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Studies on papillary patterns of human finger

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... Ridged and papillary structures-dermatoglyphics-of so called thick skin (or friction skin) are formed by complex prenatal processes (Babler, 1978;Kücken & Newell, 2004;Okajima, 1975) at an interface of dermis and epidermis in a period from the 10th to 17th week of the human prenatal development (Babler, 1991;Okajima, 1975;Seidenberg-Kajabova et al., 2010;Wertheim & Maceo, 2002). Because of their sensitivity to internal and external developmental factors and subsequent relative topological stability (Babler, 1978;Bonnevie, 1924;Galton, 1892) the resulting dermatoglyphic features can be used as indicators of early prenatal development. When forming of the epidermal ridges occurs, also the central nervous system undergoes significant neuro-developmental processes (Fatj o-Vilas et al., 2008;Volpe, 2000). ...
... Dermatoglyphic analysis was executed in Dermatoglyphix 1.0 program (Kr alík et al., 2017a, 2017b) using standard dermatoglyphic methodology by Cummins and Midlo (1943). Ridge counts were counted by means of standard procedure (Bonnevie, 1924;Cummins & Midlo, 1943;Henry, 1900). We specified ulnar ridge count (RCu) as a number of ridges crossed by line running in straight direction between the core of the pattern and ulnar triradius. ...
... The quantitative values correlate to varying degrees between fingers, with two trends being that (1) they correlate more strongly for fingers that are closer to each other on one hand (Bonnevie, 1924;Holt, 1951;Mavalwala, 1962;Meier, 1980), as well as (2) for fingers that are homologous to each other on the right and left hand. The former could imply possible gradients across the hand. ...
Article
Objectives Using prenatally fixed dermatoglyphics features as markers of prenatal sex development is limited due to insufficient knowledge on their sex differences. This study aims to examine more thoroughly sex differences in radioulnar contrasts. Methods Fingerprints of 360 females and 331 males from four samples of different ethnic backgrounds (Czechs, Slovaks, Vietnamese and Lusatian Sorbs) were studied. On both hands, finger ridge counts were recorded, and all possible radioulnar contrasts were computed as a difference between ridge count at a radial position minus ridge count at a respective ulnar position on the hand. Radioulnar contrasts with population-congruent and numerically large dimorphism were selected and the dimorphism of the selected radioulnar contrasts was then tested using nonparametric analysis of variance. Results Greater dimorphism of radioulnar contrasts occurred on the right hand than on the left hand. Population congruent direction and relatively strong dimorphism (Cohen’s d greater than 0.3) was found in six radioulnar contrasts on the right hand, all of which involved the radial ridge count of the 2nd finger. Of these, the highest average dimorphism was observed for the difference between the radial ridge count of the 2nd finger and the ulnar ridge count of the 4th finger (2r4u contrast), where the average effect size from all four population samples was comparable to a published average effect size of the 2D:4D finger length ratio. Conclusion We propose that 2r4u contrast of ridge counts could serve as a marker of prenatal sexual development targeting a temporally narrow developmental window.
... Holt (1968) can be referred to for a review of her own work and that of others dealing with hereditary patterns of dermatoglyphics. Among early workers, Bonnevie (1924) should be credited for laying much of the groundwork for investigating hereditary mechanisms accounting for pattern characteristics and ridge counts on fingers. Recent researchers have even purported finding genetic effects in plantar ridge counts (Pateria, 1973, 1979), and bimanual, sex and population distributions have been reported for palmar flexion creases (Chaube, 1977; Tay, 1979). ...
... The kind of general model being developed incorporates the "field concept," which has found some degree of success when applied to dental development (Biggerstaff 1979; Butler, 1963). In dermatoglyphics, the initial work in this context stems from Bonnevie (1924), Holt (1951) and Mavalwala (1962), who showed strong correlations in ridge counts both among adjacent fingers and between homologous fingers. This finding has now been duplicated for many different populations (Brehme et al., 1966; Loesch, 1971; Rothhammer et al., 1973; Roberts et al., 1974). ...
Article
Research in dermatoglyphics having direct interest and application to anthropology has continued to grow since the turn of the century. Anthropological dermatoglyphics can offer important perspectives in viewing the nature and significance of human variation. Several forefronts of ongoing research are reviewed. First, methodology continues to improve definition and classification of variables. A second line of inquiry deals with hereditary aspects. Inheritance models, both monogenic and polygenic, have been proposed. Single locus systems seem to have limited application, as in the transmission of triradial excess or deficiency illustrated by the missing c triradius. Polygenic inheritance has been demonstrated in quantitative phenotypic expressions exemplified by the total finger ridge-count. Exciting recent research employing the “field concept” has discovered a small number of developmental factors which correspond well with earlier findings on volar pad development and dermatoglyphic features. Maternal and other environmental effects have been shown to operate on dermatoglyphic expression. Human population studies using dermatoglyphics began with early racial descriptions and currently utilize multivariate procedures for detecting evolutionary processes. Congruence testing between dermatoglyphics and other biological distance measures is also an active endeavor. In this connection, dermatoglyphic variable selection has become important in recognizing that different variables might well be useful in micro- and macroevolutionary situations. Finally, dermatoglyphic analysis has. been applied to primate studies. Although this area has not kept pace with human studies, primate work has been crucial for the important matters of taxonomic assessment and functional dermatoglyphics.
... Volar pads start to diminish from the fifth month and disappear by the sixth month [6,38]. According to Bonnevie [6,39] the position and size of the volar pad is responsible for pattern configuration. Thus, a small, low pad forms arch patterns, while an elevated, large symmetrical-shaped pad forms whorls, and asymmetrical pads form loops. ...
... Triradii a 1 is an accessory pattern that appears in the vicinity of triradii A, while A-B RC is a measure of the size of the ID 2 [11]. With regard to developmental timing, the fetal pad for the ID 2 area appears first followed by the pads on fingers, and palmar ridges form earlier and develop over a longer period than digital ridges [39,41]. The A-B RC asymmetry is reported to be ideal for indexing developmental canalization [41,42]. ...
Article
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Background: Dermatoglyphics has been used widely in fields of medicine as a non-invasive diagnostic tool and an early assessment of risk for certain medical conditions. It reflects disturbances in fetal development during early prenatal weeks 14-22 when fingerprints develop. Dermatoglyphic asymmetry has been used to measure developmental instability during a specific period of human fetal development. Thus, the present study was planned to investigate whether digital and palmar dermatoglyphics of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) patients in Sri Lanka are different from healthy people. Methods: A case control study was carried out among CKDu patients (90 males, 90 females) from a CKDu endemic area and gender-matched two control groups; one group from a CKDu endemic region (90 males, 90 females) and another group from a CKDu non-endemic region (90 males, 90 females). Dermatoglyphics were obtained using photographic methods. Both qualitative and quantitative dermatoglyphic variables were defined and analyzed according to standard criteria. Both directional (DA) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) were assessed. Results: Several qualitative dermatoglyphic variables had significant association with CKDu. The triradii a1 variable was less evident in palms of CKDu cases in both genders when compared to both control groups. The FA of pattern discordance (right vs left hands) between CKDu cases and control group were significant in several digits. The FA of the ridge count was found significant in several digits, and also significant for A-B ridge count and total ridge count. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is proposed that the mechanisms responsible for the development of CKDu might be associated with those responsible for FA observed in CKDu patients. Accordingly, a diagnostic tool based on FA could be developed for predicting risk prior to the development of CKDu.
