability research and offers several practical implications for stakeholders in the travel industry and public policy.
... Servers in these industries, usually seen as being relatively lower on power, were found to face sexual harassment or mistreatment enacted by customers on a daily basis (e.g., Barling, Rogers, & Kelloway, 2001;Korczynski & Evans, 2013). Research found that an identical sexual harassing behavior was perceived less negatively if it was done by a customer than by a service employee because of the perception that customers are entitled to exert power (Madera, Podratz, King, & Hebl, 2007;Poulston, 2008). ...
... Evidence has also indicated that younger women and minority racial groups are at a higher risk of being sexually harassed than older women and the racial majority. As discussed earlier, in service industry, customers are usually perceived to have higher power, thereby making mistreatments enacted by customers more tolerable than those by service employees (Poulston, 2008). Hence, the power distance between the two parties within a particular dimension may create an environment for the target to stay silent when undergoing mistreatments including sexual harassment. ...
Article
Empower the powerless: Practical implications for breaking silence - Volume 12 Issue 3 - Yi-Ren Wang, Youjeong Huh
... Customer expectations and traditional industry personnel practices, such as sexualizing uniforms and the requirement for emotional labour from staff, intensify the likelihood of sexual harassment (Cho, 2002;Poulston, 2008). Consequently, hospitality settings provide unique circumstances that encourage sexual harassment, such as 24-hour operations, the availability of alcohol, the seclusion of the bedroom/suite, and a high degree of worker-guest interaction during service delivery (Cheung et al., 2018). ...
... Whilst this sampling strategy limits the generalizability of the study results, it has been employed in previous studies of sexual harassment initiated by customers, due to the pragmatic constraints in recruiting participants caused by the sensitivity and legal implications of the topic (i.e. sexual harassment) (Folgero & Fjeldstad, 1995;Good & Cooper, 2016;Guerrier & Adib, 2000;Poulston, 2008). All participants directly reported to the General Manager in a typical hierarchical hotel organizational structure. ...
Article
This research addresses calls for organizational perspectives of guest-initiated sexual harassment of employees; in this case, hotel room attendants. Workers, such as room attendants, working in jobs with high customer interaction, are particularly liable to sexual harassment. This exploratory study investigates the perspectives of personnel from hotel executive management as to how they understand and manage guest-initiated sexual harassment. To ascertain the level of management awareness of this issue, in-depth interviews were conducted with nine Directors of Human Resources (DHR) and two Executive Housekeeper Managers (ExHk) from nine five-star hotels in Brisbane, Australia. The outcome of our grounded theory analysis identified distinct areas within the praxis of DHRs’ and ExHks’ hotel operations given the results revealed hotel management had little knowledge of any sexual harassment by guests and therefore implemented few preventative strategies. From an epistemological perspective of socialist feminism, this research expands the field of knowledge related to room attendant employment, with implications for employer strategy and employee welfare in hotels.
... Organizational problems include the absence of a living wage (i.e., low pay), lack of overtime pay, and the absence of benefits such as health insurance (Briggs, 2009;Buchanan et al., 2010;Premji & Krause, 2010). Undocumented workers are particularly vulnerable to mistreatment and various types of abuse (Calnan, Wadsworth, May, Smith, & Wainwright, 2004;Poulston, 2008) because their status gives employers and supervisors a means to control, exploit, and intimidate workers into accepting dangerous work conditions (De Castro, Gee, & Takeuchi, 2010;Krause et al., 2002). ...
... Hotel workers experience constant time pressures (Chiang, Birtch, & Kwan, 2010;WorkCover, 2003) at work and rush to finish their assigned rooms, often jeopardizing their psychological wellbeing (Hsieh et al., 2013(Hsieh et al., , 2014 Poulston, 2008). They experience physical (e.g., musculoskeletal injuries); chemical (e.g., exposure to toxic cleaning solutions); biological (e.g., exposure to microbial contaminants); and psychosocial hazards (e.g., long/irregular hours (Gautie, 2010;Willemse, 2006), work-home conflict (Hsieh, Kline, & Pearson, 2008;Wong & Ko, 2009), job insecurity (Woo & Krause, 2003), and interpersonal conflict (Buchanan et al., 2010;Kim, 2008;Krause, Rugulies, & Maslach, 2010). ...
Article
The U.S. tourism and hospitality workforce is disproportionately represented by immigrants and minorities, particularly in low-wage jobs with adverse work conditions. Immigrant hotel and foodservice workers face excess chronic stress and related syndemic risks, exacerbated by social, political, and economic inequities. COVID-19 has suddenly intensified the stressful and already difficult circumstances of immigrant service sector workers. The travel and tourism sector is one of the hardest hit due to widespread travel restrictions and shelter-in-place orders designed to curb infection spread. Restrictions and lockdowns have devastated tourism-dependent destinations and displaced millions of vulnerable workers, causing them to lose their livelihoods. Compared to the general workforce, a sizeable increase in occupational stress has already been observed in the hospitality/tourism sector over the past 15–20 years. COVID-19 and related fears add further strains on immigrant hotel and foodservice workers, potentially exerting a significant toll on mental and physical health and safety.
... However, apart from these physical, visible and easy-to-observe injuries, long-term stress, bullying and harassment, the exposure to violence or threats of violence, also affect workers' health and inevitably their bodies (Kensbock et al., 2015;Poulston, 2008;Ram, 2015). I conclude that the restaurant or the hotel, rather than representing workplaces of homogenous character, essentially are made up of quite diverse micro spaces of work, meaning that the hospitable, working body is exposed to very different hazards, depending on who carries out what kind of work where (Massey, 1995). ...
... Existing research suggests that workers perceive sexual harassment, threats and violence as normal features and as "part of the job." Furthermore, experienced workers testify as to the development of an increased tolerance towards sexual harassment over time (Guerrier & Adib, 2000;Poulston, 2008), thus indicating a process of normalization. A recent report from The Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Bergold, 2018) states that young women on temporary contracts are more exposed to sexual harassment than other categories of workers. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper critically examines the hospitable body and how it is put to work, how certain bodies are selected and become associated with certain occupations and spaces of work, and how the hospitable body is produced, transformed, and commodified in accordance with prevailing modes of production. Drawing on examples primarily obtained from the Nordic countries, I review current research on hospitality workers, while also manifesting how employers portray and, at times, exploit the hospitable body. This is followed by a presentation of a research agenda for the continued study of the hospitable body at work, addressing the need for in‐depth, context‐sensitive studies on worker strategies to counteract harassment. I conclude by suggesting that the working body can be theorized as concurrently being relational and “in the making,” and as a bounded territory in need of protection against the hazards of flexible work regimes, stress, harassment, and precariousness.
... Responses from American hospitality graduates working in or with hospitality showed that 39% of male respondents and 65% of female respondents thought most women in their field had been harassed (Paulson, 2008). Because sexual harassment is common in the restaurant industry, the standard for what is acceptable is more lenient than in other industries. ...
