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Competitor technology intelligence in German companies

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Abstract

Information about competitors can hold great promise for improving innovation management. In this paper technological information about competitors is set into a framework of information systems on external data. It is then argued that while information collection and information use are decentralized the analysis of the information collected should be centralized. If intelligence on competitors is institutionalized, it serves to increase warning times before the introduction of innovations by competitors. This article studies the practice of analyzing competitors' technology by German companies.

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... The interpretation of the term technology intelligence is multi-faceted (Klavans, 1997;Lichtenthaler, 2003). Additional terms used are technology forecasting (Porter et al., 1991;Martino, 1992) and competitive technical intelligence (Brockhoff, 1991;Lang, 1994;Ashton & Stacey, 1995;McDonald & Richardson, 1997). have proposed the term "strategic intelligence and foresight on technology" for application of technology intelligence in governmental technology policy making. ...
... Early work on technology intelligence has primarily suggested establishing a centralized technology intelligence unit, but recent works have shown that technology intelligence processes require more complex solutions ( (Majidfar & Salami, 2010;Lichtenthaler, 2007;Laursen & Salter, 2006;Linstone, 1997). In particular,technology intelligence activities comprise informal and project-based organizational mechanisms in addition to formal rganizational structures (Gerybadze, 1994;Brockhoff, 1991). To arrive at a comprehensive view of managing TI, three complementary organizational mechanisms may indeed co-exist within any given firm. ...
... To arrive at a comprehensive view of managing TI, three complementary organizational mechanisms may indeed co-exist within any given firm. First,firms may rely on structural organization, i.e., particular organizational structures for coordinating intelligence tasks (Brockhoff, 1991;Makadok & Barney, 2001;Bartlett & Ghoshal, 1998) . Second, a firm may use project-based organization, which refers to temporary projects for coordinating intelligence activities (Slater & Narver, 2000;(Hedlund & Rolander, 1990;Galbraith, 1993). ...
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Article
Technology intelligence(TI) activities are those activities which support decision-making of technological and general management concerns by timely preparation of relevant information on technological facts and trends by means of collection, analysis and dissemination. Thus, TI is one of the important and critical processes of management of technology that includes technology forecasting, monitoring and assessment concepts. Implementation of TI activities at national level organizations results in a system for high-technology decision makers which provides them not only a general view of relevant technologies but also the important trends of such technologies so they can make proper decisions for technology acquisitions .No models have not been developed for implementation of high technology intelligence in developing countries based on their different context so far .The main purpose of this research is to develop a model for designing roadmap for implementing high-technology systems at national level organizations in developing countries. The following project process is characterized as an oscillation between information accumulation, discourse, and practical action i.e action research. First based on literature review six dimensions of technology intelligence including management of intelligence processes , goals and Startegies, structures and human resourses, tools, cycles were conceptualized .By a conceptual framework relationships of the main dimensions and their sub dimensions were presented .Structured and semi structured interviews ,expert workshops were performed to design the appropriate roadmap model including different layers ,connection of layers and critical milestones based on the theoretical framework. For evaluation, the model was customized for a national level high technology based organization (action planning) and then implemented .Based on action results the model was corrected and revised .As conclusion a conceptual framework for roadmap designing was recommended.
... Companies also do TI to have a knowledge about the social and cultural context where the technology is meant to be applied, to generate new ideas, to open the company to outside world and find strategic partners and so on (Maya, 2015). In the growing body of the literature one can find various terms to define the activity of analyzing and evaluating technological information, such as TI (Brockhoff, 1991;Ashton and Klavans, 1997;Norling et al., 2000;Lichtenthaler, 2003, Savioz et al., 2003Porter, 2005;Kerr et al., 2006), Technology forecasting (Wissema, 1982;Prasad and Somasekhara, 1990;Tschirky, 1994;Du Preez and Pistorius, 1999;Savioz and Blum, 2002;Robinson et al., 2013), Technology monitoring (Nosella et al., 2008;Lee et al., 2011), ...
... After quantifying the citation traversal weights we obtained representation of the following main path: Figure 12 The articles in our component range from 1991 to 2016. The oldest paper of path is Brockhoff (1991). The article discusses the organizational aspects of the competitive intelligence, showing the process of setting competitor related technological information into a corporate information framework system on external data. ...
... We noticed in particular that, majority papers studied big and multinational companies (Arman and Foden, 2010;Brockhoff, 1991;Haghighat et al., 2016;Jones et al, 2015;Keltsch et al, 2011;Lingens et al., 2016;Lichtenthaler, 2003;2004a;2004b;Mortara et al., 2008;Nosella et al., 2008;Rohrbeck et al., 2011) with only two exceptions which investigated small and medium sized firms (Savioz and Blum, 2002;Savioz, 2006). It puts in force the necessity of further investigations of TI process in SMEs and their corporate culture. ...
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Preprint
This paper presents a systematic literature review of empirical studies on Technology intelligence with an objective to identify main characteristics and trends of the literature on the implementation of Technology intelligence. To achieve this, we reviewed 138 documents systematically (following a scientifically robust methodology) in terms of research methodology, research context and content. Citation network analysis was adopted to generate thematic clusters. The presented investigation provides (i) an overview of the methodologies used in literature and the types of empirical studies (case studies, surveys, evolution investigations, interviews, experiments, etc.) as well as the related diffusion; (ii) a summary of the research content (topics, thematic areas) in the practice of Technology intelligence; (iii) a picture of the various contexts and levels in which the practice of Technology intelligence has been studied (industries, sectors, technologies, countries). The paper also draws some conclusions in terms of managerial implications and areas for future research.
... With the development of enterprise technology management activities, German scholar Brockhiff (1991) introduced portfolio management theory to the study of patent strategy. The number of patent applications, patent grants, IPC numbers, and patent citations were used to construct Patent portfolio analysis index system [2]. German scholar Holger Ernst (2003) revised and improved and proposed four patent portfolio analysis models: (1) An enterprise-level analysis model consisting of patent activities, average patent quality and This paper is for special section VSI-hci. ...
... Reviews processed and recommended for publication by Guest Editor Dr. Shengzong Zhou. patent effectiveness; (2) A technical level analysis model consisting of relative patent growth rate, relative technology share and R&D focus; (3) An inventor-level analysis model consisting of R&D patent activities and patent quality; (4) A patent-market integration analysis model consisting of relative market share, relative technology share and market attractiveness [3]. Patent portfolio analysis is to establish a series of qualitative and quantitative indicators to measure the potential value of patents. ...
Article
Identifying the core technique in the field of human-computer interaction is beneficial to improve international technical competitiveness of enterprise. By means of patent data of domestic and foreign smart phone, with the adoption of patent portfolio analysis model, it has exploration and research on the core competitiveness of human-computer interaction of smart phone from four aspects: enterprise, technology, inventor, and patent-market integration. The results show that human-computer interaction is the core field of smartphones; Although the overall technical level of Chinese enterprises in the field of human-computer interaction is lower than that of foreign enterprises, China has an advantage in the wireless communication network (H04W), which is the core and cutting-edge technology in the field of human-computer interaction; Enterprises in the world have similar proportions of high-level research and development talents, without absolute industry benchmark in which both technology and market dominate.