... Ridge counts (RC) are often used when analyzing fingerprint data, as they are objective traits that can be used to characterize fingerprints and can be obtained quantitatively. In RC, a method developed by Bonnevie [2] and furthered by Holt [3] involving counting the number of ridges that touch a straight line between two-fixed points, i.e., two triradii, or a triradius and a core has been used extensively. This method is easily applicable to loop patterns as they contain a core and a triradius, but it is harder to apply for whorl patterns that contain two triradii. ...
... Although previous studies of other ancestries have indicated higher RC in males, the different methodology that we used may account for the difference in our results. Earlier RC studies used a technique dependent on fingerprint pattern [2][3][4][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. This procedure would automatically designate the RC for arches as zero and, since females are known to have a higher frequency of arches [14,16,[25][26][27], higher RC in males would be expected as a result. ...
... The fi rst hypotheses for papillary pattern formation were advanced in the studies of Kollmann and Bonnevie, where the effect of different forces of pressures and tensions determining the primary ridge development was suggested. 5 In a 1924 study, Bonnevie reported that the basal epidermal cells were exposed to mechanical compression forces because of their rapid proliferation. It was these stress effects that directed the cells towards the soft underlying dermis, which resulted in the formation of the primary ridges. ...
Article
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Dermatoglyphic pattern formation and differentiation are complex processes which have been in the focus of research interest ever since dermatoglyphics became a science. The patterns' early differentiation and genetic uniqueness as well as the relatively simple methods used to obtain and store fingerprints make it possible to study the relationship between certain dermatoglyphic characteristics and the underlying pathological processes in a number of diseases, including mental disorders. The present review reports published data from fundamental and clinical studies on dermatoglyphics primarily in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to lend additional support for the neurodevelopmental hypothesis in the etiology of these disorders. Following an analysis of the theories of dermatoglyphics formation and the complex association between ridge patterns and central nervous system in early embryogenesis, an attempt is made to present dermatoglyphics as possible biological markers of impaired neurodevelopment. The contradictory data in the literature on dermatoglyphics in mental disorders suggest the need for further studies on these biological markers in order to identify their place in the neurodevelopmental etiological model of these diseases.
... According to Rende, Plomin and Vandenberg (1990), however, Galton did not make the distinction between MZ and dizygotic (DZ) twins, an understandable shortcoming nonetheless due to the ignorance of heredity at the time. Rende et al. (1990) conclude that Siemens (1924) and Merriman (1924) together discovered the genetic identity of MZ and DZ twins, but the fundamental work of Poll (1915) and Weinberg (1901), and their forerunners, nor Bonnevie (1924), were not considered. Some of the obscurities in the origin of the method may have arisen from the possible language barriers of English-speaking scientists. ...
Conference Paper
Monozygotic (MZ) twins were long thought to be genetically identical, however recent studies have demonstrated genetic differences between them. To test the hypothesis that early post-twinning mutational events leads to phenotypic discordance, thirteen MZ twins discordant for a range of complex disorders were investigated at the genomic and proteomic level. Whole-exome sequencing data was analysed using a union of VarScan2 and MuTect2 variant calling algorithms. Copy-number variation (CNV) analysis from Illumina HumanCore array data was also carried out using PennCNV and cnvPartition to identify structural variants that would not be detected by exome sequencing. All single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels and CNVs were evaluated for functional consequence, evolutionary conservation, population frequency and overlap with known disease-susceptibility genes. Twenty-two putative discordant SNVs and indels, but no discordant structural variants, were identified. Parent-offspring trio analysis was implemented to assess potential association of germline de novo mutations with susceptibility to disease. A rare, highly conserved de novo mutation in RASD2 was detected in twins discordant for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). RASD2 is enriched in the striatum and involved in the modulation of dopaminergic transmission. In the twins discordant for Tourette’s syndrome, an inherited stop loss mutation was detected in AADAC, a known candidate gene for the disorder. Further, a de novo CNV duplication was identified in a twin pair discordant for ADHD overlapping CD38, a gene implicated in social amnesia and autism. When analysing the burden of shared CNVs among the twins, a rare hemizygous deletion in region 15q13.2 was detected in twins with schizophrenia, overlapping ARHGAP11B, a human-specific gene involved in basal progenitor amplification and neocortex expansion. To investigate potential downstream consequences of (epi)genetic mechanisms and underlying biochemical pathways, proteomic profiling of serum samples obtained from an MZ twin pair discordant for ischaemic stroke was analysed through a label-free pipeline. Biological processes overrepresented in the affected twin predominantly corresponded to stroke-related processes, including wound healing, blood coagulation and haemostasis. Further, a comparison of blood chemistries showed a >10- and >18-fold elevation of γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels respectively in the affected twin.
... There exists relationship between epidermal ridge and fetal volar pads, because in course of development the ridge pattern is formed at the site of these pads. 7 Environmental factors such as external pressure on fetal pads and embryonic fetal finger movements could influence ridge formation. 8 Dermatoglyphics traits such as such as finger ridge count develop between 10 th to 17 th week post conception. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dermatoglyphics is the study of finger print patterns and the term was coined by Harold Cummins in 1926. Finger prints are imprints of epidermal ridges, which are formed in early embryonic life, during 10th to 16th week of intrauterine life and remain permanent during whole life. Dermatoglyphic patterns have polygenic inheritance and are affected by environmental factors in the uterus. Finger print patterns are mainly of three types: arches whorls and loops; though there are more than 100 ridge characteristics, called Galton’s details, in a single rolled finger print. Dermatoglyphics is not only used in the identification of an individual but also serves as a mirror of one’s potential and talent. In this review, we will be discussing Dermatoglyphics and its important role in the diagnosis of chromosomal disorders and other diseases which have some genetic bases. Keywords Dermatoglyphics, Finger prints, Arch, Whorl, Loop
... Kristine Bonnevie based on embryo data about the development of finger paintings, as well as the familys, twins and population based studies, suggested that papillary patterns depend on the morphology of the toes, in particular, from their symmetry or asymmetry. Individual hereditary but the size of the fingers, the bump pads and some other features are the number of scallops, form, defined by an index, width to length duplicity center patterns (Bonnevie, 1924). It is known that the study of fingerprints of alleged relatives in evaluations of disputed paternity was the main theme of the second all-Russian Congress of forensic experts (1926). ...
Article
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The paper considers the historically considered scientific disputes by various authors about the hereditary transmission of papillary pattern. A dermatoglyphic study now revealed the existence of the general laws pass those traits are inherited. The children are dominated by the same elements papillary pattern (loops, spirals or arc) as the parents. In combinations of patterns on the fingers, most children have a parent forms, but their nature and frequency for each finger is different. The twins, brothers or sisters have the same types of graphics for all your fingers, but they are significantly different parameters such as crests through, shape, symmetry, slope, etc. Random probability of a similar match negligible. In heritance of dermatoglyphic traits allows them to be used in determining paternity, determining the identity of the deceased to his close relatives, also create likely search forensic model of offender. The author justified conclusion on the continuation of the research methods of system types of papillary pattern, and their ratio on your fingers, form and other type of dermatoglyphic features for more information about the subject. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n4s3p264
... In 1892 Sir Francis Galton [2] published classic treaties on fingerprints. Many a scientists like Inez L. Whipple-Wilder (1904) [3], Kristine Bannevie (1924) [4] pioneered comprehensive studies of methodology, inheritance, racial variation and genetic linked studies of fingerprints in the first quarter of 20 th century. ...
