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Man's Search for Meaning An Introduction to Logotherapv

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... One of the first social scientists to investigate the role of purpose in living a meaningful life was Viktor Frankl, an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist, who survived four Nazi concentration camps during the Second World War. Frankl entered his first concentration camp with a book manuscript hidden in the lining of his coat, outlining his fundamental premises of Logotherapy which focuses on helping people find meaning and purpose in their lives (Frankl, 1946(Frankl, /1986(Frankl, , 1959Viktor Frankl Institute, 2021). ...
... Camp prisoners who exhibited a future orientation, whether it was to complete a meaningful goal or to be reunited with a loved one, were most likely to endure the horrors of the camps (Frankl, 1946(Frankl, /1986. Moreover, Frankl's emphasis on personal agency or an individual's freedom to choose their own attitude in any given situation, and to create meaning out of suffering provided a path to persevere through even the most inhumane of conditions (Frankl, 1959). Frankl's concept of a will to meaning postulates that a person's desire to give meaning to their life serves as a motivating force to actualize values that bring out the best in oneself and the world around them, in other words, to live a purposeful life (Frankl, 1959;Viktor Frankl Institute, 2021). ...
... Moreover, Frankl's emphasis on personal agency or an individual's freedom to choose their own attitude in any given situation, and to create meaning out of suffering provided a path to persevere through even the most inhumane of conditions (Frankl, 1959). Frankl's concept of a will to meaning postulates that a person's desire to give meaning to their life serves as a motivating force to actualize values that bring out the best in oneself and the world around them, in other words, to live a purposeful life (Frankl, 1959;Viktor Frankl Institute, 2021). Recent conceptualizations of purpose move beyond an internal meaning orientation or will to meaning (Frankl, 1959) and further characterize purpose as an external quest to make a difference in the world (Damon et al., 2003). ...
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Youth purpose was investigated using a two-phase embedded design with youth participating in Scouts BSA ( N = 3,943), ages 9–20 ( M = 14.0, SD = 1.9). Participating Scouts were mostly White (91%) and male (98%). In Phase 1, we conducted a two-step cluster analysis on Scouts’ survey responses to three purpose dimensions (personal meaning, goal-directedness, beyond-the-self orientation). Four clusters emerged: Purposeful, Explorers, Dreamers, Nonpurposeful. In Phase 2, we explored qualities of purpose within each cluster and programmatic features and relationships within the scouting context fostering youth purpose with a Scout subsample ( N = 30) who completed semi-structured interviews. Results demonstrated that adults supporting scouting, inspiration from older peers, and opportunities to help others and explore new activities supported youth purpose.
... It finds reflections in Seligman's [20] model of happiness approaches for a meaningful and purposeful life as one of three ways to achieve subjective well-being. Additionally, in Frankl's conception [21] finding meaning in life facilitates fulfillment and satisfaction. ...
... Meaning in life seems to buffer the influence of the risks of alcohol and drug abuse and is an important factor facilitating recovery from addiction. Use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, as well as involvement in other compulsive behaviours such as surfing the internet, gambling, and sex activity, can be a way to cope with the "existential vacuum" as a state of feeling of meaninglessness, hopelessness, senselessness, boredom, and anhedonia [21], leading to dependency. Researchers have indicated that the problem with finding purpose and meaning in life is related to alcohol use [45], substance use [46], alcohol and drug abuse [47][48][49][50], sedative use [51], smartphone and internet addiction [52,53], gambling [54], as well as substantially higher likelihood of future drug misuse [55]. ...
... Existing research has confirmed that Frankl's tragic optimism [21] could be used as an explanatory symbol of recovery for individuals with alcohol dependence participating in AA. Representatives of this group have found themselves in tragic situations because of their alcohol dependence, yet are able to transform their circumstances into something meaningful despite pain and suffering, finding that life has meaning and purpose, and fostering and maintaining hope. ...
