It has been hypothesized that depletion of cell membrane n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly docosahexanoic acid (DHA), may be of etiological importance in depression.
We measured the fatty acid composition of phospholipid in cell membranes from red blood cells (RBC) of 15 depressive patients and 15 healthy control subjects.
Depressive patients showed significant depletions of total n3 PUFA and particularly DHA. Incubation of RBC from control subjects with hydrogen peroxide abolished all significant differences between patients and controls.
These findings suggest that RBC membranes in depressive patients show evidence of oxidative damage. Possible interpretations, and implications for the etiology and treatment of depression, are discussed.
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"We also demonstrated that CORT treatment increased the n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio. A higher n-6:n-3 ratio has been previously associated with the development of stress-related pathologies (Maes et al., 1996;Peet et al., 1998). Interestingly, our study showed differential CORT effects on the cellular composition of the rat mixed cortical primary culture. "
"Interestingly, elevated dietary consumption of trans-fatty acids, such as that implemented in studies described above, has been shown to reduce brain docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 PUFA with described antidepressant actions (Phivilay et al., 2009). Indeed, insufficient dietary PUFA augments depression risk (Peet et al., 1998), whereas increasing dietary omega-3 PUFA has been shown to be protective (Lin & Su, 2007;Moranis et al., 2012;Oddy et al., 2011) and to prevent inflammation-induced depression (Su et al., 2014). Diets rich in saturated fatty acids are associated with increases in overall adiposity and bias visceral fat accumulation (Rosqvist et al., 2014). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
"Such increased O&NS contributes to omega-3 fatty acid depletion in depressed patients , an increased serum oxidant/anti-oxidant ratio , decreased antioxidant system functioning, as indicated by lower levels of plasma vitamin E   and vitamin C concentrations , as well as reduction in wider antioxidants including zinc, glutathione (GSH) and CoQ10 . Concurrently lower levels of antioxidant-enzymes can occur in depression, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GpX) . "