Article
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The Hindu formula concerns three types of prints: the Shankh which resembles the ulnar and radial loop; the Chakra or whorl; and the Shakti resembling the composite. The scientific study of papillary ridges of hands and feet is credited as beginning with the work of Joannes Evangelista Purkinje, a Chech psychologist and biologist in 1823. A dermtoglyphic survey on frequency of patterns and related personal attributes in medical students of MIMS medical college has been attempted. 212 students of MIMS admitted during 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 academic year were selected as the subjects for the study. One student has a tented arch, indicates student is enthusiastic. Ulnar loop incidence is 97%, which indicates conventional type of personality of students.
... These patterns start to develop between the 5th and 6th week of intrauterine life, and are fully formed by the 21st week 3 . These patterns do not change throughout postnatal life and their development is determined by several genes 4 . ...
Article
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Background The relationship between handedness and digital dermatoglyphic patterns has never been investigated in the Sinhalese population. The goal of this study is to establish the above mentioned relationship, which would positively aid personal identification. Findings One hundred forty Sinhalese students (70 right-handed and 70 left-handed) were studied for their digital dermatoglyphic pattern distribution. The results show that a statistically significant correlation exists for; digit 5 (Ulnar loop; P= 0.0449 and radial loop; P= 0.0248 by Fisher’s exact test) of the right hand in female, digit 1 (radial loop; P=0.0248 by Fisher’s exact test) and digit 2 (Ulnar loop; P=0.0306) of the left hand in females, digit 3 (Ulnar loop; P= 0.0486 and whorl; P= 0.0356 by Fisher’s exact test) and digit 4 (Ulnar loop; P= 0.0449 and whorl; P= 0.0301 by Fisher’s exact test) of the right hand in males, digit 4 (whorl; P=0.0160 by Fisher’s exact test) of the left hand in males. Conclusions Statistically significant differences in handedness and digital dermatoglyphic patterns were evident among Sinhalese people. Further study with a larger sample size is recommended.
... At the dawn of the modern interest in fluctuating asymmetry, two classic papers took different approaches. Holt [45], following the example of Bonnevie [93], used the correlation coefficient (r) as an index of quantitative value (i.e., fluctuating asymmetry) of finger ridge counts. Mather [3], on the other hand, elected to use the variance of L − R as an index of developmental instability [48]. ...
Article
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Fluctuating asymmetry, the random deviation from perfect symmetry, is a widely used population-level index of developmental instability, developmental noise, and robustness. It reflects a population's state of adaptation and genomic coadaptation. Here, we review the literature on fluctuating asymmetry of human populations. The most widely used bilateral traits include skeletal, dental, and facial dimensions; dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts; and facial shape. Each trait has its advantages and disadvantages, but results are most robust when multiple traits are combined into a composite index of fluctuating asymmetry (CFA). Both environmental (diet, climate, toxins) and genetic (aneuploidy, heterozygosity, inbreeding) stressors have been linked to population-level variation in fluctuating asymmetry. In general, these stressors increase average fluctuating asymmetry. Nevertheless, there have been many conflicting results, in part because (1) fluctuating asymmetry is a weak signal in a sea of noise; and (2) studies of human fluctuating asymmetry have not always followed best practices. The most serious concerns are insensitive asymmetry indices (correlation coefficient and coefficient of indetermination), inappropriate size scaling, unrecognized mixture distributions, inappropriate corrections for directional asymmetry, failure to use composite indices, and inattention to measurement error. Consequently, it is often difficult (or impossible) to compare results across traits, and across studies.
... There exists a relationship between epidermal ridge and fetal volar pads, because in course of development the ridge pattern is formed at the site of these pads. 6 During development various creases develop on the brain and are reflected on the fingerprints representing the various regions of the skin and brain developing from the same ectoderm. It is probable that an insult causing damage to one of these systems would damage the other. ...
Article
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Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of the pattern of dermal ridges on the palmar surface of digits, palm and sole. Characteristically, hair does not grow in this area. These ridges serve well to enhance contact. The development of these ridges and the development of the nervous system occur simultaneously in the intrauterine period. The pattern of dermal ridges begins to develop around the 13th week and is completed by the 19th week of intrauterine life. Once the fingerprint pattern develops, it does not change and persists throughout life. Unusual dermatoglyphic patterns often relate to genetic disorders. Dermatoglyphics may be used as an additional screening tool to identify early risk factors that may help prevent additional complications of various diseases. In this review, we will be discussing dermatoglyphics and its important role in the diagnosis of diseases which have some genetic basis.
... In his research, Borin (2002) [6] reports that the first form of classification of the fingerprints was proposed by Galton in 1891, based on the recognition of the deltas or trirddios as points of irradiation of the dermopapillary lines that form the typical configurations. Later, Vucetich (1904) [7] classified the patterns into four groups: arch, inner loop, outer loop and whorl, and in 1924, Bonnevie [8] presented a method for quantitatively estimating digital patterns and then Holt (1957) [9] replaced this methodology by the total count of lines formed by the crests, allowing greater precision in the quantitative evaluation of the results (Cummins and Midlo, 1961) [10] From the knowledge of the formation of the triad (delta) the authors mostly distinguish three groups of drawings: arch (A), loop (L) and together, whorl and S-drawing (W) (Figure 1). The shape of the drawings characterizes a qualitative feature. ...
Article
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The term sports talent can be defined as the individual who, through his inherited and acquired conditions, has a special ability for sports performance, above the average of the general population. Fingerprints are genetic markers and can function as indicators of sporting talents. The objective of the present study was to use dermatoglyphics to identify the genetic-physical profile of soccer athletes. Twenty-four athletes belonging to the Palmeiras Sports Society Athletes' Capture Center participated in this study in the Nordeste sub-category category 16. The dermatoglyphic protocol of Cummins and Midlo (1961) was used. Standard fingerprint indices were calculated: the number of drawings for the 10 fingers and the delta index (D10). We also analyzed the types of digital formulas that indicate the representation in individuals of different types of drawings. Based on the classification of Fernandes (2002), the group presented somatofunctional classification for height, velocity and explosive strength, due to the delta index of 11.54. We conclude that dermatoglyphics can be a parameter to identify the potentiality of an individual and can be incorporated into a policy of selection and formation of sports talent.
... Thus, due to these important characteristics, fingerprint patterns first attracted the interest of workers (see among others, Chakraborty et al. 1982;Karev 1991;Singh 1985; Devi 2000; Sengupta and Karmakar 2004; Karmakar et al. 2005Karmakar et al. , 2008Karmakar et al. , 2011. It was also found long ago that the application of proper statistical techniques, the genetics of quantitative aspect of dermatoglyphics could be better demonstrated than the qualitative traits (see among others, Bonnevie 1924;Newman 1930;Geipel 1941;Holt 1968;Matsuda 1973;Singh 1979, Dittmar 1994. Furthermore in general, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the phenotypic variation of dermatoglyphics differs from population to population (Cummins and Midlo 1961, Holt 1968, Kobyliansky and Livshits 1986, Arrieta et al. 1987, Karmakar et al 1989, Kobyliansky 1990, Crawford and Daggirala 1992, Jantz et al. 1993, Demarchi et al. 1997. ...
... His early studies on twins extend the evidence of inheritance and he adds to the literature two family trees demonstrating the transmission of patterns, one is palmar thenar pattern and the other is rare calcar pattern, as opposed to patternless configurations in the areas concerned. Bonnevie (1924) extended the method of counting ridges to get quantitative measures of finger ridge patterns. Now abundant evidences are at hand to prove that some characteristics of fingerprints and of other dermatoglyphic areas are inherited. ...