... The research has shown some sentiments of a differing standard of SH within the industry and was continued in research involving New Orleans restaurant employees, who believed that sexual harassment occurred more often and is more accepted in the restaurant industry than in other industries (Agrusa, 2002). It was found that harassment occurred less where staff had codes of ethics, training was adequate, and managers actively discouraged harassment (Paulson, 2008). Restaurants frequently provide the first workplace for young women as well as their first experience with institutionalized sexual harassment and the Restaurant Opportunities Centers United (2014) reported that women who currently or previously worked as tipped restaurant workers reported similar rates of sexual harassment. ...
Article
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The media make it impossible to deny the sexual harassment crisis. Given the economic significance and demographic change in the labor pool, managing sexual harassment in the workplace is critical. Findings illustrate the volume of news coverage across America that focused on sexual harassment, with different industry sectors demonstrating significant increases of reported incidents after the Harvey Weinstein story. Critical Mass Theory is used to explain how the #MeToo Movement fostered industry-wide sexual harassment legislation. ANOVA identified significant differences before and after Weinstein as well as by the industry sector. Select literature with recommendations is also presented.
... Several other obstacles were highlighted in the literature related to the workplace environment and nature of tourism jobs, such as sexual harassment (Brownell, 1993;Baum, 2013;Boone et al., 2013), irregular and long working hours, night shifts as well as job mobility (Li & Leung, 2001;Mooney & Ryan, 2009;Costa, Bakas, Breda, & Durao, 2017;Segovia-Pérez et al., 2019;Kumara, 2018). In the context of the hospitality sector, sexual harassment takes many forms that may cause negative consequences for employees' physical and psychological health, labour productivity, or even the organisation's image and reputation (Poulston, 2008;Ineson, Yap, & Whiting, 2013). ...
Article
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The underrepresentation of women at the top management level has been a persistent challenge to the hospitality and tourism industry worldwide. While a number of barriers to women’s career advancement in tourism are well-documented, the impact of these barriers is sensitive to different institutional, economic and socio-cultural contexts. Using quantitative research methods, this study aims to investigate barriers to women’s career advancement in the context of the Vietnam hospitality industry, where the collective mechanism is known as a key successful factor for addressing gender issues at workplace. Findings reveal that hotel managers perceive no problem of gender issues at work. However, work-life balance was reported as the only barrier to women’s career advancement, and is suggested as a focal point for gender-related policies and programs. The study also proposes some directions for future researches in order to enrich the methodological aspects and empirical evidences of this research domain
... SH is frequent in typically male jobs (for example, construction, Watts, 2007) but also in typically feminine jobs (for example, domestic work, DeSouza and Cerqueira, 2009). It seems a constant in the hospitality industry, where often workers are required to do 'aesthetic labour' (that is, physical appearance, even sexiness, is required as part of the job) (Poulston, 2008;Good and Cooper, 2016). Recently, thanks to the '#MeToo' movement, the alarming frequency of SH in the entertainment industry, the media and political life was revealed (Hoel and Vartia, 2018). ...
Article
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The aims of this qualitative study were to describe sexual harassment (SH) as experienced by young Italian women in the workplace and to analyse their reactions and forms of resistance. A sample of 20 university students who mostly held casual jobs was recruited at one university and interviewed in 2017–18; the transcriptions were analysed using a thematic method. Respondents experienced multiple forms of SH, from sexual comments and requests to physical contacts, carried out by male employers, co-workers and customers. Often SH had a pronounced pornographic nature, and occasionally women were treated as ‘prostitutes’; dress-code implied ‘dressing sexily’, and becomes a form of SH. All women evaluated these behaviours as inappropriate, but no one considered making a formal complaint. They reported confusion, attempts to minimise, going along with a smile, asking the help of colleagues, and using the boyfriend as a protector. Few took direct actions such as confronting the harassers, retaliating or complaining to the employer. Notwithstanding the hostility and humiliation experienced, the young women interviewed retained a strong sense of their dignity as workers, which can count as another form of resistance to a system that consistently tries to objectify them and disqualify them as workers. key messages Working students experienced frequent sexual harassment, and occasionally were treated as prostitutes. They reported confusion and minimising; some reported asking for the help of colleagues or their employer, but no one made a formal complaint. They experienced humiliation but retained a strong sense of their dignity as workers, which counts as a form of coping and resistance. <br /
... The conflation of service and servitude that can erupt into abuse in the context of care work is compounded by gender inequalities and hierarchical work relationships that are not dissimilar to those in the hospitality and service industries. 249 Research on non-profit care settings in Canada and Scotland 'reveals some tolerance for violence among management and workers, operating as a gendered dynamic in which paid care work requires the same kinds of elasticity and self-sacrifice expected of mothers and other unpaid females, as well as the same disregard for conditions of work and workplace safety'. 250 Beyond the public sector, workplace violence is even less visible, partly because it is not often acknowledged as violence at all. ...
Research
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This report seeks to consolidate existing research knowledge about violence in Scotland, broadly defined, drawing on a range of quantitative and qualitative sources. It is not a systematic review; rather it presents a more selective and convenience sampling approach to research that reflects key trends in both research and patterns of the phenomenon under review. The aim is to provide an accessible document that brings together relevant information about the state of violence and violence research, focusing on Scotland, but reflecting wider developments in understanding as a means to inform future research priorities.
... One of the underlying causes of harassment in restaurants is due to the fact that employees work in spaces where people go to socialize with friends, family, coworkers, and others. Unfortunately, these social spaces are renowned for having sexualized work environments where sexual harassment is rampant, if not encouraged by the restaurant culture (Leyton, 2014;Poulston, 2008). Restaurant employees do their jobs when others are socializing and having a good time while they work nights, weekends, and holidays and become separated from their normal social and sexual activities creating a subculture that has a special bond perpetuating the sexualized work environment (Anders, 1993). ...
Article
It is widely known that the hospitality industry is rife with sexual harassment of especially female employees, yet every year hospitality programs send out thousands of students to complete internships making them vulnerable to sexual harassment, which is a violation of their Title IX rights. The purpose of this descriptive study was to be the first to survey US hospitality students to see if they experienced sexual harassment during a recently completed internship. The majority of the 297 respondents did not experience sexual harassment but a sufficient number experienced sexist and sexual hostility mostly from male managers, coworkers, and customers. The majority of respondents were not informed as to the inappropriate sexual behaviors they may encounter during their internship; over half were given no training by the internship coordinator or employer on what to do if harassed. It is clear that more needs to be done by internship coordinators and employers to protect student interns Title IX rights.
... Her ne kadar kadınlara yönelik pozitif ayrımcılık vurgulansa da turizm sektöründe kadınların ücretlerinde, çalışma koşullarında, terfilerinde cinsiyetlerinden dolayı ayrımcılığa maruz kaldıklarının vurgulandığı (Dalkıranoğlu, 2006;Santos & Varejão, 2007;Kaya & Topbaş, 2019;Cave & Kılıç, 2020; ve Hutchings ve ark., 2020; cinsiyet eşitliği konusunun irdelendiği (Jackman, 2022) destekleyici çalışmalar da bulunmaktadır. Poulston (2008) Kadın çalışmalarının yanında özellikle son on yılda turizmde hayvan hakları ve hayvan etiği konusunun da sıklıkla tartışıldığını söylemek mümkündür. Hayvan etiği tartışmaları son 30-40 yılda hiç olmadığı kadar aşama kaydetmiş ve insanlar kendi hayatlarında da somut adımlar atabilme adına beslenme, eğlenme ve turizm tercihlerinde değişikliklere gitmişlerdir. ...