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Involvement in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an important psychosocial factor for the recovery of alcohol-dependent individuals. Recent studies have confirmed the beneficial role of involvement in AA for abstinence and reduction in drinking alcohol. Little is known about the mechanism underlying the relationship between involvement in AA and subjective well-being. This study aims to verify whether in a sample of Polish AA participants involvement in AA is indirectly related to subjective well-being through existential well-being consisting of hope and meaning in life. The achieved results have confirmed that involvement in AA is positively related to existential well-being, which in turn positively predicts subjective well-being including life satisfaction as well as positive and negative affect. It was confirmed that AA involvement in self-help groups indirectly via existential well-being is related to subjective well-being. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
... Research on MIL has surged over the past two decades, generating diverse conceptual models and definitions along with various assessment tools. For example, Frankl's theory of logotherapy (Frankl, 1959) suggests three pathways for discovering or creating MIL using the framework of the "meaning triangle": the creative, experiential, and attitudinal pathways. Instruments such as the Purpose in Life Test (Crumbaugh and Maholick, 1964) and the Life Purpose Questionnaire (Hutzell, 1989) have been utilized to assess logotherapy-related concepts. ...
... The original MIL-CQ has its foundation in Frankl's (1959) "meaning triangle" pathways, namely, creative, experiential, and attitudinal. These pathways have been utilized in intervention protocols with both children and adults dealing with mental health difficulties or challenging life events such as severe physical illness (Greenstein and Breitbart, 2000;Kang et al., 2013), as well as a wide range of cognitive, interpersonal, behavioral, and emotional experiences related to meaning in daily life in a relatively concrete manner (Shoshani and Russo-Netzer, 2017). ...
... To the authors' knowledge, the only scale available for measuring MIL in children in South Korea is the Meaning of Life Scale (Kang et al., 2007). Like the original MIL-CQ, this scale, developed for higher-grade elementary school students (grades 4-6), is based on Frankl's (1959) conceptual framework of logotherapy. However, the Meaning of Life Scale comprises 24 items with five sub-factors (i.e., relational experience, positive attitude, satisfaction/hope, pursuit of goals, and experience of family love). ...
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Meaning in life (MIL) has been widely recognized as a hallmark of psychological well-being and positive youth development. The goal of this study was to validate the Korean version of the Meaning in Life in Children Questionnaire (K-MIL-CQ) utilizing the framework suggested by the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Data were obtained from 277 fifth graders aged 10–11 in three elementary schools in Seoul and Gyeonggi through a paper-and-pencil survey (55.2% boys). We translated the MIL-CQ, a 21-item self-report measure developed based on Frankl’s “meaning triangle,” into Korean. Psychological well-being measures were also assessed. Validity and reliability data were collected. (1) The content of domains and items was appropriate for measuring MIL among children. (2) A three-factor model consisting of attitude, creativity, and experience pathways was extracted via exploratory factor analysis, and a three-factor hierarchical model including attitude, creativity, and experience as first-order factors and MIL as a second-order factor was confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis. (3) Higher levels of MIL were related to higher levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, positive affectivity, and lower levels of negative affectivity. (4) All item fit statistics were acceptable based on the Rasch model. (5) The analysis of the measurement invariance of each item showed that the responses to one item varied by gender, suggesting that additional items might facilitate better measurement of MIL in children. This study provides validity and reliability evidence that K-MIL-CQ is appropriate for measuring MIL among South Korean elementary school students.
... Although the need to find meaning in life is a fundamental and universal motivation in human existence (e.g., Frankl, 1959), its manifestation may vary across cultures and life stages. During childhood, as language develops, one of the first questions children ask is "why?"-in order to comprehend themselves and the world around them. ...