Article
The present study examines the heretability of finger and palmar quantitative dermatoglyphic traits bycalculating Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlationship ‘r’ and regression equation between the actual parents andchildren and unrelated pairings. The sample is made up of 50 couples and their 135 children (66 sons and 69 daughters)belonging to the Khurkhul community of Manipur. The traits included in the study are: total finger ridge count,absolute finger ridge count, pattern intensity index, palmar main line index, atd-angle and palmar a-b, b-c, c-d ridgecounts. Highly significant correlation values higher than the theoretical value of 0.5 of parent-child were observed inthe studied quantitative feature, except palmar b-c and c-d ridge counts. The estimated values of correlation coefficient‘r’ found in parent (x)-child (y) correlationship for total finger ridge count (TFRC), absolute finger ridge count(AFRC) and finger pattern intensity index (PII) agree with the theoretical value of coefficient of correlation betweenmid-parent and the child i.e. 1/√2 or 0.71. In all the studied quantitative dermatoglyphic features, randomly pairedunrelated ones show very low correlation values when compared with those of the related parents and children’scorrelation values, except father-child correlation value of palmar b-c ridge count. Higher correlation coefficientvalues of ‘r’ were observed in finger than in palmar. This indicates that environmental factors exert greater effect onthe palmar region in early prenatal life than do on the finger.
... There exists relationship between epidermal ridge and fetal volar pads, because in course of development the ridge pattern is formed at the site of these pads. 7 Environmental factors such as external pressure on fetal pads and embryonic fetal finger movements could influence ridge formation. 8 Dermatoglyphics traits such as such as finger ridge count develop between 10 th to 17 th week post conception. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dermatoglyphics is the study of finger print patterns and the term was coined by Harold Cummins in 1926. Finger prints are imprints of epidermal ridges, which are formed in early embryonic life, during 10 th to 16 th week of intrauterine life and remain permanent during whole life. Dermatoglyphic patterns have polygenic inheritance and are affected by environmental factors in the uterus. Finger print patterns are mainly of three types: arches whorls and loops; though there are more than 100 ridge characteristics, called Galton’s details, in a single rolled finger print. Dermatoglyphics is not only used in the identification of an individual but also serves as a mirror of one’s potential and talent. In this review, we will be discussing Dermatoglyphics and its important role in the diagnosis of chromosomal disorders and other diseases which have some genetic bases.
... Extensive work has been carried out on several populations, racial, and ethnic groups using the arch, loops and whorls [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. But there has been no specific documented study at level 2 details for indigenous populations such as the Kalabari ethnic group of the South-South region of Nigeria. ...
Article
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Dermatoglyphics was used by Dr. Harold Cummins which was coined from derma, skin + the Greek glyphe, carve''. Simply put, dermatoglyphics is defined as the branch of science which studies the patterns of the skin (dermal) ridges present on human fingers, toes and the soles. Level 2 details of dermatoglyphics go beyond the conventional digital patterns arch, loops and whorls. It considers the individual ridges that make up the arch, loop and whorl patterns. It establishes uniqueness of individuals when done and the basis for identification in forensic studies. This study was therefore aimed at determining the level 2 details of the Kalabari people and to check for gender variations in the ethnic group. Non-experimental and analytical research with Digital Print Model adopted from Oghenemavwe and Osaat model. The sampling technique used was multi-stage sampling with simple random sampling and Cochran 1963 formula was used to determine the sample size. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square and z-test. Bifurcation was found to be the most distributed pattern on both hands and in both sexes. The least distributed pattern was opposed bifurcation for the males, for the females double bifurcation on the right, opposed bifurcation and bridge on the left. Comparison of the patterns showed there was statistical significance (p<0.05) in the patterns between the males and females except Trifurcation and Dot. It therefore means that there is a big difference in the pattern distribution; this could be a result of the difference in hormones present in both sexes. This study has established that there is gender difference in the distribution of patterns at level 2 details which could be a diagnostic tool in forensics and a database at level 2 for this specific population.
... Kristine Bonnevie, the first ever female professor in Norway, also conducted a twin study in 1924, and classified twins into MZ and DZ pairs based on their facial similarity (Ida & Arve, 2007;Mayo, 2009). Bonnevie (1924) found that, for fingerprint resemblance, MZ twins were very highly correlated (r=0.92) compared with DZ twins (r=0.54), also building on work from Poll (1915). ...
Thesis
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Twin studies enable powerful approaches for untangling the roles of genes and the environment on human traits and conditions. Twin registries have been established across the globe since the 1950’s to facilitate twin studies through collecting and maintaining data and contact information of twins. International scientific collaboration in twin research represents an opportunity for establishing a large pool of twin data and expertise for analysis. However, such collaborations are rare. The International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) has, so far, failed to deliver large multi-registry twin studies that can tackle big problems related to the health of the population. I investigated the challenges of international scientific collaboration in twin research through a case study approach. To explore individual and interpersonal aspects of such challenges, I conducted 18 in-depth semi-structured interviews with researchers. To explore structural aspects, I studied the Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR), Twins Research Australia (TRA) and the INTR through participant observation. I also analysed documents, data reports and other information from the above case study sites. I found that these challenges can be grouped in three major themes: (1) the ‘silos’ in international twin research; (2) the capacity and the future sustainability of twin registries; and (3) ethical challenges in engagement, communication and policy-making. Striking differences in resources between researchers and twin registries operating in the global arena of collaborative twin research appeared as substantial obstacles. My findings also suggest that twin research is currently divided into silos related to the researchers’ disciplines, personal motivations and belief systems. While such silos are not necessarily detrimental to scientific productivity within disciplines, they represent barriers to the large-scale international twin studies that can achieve sufficient sample sizes for robust study outcomes. More importantly, while most informants appeared confident in the capabilities of co-twin control studies, especially those with MZ twin pairs discordant for disease, many of them seemed to question the validity and clinical relevance of classical twin studies. Classical twin studies have continuously influenced public discussion and policy-making debates related to a variety of human traits and conditions for almost 100 years. My findings have implications for the future of the BTR, TRA and, more broadly to other twin registries. They also contribute to possible future pathways for the INTR. However, the most significant contribution of my research pertains to how the misinterpretation of heritability estimates from classical twin studies by researchers and the media can lead to an agenda of genetic determinism. The confusion arising from the misleading communication of scientific findings from classical twin studies appeared as a major ethical challenge. These practices can also jeopardise the credibility of twin research as a tool to the understanding of the role of genes and the environment on human complex diseases. Researchers should take a proactive approach in helping educate the media, the public and policy-makers on what the findings from twin studies are really telling us, and perhaps even more importantly, what they are not.
... ll OPEN ACCESS number of signals, suggesting that this ordinal phenotype might better reflect the underlying genetic mechanisms of pattern formation. It has been proposed that the morphology (i.e., height, shape, and size) of volar pads (Bonnevie, 1924;Penrose, 1965b;Wertheim and Maceo, 2002) and the growth stresses on the pad surface (Kü cken, 2007) play important roles to influence pattern types. In particular, although ridges forming on high volar pads typically conform to the whorltype pattern, low volar pads produce arch-type patterns, and asymmetric and intermediate height volar pads often form loop-type patterns (Babler, 1987;Mulvihill and Smith, 1969;Penrose and Ohara, 1973). ...