Book
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Son yıllarda her alanda ve her sektörde yaşanan yoğun rekabet ve pazarlama anlayışında yaşanan değişimler işletmeler açısından tüketici odaklılığı ve tüketici ile iletişimi zorunlu kılmaktadır. Bu durum ürün ve hizmet üreten tüm sektörlerde olduğu gibi turizm sektöründe de tüketicilerin yani turistlerin isteklerini, ihtiyaçlarını ve beklentilerini ürünlerin üretim ve sunum süreçlerinde dikkate alınması gereken en önemli faktörler haline getirmiştir. Turistlerin ürünlerden ve hizmetlerden memnun kalmaları ile geleceğe yönelik eğilimleri ve davranışları arasında bir ilişki söz konusudur. Hem bu ilişkinin varlığı hem de pazarlamanın etkin bir şekilde yürütülebilmesi turistlerin beklentilerinin anlaşılmasını gerektirmektedir. Teknolojik gelişmeler ve küreselleşme dünyanın her noktasının bilinir hale gelmesine ve ulaşılabilir olmasına katkı sağlamıştır. Uzak ve o kadar zamanım yok! gibi ifadeler çok geride kalmıştır. Artık en uzak mesafeler bile hem zamansal hem de ekonomik açıdan tasarruf sağlayacak şekilde farklı ulaşım araçlarıyla kat edilebilmektedir. Bu da daha çok turisti, ziyaretçiyi, yatırımı, ilgiyi ve talebi kendisine çekmek isteyen ülkeler, bölgeler, kentler, köyler kısacası destinasyon olarak adlandırabilecek alanlar için yoğun bir rekabetin yaşanmasına neden olmaktadır. Sanayi Devrimi ile başlayan ancak 2000’li yıllarla birlikte zirveye ulaşan bu rekabet ve yarış, her pazarı, ürünü, hizmeti ve sektörü içine çekmektedir. Bu rekabet ve yarış ortamında destinasyon ve turistler arasında kurulacak uzun vadeli ve sadakat temelli bir ilişki oldukça önemlidir. Her ürünün, markanın, hizmetin, stratejinin ve teknolojinin çok hızlı bir şekilde taklit edilebildiği bir pazar ortamında uzun vadeli, memnuniyet ve sadakat temelli kurulan bir turist ilişkisix destinasyonların geleceğe taşınmasında hayati rol oynamaktadır. Benzer ürünler üreten, var olan kaynaklarıyla yetinen ya da bu kaynaklardan yeterli ölçüde yararlanmayan, gelişmelere ve değişimlere ayak direyen, mevcut turistlerle yetinip potansiyel turistleri kendisine çekemeyen destinasyonlar çok kısa sürede pazarda yok olmaktadırlar. Sadece altyapı ve üstyapı yatırımları ile yetinmeyen, ürün geliştirme ve pazarlamaya kaynak ayıran, hedef kitleye kendisini doğru bir şekilde anlatabilen ve potansiyel turistlere sürekli mesajını iletebilen destinasyonlar ise turizm pazarlarındaki varlıklarını uzun süre devam ettirebilmektedirler. Destinasyon yönetimi ve pazarlamasının yanı sıra birey bazında her turistin istek, ihtiyaç ve beklentisinin anlaşılması ve bu taleplere zamanında ve uygun fiyatlarda cevap verilmesi de ayrıca önemlidir. Bu kitapta da turistlerin turizm ve destinasyon satın alma süreçlerine ve satın alma sonrası değerlendirmelerine doğrudan ve dolaylı etki eden ve katkı sağlayan tüm güncel bileşenler ve boyutlar çeşitli yönleriyle 19 farklı kurum ve kuruluştan 26 yazarın katkıları ile değerlendirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu denli kapsamlı ve güncel yönleriyle turizm ve destinasyon konusunu ele alan alanyazındaki ender çalışmalardan biri olan kitabımızın hem akademik araştırmacılara hem de turizm ve destinasyon yönetimlerine ve pazarlamacılarına katkı sağlayacağı ve yol gösterici olacağı düşünülmektedir. Eserimizi okumaya ve yararlanmaya değer gören tüm araştırmacılara, akademisyenlere, öğrencilere ve kitap ve okuma gönüllülerine sonsuz teşekkür ederim.
... Unlike other studies, the older participants described sexual experiences with more severity than the younger ones. Some of the older participants reported working in bars, clubs, and restaurants where the provision of alcohol, and use of sexualized labor may be more prominent than in other jobs, which can encourage additional inappropriate customer interactions (Poulston, 2008;Warhurst & Nickson, 2009). Retail establishments rely on customers for business, therefore, companies may use various tactics with their employees such as displaying a certain image or attitude (e.g., flirting with customers) to elicit sales (Warhurst & Nickson, 2009). ...
Article
Problem Young workers, typically characterized as 15–24 years of age, are commonly employed in jobs where the risk of workplace violence is high. It is unknown how these young workers, at varying stages of development, might understand and respond to workplace violence differently. We set out to explore whether the experiences and understandings of young workers varied between those in middle (ages 15–17) and late (ages 18–24) adolescence. Method Separate focus groups were conducted with working students (n = 31), ages 15–17 and ages 18–24, who had either experienced or witnessed workplace violence. A focus group guide was used to facilitate the sessions which were recorded, transcribed, and content analyzed for themes. Results Those in the older group experienced more severe episodes of sexual harassment and physical assault, reported using formal mechanisms for reporting, and noticed an employer focus on customer satisfaction over employee safety, while the younger participants tended to report to their parents. Both groups reported negative effects of experiencing workplace violence including depression, anxiety, feelings of worthlessness, and spill over into personal life. Discussion Findings suggest that young workers at different developmental stages may experience and respond to workplace violence differently. Further research is needed to see if these results are generalizable. Summary It is imperative that we understand the distinct differences between these subsets of young workers and how they experience and respond to workplace violence in order to improve research, policy development, and prevention/intervention mechanisms. Practical Applications Understanding that differences exist among young workers based on age due to developmental stage, lack of experience, education, and social awareness can enable employers, companies, policy makers, and researchers the opportunity to better address the issue of workplace violence in this population.
... The Trade Union Congress UK (2007) maintains that there is a strong link between the high levels of sexual harassment experienced by younger women and the fact that the latter are more likely to be in low-paid, casual, and insecure work. Similarly, Poulston (2008) states that casual, part-time, young, and female workers are particularly vulnerable to sexual harassment. Apart from gender, age might also increase people's susceptibility to discrimination. ...
Preprint
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... Women are viewed as sexual objects, which results in the legitimization of violence against them in different ways. According to Poulston (2008), the source of this situation is sometimes the customers and sometimes their co-workers. Furthermore, it is widely believed that employees should comply with customers' wishes in the service sector, and thus their immoral behaviour should be accepted and allowed (Ram, 2015). ...