... These problems have been overcome in more modern times by obtaining competitor technological intelligence (15) and, within a company, by using systems and information technologies to better document and retrieve earlier technological knowledge. During the second half of the 19 th century, fast-growing companies in the mechanical, electrical, and chemical industries seem to have understood such ideas very well. ...
... Furthermore, the valuation of patents made great progress, and their strategic relevance could be analyzed. This can be of key importance in analyzing the technological position of a company vis-à-vis its competitors (15). It is important to link IPR in a strategic sense to other business functions. ...
... Although the first few definitions embed the whole intelligence process, intelligence watch is merely devoted to the collection of technology or technical news. CTI makes use of many sources, such as norms, legislations, offer on demand, technology news (Palop and Vicente, 1998) and the competition (Walde, 1984;Brockhoff, 1991), but the most popular source is patents (Brockhoff, 1992;Brenner, 2005). Several tools and algorithms were developed 70| to exploit patents and scientific litherature with the aim of analyzing them in very large numbers (Courtial, et al. 1996;Vergara, et al. 2006). ...
... Others described CTI processes in several big companies (Ransley, 1996;APQC, 2001). CTI is used in private companies (Brockhoff, 1991) as well as by government, non-profit organizations and technological centers (Kennedy, et al. 2005). ...
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Thesis
This research project focuses on measuring several organizational and environmental characteristics and linking these variables to the company’s efforts invested in competitive intelligence (CI). This study sets out to test empirically if nine organizational characteristics and eight environmental conditions have positive impact on CI expenses. In addition, the effects of the eight environment characteristics on the relationship between organization and CI expenses are studied. Organizations are analyzed focusing on their Strategic Business Units (SBUs). A quantitative methodology is used. Data was collected from 223 CI practitioners in order to test the hypotheses. The results show that one organizational variable “SBU technology innovation” is significant and has a positive impact on CI expenses, although descriptive analysis shows that another four variables are related to CI expenses. In addition, three organizational variables are not positive related to CI expenses. Regarding the eight environmental variables, two are significant and have a positive impact on CI expenses. These are “industry technology innovation” and “regulatory constraints”. Descriptive analysis shows that only one of the other six variables of the environment, is not positive related to CI expenses. With regard to the contingency effect of the eight environmental characteristics on the relationship between the nine organization variables and the CI expenses, it has not been possible to prove the moderating effect although descriptive analysis does show some effects. The results of the study allows any company to establish whether there is a need to devote resources to CI based on the organizational and environmental conditions of each firm. Those firms which have similar conditions to the ones shown to be significant, may have a need to establish a CI function.
... According to the Britannica and Oxford Dictionary, technology is defined as the application of machinery, devices, or scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry or regarding the change and manipulation of human environment. A patent is a legal right that includes detailed specifications and is exclusively provided to inventors regarding new technical inventions with a possible economic value ( Brockhoff, 1991;EPO, 1997EPO,-2011Granstrand, 1999). In addition to their dictionary definition, the patents include rights and administrative action with respect to new scientific inventions which will be applied as machines or devices. ...
... Patent literature is well-structured by the national patent office and is publicly available to everyone worldwide so that researchers, including technology developers and policymakers, are easily able to access and utilize patents as data sources. Since they have perceived patents as the best source for the timely recognition of technological changes ( Brockhoff, 1991), much research was conducted by analyzing patent data and monitoring trends in various fields, resulting in technology forecasting to find a niche market place ( Trappey et al., 2011). Moreover, other research proposed a formalconcept analysis (FCA)-based approach to developing a dynamic patent lattice that can analyze the complicated relationships among patents and monitor the trends of technological change over time. ...
... In order to select an appropriate organisational structure, Gassmann and Gaso [32] suggest four determinants based on type and quantity of knowledge exchanged 2 . Also Brockhoff [33] suggests a differentiation based on the type of foresight activity. Ashton and Stacey [34] add the dependence on product strategy (diversified product mix vs. notdiversified) and on the attitude toward technology threats (aggressive, concerned or complacent). ...
... The latest generation of foresight is developed and integrated within company strategic planning, with networks comprising a fundamental component [19]. Brockhoff [33] suggests a differentiation of centralisation based on the type of foresight activity (decentralised approach for the collection and dissemination of information, but a centralised approach for organisation, evaluation and transformation of the collected information). ...
Article
The present paper focuses on the organisation of Corporate Foresight (CF): how the companies design their organisation to anticipate future trends and detect weak signals. The research focuses on a multiple case-study in the telecommunication industry. The paper highlights the organisational variables that characterise a CF organisation (organisational definition, specialisation and mechanisms of internal cohesion) and relates them to CF performance measures (effectiveness and efficiency). For increasing CF performance, companies need to define a peculiar system for foresight, more “structural” or more “cultural”, to specialise for foresight, to build a control system for procedures and to model internal and external relationships.
... Nevertheless, the decision to patent remains complex [7]. PharmaNutrition 1 (2013) [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] The European (EU) Medical Nutrition (MN) industry is relatively new within the historical scope of the health and life sciences and represents one of the fastest growing segments within this sector. This industry finds itself on the interface between the food and pharmaceutical industry with its own Foods for Special Medical Purposes (FSMPs) regulations [8]. ...
... To perform this study, different patent indicators and company specific characteristics, such as market-and product share, are combined. By using this information in a patent portfolio analysis, one can identify industrial developmental trends and patent strategies on industry level as well as at the company level [14,[17][18][19][20]. This study combines different types of publicly available information to look at the EU MN industrial trends and the companies' patenting strategies through a patent portfolio analysis. ...
... Rooted in the organizational information processing theory (OIPT) and strategic management (Prescott, 1999;Srinivasan & Swink, 2018), CI is a part of the information-processing theory that 'describes and explains the means by which people absorb, structure and utilize information' (Moutinho, 2000, p. 66). Based on the studies of Brockhoff (1991), Prescott (1999), Rouach and Santi (2001), Wright and Calof (2006), Köseoglu, Morvillo, et al. (2019), Nyanga et al. (2019), Köseoglu et al. (2020), and Kumar et al. (2020), CI has two primary operation areas: competitive dynamics and non-market factors in which enterprises compete to gain competitive advantage. Competitive dynamics covers competitor intelligence, competitive technical intelligence, market and marketing intelligence, technology and innovation intelligence, strategic and social intelligence, tactical intelligence, and counter-intelligence. ...
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Article
This study aims to investigate the mediating role of employee training effectiveness on the relationship between competitive intelligence and competitiveness. Using a sample consisting of 651 employees working in accommodation enterprises in Nevsehir, Turkey, the relationships between the variables were tested using the two-stage structural equation model analysis. The mediating effects were examined through the bootstrap method. The research findings support the proposed model to a large extent, indicating that both competitive intelligence and employee training effectiveness significantly affect competitiveness. Competitive intelligence positively influences employee training effectiveness. In addition, employee training effectiveness partially mediates the relationship between competitive intelligence and competitiveness. Based on the results, theoretical and managerial implications are provided along with the limitations and suggestions for future research.