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Article Limb development genes underlie variation in human fingerprint patterns Graphical abstract Highlights d GWAS identifies variants associated with fingerprint type across all digits d Fingerprint-associated genes are strongly enriched for limb development functions d Evi1 alters dermatoglyphs in mice by modulating limb rather than skin development d Fingerprint patterns are genetically correlated with hand and finger proportions In brief Genome-wide association scans in Han Chinese individuals and a trans-ethnic meta-analysis reveal genetic regions that are associated with specific fingerprint patterning; functional studies in mouse models confirm a role of EVI1 in early limb development and ridge patterning. SUMMARY Fingerprints are of long-standing practical and cultural interest, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie their variation. Using genome-wide scans in Han Chinese cohorts, we identified 18 loci associated with fingerprint type across the digits, including a genetic basis for the long-recognized ''pattern-block'' correlations among the middle three digits. In particular, we identified a variant near EVI1 that alters regulatory activity and established a role for EVI1 in dermatoglyph patterning in mice. Dynamic EVI1 expression during human development supports its role in shaping the limbs and digits, rather than influencing skin patterning directly. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis identified 43 fingerprint-associated loci, with nearby genes being strongly enriched for general limb development pathways. We also found that fingerprint patterns were genetically correlated with hand proportions. Taken together, these findings support the key role of limb development genes in influencing the outcome of fingerprint patterning.
... This focus on minutiae in some sense constituted the novelty of the study. Most prior dermatoglyphic studies had focused on gross pattern type (i.e., arch, loop, whorl) rather than minutiae (e.g., Bonnevie 1924). ...
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It has long been understood that individual and collective identification are inexorably intertwined. This convergence is not limited to genetics. This paper discusses the convergence of individual and collective identification in a comparative analysis of three other forensic areas: fingerprint analysis, microscopic hair comparison, and microbiome forensics. In all three case studies, we see purportedly individualizing technologies reverting, in a sense, to collective identification. Presumably, this has much to do with the perceived utility of collective identification. When knowing precisely who is the donor of a trace is not possible, or not useful, then knowing that the donor is ‘white,’ or ‘black,’ or ‘Middle Eastern’ begins to seem somehow useful. In each case, we also see that these collective identifications are ultimately founded on crude and broad, seemingly ‘commonsensical’ or ‘social,’ racial categories. These categories, meanwhile, are based on a less-than-fully-transparent combination of self-identification or official ascription. These suspect data are then transformed into seemingly persuasive scientific claims about the genetic attributes of this or that ‘race,’ ‘ethnicity,’ or ‘ancestry.’ Through this comparison the paper will explore how the individual and the collective are ‘done’ differently and similarly in different forensic disciplines.
... In addition, they also observed that the ridges first occur in the middle of the volar pads and then along the nail furrows. They named as Ridge Anlage or Papilla anlage [7][8][9][10] . Further, they defined Ridge anlage as "a small patch of volar skin characterized by intense cell proliferation at the time of ridge initiation and an overall increased thickness of epidermis". ...
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The study of fingerprints known as Dermatoglyphics, has been utilized for individual identification in forensics for greater than 2000 years. They have been fully analyzed from various points of views such as embryogenesis, patterns of fingerprints and empirical mechanisms on how they are formed. Several studies have also linked them to certain human features such as gender, etc. This review paper is a systematic compilation on basic embryogenesis, classification of fingerprints and several canonical mechanisms involved in fingerprint formation. The knowledge about this is essential and can open new innovative areas for researchers working in forensics that can help solve the criminal disputes and cases.
... ll OPEN ACCESS number of signals, suggesting that this ordinal phenotype might better reflect the underlying genetic mechanisms of pattern formation. It has been proposed that the morphology (i.e., height, shape, and size) of volar pads (Bonnevie, 1924;Penrose, 1965b;Wertheim and Maceo, 2002) and the growth stresses on the pad surface (Kü cken, 2007) play important roles to influence pattern types. In particular, although ridges forming on high volar pads typically conform to the whorltype pattern, low volar pads produce arch-type patterns, and asymmetric and intermediate height volar pads often form loop-type patterns (Babler, 1987;Mulvihill and Smith, 1969;Penrose and Ohara, 1973). ...
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Fingerprints are of long-standing practical and cultural interest, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie their variation. Using genome-wide scans in Han Chinese cohorts, we identified 18 loci associated with fingerprint type across the digits, including a genetic basis for the long-recognized “pattern-block” correlations among the middle three digits. In particular, we identified a variant near EVI1 that alters regulatory activity and established a role for EVI1 in dermatoglyph patterning in mice. Dynamic EVI1 expression during human development supports its role in shaping the limbs and digits, rather than influencing skin patterning directly. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis identified 43 fingerprint-associated loci, with nearby genes being strongly enriched for general limb development pathways. We also found that fingerprint patterns were genetically correlated with hand proportions. Taken together, these findings support the key role of limb development genes in influencing the outcome of fingerprint patterning.
... Friction ridge can be differentiated from the skin of the rest of the body by the presence of raised ridges, the surface is continuously corrugated with narrow minute (friction ridges) ridges and there are neither hairs nor sebaceous (oil) gland. The presence of friction ridges enhances friction for skin used in grasping (Bonnevie, 1924). Also, it has been used to analyze the nature and origin of human variability extensively in bioanthropology, genetics, and evolutionary studies to characterize population (Cummins, 2009). ...
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The uniqueness of fingerprints makes it a valued biometric trait and since the prints are regularly seen physical evidence in many crime scenes, forensic investigators employ them for sexual and ethnic differentiations when solving criminal cases. This study was an attempt to discriminate sex and ethnicity using thumbprint patterns and ridge density counts between Igbo and Efik tribes of Nigeria. The sample size for this study includes 173 adults (Efik = 37 males, 44 females) and (Igbos = 61 males, 31 females), randomly selected between the ages of 18-40 years. The subjects were asked to wash and dry their hands to remove dirt and grease. The fingers (thumbs) of both hands were smeared with indelible ink and pressed in a white plane paper. Using meter rule, 25mm each was measured from radial border, ulnar border, and inferior quadrants respectively for fingerprint ridge density count. This data was analyzed using SPSS Software version 21 Chicago Incorporated. The results of this study showed that both the males and females of Igbo origin have predominantly loop fingerprint pattern, at the male to female ratio of 43% and 55% respectively. In the contrary, the male and female of Efik ethnic group recorded more whorl print pattern at the ratio of 54% and 50% respectively. More so, this results recorded sexual dimorphism (P<0.05) in the various ridge density count across the two ethnic groups, even the ethnic comparison of both males to males and females to females, recorded statistical significant difference (P<0.05) between the Igbos and Efiks. Hence, the Igbos, irrespective of sex showed more loop fingerprint pattern, contrary to the whorl fingerprint pattern more frequent amongst the Efiks.Thus, the present results will be of immense relevance in forensic practice by unveiling the peculiarities of finger ridge density associated with gender and ethnic origin.
... These patterns start to develop between the 5th and 6th week of intrauterine life, and are fully formed by the 21st week 3 . These patterns do not change throughout postnatal life and their development is determined by several genes 4 . ...