... A recent study provides evidence for the effect of meaning in life on the well-being of 1,957 elementary-school children, ages 9-12, through the development and validation of the Meaning in Life in Children Questionnaire (MIL-CQ), a new measure to assess the presence and sources of meaning in the lives of children. It is based on Viktor Frankl's concept of the "meaning triangle" (Frankl, 1959), which claims that children's sources of meaning revolve around three main dimensions: (1) Creativity-what individuals give to the world in terms of their creations, or children's capability to contribute and make a difference in their surroundings; (2) Experience-what the individual takes from the world in terms of experiences and encounters, or a sense of inspiration and connection to the world around them (e.g., nature, art, relationships) and to meaningful relationships; and (3) Attitude or taking a stand-the manner in which children approach unavoidable challenges in life. Using this scale, it was found that children's level of meaning in life was positively associated with their life satisfaction and positive affectivity (i.e., higher positive emotions and lower negative emotions) and negatively associated with social and emotional difficulties (Shoshani & Russo-Netzer, 2017). ...
... This section presents a proposed model that considers meaning as an organizing framework for education, based on insights gained from a meaning-oriented program designed for elementary and high-school students-the Meaning Detectives Program (Russo-Netzer, in progress). Its underlying integrative foundation is comprised of two main conceptual frames: Frankl's (1959) meaning triangle (i.e., creative, experiential, attitudinal) and the tripartite model of meaning in life (i.e., the components of coherence, significance, and purpose; George & Park, 2016;Martela & Steger, 2016). Building on Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological system theory of development, which refers to the significance of observing human wholeness through the different areas of development in which individuals act and live, the present model considers both individual psychological and contextual factors. ...
Article
Education is among the most powerful gateways to social change and mobility. It is also a potentially vital backbone for the development of young people’s sense of meaning, purpose, and responsibility, enhancing their ability to face the unique challenges of our volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) world. The global scale of the current wave of political and social changes heightens the need for a renewed examination of the educational system and its challenges. This paper asserts the importance of education for meaning and meaningful education as essential ingredients in preparing children and adolescents for the changing and uncertain world of the future. Yet meaning in life, which is almost unanimously recognized as a fundamental component of subjective well-being, has received little attention in education. This paper considers empirical evidence of the importance of meaning to the education and healthy development of children and adolescents and then proposes a heuristic model for intervention.
... Freud (1920a) has seen a link between the Thanatos instinct and the traumatic experiences of individuals, which underscores the social context of suicide. Frankl (1992) maintains that the will to live and the choices an individual make are primarily influenced by social and environmental factors, shaping the June Recoletos Multidisciplinar y Research Journal ultimate desire to survive or surrender to Thanatos. Durkheim (1951) emphasizes the social causation of suicide, arguing that sociological and psychological components should be among the focal points in the study of suicide. ...
... " The stigma attached to it is far from that of natural death or death through sickness (Serani, 2013), as survivors have become firmly held accountable (Harvard Health Publishing, 2019). Since parents, friends, and guidance counselors are recognized as social support at the early stage of developing and re-developing suicide (Canubida et al., 2017), the former, along with spouses, are the ones who typically take the blame and guilt for the issue of suicide mediation 177 2022 despite the manifestations of outside influences that are beyond parental and spousal controls in conjunction with the personal responsibility and decision of the lost loved one for their actions (Frankl, 1992;Jackson, 2003). Indeed, being left behind by a loved one to suicide is devastating as pain is, to some extent, excruciatingly triplicated. ...
... Freud (1920a) highlighted the importance of a healthy family environment so that life, rather than death, would become the primary option even in times of crisis. Frankl (1992) viewed the enabling social environment as crucial to individuals' ultimate choices. Better social conditions influenced excellent choices in life that shielded individuals from meaninglessness and absurdity (Camus, 1991;Hobbes, 1994;Jackson, 2003;Mill, 2017;Rousseau, 2017). ...