... Lichtenthaler (2004; explained the failure of the companies due to the organizational inertia, managerial incompetence, lack of financial resources and insufficient technology intelligence. Therefore, many authors called for a systematic organization of technology intelligence already from early 1970s (Utterback and Brown, 1975;Brockhoff, 1991;Ashton and Stacey, 1991;1995). For instance, Jain (1984) stated that in order to maximize their efforts and opportunities, and allocate resources to the foreseen future, companies need a systematic and more intensified approach of environmental scanning and it should be directed by the goal, focus and the scope of the companies. ...
Full-text available
Article
Technology intelligence is regarded as a strategic tool to support open innovation to identify promising niches of technologies, opportunities and threats, potential partners, future customers and markets. However, it has often been neglected by SMEs due to their constraints in money, time, skills and competences. Hitherto, the literature documented very few cases of the operationalization of technology intelligence practices by small firms of catching-up economies. To remedy this gap, this paper investigates the case of three Estonian SMEs in the manufacturing, information technology and life-sciences industries. Our analysis reveals that elements of technology intelligence in large and small companies are similar. The three medium and small sized companies investigated in this study adopted these elements to their specific context orchestrating their organizational and cultural characteristics. This study details these elements and allows us to understand more precisely the process underlying the phenomenon of technology intelligence in small companies. The major finding of this paper is that a unique set of technology intelligence does not exist. It is important to tailor different elements of technology intelligence to determined needs. It is crucial in the case of SMEs in order to address the limitations mentioned above.
... This (Hendrix, 2014). In comparison with other information sources, patents are often considered to be the best source for the timely recognition of technological changes (Rockhoff, 1991). It is presumably that technological fields with high relative patent growth rates will be more attractive in the future than those fields with low relative patent growth. ...
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Article
The development of technology for entering the revolution industries 4.0 era nowadays becomes a hot issue in all industries. This condition is more interesting to discover in reducing budget expenditure, especially in the production process and obtaining raw materials. One of the tools that can be used is through technology foresight in patent management to see more information and predict the advanced technology which brings a competitive advantage in the digital era. Big data in fields of the repository is an urgent requirement, especially in collecting data from R & D results. So, it will facilitate data retrieval within a specific time. This paper discusses how a user knows the development and predicts technology for market segmentation through a patent portfolio, licensing, status, competitor, innovation, and monitoring emerging market with a patent database registered on WIPO. The methodology used software Innography (Licensed). This paper aims to analyze patent database of big data for repository, related to the development of technology foresight products that have been produced, as well as to study the competitors’ movement. The result shows that there are 1262 registered patents with seventeen patents and six organizations acting as assignees from 2004 until 2018. This paper is beneficial to the industry and stakeholders needing the impact of the implementation of the latest technology and the appropriate level of competition in the commercialization of big data for the repository as a digital system for information technology.
... Actualmente son las empresas alemanas quienes probable- mente han creado algunas de funciones de inteligencia más organizadas, con referencia a la inteligencia tecnológica compe- titiva. Una encuesta realizada en 1991 (Brockhoff, 1991) conclu- yó que la IT provee tres beneficios primarios: ...
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Book
La Competitividad de la empresa se mide de diversas maneras en la literatura, sin embargo la Competitividad de la Empresa se basa en una Ventaja Competitiva y esta a su vez esta representada por una Tecnologia (Know-How) propia de la Empresa. El Libro analiza las etapas para la generacion de la Tecnologia para el soporte de la Competitividad de la Empresa.
... Since then, the term competitive intelligence was suggested by many writers under various labels and is often used interchangeably which include competitive information, business intelligence, corporate intelligence and market intelligence (Calof & Wright, 2008;Maltz & Kohli, 1996;McGonagle & Vella, 2002;Rouach & Santi, 2001;Wright et al., 2004). However, the intelligence can be further divided into specificity of the subject such as strategic intelligence (Aaker, 1983;Montgomery & Weinberg, 1979), competitor analysis/intelligence (Deschamps & Nayak, 1995;Ghoshal & Westney, 1991;Wright, Pickton, & Callow, 2002), competitive technical intelligence (Albagli, Dawson, & Hasnain, 1996;Brockhoff, 1991), technological intelligence (April & Bessa, 2006;Deschamps & Nayak, 1995) and customer intelligence (Calof & Wright, 2008). ...
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Conference Paper
Due to the increase in global economic competition, organisations are becoming more susceptible to dwindling budgets and are realizing the need to invest in or divest capabilities to meet marketplace demand. Most of the organisations are also confronted with an intensifying competitive environment where sustained competitive advantage is becoming more and more difficult to sustain. All companies usually exhibit various methods of collecting information on their competitors and the external business environment in order to find new markets and increase revenue. One of the methods that are worth examining is the competitive intelligence (CI). Many organisations are investigating their own CI services to guide their decision makers. However, there is an absence of a proper procedure to transfer this useful information into knowledge and intelligence that can be valuable to formulate competitive strategies, thus, increase performance. Most companies still do not establish a formal department of CI even though it is apparent that CI is becoming increasingly vital to a company's survival in today's dynamic economies. Thus, this study was conducted to explore the concept of competitive intelligence and Small Medium Enterprise (SME) performance in Malaysia.
... Lichtenthaler (2004; explained the failure of the companies due to the organizational inertia, managerial incompetence, lack of financial resources and insufficient technology intelligence. Therefore, many authors called for a systematic organization of technology intelligence already from early 1970s (Utterback and Brown, 1975;Brockhoff, 1991;Ashton and Stacey, 1991;1995). For instance, Jain (1984) stated that in order to maximize their efforts and opportunities, and allocate resources to the foreseen future, companies need a systematic and more intensified approach of environmental scanning and it should be directed by the goal, focus and the scope of the companies. ...
Conference Paper
Technology intelligence is regarded as a robust tool to support Open Innovation to identify promising niches of technologies, opportunities and threats, potential partners, future customers and markets. However, it has often been neglected by SMEs due to their constraints in money, time, skills and competences. Hitherto, the literature documented very limited cases on operationalization of Technology intelligence practices by small firms of catching-up economies. To remedy this gap, current paper investigates the case of three Estonian SMEs in three different industries. Our cross-case analysis revealed that SMEs conducted Technology intelligence in unsystematic and informal way and similar elements that were found in large companies were also present in the case of small firms. SMEs orchestrated these elements of Technology intelligence with their organizational and cultural characteristics. Present study details these elements and allows us to more precisely understand the process underlying the phenomenon of Technology intelligence in small companies.
... Patent analysis is the most objective indicator that can grasp the technical competitiveness of a country or enterprise. Patents are often considered to be the best resource for timely recognition of technological changes [1]. Patents analysis can provide information on specific conditions that relate to technology or to market-related developments that help decisionmakers to track competitor activity and innovation trends [2]. ...
Article
For the purposes of technology planning and R&D strategy development, we present a semi-automated method that extracts text information from patent data, uses natural language processing to extract the key technical information of the patent, then visualizes this information in matrix form. We tried to support qualitative analysis of patent contents by extracting functions, components, and contexts, which are the most important information about inventions. We validated the method by applying it to patent data related to nanosensors. The matrix can emphasize technical information that have not been exploited in patents, and thereby identify development opportunities.