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The genetic factors contribute significantly to the determination of dermatoglyphic traits is well established. However, the controversies in views and findings of this issue are still inconclusive. The present study is an attempt to evaluate the inheritance of quantitative dermatoglyphic traits with asymmetry (DA and FA) and diversity (Div) through sibling correlations. Data include 218 individuals from (88 families) in a small isolate, the nomadic tribe Muzeina with a high degree of consanguinity (0.09) from South Sinai. Statistical analyses include sibling correlations, cross-correlations and genetic correlation (GC)--a ratio of sibling cross-correlation between traits divided on square root of the both traits sibling correlation product. The familial correlation coefficients for quantitative dermatoglyphic traits are perhaps expected lower in such a small isolated and consanguineous population than our previous studied in Indian populations and Chuvashian populations from Russia. These results indicate a simpler genetic basis due to high degree (0.09 inbreeding coefficient) of consanguinity in Muzeina Bedouin tribe. There is no evidence of major gene involvement, although a little genetic effect obtained from familial correlations on asymmetry (DA and FA) and diversity (Div) traits through sibling correlations. The significant interaction between sexes was found, which contradicts with the other populations perhaps due to high level of consanguinity. Lower correlation coefficients than in other non-consanguineous populations for quantitative dermatoglyphic traits indicate a simpler genetic basis due to high degree of inbreeding coefficient (0.09) in Muzeina. Dermatoglyphic asymmetry and diversity traits may be due to environmental factors rather than dominance in Bedouins, although a little genetic effect was found suggests a measure of developmental instability in human (FA).
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Fingerprints patterns are the most useful tool for personal identification2. This technique is though conventional, it is reliable, and robust of all others. This technique is useful or establishing the identification of individuals both living and dead5. It is being widely used for criminal identification. The genetic influence of DNA has been well established2,3,4,9. In this an effort has been made to establish the influence of genetic factors in the occurrence of fingerprint patterns. Total number of samples considered in this study is 144. After a thorough systematic examination, it is found that there is a significant level of transmission of fingerprint patterns from parents to children. In this particular work, the incidence of the genetic influence of the fingerprint patterns has been studied in a small group of native Gujarati population. © 2015, Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. All rights reserved.
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A mother and her teenage son living in a house in remote area were not seen around for a week. The father of the lady living in adjoining area became suspicious and visited her house. He smelled stench emanating from the locked house and immediately informed the police. On reaching the spot, the police opened the locked door by taking out conventional metallic loop from the wooden door plank and found dead body of lady in a pool of blood on the floor while that of her son on the double bed. The scene of occurrence was examined for vital clues by the forensic experts after a week. The forensic investigators tried to establish linkages between the victim, suspect, crime scene and individual items as with any form of evidence. The presence of palm prints on the wall, blood streaks and spatters on the wall and blood droplets/drip pattern on the iron box (trunk) lying adjacent to the wall helped in knowing etiology of crime and led to conclude that the assailant had suffered an injury on his/her hand. On the basis of evidences, the forensic team advised the police to make search for suspect (s) and the police succeeded in arresting stepdaughter of the deceased who had suffered an injury on the thumb of left hand. Laboratory analysis of the forensic clues not only established the link of assailant to the scene of occurrence but also enabled Hon'ble court to convict the accused for committing double murder. © 2015, Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. All rights reserved.
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A teenage boy went to see a wrestling bout in nearby village and disappeared mysteriously. On presumption of death under suspicious circumstances, the parents lodged a complaint and a murder case was registered in police station under section 302, 34 IPC. The incidence caused lot of unrest and protesting villagers blocked roads. After about two weeks, the skeletal remains of a human body were found on the bank of Pong Dam Lake in Himachal Pradesh. The police visited the spot and collected the skeletal remains for post-mortem examination. After about two weeks of death, a team of forensic experts from RFSL, Dharamshala visited and scientifically examined the spot and skeletal remains kept in the mortuary, collected and photographed the clue materials/physical evidences. The skeletal remains were found nibbled by wild animals indicating that the body got exposed after water level at the dam receded. The wild animals attacked and nibbled the remains and gnawing marks were seen on bones, metatarsal and heel region. In the present case, diatom analysis, study of skeletal remains, hair and faecal matter examination and DNA fingerprinting was done to ascertain the real cause of death, age, sex and identity of the person. For establishing identity and estimating the age and sex from the skeletal remains, forensic experts examined the skull, mandible and maxilla for dental eruption, pelvis and long bones on the basis of osteological, anthroposcopic, morphological and anatomical examination/assessment and the remains were found to be of Homo sapiens (Human) which were morphologically and anatomically consistent with male individual under 18 years of age. For examining the drowning case, water sample, in which possible drowning took place and femur bone sample was used for detection of diatoms. Acid digestion test was used and a correlation was established between diatoms detected in water and bone sample indicated ante-mortem drowning. In DNA fingerprinting blood samples of the parents matched with the DNA extracted from the bones which proved identity. After morphological and microscopic examinations the black hair embedded in the soil and brown hair with animal droppings collected from the spot revealed that black hair were human head hair and animal dropping was a mixture of human and animal hair probing that some wild animal have eaten the body and passed the droppings.
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While reports of twin pairs concordant for insanity began to appear in the 19th century, the first modern psychiatric twin study that fulfilled Galton's 1875 promise of the value of the twin method was published by the German Psychiatrist and Geneticist Hans Luxenburger in 1928. Luxenburger introduced four major methodological advances: the use of representative sampling, proband-wise concordance, rigorous zygosity diagnoses, and age correction. He used a narrow Kraepelinian diagnostic approach diagnosis and ascertained twins hospitalized, on a specific day, in all large Bavarian asylums. We include a brief biography of Luxenburger, summarize the findings of his paper and provide a full English translation in the appendix. Luxenburger presents evidence that the frequency of twinning in those with severe mental illness were as expected and reports proband-wise concordance for probable and definite dementia praecox (MZ-76%, DZ-0%) and manic-depressive insanity (MZ-75%, DZ-0%). He also examined eccentricity and hyperthymic or hypothymic personality in the dementia praecox and manic-depressive pairs, respectively. Luxenburger's substantial contributions to the history of psychiatric genetics should be considered in the context of his intimate but ambivalent relationship with the racial-hygiene policy of the German National Socialists.
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This Article treats post-Daubert rulings on the admissibility of forensic fingerprint identification as a "demanding test" of the courts' ability to apply Daubert consistently and coherently. The article begins with a discussion of early admissibility decisions in the United States, beginning with People v. Jennings (1911). It shows that courts did not demand, and fingerprint experts did not provide, evidence of the reliability of forensic fingerprint identification. It argues that courts were seduced by the "fingerprint examiner's fallacy," in which the uniqueness of all human fingerprints is taken as evidence of the accuracy with which human fingerprint examiners could attribute crime-scene prints to their correct source fingers. This fallacy also pervades other forensic identification techniques. The article then shows that early post-Daubert decisions continued to avoid demanding validation of forensic fingerprint evidence. The main focus of the article is the two, highly publicized, Llera Plaza decisions, one restricting the admissibility of fingerprint evidence, the other reversing that decision ten weeks later. The article refutes a common mythology that the Llera Plaza court reversed itself based on "new evidence" and shows that the new evidence presented to the Liera Plaza court was alarming rather than reassuring. It concludes that Llera Plaza II actually reverted back to the pre-Daubert reasoning adopted in Jennings: fingerprint evidence is admitted because it is admitted in Britain. Finally, the article explores the paradox posed by the courts' own role in legitimating fingerprint evidence. Since fingerprint evidence has largely earned its legitimacy from legal acceptance, rather than scientific validation, courts are put in a difficult position when asked to rule on its admissibility. This is a problem that also exists for other forensic identification techniques.