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The study is descriptive qualitative research that illustrates the circumstances and new dynamics contributing to the never-ending suicide occurrences. It described first-hand real-life experiences of the suicide-loss survivors to determine the contexts, reasons, and implications of suicide and recommend community-based intervention strategies. Purposive-criterion and convenient sampling methods were used to determine the respondents. Focused group discussion and in-depth interviews were conducted to gather data analyzed using Braun & Clarke’s six-phase guide. The findings revealed that the life experiences of the respondents are characterized by regret, pain, and bereavement. Suicides were committed due to dysfunctional families, economic hardships, breakdown of relationships, and drug abuse. The pain of suicide affected both the victim and their survivors and occurs within the psychosocial sphere. Interventions should therefore employ a familial, communitarian, and inter-institutional approach. Local Government Units (LGUs) are recommended to initiate a reach-out community-based suicide intervention program and debriefing services.
... As part of the GENIAL 'individual domain', we draw upon two key exemplars for a balanced mindgratitude, reflecting a life orientation of general appreciation (Wood et al., 2010), and optimism, reflecting a life orientation of positive future expectancies (Carver & Scheier, 2014). In this paper, we will focus on the existential version of optimism, referred to as tragic optimism (Frankl, 1984;Wong et al., 2002). Gratitude has been shown to provide a protective mechanism after trauma (Vieselmeyer et al., 2017), likely due to 'deliberate rumination', referring to the cognitive effort that grateful people exert when assessing their life circumstances (Chun & Lee, 2013;Kim & Bae, 2019) and subsequent positive reappraisal (Cárdenas Castro et al., 2019). ...
... By contrast, tragic optimism overcomes 'toxic positivity', by retaining the beauty of optimism while accepting hardship and suffering (Volpe, 2021). Tragic optimism is underpinned by the acceptance of life's adversities and finding meaning in them (Frankl, 1984). Interestingly, evidence has highlighted the importance of both acceptance coping and meaning-making processes in facilitating PTG (Jordan et al., 2020;Prati & Pietrantoni, 2009;Wang et al., 2016;Zeligman et al., 2018). ...
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COVID-19 presented a major societal challenge including threat to life, bereavement, self-isolation, loss of income and significant psychological distress. Yet, it is possible that such suffering may also lead to post-traumatic growth (PTG) and subsequent wellbeing. The current study aimed to investigate the contributors to PTG and whether PTG mediated their relationship with wellbeing, measured using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. In a cross-sectional sample of 136 participants (mean age = 30.52; SD = 13.80), a hierarchical regression and mediation analysis was conducted, focusing on physical activity, gratitude, tragic optimism, social support, and nature connection, guided by our recently published ‘GENIAL’ framework (Mead, Fisher, & Kemp, 2021). The regression analysis highlighted that our variables predicted up to 18% of the variance in PTG, whilst controlling for age, gender and subjective social status, with gratitude and nature connection being key predictors – indicating the importance of these factors over and above previously reported contributors to PTG, such as social support. Our findings provide new evidence on the drivers of PTG and raise important questions concerning the relationship between the related constructs of PTG and wellbeing. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... Experiences in nature have emerged as a significant source of meaning (O'Connor & Chamberlain 1996). Viktor Frankl (1959) wrote of experiences of beauty-including natural beauty-as being one pathway to meaning in life. Yet, that pathway is being increasingly blocked. ...
... For example, it has been posited that connecting with nature embeds us more deeply into the existence of life beyond the course of our single lifetime (Berger, 1980), and, as such, we create a concept of a postself that lives on through the cosmos itself (Pienaar, 2011;Shneidman, 1995). Frankl (1959) provided us with a poignant example of this in his description of the solace one woman in a Nazi concentration death-camp gained from the view of a single branch of a chestnut tree on which there were two buds: "It said to her: I am here-I am here-I am life, eternal life" (p. 78). ...
... The pursuit of meaning in life was viewed by Frankl (1963) as an innate desire to live according to values in a meaningful manner. He believed that meaning was found in creativity, interpersonal relations, and the endurance of suffering. ...