Chapter
Gender-based violence (GBV) in travel and tourism is embedded within the wider social structures of gender inequality and discrimination. This book focuses on the multiple and interconnected manifestations of violence that women and girls encounter in tourism consumption and production, such as physical, sexual, emotional or socio-economic abuse. The book adopts a multidisciplinary perspective in its critical examination of the theoretical landscape of GBV, and its engagement with case studies on GBV and sexual harassment. It draws on feminist, intersectional and post-colonial frameworks, bringing together contributions from academics and practitioners across the globe. The 12 chapters are presented as small collections linked by theme and divided by profiles of organizations and initiatives that are attempting to tackle GBV in the tourism industry and beyond. This book aims to provide a platform for these groups to emphasize the positive movements and initiatives in the field.
... Coercion, "touching, ogling, verbal abuse, indecent exposure, and sexual jokes" are only a few examples of sexual harassment (Pritchard, 2014, p. 30). Researchers in hospitality are concerned about the exposure of internship students to sexual predators (Poulston, 2008b). Even though there are procedures and legislation in place to protect against sexual abuse. ...
... Kattara (2005), Mısır'daki beş yıldızlı konaklama işletmelerinde gerçekleştirdiği çalışmasında kadınların cam tavan engeline takıldıklarını ve yönetici pozisyonlarında çok fazla görev alamadıklarını belirtmiştir. Poulston (2008) turizm sektöründe kadın çalışanların çalışma arkadaşları ya da misafirler tarafından cinsel tacize maruz kaldıklarını belirtmiştir. Arzjani ve Rahiminezhad (2011) çalışmalarında kadınların turizm sisteminde en rahat çalıştıkları alanın girişimcilik olduğunu ifade etmişlerdir. ...
Article
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Günümüzde toplumsal cinsiyet eşitliği konusundaki duyarlılığın yansıması olarak kadın çalışmaları sıklıkla incelenen alan haline gelmiştir. Hizmet sektörü içinde yer alan ve işlerin önemli bir bölümünün kadın odaklı olması nedeni ile turizm sektörü; emek-yoğun yapısı yanında kadın-yoğun özelliği de göstermektedir. Turizmin sayısal olarak büyümesi ve sosyoekonomik etkilerinin bireylerin gelişimlerine katkısı nedeni ile kadın ve turizm olgularını birlikte ele alan çalışmalarda artış yaşanmaktadır. Çalışmada bibliyometrik yöntem ile Vosviewer paket programı kullanılarak “kadın” ve “turizm” kavramlarına yönelik içerik analizi yapılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında Web of Science veri platformundan elde edilen 3245 çalışma incelemeye tabi tutulmuştur. Elde edilen veriler görsel haritalama tekniği kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Anahtar sözcükler üzerinden yapılan eşdizimlik analizine göre altı farklı tema belirlenmiş ve Tourism, Gender, Cross-Border Reproductive Care, Motivation, Sustainable Tourism ve Segmentation olarak gruplandırılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında en çok makale türünde çalışmaya ulaşılmıştır. Alanyazında kadın konusunun ağırlıklı olarak konaklama işletmeleri ölçeğinde incelendiği belirlenmiş ve çalışmaların 1975’te başlayıp 2010 yılından sonra artış gösterdiği tespit edilmiştir. Araştırma bulgularına göre turizmde kadınlar ağırlıklı olarak cam tavan engelleri, ücret ayrımcılığı, çalıştıkları departmanlar ve yönetim kademelerindeki rollerine ilişkin konularda incelenmektedir.
... Additionally, males and restaurant managers were found to be more sensitive to sexual harassment conduct. However, the results were inconsistent with previous findings by Poulston (2008) and Sherwyn and Wagner (2018) that female workers or regular employees are more vulnerable to sexual harassment conduct as the majority of sexual harassment victims reported in the literature were female, regular employees, or minority groups. Furthermore, cases related to these groups were frequently described as power abuse according to the power inequality theory identified in the literature. ...
Article
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No industry has been immune to the #MeToo movement since its inception. The restaurant industry is especially susceptible to incidents of sexual harassing behaviors due to certain characteristics of the business itself. The purpose of this research paper is to evaluate restaurant employees' perceptions of sexual harassment and the effects of the #MeToo movement has had on those perceptions. By analyzing the responses of restaurant employees in Hawaii, significant differences in sexual harassment perceptions were found among different groups depending on age, generation and job position. Through quantitative and qualitative examinations, the influence of the #MeToo movement on restaurant employees' perceptions of sexual harassment is explored. This study will provide timely information when it comes to sexual harassment in the restaurant industry and suggest policies and implications for the field.
... The perspective addition through qualitative studies is more critical in the DT context, as the interaction of different cultures within T&H differentiates the sector from the remaining ones. On a lesser note, studies have also highlighted how the cultures of travellers change while they are travelling (and taking a moral holiday (Poulston, 2008b)). Therefore, it becomes crucial to understand how travellers' perspective shifts while travelling, which is only possible through in-depth qualitative studies using narrative interviews. ...
Article
Diversity training has gained momentum over the years across industries to reduce turnover, increase revenue, and enhance the hospitable environment of the workplace, among other benefits. However, the initiate has also been criticized for ineffectiveness and backlash from participants. This review synthesizes 228 articles on diversity training across 13 industries to draw a holistic landscape of the initiative to address the existing gap in research. Findings of the systematic literature review were presented to diversity trainers to collate the existing knowledge with practice. Results of the review demonstrate an acute need for research within Tourism and Hospitality along with qualitative research on the initiative. Efforts also need to be taken to decolonize the research and training designed for the managers and leaders of the organisation. Theoretical and practical implications for Tourism and Hospitality Research and policy are discussed after consultation with diversity practitioners in the industry.
... Unwanted sexual attention is facilitated by the bar environment, in which young women's role is to create a pleasurable environment so the (mostly male) patrons purchase more beer (Sychareun et al. 2016;Webber and Spitzer 2010). The training that beer promoters receive, as well as the desire to maintain their job, encourage young women to passively accept male sexual overtures as they "do" deference to their male customers (Good and Cooper 2016;Poulston 2008;Coffey et al. 2018) further subverting female agency. ...
Article
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In Southeast Asia, many young rural female migrants supplement their income by working as beer promoters. This study examined how young, female beer promoters working in Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR, navigate intimate relations and sexual encounters and how their experiences create sexual vulnerabilities. A total of 30 female beer promoters aged 18-24 years old were recruited using snowball sampling. Repeated face-to-face in-depth interviews were undertaken and thematic analysis conducted to identify common themes. Most participants had their first coital experience pre-migration but living in the city introduced them to a larger pool of potential partners. Unprotected sexual intercourse was common, with young women usually deferring to their male partners preference for non-condom use. Working as beer promoters, the sexualised environment of the bar room promoted male ideals of femininity and exposed the young women to sexual harassment. While the young women used various strategies to assert their autonomy, and challenge unequal gender norms, the prevailing male hegemony acted to subvert female sexual agency. Leveraging young urban migrants’ desire to complete education, live independently and postpone motherhood may provide opportunities to examine and challenge gender norms and harmful practices.