... It can be used to study technologies (Brockhoff 1991) focusing on single patents or classes of patents but also on firms' patent strategies through the patent portfolio analysis (Ernst 2003), defined as a set of patents that are related to a specific subject or technology. Combining approaches, analysts can obtain a patent landscape (Brockhoff et al. 1999). ...
Article
While most technological positioning studies were traditionally addressed by comparing firms technological patents classes and portfolios, only a few of them adopted science mapping patent co-citation techniques and none of these seeks to understand the impact of collective cognition on the technology structure of an entire industry. What is the firms technological positioning landscape within an high collective cognition sector? What is the groups technological positioning evolution? How do technology structures shift according to different economic scenarios? Through a strategic lens we contribute to technology strategy literatures by proposing an invention behavior map of automotive actors at a firm, groups and industry level. From Derwent Innovation Index, about 581,000 patents, 1,309,356 citations and 1,287,594 co-citations relationships between (a) the main 49 firms assignees of 1991–2013 and (b) the main 28 or 34 groups assignees by considering three timespan 1991–1997, 1998–2004, 2005–2013, were collected. Results: (1) most of the companies are located close together, depicting the sector technology structure as highly dense; (2) the market leaders do not coincide with technology production leaders and not necessarily occupy central technological positions; (3) the automotive groups considerably varies in the three timespan in terms of position and composition; (4) the market leaders groups occupy technological remoteness positions during economic growth timespan; (5) the sector technology structure is highly dense during growth, strongly scattered and lacking of technologically center positioned actors after economic decline. Finally, strategic implications supporting central locating or suburb R&D positioning planning and M&As recombinational partners decision making are discussed.
... More importantly however, corporate foresight systems faced the demand to create continuous scanning and interpretation approaches [53,54]. Until then, corporate foresightin the strategy context-was typically carried out in the form of large projects that were repeated regularly, but typically only with large intervals of multiple years. ...
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Article
The goal of this introductory article to the Special Issue on Corporate Foresight is to provide an overview of the state of the art, major challenges and to identify development trajectories. We define corporate foresight as a practice that permits an organization to lay the foundation for a future competitive advantage. Historically we distinguish and discuss four main phases 1) birth of the field (1950s), 2) the age of scenarios (1960s-1970s), 3) professionalization (1980s-1990s), and 4) organizational integration (2000- ). A systematic literature search revealed 102 articles on foresight, 29 of them on corporate foresight. Based on these articles and those in this Special Issue, we identify four main themes. Two more mature themes, namely ‘organizing corporate foresight’, and ‘individual and collective cognition’, and two emerging themes ‘corporate foresight in networked organizations’, and ‘quantifying value contributions’. In the conclusion we make a plea for establishing corporate foresight as a separate research stream that can adopt various theoretical foundations from a number of general management research traditions. To help the field move forward we identify three areas in which corporate foresight research can build on theoretical notions in general management, and can contribute to such on-going debates.
... Several studies have identified technology evolution through patent review [6][7][8][9]. Patents are often considered to be better source for the timely recognition of technological change than scientific and technical literatures [10]. Furthermore, a technology roadmap is more intuitive than traditional patent citation analysis or co-operation analysis. ...
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Article
Purpose: To examine international technology development of fibrates based on a cross-database quantitative patent review and to describe the evolution pathway for fibrates by means of a technology roadmap. Methods: The patent data were collected in March 2013 from United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO) and China Intellectual Property Right Net (CNIPR) to broadly represent global patent activities. Results: This study selected and examined 84 patents from USPTO, 41 patents from EPO and 39 patents from CNIPR. It showed that most of the fibrate patents were fenofibrate patents (41.67 % at USPTO, 46.34 % at EPO and 33.33 % at CNIPR). The number of preparation patents (44 at USPTO, 24 at EPO and 17 at CNIPR) and combination patents (23 at USPTO, 11 at EPO and 15 at CNIPR) was obviously larger than other types of fibrate patents. The technology roadmap shows that new monomersor derivatives of fibrates can drive fibrate evolution into a new cycle of application-synthesis-combination-preparation. Conclusion: This study provides a comprehensive picture of fibrate development. It will aid researchers, entrepreneurs, investors and policymakers to identify foci for fibrate research and ensure better decision-making.
... • Technology Intelligence deals with the identification, assessment and usage of weak signals and information about emerging technologies and technological discontinuities [12][13][14]. • Competitive Intelligence deals with the assessment of competitors and the identification and assessment of products and services in development or already available in lead markets [15][16][17][18]. ...
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Article
Strategic Foresight activities enable companies to use weak signals to identify opportunities and threats. Research on Strategic Foresight proposes different methods, discusses their implementation and gives recommendations on how to link Strategic Foresight with other functions in an organization. Based on a literature review, we define a generic framework for the management of Strategic Foresight activities on the strategic, tactical and operational level and identify and discuss actors, methods and systems of Strategic Foresight. Building on an in-depth case study of the Deutsche Telekom Laboratories we shed light on the implementation of Strategic Foresight activities. In the discussion we focus on the interaction of methods from Consumer Foresight and Technology Intelligence. Taking an example project, we explore how Strategic Foresight is used on the operational level of innovation management. We conclude that Strategic Foresight can successfully contribute to coping with uncertainty and complexity and can feed the front-end of innovation from the market (customer needs) and technology (realization opportunities) perspective.
... Technology intelligence (philosophy, definitions, concepts related, generations and other aspects) Brockhoff (1991) Competitor technology intelligence Ashton and Stacey (1995) Identification of technological threats and opportunities Brenner (1996) Technology scouting, technology intelligence and competitive intelligence Ashton and Klavans (1997) Keeping abreast with science and technology developments Lichtenthaler (2003) Different generations of technology intelligence Savioz (2004) Technology intelligence system Kerr et al. (2006) Conceptual model of technology intelligence Savioz (2006) Technology intelligent systems in large, medium and fledging companies Rohrbeck (2010) The concept of technology scouting Technology intelligence structure Lichtenthaler (2004b) Organization and integration of technology intelligence activities and organization of international technology intelligence Lichtenthaler (2004c) Various organizing styles of technology intelligence Technology intelligence process Ashton et al. (1991) Technology intelligence process Lichtenthaler (2004a) Technology scanning and monitoring process Lichtenthaler (2006) Stages of technology intelligence process Lichtenthaler (2007) Different process styles of technology intelligence Arman and Foden (2010) Designing technology intelligence process Technology intelligence methods Gerybadze (1994) Technology forecast as means for organizational intelligence Norling et al. (2000) Process of competitive technology intelligence Lichtenthaler (2005) Methods applied in technology intelligence process Antunes and Canongia (2006) Technological foresight and technological scanning for identifying priorities and opportunities Russo and Rizzi (2014) Proposing a function-oriented method for competitive technological intelligence and technology forecasting Technology intelligence tools Schuh and Grawatsch (2003) TRIZ-centered intelligence technology Porter and Cunningham (2005) Tools for tech mining Yoon (2008) Introducing software to identify technological opportunities Mortara et al. (2009) Technology intelligence toolbox (tools) Veugelers et al. (2010) Relation between technology intelligence and open innovation Karvonen and Kassi (2011) Patent analysis for analyzing technological convergence Yoon and Kim (2012) Introduction of software tools to identify technology trends based on patents Park et al. (2013) Introduction of a software tool for technology strategic planning Technology intelligence players Mortara et al. (2009) to improve their tech-related planning processes and decision-making through timely identification of technological trends and awareness of environmental threats and opportunities; and 2. guidelines for researchers and those interested in studies in the field of technology intelligence. ...