Chapter
Psychology is concerned with human behaviour, therefore all psychologies are contextually-embedded and culturally informed. A movement towards globalising psychology would invariably diminish the localised socio-cultural situatedness of psychology, and instead seek to advance a dominant Euro-American centred psychology even in regions where such applications do not fit. The emergence of strong voices, and theoretically grounded and empirically supported positions from the global South in general and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, in studies of well-being allows for the opportunity to explore and describe an Africa(n) centred positive psychology. Acknowledging the limitations of cross-cultural psychological approaches, which have encouraged the uncritical transportation of Euro-American centred concepts and values, in this chapter we utilise assumptions from critical, cultural and African psychology to present our initial thoughts about a culturally embedded, socially relevant and responsive, and context respecting Africa(n) centred positive psychology. This challenge warrants consideration of early contributions to the study of well-being, its current data-driven positivist tendency, as well as African worldviews grounded in interdependence, collectivism, relatedness, harmony with nature, and spirituality. For an Africa(n) centred positive psychology, it is also essential to consider questions of epistemology, ways of knowing about the world and the human condition, context respecting knowledge, and theory building. Drawing on current scholarly evidence in sub-Saharan Africa, which emphasises relationality and societal values and norms shaping experiences of well-being, we propose future directions and discuss implications for empirical research and theory building within positive psychology which seeks to centre Africa and African experiences.
... Sentido de la vida Frankl (2007), fundador de la logoterapia: experimentar el sentido de la vida (SV) es la principal motivación del ser humano: ...
... The pursuit of meaning in life was viewed by Frankl (1963) as an innate desire to live according to values in a meaningful manner. He believed that meaning was found in creativity, interpersonal relations, and the endurance of suffering. ...
Chapter
Harmony is recognized as fundamental to being and functioning well in philosophical traditions and empirical research globally and in Africa. The aim of this study was to explore and describe harmony as a quality of happiness in South Africa (N = 585) and Ghana (N = 420). Using a qualitative descriptive research design, participants’ responses to an open-ended question from the Eudaimonic-Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI, Delle Fave et al., Soc Indic Res 100:185–207, 2011) on what happiness meant to them were coded according to the formalized EHHI coding manual. Responses that were assigned any of the following codes were considered: codes from the “harmony/balance” category in the “psychological definitions” life domain; and codes from any other life domain containing the words “harmony”, “balance”, or “peace”. This resulted in 222 verbatim responses from South Africa and 80 from Ghana that were analyzed using content analysis to get a sense of the experiential texture of harmony as a quality of happiness. Findings showed that happiness was often expressed as harmony and balance within and between intrapersonal, interpersonal, transcendental, and universal levels of functioning, with wholeness, interconnectedness, and synergy implied. These findings, resonating with philosophical reflections on harmony from Africa and elsewhere, suggest that harmony as a quality of happiness is essentially holistic and contextually embedded and that context-sensitive interdisciplinary approaches to theory building and intervention development pertaining to harmony are needed locally and globally.
... The pursuit of meaning in life was viewed by Frankl (1963) as an innate desire to live according to values in a meaningful manner. He believed that meaning was found in creativity, interpersonal relations, and the endurance of suffering. ...
Chapter
Positive mental health, and the validity of its assessment instruments, are largely unexplored in the Ghanaian context. This study examined the factor structure of the Twi version of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form and explored the prevalence of positive mental health in a sample of rural Ghanaian adults (N = 444). A bifactor exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) model fit the data better than competing models (confirmatory factor analysis [CFA], bifactor CFA, and ESEM models). We found a high omega reliability coefficient for the general positive mental health factor (ω = .97) and marginal reliability scores for the emotional (ω = .51) and social well-being (ω = .57) subscales, but a low reliability score for the psychological well-being subscale (ω = .41). Findings support the existence of a general mental health factor, and confirm the underlying three-dimensional structure of mental health, but suggest that caution should be applied when interpreting subscale scores, especially for the psychological well-being subscale. Based on Keyes’s criteria for the categorical diagnosis of the presence of positive mental health, 25.5% of the sample were flourishing, with 74.5% functioning at suboptimal levels (31.1% languishing, 41.4% with moderate mental health) and may benefit from contextually relevant positive psychological interventions, which may also buffer against psychopathology.