... The Trade Union Congress UK (2007) maintains that there is a strong link between the high levels of sexual harassment experienced by younger women and the fact that the latter are more likely to be in low-paid, casual, and insecure work. Similarly, Poulston (2008) states that casual, part-time, young, and female workers are particularly vulnerable to sexual harassment. Apart from gender, age might also increase people's susceptibility to discrimination. ...
Article
Full-text available
The work-related experiences of migrants vary significantly across groups and are affected by the interaction of the migrants' characteristics with those of the host country. This study investigates the influence of a number of personal factors on the work-related outcomes of Filipino migrants in Malta. Data about seven personal characteristics and nine work-related outcomes were gathered from a sample of 317 Filipino workers and analyzed through inferential statistics. Male and female respondents experience similar work outcomes, apart from access to training which is higher among males. Older workers have better work outcomes than younger ones. They are treated more fairly, face less discrimination , take less sick leave and are less likely to exhibit presenteeism. Knowledge of local employment laws is related to higher levels of job satisfaction, fair treatment, and ability to influence decisions at work. Counter intuitively , level of education is positively related to perceived discrimination. Besides, having a high skilled job and working in the public sector are related to greater health and safety risks and more sick leave. These unexpected results may be explained through the migrants' higher expectations and greater awareness and sensitivity towards working conditions. This study confirms the utility of a nuanced approach when examining the working conditions of Filipino migrants and highlights the predictive ability of age, skills level of job, sector of employment and knowledge of local employment laws.
Chapter
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As the global community awaits the distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine, the prevention etiquette of social distancing, also known as physical distancing, is being championed as a means of reducing the rate of infections. Social distancing measures offer valuable strategies to halt the spread of a virus and forms an integral part of a pandemic preparedness plan at both the national and international levels. The nationwide and restricted lockdowns implemented in many countries in a gradualist approach to limit and stop the spread; provide adequate care for the sick; limit the impact on social and economic life; inspire expansion of domestic capability and deepen self-reliance has brought to the fore, housings' significance in social development. These measures being in sync with the emergence and subsequent transmission of global pandemic (COVID-19) reveal the importance of access to decent housing as a strategic input in the economic, social, and civic development of every nation. With millions of people living in substandard housing units where the housing conditions and essential services do not support such a practice (social distancing), the adherence to social distancing and the practice of good hygiene (the necessary COVID-19 prevention protocols) has become an oxymoron for many of the global population. This chapter presents a synthesis of the evidence from literature on the implications of housing on social distancing effectiveness among people living in substandard housing units in Ghana. Specifically, it brings to the fore, new policy dimensions that the country have, is and should explore to support adherence to the directive (social distancing), especially among vulnerable populations like slum dwellers and the homeless.
Article
This study aims to analyse the human dimension of the European hospitality industry. The working conditions (e.g. employment, physical, psychosocial and organisational circumstances) of servers against a control group of employees from other service industries are scrutinised. The crucial factors that affect psychological well-being or discomfort are identified. Results confirm the precariousness attributed to servers, who represent one of the most relevant and visible professions in the hospitality industry. The working conditions of servers are unnecessarily more precarious than those in other service industries. However, such conditions differ in certain aspects. A logistic regression model is used to identify the working conditions that determine the psychological well-being and verify the difference from those in other service industries.
Article
İş hayatında kadınların aktif olması gerek ekonomik gerekse sosyal açıdan son derecede önemlidir. Turizm sektöründe, her geçen gün kadın çalışanların sayısı giderek artmaktadır. Söz konusu bu durum, kadın çalışanların sektörde hangi pozisyonlarda görev aldığını ve karşılaştıkları sorunların neler olduğu sorusunu da dikkat çekmektedir. Bu çalışmada kadınların diğer sektörlere göre yüksek oranda istihdam edilmesine olanak sağlayan turizm sektöründe, kadınların yönetici kademesinde karşılaştıkları sorunların belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır ve Ordu ilinde faaliyet gösteren turizm işletme belgeli 4 ve 5 yıldızlı konaklama işletmelerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Nitel araştırma tekniğinin uygulandığı çalışmada yarı yapılandırılmış açık uçlu mülakat soruları hazırlanmıştır ve 9 konaklama işletmesi için 11 kadın yönetici ile görüşme sağlanmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre yüz yüze görüşme yapılan kadın yöneticiler, Ordu ilindeki otel işletmelerinde kadın yöneticilere kariyer fırsatlarının yeterince sunulduğunu, ancak bu fırsatların belirli departmanlarda yoğunlaştığını ifade etmektedirler (Satış ve Pazarlama, Kat hizmetleri, Ön büro, İnsan Kaynakları vb.). Bunun yanı sıra ücretlerin düşük olması, uzun ve esnek çalışma saatleri, sosyal güvence yoksunluğu, kariyer olanaklarında fırsat eşitsizliği, toplumsal cinsiyet ayrımcılığı, ataerkil zihniyet, kişinin özel hayatı ve iş hayatı arasında denge kuramama gibi zorluklarla da karşılaştıkları güçlükler araştırma bulgularında yer almaktadır.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the recognition of sexual harassment (SH); to describe the relationships among SH, employees’ burnout, customer-oriented boundary-spanning behaviors (COBSB); and to verify the moderating effect of employees’ psychological safety (PS), all within deluxe hotels in South Korea. Design/methodology/approach Prior to verifying the hypotheses, reliability and confirmatory factor analysis were managed, and correlation analysis was used to confirm the directionality between the hypotheses. The hypotheses were analyzed using a structural equation model and multi-group analysis was used to analyze the moderating effect. Findings Perceived SH was significantly related to employees’ burnout and COBSB. Also, the employees’ burnout was significantly related to COBSB. The moderating effect was significant; low PS greatly increased relative to the effects of SH on COBSB. Originality/value All types of companies consider unethical behaviors, such as SH in the workplace, as crucial problems that degrade the individual quality of life, and some firms have devised active measures to prevent and relieve damages. Companies should implement employee-centered policies that enable employees, the victims, to formally report and testify to what they have suffered from without revenge from their assailants. All the factors that contribute to the institutional control of SH within the working environment should be taken into consideration, and strict standards should be applied on a company level by criminalizing such behaviors. Employees should be trained on how to effectively cope with diverse types of SH.
Article
Despite the popularity of spa tourism worldwide and the size of the labour force, there is a paucity of research about these employees. The casual, often low paid, workforce is largely comprised of women, and there are challenges associated with body work – touching another person’s naked body in intimate settings – and its association with “dirty work” in a moral sense. The potential for experiencing sexual harassment from clients and the emotional demands this can place on employees has negative implications for the social and economic sustainability of the industry, including employee wellbeing, and may contribute to staff turnover. A qualitative phenomenological study based on interviews with spa therapists in Victoria, Australia explored these women’s experiences of sexual harassment, with emotional labour used as a theoretical lens. Findings suggest that some therapists feel obliged to hide their true feelings when experiencing sexual harassment by their clients, which results in emotional dissonance and exacts an emotional toll. Participants discussed strategies to cope with the emotional dimension of their experiences, and to address the perceived taint arising from occupational stigma. Implications of these findings for gendered practices, decent work and sustainable employment within the spa tourism industry are discussed.