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Article
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to promote the authors' understanding of technology intelligence by responding to two questions: What is technology intelligence? How is it accomplished? Design/methodology/approach – To respond to the two main questions about technology intelligence in this paper, the authors have studied relevant academic, peer-reviewed journals and books using the literature databases of Google Scholar, Sciencedirect, Inderscience, Wiley and Emerald Insight. They have used few selection criteria to choose papers and books for inclusion in their study. Findings – Enhancing the authors' understanding of the technology intelligence concept by responding to the two main questions (What is technology intelligence? How is it accomplished?), classifying the main studies in the field of technology intelligence and several practical and theoretical implications are the findings in this paper. Practical implications – A number of practical implications related to technology intelligence structure, process, methods, tools and players are suggested to managers of organizations and companies to improve their technology-related planning processes and decision-making. Originality/value – Despite the considerable level of consensus on the necessity of precise scanning and monitoring technological changes and trends, there is still limited understanding of the technology intelligence concept. This paper intends to enhance the authors' understanding of technology intelligence by responding to two questions: What is technology intelligence? And how is it accomplished?
... German companies probably have created some of the more organized S&T intelligence functions, referred to as Competitor Technology Intelligence. A survey conducted in 1991 entitled "Competitor Technology Intelligence in German Companies" (Brockhoff 1991) provides a good look at the state of S&T intelligence within German firms. Of some 80 companies surveyed, 45, or over one half, have institutionalized their S&T intelligence programs. ...
Article
Purpose is the essence of all effective intelligence operations. Among the basic forms of intelligence—that is, military, political, economic, etc.—scientific and technical (S&T) intelligence plays a very special role since it is often a component of each of the other forms. Military intelligence clearly requires good S&T intelligence to understand an enemy's future weapons capabilities. Political or diplomatic intelligence often uses S&T intelligence as a bargaining chip, as was done in the strategic arms limitation treaties. Economic or business intelligence is dependent on an understanding of a competitor's technological capabilities to create economic or competitive advantage. The purpose of S&T intelligence therefore is to play two important roles: providing insight and foresight for other forms of intelligence and providing the basis upon which an organization's own research and development (R&D) activities are directed, measured, and executed. It must be clear from the onset which of these purposes or which combination of applications of S&T intelligence is needed. The resulting S&T intelligence program and organizational structure will depend highly on these purposes.
... They propose the use of lists of macro-environmental components (Aaker, 1983;Jain, 1984;Prescott and Smith, 1989;Ahituv et al., 1998), to include individual and collective cognitive perspectives (Slaughter, 1999;Voros, 2001aVoros, , b, 2003 and to define micro-environment forces in line with Porter's model. Brockhoff (1991) proposes combining both "general" and "task" (Bourgeois, 1980) environment, to identify "interest zones" and "interest groups." ...
Article
Purpose ‐ The purpose of this paper is to explore the empirical reality of environmental scanning (ES) practices in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) contexts. In particular it tests a conceptual framework proposed in 2011 by Fabbe-Costes et al. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The empirical data for this research were obtained from 45 semi-structured interviews with key informants, combined with a discussion of the main results with a focus group of supply chain experts. These data are compared with the literature and brought to bear on the framework. Findings ‐ The research finds both breadth and depth in the scope of sustainability scanning practices of the respondent group and provides evidence of multi-level scanning, with all respondents describing scanning activity at the societal level. It further demonstrates the adoption of multiple and diverse scanning targets at all levels in the conceptual framework. The articulation and ranking of scanning targets for SSCM at all levels informs the development of priorities for practice. The paper also makes some observations about the boundaries of the scanning process. Practical implications ‐ The results provide managers with concrete guidance about what to scan in sustainable supply chain contexts. The validated framework can serve as a practical tool to assist managers with the organization and prioritization of their ES activities. Originality/value ‐ The paper is among the first to address the role of ES in sustainable supply chain contexts. It highlights the need for a multi-level framework for such scanning activities and opens up a debate about their implementation.
... • Environmental scanning (Aguilar, 1967;Fahey and King, 1977;Fahey et al., 1982;Hambrick, 1982;Sashittal and Jassawalla, 2001;Saxby et al., 2002) • Business intelligence (BI) (Cleland and King, 1975;Benjamin, 1979;Pearce, 1976) • Strategic intelligence (SI) (Aaker, 1983;Montgomery and Weinberg, 1979) • Competitor analysis (CA) (Ghoshal and Westney, 1991;Rothschild, 1979) • Competitive technical intelligence (CTI) (Albagi et al., 1996;Brockhoff, 1991) • Market intelligence (MI) (Chonko et al., 1991;Guyton, 1962;Maltz and Kohli, 1996) • Peripheral vision (Day and Shoemaker, 2006) • Competitive analytics (Davenport and Harris, 2006) Environmental scanning concepts, which are considered predecessors of CI, have appeared in literature since the 1960s beginning with Aguilar (1967). Some authors further developed the concept throughout the years with more important work being done in the 2000s (Beal, 2000;Kourteli, 2000;Saxby et al., 2002;Kumar et al., 2001;Voros, 2001;Decker et al., 2005;Vojak and Suarez-Nunez, 2005;Rajaniemi, 2005;Brouard, 2006;Knip, 2006). ...
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Article
For organizations, knowledge about the business environment is needed more than ever because of its rapidly evolving nature. However, due to the increasing amount of information readily available, the task of scoping the environment may be daunting and there is a need to optimize it. In the literature, structured intelligence processes take different shapes and forms. The purpose of the paper is to therefore offer a synthesis of the literature pertaining specifically to competitive intelligence processes and activities following a scoping review of the literature based on 29 articles. Competitive intelligence (Cl) is defined as "the process of ethically collecting, analyzing, and disseminating accurate, relevant, specific, timely, foresighted and actionable intelligence regarding the implications of the business environment, competitors, and the organization itself." (Boncella, 2003). The cyclical Cl process integrative model proposed, based on a scoping review of the literature, comprises six phases: planning and direction, collection, analysis, communication, decision and evaluation. The sub-processes that are involved in each one of the phases are further described and schematized. The model also contains contextual factors such as formal infrastructures, employee involvement as well as organizational awareness and culture that impact the competitive intelligence process. The paper allows for a better understanding of the Cl process and activities and may serve as a diagnostic tool for organizations wishing to implement or optimize their own Cl process.