Chapter
Dermal ridge differentiation takes place early in fetal development. The resulting ridge configurations are genetically determined and influenced (or modified) by environmental forces. There is a paucity of knowledge concerning the developmental mechanism that determines ultimate epidermal ridge patterns but a relationship to the fetal volar pads clearly exists because ridge patterns form at the sites of these pads.
Chapter
While the term dermatoglyphics was coined by Cummins and Midlo in 1926, interest in the papillary ridges and their patterns extend back to antiquity. Since time immemorial man has been fascinated and intrigued by finger and palm print patterns (Cummins 1930). Bartsokas (1982) introduced the term “Paleodermatoglyphics” to describe the early evidence of finger and palm print utilization. A number of archaeological findings suggest that the ancient Greeks were so fascinated by the prints of the dermal ridges that they believed that the stars contributed to the formation of the palm prints, which in turn determined the destiny of the individual (Bartsokas 1982). Artifacts from other global localities indicated that the ancient Greeks were not alone in their fascination of the finger prints. An excellent treatise on the early history of finger printing is given by Moenssens (1971).
Article
SUMMARY Hereditary factors involved in the determination of the size, relative position and type of pattern formed by the dermal ridges in the interdigital areas of the palm have been investigated by means of twin and family studies. The sample consisted of 566 individuals of European descent. The ridge-counts of patterns in the interdigital areas were determined. Correction factors were introduced to compensate for different average counts in each interdigital area. The correlation coefficients between family relatives were calculated using the ridge-counts. The coefficient for monozygotic twins was .88±.04 and for parent and child from .346 to .425 and for sib pairs from .328 to .412. There was no evidence of sex-linkage or of the effects of dominance. Variation appeared to be determined by additive genes but an appreciable amount of variation of non-genetic origin was observed. Bilateral asymmetry in the ridge-count, type of pattern and relative position of the patterns was evident. Concordance rates in twins and other family members and pedigree data provided further evidence of hereditary influence in the determination of the position and type of pattern in the interdigital areas.
Article
We have studied, in this work, environmental variability in twins, including the influence of age on the morphological and functional, physical and psychical characteristics. I. Morphological Characteristics 1. For anthropometric measurements, most of the measurements of the cranium and of body lenght reveal a relatively high similarity between MZ twins, i. e. a high hereditary conditioning and low environmental influence. Most measurements of body volume and weight indicate instead a wider percentile intra-pair difference in MZ twins, indicating higher environmental susceptibility. Among constitutional indexes, Pignet-Vervaecksche's index appears to undergo the highest hereditary conditioning.2. The heart, the first section of the aorta, the lungs, thorax and stomach were examined radioscopically. Their shapes appeared largely conditioned by heredity. Their measurements (obtained by telefilms) are, in part, conditioned by heredity.3. The vessels of the retina and the capillaries of the skin are also conditioned by heredity.4. Finger and palm ridges clearly show similarity in MZ twins. Examining MZ twins belonging to different age groups we have found that similarity of finger ridges was higher in MZs between 6 and 8 years of age than in later age groups.5. As for blood cells, their size is largely conditioned by heredity, but also highly susceptible to environmental influences. The Hemogram and the Elmonogram of the leucocytes are, to a certain degree, conditioned by heredity. No clear appraisal could be made of the influence of heredity on the blood platelets count and on the reticulocytes. II. Functional Characteristics 6. Body function as a whole.
Chapter
Bisher betrachteten wir im wesentlichen das Verhalten alternativer Merkmalsunterschiede zwischen verschiedenen Menschen, die sich entsprechenden Unterschieden in den Erbanlagen eindeutig zuordnen ließen. Dabei taten wir so, als ob das Merkmal unmittelbar mit der Erbanlage zusammenhinge; fast möchte man sagen, wir identifizierten beide miteinander. Vor allem im Kapitel über die Zwillingsforschung jedoch wurde uns klar, daß diese einfache Beziehung nicht in jedem Fall zutreffen kann. Wir sahen, daß es Faktoren gibt, die Einfluß darauf haben, ob und wie sich Erbanlagen manifestieren, und wir erkannten die Aufgabe, diese Faktoren mit Hilfe der Analyse diskordanter eineiiger Zwillingspaare näher kennenzulernen.
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The article compares the dermatoglyphic finger ridge counts of Igbo and Okrika people of Southern Nigeria
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Background: The term dermatoglyphics is coined from two Greek words `DERMA` and `GLYPHE` which means skin and carve respectively, which refer to the friction ridge formation that appears on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Dermatoglyphics has found application in establishing ethnic differences. Finger ridge counts are important for identification of an individual’s true identity. There is dearth of information on the Finger Ridge Counts of the Igbos’ and Okrikas’ in Southern Nigeria. Aim and Objective: This study was aimed at determining the Finger Ridge Counts of the Igbos’ and Okirikas’ in Southern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was non-experimental and analytical. A total of two hundred subjects were used for the study. 100 Igbos and 100 Okrikas, all of which were normal subjects. These subjects were randomly selected through simple random sampling method from Igbo and Okrika Population. One–way Anova test was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 version). Result and Discussions: The test of significance revealed significant differences between the distribution of Right ring finger and Left little finger of Igbo and Okrika subjects (P<0.05). The study showed in the distribution of the ridges amongst the Igbos where the males had higher distributions than the female subjects consistently. In the Okrika population, sexual dimorphism was not prominent as was seen in the Igbo population.On comparison the Igbos had higher mean ridge count in the ridge distribution than Okrikas which may be attributed to the difference in genetic make-up of both tribes. The ADT angles revealed that the Okrikas’ had higher values than the Igbos consistently in both sexes which could be explained to be a result of difference in the genetic make-up of both tribes. Conclusion: This study established handedness, sexual dimorphism in ridge distribution, a trend in the ADT angular dimensions of the hand and revealed that both tribes are distinct and unique in their genetic makeup as such are unrelated by any means in their ancestry and the little similarity in the ridge distribution could only have occurred by chance.
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This research was aimed at comparing the Digital Patterns of the Igbos' and Okirikas' in Southern Nigeria. The study was done between 2014 and 2015 in University of Port Harcourt. Non-experimental analytical study design; 200 subjects were used for the study. 100 subjects were Igbos and other 100 were Okrika with age between 18-60yrs, all of which were normal subjects. These subjects were randomly selected through simple random sampling method from Igbo and Okrika Population. Chi square test analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 version). Igbos' had the following results: Arch 9.1%, Ulnar Loop 57.4%, Radial Loop 3.3%, Whorl 30.2% whereas Okrikas' had Arch 10.3%, Ulnar Loop 58.0%, Radial Loop 4.4%, Whorl 27.3%. The test differences in patterns for digits of Igbo and Okrika subjects according to the result shown indicated that there is no form of relationship between the two tribes under study (P>0.05). The study established a characteristic digital pattern for both tribes. The result of the study also suggests that both tribes are distinct and unique in their genetic makeup as such are unrelated by any means in their ancestry.