Article
This paper takes a critical, historical employment relations approach to present an original contribution to research on sustainable tourism employment. The research is focussed on a gendered analysis of (un)sustainable employment practices in the New Zealand tourist hotel sector from 1950 to 2000, specifically concentrating on the role of the Hotel Workers Union and the broader post-war corporatist and neo-liberal economic, political and social policies that affected tourism work during this period. After presenting a detailed historical narrative in the findings, the paper argues that by uncovering the influences of global, national and organisation level change on sustainable labour we can gain meaningful, new perspectives on employment in this sector.
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Purpose The present work attempts to investigate how restaurant staff perceive problematic customer behaviours (PCBs), the causes for PCBs and the core reasons that trigger such behaviour in restaurants. Design/methodology/approach The root causes were determined by systematic grading and then aggregated in a fishbone diagram to illustrate the real antecedents. First, the data obtained from in-depth interviews based on the grounded theory approach, conducted with 29 frontline employees in restaurants, were categorised using open, axial and selective coding. Then the 26 causes identified were graded and arranged into six levels, forming a chained hierarchy for each behaviour. Findings Ego-derived faults are among the key factors stemming from the personality of the customer, and the use of money as power is evident in such behaviours. In terms of issues related to social systems, the main factors were the structure of the sector, the “customer is always right” philosophy, other factors resulting from the local culture and the occupational image. Research limitations/implications First, more frequent and effective addressing of the sector structure can help employees feel more comfortable. Second, the study uncovers emotional and psychological aspects as core factors causing PCBs, paving the way for future studies. Practical implications To prevent PCBs, it may be necessary to provide relevant training for employees, empower leadership for middle-level managers and set up a customer crediting system as well as a customer blacklist based on smart technologies. Originality/value This research is the first attempt to reveal the root causes of the factors behind PCBs by forming graded-reason chains and representing integrated PCBs in a fishbone diagram. Using this instrument, the paper investigates the insights of employees to address a topic that few studies have dealt with thus far.
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Women represent a majority of the tourism workforce globally, yet they remain under-represented in management roles and over-represented in part-time/casual work and low paid jobs. Prior research suggests women in employment, generally, and in tourism employment, specifically, experience gender discrimination, labour market and workplace segregation, work/family conflict, and other barriers to their employment and career progression. This paper presents results from an international survey of women's employment in the tourism sector, and analyses 363 responses representing the views of employers, employees, government officials, non-government organization representatives and academics across a range of tourism industries in 21 APEC member economies. The results reveal continued segregation of women across the economies, but also highlight national cultural barriers and intersectionality which affect women's employment and progression in tourism employment. Human resource management strategies, policy interventions, and implications to reduce gender segregation, increase representation in management, and provide equal employment opportunities are presented.
Article
Emotional labor has typically been analyzed as a gendered phenomenon in managed workers like nurses. Broadening this frame, this study analyzes how a different strata of workers perform emotional labor: surgeons. Drawing on 42 in-depth interviews with U.S. cosmetic surgeons and a content analysis of online reviews by patients, we argue that cosmetic surgeons perform both intimate and professionalized strategies of emotional labor to build long-term relationships with patients. We highlight how some surgeons strategically use their gender and bodies to forge emotional connections with patients, combining physician authority and their own embodied experiences. We identify two intimate, embodied strategies of emotional labor used by cosmetic surgeons (Paternalistic and Empathic) which are highly gendered and two additional strategies that more closely resemble professional norms (Egalitarian and Technical). Cosmetic surgeons can and do switch between strategies, subject to the constraints of gender norms and expectations; embodied strategies have different payoffs for men and women. Women surgeons, in particular, may sometimes adopt professionalized strategies of emotional labor to assert their physician authority and status and resist expectations of feminized emotional labor. In commercialized medicine, emotional labor enables elite healthcare providers to negotiate power dynamics with dependent patients. In addition to making patients feel better, embodied labor can confer meaning on surgeons’ work.
Article
The United States currently has over one million restaurants, making food service one of the largest workforces and industry sectors in the nation's economy. Historically, concern for the health of early restaurant workers was tied largely to the hygiene of the food and thus the wellbeing of the customer rather than the individuals preparing the food. The landscape of occupational illness and injury that resulted is fraught with some of the starkest health disparities in wages, discrimination, benefits, injuries, and illness seen among US laborers. These disparities have consistently been associated with social class and economic position. Conditions identified during the early years of restaurant work, before the introduction of occupational safety and health protections, persist today largely due to tipped wages, dependence on customer discretion, and the management structure. Research and intervention efforts to control occupational health hazards should be directed toward the socioeconomic and structural roots of health problems among food service workers in the United States. Such efforts have important implications for enhancing worker protections, improving wages, and restructuring working conditions for restaurant and food service workers. They also suggest opportunities for occupational health practitioners and researchers to contribute to system‐level change analysis to address centuries‐old occupational health challenges still facing one of the largest sectors of workers in the country.
Article
Sexual harassment is widespread in restaurants, but is often ignored, brushed under the rug, or even encouraged. With their young, predominately female employees and low-wage earners, restaurants are a hotbed for harassment. In 2017, the #MeToo movement was born after a famed entertainment mogul was accused of sexual harassment and assault by multiple women. Thereafter, multiple high profile restauranteurs were accused of horrific incidents of sexual harassment and assault, heightening awareness of sexual harassment in the restaurant industry. The purpose of this case study is to increase awareness of sexual harassment and its consequences, to develop ways to prevent sexual harassment, and to change the culture of sexual harassment acceptance in the restaurant industry.
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Tourism research has primarily treated gender as a male-female dichotomy and has been constrained by a heterosexual matrix for empirical inquires. Such research, however, has failed to acknowledge the fluidity and multiplicity in theorizing gender. To redress this overlook, this study moves away from the conventional binary thinking and views gender as a performativity which is resulted from repetitive social performance. By conducting multiple field observations and interviews with 17 hotel female general managers working in Mainland China and Taiwan, this research presents the ways of doing and undoing gender by tourism female leaders and the extent to which the everlasting gender logic can be questioned.
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Sexual harassment is pervasive globally within hospitality organizations. This conceptual study identifies organizational climate characteristics that make the restaurant work environment unique as compared to other industries. The work environment is based upon keeping the customer happy, includes gender gaps in power structures, emphasis on appearances, entrepreneurial in nature, the physical work environment, and alcohol is served. A framework for sexual harassment training must consider organizational factors, pre/post training, design, and evaluation. The study also provides a framework for sexual harassment training given these distinctive esthetics.
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Exploring the relationship between sexual harassment and service work in hospitality has long been considered a complex issue, due to the blurred and sometimes invisible line between flirting, harassment and the very nature of close contact hospitality service work. Little research has examined how mutual flirtations (when they are conducted in an appropriate manner and within safe boundaries) between customer and staff can play a positive role in the co-creation of hospitable experiences. This paper presents the findings of one theme from a wider PhD study which sought to explore the role of staff, customers and managers in the co-creation and performance of natural hospitable experiences. The focus of this paper is an exploration of the relationship between flirtatious encounters and the co-creation of hospitable experiences. In the wider study, three research phases were conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with service staff and managers from a range of hospitality servicescapes and data was gathered from customers through a number of focus groups, and the findings suggest that harmless and appropriate flirtatious encounters between customers and staff which are initiated in a natural and safe manner can have a positive influence on the co-creation of hospitable experiences.