Article
Identifying the core technique in the field of human-computer interaction is beneficial to improve international technical competitiveness of enterprise. By means of patent data of domestic and foreign smart phone, with the adoption of patent portfolio analysis model, it has exploration and research on the core competitiveness of human-computer interaction of smart phone from four aspects: enterprise, technology, inventor, and patent-market integration. The results show that human-computer interaction is the core field of smartphones; Although the overall technical level of Chinese enterprises in the field of human-computer interaction is lower than that of foreign enterprises, China has an advantage in the wireless communication network (H04W), which is the core and cutting-edge technology in the field of human-computer interaction; Enterprises in the world have similar proportions of high-level research and development talents, without absolute industry benchmark in which both technology and market dominate.
Article
Purpose The paper aims to clarify the potential impact of data gathered from social media (SM) in the competitive intelligence (CI) process of organizations. As use of SM expands, analysis of this data becomes a critical business need providing essential support for decision makers. This paper seeks to examine how SM be used to enhance CI in an organizational context. Design/methodology/approach This paper adopted an exploratory mixed-method approach followed by a sequential and equal status design, with qualitative semi-structured interviews, accounting for the qualitative study and serving as precursor to a quantitative structured survey. Interviewees included a university professor and CI consultant, an SM analyst and a subject in a management position – all in the field of CI. A survey was sent to Fortune 1000 companies. Some 227 companies replied. Findings The findings were that the majority of respondents produce CI reports at least monthly, and that information transmitted mainly by presentation within organizations. Over 70% of companies outsource CI activities to specialized firms, while 80.9% of organizations felt CI improved their relationship with their customers. Not surprisingly, as the number of people dedicated to CI activities increased, the likelihood of an organization hiring outside companies specializing in CI diminished. Research limitations/implications All organizations sampled were large US companies; thus, small- and medium-sized enterprises were excluded, as were non-US viewpoints. As survey respondents were anonymous, the source of data at the level of the individual is missing. Finally, only three interviewees provided the qualitative data. Practical implications This investigation determined organizations should have an established and well-structured CI department. Furthermore, such a department should have between five and ten employees to maximize the potential. Outsourcing depends on the company’s specific needs. Nevertheless, regardless of whether it outsources CI activities or not, each firm should monitor SM to enhance the CI process. Originality/value Much SM-based CI is either non-existent or in “embryotic” stages in most companies, and therefore still a work in progress. Furthermore, as SM is a relatively new phenomenon, studies supporting its implementation are scarce. Companies stand to gain significant improvements to CI if SM is effectively used.
Article
As technological innovation plays an important role in today's knowledge economy, the most important output of technology development is intellectual property, which is highly valued for generating a monopoly position in providing payoffs to innovation. In this context, this paper considers Intellectual Property Management (IPM) efficiency based on the Patent Portfolio Model (PPM) to help organizations identify, enhance, and evaluate their technological strength. The Patent Portfolio Model (PPM) is built to assess the advantages and disadvantages of an organization, to identify the opportunities of development potentials and optimal distribution, to support the decision-making for optimizing resource allocation, and to develop a layout for the technical field. The case study of the Research Institute of China shows that this method is feasible and fulfills the needs of different institutions to provide suggestions for R&D technology management. The main finding of the paper is that PPM is an effective tool to be used in strategic planning because it identifies the technology advantages to define offensive and defensive strategies against competitors. The use of IPM and PPM helps decision-makers to visualize and simplify complex decision-making problems.
Article
How to understand the innovation pathways of emerging technologies emerge from technology to market and identifing the future changes and trends in innovation pathways is crucial for enterprises’ research and development (R&D) strategic planning, and new production development decision making. The technology roadmapping (TRM) is considered as an effective method to study innovation pathways, and provides a structured approach to map how emerging technologies have evolved from technology to market, and visualize the development relationships among markets, products, and technologies. However, the traditional TRM methods to visualize the innovation pathways, and identify the relationships among markets, products, and technologies mainly relied on experts’ opinions, which are considered as time consuming and costly. The technology-relationship-technology (TRT) semantic analysis can semiautomatically extract technology information and the relationships among products, functions, and technologies from patents, which can significantly reduce the bias due to using experts’ opinions that are based on intuitive knowledge when roadmapping the innovation pathways from technology to market activities. Therefore, this article integrates TRT semantic analysis and TRM method to propose a framework for monitoring the innovation pathways of emerging technologies and identifying future changes and trends in innovation pathways of emerging technologies. In this framework, first, we use the TRT semantic analysis to extract the TRT structures containing various structural relationships from the patents, and determine the analytical dimensions of TRM based on the TRT structures’ characteristics and experts’ knowledge. Second, we analyze the various structural relationships in-depth to explore their particular contributions in the process of TRM construction, and construct the technology roadmap to monitor the innovation pathways. Finally, after completing the construction of the TRT-based technology roadmap, we in-depth analyze the technology, function, product evolution paths in the TRM to identify the future changes and trends in innovation pathways with the help of domain experts. To illustrate the implementation of the research framework, we employ the elderly smart wear technology as the case study. This article will contribute to the TRM methodology, and will be of interest to elderly smart wear technology R&D experts and new production development experts.
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Article
Patent information plays a key role in technology intelligence. As granted patent rights provide temporary exclusivity to commercialize inventions, emerging technologies are marked by brisk increases in patenting, revealing patent-based information as sources for corporate technology intelligence. In this paper, I analyze one such emerging technology, smart houses, which refers to connected and centrally controlled everyday household solutions. I provide a detailed technology landscape study that tracks longitudinal patenting changes in the technology during the 18-year period from 2000 to 2017. Central to the analyses is the use of smart indicators and longitudinal annual data, allowing tracking changes over time. The analyses encompass general patenting trends in the technology of smart houses, including the detection of key players, pertinent technology class developments, and most relevant countries for the technology of smart houses. The case study results indicate that the use of smart indicators and longitudinal data supplements established patent indicators in technology intelligence by providing additional insights to the emergence of new technologies that cannot be detected by conventional measures.
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Book
Dieses Buch enthält die Leistungsbilanz eines der größten Forschungsprogramme der Betriebswirtschaftslehre. In den Jahren 1991-2000 förderten das Land Schleswig-Holstein und die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft siebzig Forschungsarbeiten zum Innovations- und Technologiemanagement. Die meisten dieser Untersuchungen waren großzahlige empirische Studien: Annähernd 7.000 Untersuchungseinheiten - Unternehmen, Haushalte, Projekte, Personen - wurden befragt. Die Ergebnisse lassen sich vier großen Themenbereichen zuordnen und liefern so eine umfassende Basis für eine betriebswirtschaftliche Realtheorie der Innovation: - Innovationsmanagement als Technologiemanagement; - Marktdurchsetzung von Innovationen; - Innovationsmanagement als Kooperationsmanagement; - Prozesse und Strukturen des Innovationsmanagements.
Chapter
Für das Graduiertenkolleg wurde mit dem Deutschen Universitätsverlag die Schriftenreihe „Betriebswirtschaftslehre für Technologie und Innovation“ fortgeführt. In ihr erscheinen die besten Arbeiten des Graduiertenkollegs, womit eine relativ homogene Außendarstellung erreicht wird.