Article
Full-text available
This research was aimed at comparing the Digital Patterns of the Igbos' and Okirikas' in Southern Nigeria. The study was done between 2014 and 2015 in University of Port Harcourt. Non-experimental analytical study design; 200 subjects were used for the study. 100 subjects were Igbos and other 100 were Okrika with age between 18-60yrs, all of which were normal subjects. These subjects were randomly selected through simple random sampling method from Igbo and Okrika Population. Chi square test analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 version). Igbos' had the following results: Arch 9.1%, Ulnar Loop 57.4%, Radial Loop 3.3%, Whorl 30.2% whereas Okrikas' had Arch 10.3%, Ulnar Loop 58.0%, Radial Loop 4.4%, Whorl 27.3%. The test differences in patterns for digits of Igbo and Okrika subjects according to the result shown indicated that there is no form of relationship between the two tribes under study (P>0.05). The study established a characteristic digital pattern for both tribes. The result of the study also suggests that both tribes are distinct and unique in their genetic makeup as such are unrelated by any means in their ancestry.
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Background The past three decades have seen palmistry as an interface to human health. There have been no previously organized attempts in utilizing this knowledge to predict the state of disease. Objective Due to unavailability of any biological marker for diagnosing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) till date, we attempt to examine whether palmistry could be used for detecting the onset and survival of patient suffering from ALS. Methods Patients suffering from ALS attending the neurology outpatient department at Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, India were selected for study. Palm photographs were obtained from all patients including controls after their consent. Patients suffering from other comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, migraine, as well as smokers and nonsmokers were included in the study. Twenty-six ALS patients, 30 neurological controls, and 34 healthy age matched controls were recruited in the study. Retrospective analysis of the palm pictures based on blinding method was performed by academically qualified palmists. Results The results demonstrated the need for further studies in the subject even though the observations made were independent by both the palmists. Conclusion This study opens new vistas for cheiromancy to be further explored for analysis in larger samples.
Article
This paper offers a historical reconstruction of the efforts to geneticize fingerprints, focusing on the theories put forward by the Norwegian biologist Kristine Bonnevie. The criminological and colonial roots of the preoccupation with fingerprints led to the creation of huge catalogues of fingerprints, which later became the starting point of Bonnevie's analysis. Building on insights she gained from her studies on the inheritance of human pathologies, Bonnevie insisted that all ten fingers exhibited varying manifestations of a single, underlying genotypic design. In 1923-4, she identified several theoretical genes that presumably constituted this hypothetical genotypic finger; five years later she revised her theory in light of a series of embryological dissections she conducted. Her new theory was adopted by German jurists, doctors and racial-anthropologists who relied on it to determine legal questions of disputed paternity. The extensive application of Bonnevie's genetic theory also exposed its deficiencies, and by the late 1950s her model was abandoned. At the same time, one of the most important genetic variables that Bonnevie discovered (or, invented) entered mainline genetic theory, and is still being used to this very day. The paper examines these developments, highlighting the multiple and complex relations between scientific theory building, practical considerations related to the gathering and processing of data, and social, racial and gender biases that shaped the process of "Mendelization" of finger print patterns.
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p>Fingerprints have been the gold standard for personal identification within the forensic community for more than one hundred years. It is still universal in spite of discovery of DNA fingerprint. The science of fingerprint identification has evolved over time from the early use of finger prints to mark business transactions in ancient Babylonia to their use today as core technology in biometric security devices and as scientific evidence in courts of law throughout the world. The science of fingerprints, dactylography or dermatoglyphics, had long been widely accepted, and well acclaimed and reputed as panacea for individualization, particularly in forensic investigations. Human fingerprints are detailed, unique, difficult to alter, and durable over the life of an individual, making them suitable as lifelong markers of human identity. Fingerprints can be readily used by police or other authorities to identify individuals who wish to conceal their identity, or to identify people who are incapacitated or deceased, as in the aftermath of a natural disaster J Enam Med Col 2017; 7(1): 29-34</p
The Patterns ill Thumb-and Finger-Marks 1890. -- I~inger Prints. London, 1892The Patterns in Thumb-and Finger-MarksPl~lltS of Scars Fhlgel -Prints of Young Children
GALTON, FR. "The Patterns ill Thumb-and Finger-Marks." Prec. Roy. Soc. London, Vol. xLvm. 1890. -- I~inger Prints. London, 1892. -"The Patterns in Thumb-and Finger-Marks." Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Vol. onxxxcg. 1892. -- IPinger-print Directories. London, 1895. -"Pl~lltS of Scars." Nature, Vol. urn 1896. - ' Fhlgel -Prints of Young Children." Rep. E~'it. Assoc. Dover 1899, 1900.
Note sur les monvements des doigts
T. 60, 1906. --"Note sur les monvements des doigts." Ibid. T. 60, 1906.
l)ber das Leisgellrelief der I:[ohlhalld-u. FllSSsohlell-Fl~ohe der I:[~lb~ffell
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Bd. 33-34, 1905a. "l)ber das Leisgellrelief der I:[ohlhalld-u. FllSSsohlell-Fl~ohe der I:[~lb~ffell,
Bcih'. znr KemltlfiSs des l~eliefs der Plt~llt~ der Pl'imt~ten 11. der i[V~ellSOllell-r~ssen
"Bcih'. znr KemltlfiSs des l~eliefs der Plt~llt~ der Pl'imt~ten 11. der i[V~ellSOllell-r~ssen." 6rorr. blatt d. Deutsch. Anthrop. Gesellsch. No. 10, 1905c. "Zm" ~orphologie d. PMm~ n. Plant,~ der Vorderindier n. Ceyloner." Zeitschr.
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Note sin' 13 Sensibilit6 de la Pnlpe des DoigtsDes Empreintes digitaIes dans l'~tnde des fonetions de la MainDes Empreintes digitMes darts l%tnde des aptitudes fonetionnelles de lal~IMn
T. 29, 1893. --"Note sin' 13 Sensibilit6 de la Pnlpe des Doigts." C. R. Noc. Biol. T. 47, 1895. - "Des Empreintes digitaIes dans l'~tnde des fonetions de la Main." Ibid. T. 48, 1896. -"Des Empreintes digitMes darts l%tnde des aptitudes fonetionnelles de lal~IMn." Ibid. T. 50, ]898. - "Note sin' les Empreintes de la Panme de la Main et de la Plante dn Pied." Ibid.
Notes sin' les Mains et les Empreintes DigitMesLes lignes papillMres de la Pannle de la MMnLes Empreintes digitMes dans plnsiem's groupes de psyehopathes
T. 52, 1900. -"Notes sin' les Mains et les Empreintes DigitMes." Journ. de l'Anat, et de la Phys. T. 36, 1900. --"Les lignes papillMres de la Pannle de la MMn." Ibid. T. 36, 1900. -"Les Empreintes digitMes dans plnsiem's groupes de psyehopathes." Ibid. T. 41, 1905. - "L~ w6eision du mouvement sons l'inflnenee des exeitatiotm." C. ~. Noc. Biol.
A1]leltllllg ZlU' Allfll~llme veil I-I~11d-u. FllSSt~bdri~.okell
  • Beoba
Beoba, ohtllllgsblt~tt 11. A1]leltllllg ZlU' Allfll~llme veil I-I~11d-u. FllSSt~bdri~.okell."
Beitr. znr Anatoniie der Oberhaut
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BLASOnKO, A. "Beitr. znr Anatoniie der Oberhaut." Arch. milcr. A~,al,. Bd. 30, 1897.
Uber Zwillingsfoi'schung a]s Hilfsmittel menschl. Ei'bkunde
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Versuch einer mathematischen Theorie der Hautleistenfiguren der Primaten-Palma u
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Af~'~011 11. l~ensOheln.'r ~T~eD~
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The Papillary Ridges and Papillary Layer of the Cerium in the Mamlnalian Hand and Foot -- The Sense of Touch in Mammals and Birds, with Especial Reference to Papillary t~idges
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