Purpose This study aims to examine customer misbehaviour in the hospitality sector during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach The study draws on a cross-sectional survey of employees in the Scottish hospitality sector highlighting customer misbehaviour as a key concern during the pandemic. Prevalent types of abuse and harassment experienced are outlined along with employee and management responses to incidents of misbehaviour. Findings Verbal abuse and sexual harassment from customers are the most prevalent types of misbehaviour either experienced or witnessed by respondents. Customer misbehaviour is commonly thought of as “part of the job” and therefore “not a big deal”. Managers, largely, expect workers to tolerate abusive behaviours from customers and do not take reports of incidents seriously. Practical implications Transformational managers need to foster workplace well-being with a focus on physical and psychological safety. Recognition of the issue and greater support for victims are furthermore required at an industry level and on the policy front. Social implications The research points to an uncomfortable reality in the service economy that needs to be confronted by society. It has, therefore, important implications for key stakeholders in ensuring fair, dignified and safe hospitality workplaces. Originality/value Customer misbehaviour is reportedly worsening in times of COVID-19 as demonstrated by this study. Despite rhetoric that abuse and harassment are not tolerated, dismissive attitudes from managers – who expect workers to tolerate abusive behaviour – and employee silence about incidents lead the authors to argue that the failure to acknowledge and address this issue constitutes a form of “social washing” in hospitality.
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An awareness of the under-representation of women in top positions in the corporate world has prompted many corporations to review their policies and practices. If firms are to remain productive and competitive in an increasingly demanding global market place, they must recruit, retain, develop, and promote their most talented people, regardless of their sex. This is increasingly seen not only as the right or ethical thing to do, but also the smart thing to do. And in keeping with this realization, a small number of leading edge organizations are attempting to become more women-friendly. Having women in key positions is argued to be associated with long term company success and competitive advantage adding value through women's distinctive set of skills and creating cultures of inclusion through a diverse workforce. This chapter tries to evaluate the gender equality policies in selected Indian hotels and finds a mixed picture. The analysis suggests that majority of the hotels are not yet adopting pro- active policies to encourage the representation or empowerment of women in hotels. Female employees tend to be concentrated at entry or operational level and their presence is lower at senior positions. Based on the results study suggests the Indian Hotel industry to rework on HR policies to provide equal and equitable opportunities for female employees.
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The intersection of violence and gender matters in tourism, with violence being both a cause and consequence of gender inequality. This article establishes a conversation with the works of Judith Butler and Slavoj Žižek to rethink theories of violence and to develop a theoretical framework that captures the nuances and complexities of gender-based violence. Violence does not happen “elsewhere”, rather the potential for violence forms part of human relations. However, the violence inherent in tourism relations is seldom named. This article develops an original proposal of how to rethink conceptualizations of gender-based violence challenging the divide between subjective and objective violence to move the often obscured and ignored silences of gendered vulnerability centre stage to discussions of violence in tourism.
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Drawing on recent insights from the study of legal consciousness and gender relations, the authors test the generality of Catharine MacKinnon's theory of the sexual harassment of adult women. Survey and interview data from the Youth Development Study and the General Social Survey are analyzed to identify a behavioral syndrome of sexual harassment for males and females during adolescence and young adulthood and to compare the syndrome against subjective reports of sexual harassment. A clear harassment syndrome is found for all age and sex groups and MacKinnon's predictions about the influence of workplace power and gender relations are generally supported. Financially vulnerable men as well as women are most likely to experience harassing behaviors, and men pursuing more egalitarian gender relationships are most likely to identify such behaviors as sexual harassment. Nevertheless, adult women remain the most frequent targets of classic sexual harassment markers, such as unwanted touching and invasion of personal space.
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Abstract Drawing on interviews with two elite female athletes from different sports, one from a study in Norway and the other from a study in England, this article explores the process of ‘grooming’ in the context of sport. Both athletes experienced,grooming,for sex by their male coaches,yet were able to stop the process at a particular point. Grooming has been used to demarcate ‘sexual harassment’ and ‘sexual abuse’ as separate points on a continuum,of sexually exploitative behaviours. Grooming involves slowly gaining trust before systematically
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Sexual, racial and other forms of harassment may create a devastating impact on individuals affected and can lead to severe loss of morale and efficiency. Examines issues surrounding this sensitive area which relate to legal definition, organisational policies in general and the hospitality industry specifically. Provides evidence of the current views on sexual harassment of hospitality industry personnel directors. Examines issues of hospitality service staff, encouraged to sell “sexuality” or “flirt” as a job requirement.
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Some health care organizations looking to improve customer satisfaction have tried to redefine their customers as guests, applying the concept of hospitality to their operations. It is not clear, however, just what hospitality means. This paper reviews the literature of hospitality and proposes a model of hospitality. Some implications for delivering hospitality in a customer service organization are discussed.
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What does it feel like to work in the hospitality industry? Over 50 years of research into working lives has bequeathed us many and mixed images. One of the most persistent of these is of the actor (or con-artist) waiter who emerges from a squalid back of house to deliver a wonderful performance to the guest. The guests are made to feel that they are in control but all of the time it is the waiter who is calling the shots. This image is perhaps best summed up in the following, much quoted, extract from Orwell's (1933) description of his life working in hotels in Paris in the 1930s:
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This chapter is an introduction into hospitality. It was published in Hospitality: a social lens, which follows on from the unique contribution made by In Search of Hospitality: theoretical perspectives and debates. It progresses debate, challenges the boundaries of ways of knowing hospitality, and offers intellectual insights stimulated by the study of hospitality. The contributing authors provide tangible evidence of continuing advancement and development of knowledge pertaining to the phenomenon of hospitality.
Article
For a couple of decades now, both higher education providers and industrial organizations in English speaking countries have used ‘hospitality’ to describe a cluster of service sector activities associated with the provision of food, drink and accommodation. Reflecting changes in the industrial descriptor used by practitioners, both academic and industry journals have adopted the notion that hospitality was a term which better described activities which had previously been known as hotel and catering . The academic community have increasingly used ‘hospitality’ in degree course titles, and in several countries, educators describe their professional association using this term. Without wishing to explore the emergence of hospitality and its appeal to both practitioners and academics, it does open up potential avenues for exploration and research about hospitality which hotel and catering discourages. That said, the current research agenda and curriculum could still be described as hotel and catering under a new name. It is the contention of this chapter that the topic of hospitality is worthy of serious study and could potentially better inform both industrial practice and academic endeavour.