Chapter
Technologiemanagement ist Management neuartigen technologischen Wissens. Nun ist Wissen ein Produktionsfaktor mit ganz besonderen Eigenschaften. Dass Wissen als Produktionsfaktor zu einem Anspruch auf einen angemessenen Teil der Produktionsergebnisse führen könne, war durch Charles Fourier (1847) schon verdeutlicht worden. Dass die Nutzung von Wissen als Grundlage von Geschäftstätigkeiten herangezogen werden kann und dabei anders zu disponieren ist als bei der Imitation von Geschäften oder beim Import, war schon früher durch Jacques Savary (1757) angehenden Kaufleuten ans Herz gelegt worden. Diese Überlegungen reflektieren im letzteren Fall Erfahrungen oder bringen im ersteren Fall Wunschvorstellungen zum Ausdruck. Seit Joseph Schumpeter (Schumpeter 1912) seine Gedanken zur Störung statischer Wirtschaftsgleichgewichte durch „neue Kombinationen“ formulierte, wird der Unternehmer als Verursacher dieser Störungen betrachtet und die Störungen selbst, die heute als Innovationen bezeichnet werden, zum Gegenstand der Forschung gemacht. Mit dieser Charakterisierung von Innovationen schien die Rolle der Wissensproduktion aus der Diskussion ausgeblendet zu sein.
Chapter
Wissensmanagement und Wissenscontrolling und damit verbunden das Informationsmanagement und -controlling rücken stärker als bisher in den Fokus der praxisinduzierten und theoriegeleiteten Betrachtung. Das ist entscheidend auf das Zusammenwachsen nationaler Märkte und die damit verbundene Globalisierung zurückzuführen. Der dadurch zunehmende Wettbewerbsdruck stellt Unternehmen vor die Herausforderung, sich in einem turbulenteren Wettbewerbsumfeld zu behaupten. Das setzt voraus, dass Unternehmen ihr Wettbewerbsumfeld kennen und analysieren, um auf Veränderungen reagieren zu können.
Chapter
Es besteht seit längerem kein Zweifel darüber, dass das Management von Wissen zu nachhaltigen Wettbewerbsvorteilen von Unternehmen führen kann und deshalb eine vordringliche Aufgabe ist. Dies gilt insbesondere auch für technologisches Wissen, dessen Bereitstellung und Verwertung eine der ältesten expliziten Aufgaben des Wissensmanagement ist.
Chapter
Kapitel 2 beschäftigt sich mit der Bedeutung und Nutzung von Patentdaten für Zwecke der Unternehmensplanung. Der Aufbau dieses Kapitels leitet sich aus den zwei fundamentalen Funktionen des Patentes ab: der Schutz- und der Informationsfunktion. Die Schutzfunktion des Patentes entsteht aus der Möglichkeit des Patentinhabers, Dritte von der wirtschaftlichen Nutzung des durch F&E generierten Wissens zumindest zeitweise auszuschließen. Die Durchsetzung des Ausschließlichkeitsprinzips ist eine wesentliche Voraussetzung für die Aufnahme industrieller F&E-Aktivitäten und steht daher im Mittelpunkt des Abschnittes 2.1. Dabei wird in Abschnitt 2.1.1 zuerst aus theoretischer Sicht erläutert, daß technisches Wissen die Eigenschaften eines öffentlichen Gutes aufweist und die Sicherung des Ausschließlichkeitsprinzips erst den notwendigen Anreiz schafft, um privatwirtschaftliche F&E-Aktivitäten zu betreiben. In Abschnitt 2.1.2 werden dann, neben dem Patentschutz, alternative Instrumente zur Sicherung des Ausschließlichkeitsprinzips diskutiert und ihre Bedeutung im Lichte empirischer Befunde aus der Literatur beurteilt. Die Informationsfunktion des Patentes entsteht aus der gesetzlichen Verpflichtung des Patentinhabers, das geschützte Wissen zu offenbaren. Dieses Wissen steht Dritten nach Ablauf einer bestimmten zeitlichen Frist zur Verfügung. Die Nutzung der in Patentschriften enthaltenen Informationen für Aufgaben der Unternehmensplanung steht im Vordergrund des Kapitels 2. Abschnitt 2.2 stellt verschiedene Möglichkeiten der Nutzung von Patentinformation für das Technologiemanagement dar.
Article
There has been a significant rise in the number of patents originating from academic environments. However, current conceptualizations of academic patents provide a largely homogenous approach to define this entrepreneurial form of technology transfer. In this study we develop a novel categorization framework that identifies three subsets of academic patents which are conceptually distinct from each other. By applying the categorization framework on a unique database of Swedish patents we furthermore find support for its usefulness in detecting underlying differences in technology, opportunity, and commercialization characteristics among the three subsets of academic patents.
Article
Business Intelligence (IE) is a central process in firms of the knowledge. Desirous to implant a monitoring system, a lot of companies queries on the opportunity or not of to structure their process. This debate between centralizing / decentralizing, formal / informal, insourcing / outsourcing, etc. is present in the academic world. The defenders of a strong structuring call off the advantages of performances and low costs whereas the defenders of a low structuring emphasise on the flexibility of the organizational business intelligence process. It agrees upon explore these two visions so to tempt to supply an explication. So, an empirical study on 153 European companies of high technologies area has been realized. The results indicate a strong structuring of business intelligence practices whereas the monitoring activities are low structuring.
Article
This paper aims to present a novel concept roadmap-the patent roadmap-and suggest an advanced patent roadmapping process, based on the Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM) and Bass diffusion model. The process for patent roadmapping is composed of two modules: Developing the GTM-based patent map and determining the appearance time of the emerging patent through Bass model. The result of this research is meaningful knowledge from analyzing a vast store of patent data with quantitative methods and automated tools. It can serve as an effective patent planning tool, and proposes a strategic Research and Business Development (R&BD) for both firms and governments.
Article
Decision makers relying on web search engines in concept mapping for decision support are confronted with limitations inherent in similarity measures of relatedness proximity between concept pairs. To cope with this challenge, this paper presents research model for augmenting concept maps on the basis of a novel method of co-word analysis that utilizes webometrics web counts for improving similarity measures. Technology assessment serves as a use case to demonstrate and validate our approach for a spectrum of information technologies. Results show that the yielded technology assessments are highly correlated with subjective expert assessments (n = 136; r>. 0.879), suggesting that it is safe to generalize the research model to other applications. The contribution of this work is emphasized by the current growing attention to big data.
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Article
This survey shows the "State-of-the-art" of Business Intelligence (BI), discussing its importance in Strategic Planning, Decision-Making Process, Total Quality Programs Implementation and Competitiveness. This work analyses several required organizational configurations and available technological resources for a succesful BI activity achievement. Emphasizes the importance of the Information Sources, pointing out that it is vital their correct scanning. At last, broader issues are discussed such as: legal and ethics implications for BI, differences between BI and Espionage and BI role in Globalization Strategies.