The headline reads, “$3.25 million verdict against restaurant for employee who worked in fear of sexual harassment.” Settlements and verdicts such as this are becoming increasingly common and the restaurant industry worldwide will have to address this issue of sexual harassment. A major problem facing all the restaurant industry is sexual harassment and the explosion of the number of sexual harassment lawsuits being filed (Agrusa, Tanner, & Coats 2000).Today's Hong Kong is a world-class city where the east meets the west. To be successful in today's competitive restaurant market, it is important for managers to realize the significance of a sexual harassment-free work environment. It is also important to understand how employees feel about the issue. The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the perceptions of restaurant employees in Hong Kong and New Orleans on sexual harassment. As the cost of litigation and the dol-
Article
Although the extent of sexual harassment in the hotel industry is not fully known, recent research indicates that hotel employees experience more sexual harassment than do workers in society-at-large and that most of the harassment is perpetrated by co-workers. The author observes that the harm wrought by sexual harassment is high both in human terms and in total dollars lost and that employers' legal protection against liability is uncertain at best. She, therefore, suggests (1) that management's focus should be on prevention rather than on avoidance of law suits and (2) that educators in hospitality programs have a responsibility to challenge both students and industry representatives to discard sexual stereotypes and be steadfastly intolerant of sexual harassment.
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This article focuses on sexual harassment, defined as unwanted sexual attention at work. Due to their inherent characteristics, service organizations are a prime breeding ground for such harassment. In spite of this, the problem is rarely in focus. The authors argue that a major reason for this is the particular cultural norms in service organizations: employees are not allowed to perceive them selves as victims of sexual harassment. An explorative study supports this proposition. Implications for management are discussed.
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In this article, we advance a new understanding of “difference” as an ongoing interactional accomplishment. Calling on the authors' earlier reconceptualization of gender, they develop the further implications of this perspective for the relationships among gender, race, and class. The authors argue that, despite significant differences in their characteristics and outcomes, gender, race, and class are comparable as mechanisms for producing social inequality.
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Statistics of hotels and the hotel population.-Due largely to a lack of agreement as to the meaning of the term "hotel," the various sources for statistics of hotels in the United States are inadequate and contradictory. A study based on hotel directories-a type of source obviously incomplete in its enumeration of hotels-indicates a larger relative number of hotel rooms in leading cities of the Pacific Coast than in the other large cities of the country. Since no definite statistical information is available for the hotel population in general, a special study was made of hotel dwellers in Seattle. This study gave the percentage of occupancy, the weekly and seasonal enables, and the sex and age composition of the population in 437 hotels. There were two and one-half times as many couples without children as couples with children. Characteristics of hotel life.-In the large metropolitan hotel the guest is only a number and is characteristically detached from the place in which he sleeps. In some cases this anonymity and impersonality encourages a restless, lonesome, unhappy state of mind. In other cases it enables an escape from the restraints of more intimate groups, such as the small town or the ghetto. Personality patterns in the hotel environment.-Although a certain formal etiquette-a kind ofmechanical correctness-tends to develop in the better class hotels, the "mores,"that part of our tradition that is thought to involve the general welfare, tend to break down in the hotel environment. Among the heavy offenders for stealing hotel property are listed "men and women who in their own communities command respect, but who, on going to a hotel, take a 'moral holiday.'" The individual who lives continually in hotels tends to become either blase or urbane. The hotel child, for example, is usually overstimulated. The tendency, however, seems to be toward the development of immunity to the influences of the hotel environment, and this accommodation is best described as sophistication or urbanity. Thus the individual may gradually accustom himself to "living in public, eating in public, and all but sleeping in public."
This paper briefly reviews the nature of sexual harassment, the response of industry to the problem and the adverse impact that may result from sexual harassment. Data from a survey of sexual harassment experienced by hospitality students whilst on supervised work experience are reported. The reported personal consequences of sexual harassment are considered and the results discussed in relation to previous research. Particular attention is drawn to the high incidence of customer harassment; the need for additional research is identified.
In curriculum design, it is important to solicit the industry's views to ensure its relevancy to industry needs. Therefore, this study conducted a questionnaire survey with 308 hospitality employees who helped in identifying the importance of 39 ethical issues in the hospitality industry. It is assumed that the more important an issue is rated, the more important it is to include its discussion in the curriculum. The two most important issues were found to be “Theft of company property by employees” and “Sexual harassment on the job”. When factor analysis was adopted, eight factors were identified which include, in descending order of importance, “environmental protection”, “social conscience and employee integrity”, “social justice”, “consumer protection”, “business fraud”, “employee equity”, “privacy of employees” and finally “personal advantage”. It is recommended that developers of hospitality curricula should consider the inclusion of these ethical issues in their programs.
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A report of a scientifically conducted, research field study of human relations in the restaurant industry. Data were gathered from interviews with workers, supervisors, and executives in restaurants in Chicago and elsewhere. The role of status and prestige factors, the restaurant as a social system, and the results of an analysis of weak supervision are discussed in relation to productivity and sound human relations and to a better understanding of the characteristics of good supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined the dispositional basis of job seekers' organizational culture preferences and how these preferences interact with recruiting organizations' cultures in their relation to organization attraction. Data were collected from 182 business, engineering, and industrial relations students who were seeking positions at the time of the study. Results obtained from multiple sources suggested that the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) generally were related to hypothesized dimensions of culture preferences. Results also suggested that both objective person-organization fit (congruence between applicant culture preferences and recruiting organization's reputed culture) and subjective fit (applicant's direct perception of fit) were related to organization attraction. Further, subjective fit mediated the relationship between objective fit and organization attraction.
Article
This study examines the responses of human resource directors and hospitality students to seven different ethical scenarios. Both groups were asked to rate these situations on their ethicality using a Likert-type scale. The directors and students decided that an act of theft was the most unethical, followed by sexual harassment, and an attempt to obtain proprietary information from another company. Expressing racial preferences in terms of servers was fourth. Directors rated all the scenarios ethically lower than did students, indicating that experience and heightened sensitivity to possible litigious situations may have played a role in perceptual differences.
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This paper comments on the absence of any commonly agreed theoretical framework about hospitality management. A tentative proposition is made for a model which identifies the inter-dependent and inter-related elements of hospitality management which might be used as a basis for management teaching and development as well as for research.
Article
Drawing on interviews with two elite female athletes from different sports, one from a study in Norway and the other from a study in England, this article explores the process of 'grooming' in the context of sport. Both athletes experienced grooming for sex by their male coaches yet were able to stop the process at a particular point. Grooming has been used to demarcate 'sexual harassment' and 'sexual abuse' as separate points on a continuum of sexually exploitative behaviours. Grooming involves slowly gaining trust before systematically breaking down interpersonal barriers. Elite athletes can become trapped into compliance because they trust and like, or even love, their abusers. The motivation behind sexual harassment and abuse is often power, whereby the harasser seeks to take control over another individual. The abusers use threats (such as being cut from the team) and rewards or privileges to secure co-operation and manipulate the victims to maintain secrecy. Our primary purpose here is to use these adapted realist tales to provide a richer and more personal illustration of these events (within-case) than is presented through extrapolated checklists of 'risk factors' (cross-case). The stories also illustrate vividly elements from the different stages in the grooming process in sport, as described in previous literature. Finally, they reinforce the need to identify protective factors as part of anti-harassment and abuse prevention programmes with both coaches and athletes.
Hospitality Sector Survey Unwelcome and Offensive
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Bullying at Work in Great Britain
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The Management of Hospitality
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Hong Kong and New Orleans: a comparative study of perceptions of restaurant employees on sexual harassment
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