Article
Since the relationship between patents and Tobin’s q is confusing, this paper utilizes panel threshold regression model to re-examine the relationship between patent counts/sales and Tobin’s q. This study finds out patent citations/sales has a single threshold effect on the relationship between patent counts/sales and Tobin’s q in the US pharmaceutical industry. The single threshold value of patent citations/sales is 328.81, and it divides the value of patent citations/sales into two regimes: the first regime (patent citations/sale ≦ 328.81) and the second regime (patent citations/sale > 328.81). The results indicate that patent counts/sales positively affect Tobin’s q in the two regimes. In addition, this study demonstrates that the extent of the positive effect of patent counts/sales on Tobin’s q is different. This study verifies that patent citations/sales moderates the relationship between patent counts/sales and Tobin’s q. Once patent citations/sales is below the threshold value, the extent of the positive relationship between patent counts/sales and Tobin’s q is the most. Therefore, this study finds out that the first regime is optimal.
Article
This study examined the relationships between corporate market value and four patent quality indicators – relative patent position (RPP), revealed technology advantage (RTA), Herfindahl–Hirschman Index of patents (HHI of patents), and patent citations – in the US pharmaceutical industry. The results showed that RPP and patent citations were positively associated with corporate market value, but HHI of patents was negatively associated with it, while RTA was not significantly related to it. Thus, if pharmaceutical companies want to enhance their market value, they should increase their leading positions in their most important technological fields, cultivate more diversity of technological capabilities, and raise innovative value of their patents. In addition, this study found that market value of pharmaceutical companies with high patent counts was higher than that of pharmaceutical companies with low patent counts, and suggested that pharmaceutical companies with low patent counts should increase RPP in their most technological fields, decrease HHI of patents, or raise patent citations to further enhance their market value. Furthermore, this study developed a classification for the pharmaceutical companies to divide them into four types, and provided some suggestions to them.
Article
Scientific competitive intelligence (CI) resides in the domain of technical or technology competitive intelligence. In the pharmaceutical industry, scientific CI is the process of monitoring competitors' research and product pipelines as well as science and technology trends. It differs from traditional business intelligence in the type of data analyzed and the expertise of the analysts. Clients for scientific CI span a broad cut across the company. Included are upper management, strategic development groups, commercial and marketing groups, and research and development (R&D).The impact that scientific CI can have on R&D decision making and planning processes is multifactorial and involves many groups throughout a typical R&D organization. These groups include discovery scientists, discovery research management, development scientists, development management, regulatory, and others. The role and impact of scientific CI on these groups within a pharmaceutical company varies with the need of each group and works best when mutual benefits are shared and strong relationships are created.
Article
This paper explores the influences of patent performance, R&D capability, and employee productivity upon firm performance. This study uses patent intensity, revealed technology advantage in the most important technological field (RTAMIT), and average output per employee as the proxy variables of patent performance, R&D capability, and employee productivity in the American chemical industry. The results indicate that patent intensity, RTAMIT, and average output per employee of firms are positively associated with their performance. This study verifies that patent performance, R&D capability, and employee productivity positively affect firm performance.
Article
Technology innovation is one of important driving force to companies' market shares and the development of market structure. The information of technology innovation and its evolutional path can be explored by patent analysis. Therefore, for those firms which need large investment and highly business performance, such as interventional cardiology medical device ones, integrating patent information with business strategy is the critical issue. In terms of the technological trajectories of stent technology, the dominant design is started from percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) through bare metal stent (BMS) to drug-eluting stent (DES). Those technologies are high path dependence with one another. The competition of stent manufactures is getting intensive because of global increasing needs. From resource-based view, adopting co-opetition strategy is the essential way for the firms to keep sustainable competitive advantage. In the last decade, patent is a major tool of co-opetition strategy. This study applies patent data in USPTO during 1984 to 2005 and constructs patent indicators by patent information to verify the process of technology evolution. On these grounds, we can understand the relative technological position and technological strength of those major manufactures in this industry and also inspect their changes on position and business scope to examine the relationship between each firm's technology strategy and business strategy
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Article
Marketing decision-information systems are composed of four key elements: a data bank, a model bank, a measurement-statistics bank, and a communications capability. If full advantage is to be taken of the new information technology, a coordinated, balanced growth of the system components must be achieved. The authors extend their initial information systems proposal to include further design concepts and practical examples.
Article
Strategy formulation is defined as the process employed by executives to adjust the organization and its activities to the environment. Strategies are said to be goal oriented streams of decisions. This paper presents a method for studying the determinants of strategy making behavior using data obtained from case studies. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are discussed. We present several preliminary findings arrived at using a Q-type factor analysis of the cases. Some advantages of this methodology are described. The discussion is based upon the author's doctoral research which is currently in progress.
Article
The paper reports the results of an empirical study of characteristics of the strategic planning process in 21 U.K. companies and how these were related to financial performance. Methodological aspects covered include the sample frame, a test of consensus and approaches to measuring the extent of agreement between respondents in companies, individual dissatisfaction and group dissatisfaction with the status quo, and financial performance. Results of correlation and factor analysis, involving scales developed by use of these approaches to measurement, are given and discussed briefly. One of the major findings was that the number of informal channels of communication used, the percentage of relevant items of information received that are used in reaching decisions and financial performance are positively correlated.
Article
An end-use intelligence system provides a knowledge of customers and prospects and the market segments being served. A basic premise is that it can increase sales and profitability through the systematic analysis of strengths and weaknesses by an organized approach to systematically collect, classify, update and analyze the key market intelligence information for product lines serving those segments.
Article
The quality of strategic planning depends on the quality of information gathering.
Article
This article suggests that there is a need to establish an active competitive intelligence function as an integral part of a corporation's existing operations structure. The author goes on to outline how such an intelligence function can be organized utilizing existing resources. An example of the types of information to be collected, and how it can be used to predict a competitor's actions, is also presented.
Article
This article suggests that there is a need to establish an active competitive intelligence function as an integral part of a corporation's existing operations structure. The author goes on to outline how such an intelligence function can be organized utilizing existing resources. An example of the types of information to be collected, and how it can be used to predict a competitor's actions, is also presented.
Article
It is assumed that demand for information that subjectively appears to be relevant for forecasting improves forecasting quality. To study this hypothesis a number of forecasting experiments were conducted. Fifty managers from the housing business, from banking, and from a research institution were asked to forecast interest rates, using a Delphi process. They communicated via a computer system, and, to support their judgements, they had access to a data bank that was stored in the same system. Their communication with the system was automatically recorded. Part of the data collected in these experiments is used to study the existence of a relationship between information activities and forecasting results. A weak positive relationship is found if non-linear functions are tested, where information demand is corrected by those data retrievals that seem to have resulted from an inability to handle the information system. For further research a more general, albeit less informative, Boolean model is suggested.
Article
Initial product, distribution, marketing expenditure, and price reactions by incumbents are examined for 115 entrants into oligopolistic markets. The most common reaction pattern is either no reaction or only a single reaction. It is very unusual for entrants to face reactions across the entire marketing mix. Reactions in the first two years after entry are explained as a function of the entrant's strategy, incumbent characteristics, and industry characteristics. The explanation provides insights into why marketing mix reactions to entry are often limited.
Article
Thesis--Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 330-337). Photocopy of typescript. Boston : Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration,
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