... The definition of meaning in life varies considerably across the field, ranging from personal coherence (Battista & Almond, 1973;Reker& Wong, 1988) to goal-directedness or purposefulness (e.g., Ryff& Singer, 1998) are predictable and conform to recognizable patterns enabling an individual to plan the systematic way they can respond to them beginningat the discrete level of moment-to-moment experiences, . The other construct of meaning of life is that meaning arises when believe that they have a clear purpose in life, a perspective inspired by Victor Frankl (1963). Purpose can be having direction on how to go about with ones life, have future-oriented goals in life, believe that they are born with a purpose in this world, they are living a life which is useful to them and others, have a feeling of continuous progression in life and their achievements is going to make life better for themselves and others.The third important construct of meaning in life is associated with how much a person evaluates his life as a valuable one based on how important they feels about themselves, how confident they are that they are living an worth while life and how they value their self worth Similarly, there are many different viewpoints on how to find meaning in life. ...
... The pursuit of meaning in life was viewed by Frankl (1963) as an innate desire to live according to values in a meaningful manner. He believed that meaning was found in creativity, interpersonal relations, and the endurance of suffering. ...
Chapter
Child marriage has been identified as a violation of human rights and an obstacle to promoting the development goals concerning gender, health and education. All these impacts undermine the development of the girl child. Despite the potential for negative outcomes, the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic resources can buffer the adverse effects (e.g., psychological, physical and economic impact) of early marriage. This study employed a qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore and describe protective resources utilised by married girls in the Northern region of Ghana to cope with the challenges in their marriage and to promote positive outcomes. Using semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 21 married girls who were aged between 12 and 19 years. Findings, from a thematic analysis of data, showed that intrinsic resources that promoted positive outcomes included possession of resilience attitudes, the use of help-seeking and active coping, and in some instances avoidance coping for problems they perceived as unsolvable. Extrinsic resources included interpersonal support networks, however, participants reported limited access to community and NGO support, which were also identified as protective resources. Policy makers and clinicians should consider a social justice approach in evaluating and recommending protective resources to girls in early marriages when working to promote their well-being. In so doing, attention should be placed on making external support systems accessible to married girls.
... Some psychotherapists took a more benevolent and, at times, embracing stance towards religions, valuing it as part of a meaning-making process (Frankl, 1962), a broader understanding of what it means to be human (Gantt & Melling, 2009), or a mystic experience linked to a collective unconscious (Jung, 1938). In addition, the field of western psychology and psychotherapy has more recently been pervaded by an increasing interest in spirituality and mystical experiences (Black, 2006;Epstein, 2007). ...
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Standardisation of knowledge has become a by-product of globalisation, and western based models are often seen as the ultimate answer to expertise and development. In light of this, some professionals have debated the feasibility of employing cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with Muslim communities. Debates have focused on CBT's secular roots and its compatibility with a world where Islam permeates most aspects of life. This article highlights some of the theoretical dilemmas of integration and suggests ways to bridge the existing gap between secular and Islamic literature and avoid alienating those individuals who might feel uncomfortable with secular CBT teachings.
... We also presume that there is an indirect effect of self-consciousness on PPG through pandemic anxiety, because it concerns a threat to health and life, and therefore it is an additional factor motivating changes to the way of perceiving oneself and the world. Referring to the existential perspective, fear (including the fear of death) can have a positive impact on the thoughts, attitudes and behavior of people (Dąbrowski, 1979;Frankl, 1959). ...
... The concept of meaning in life is the individuals' perception of their self-existence and importance, as well as their understanding, the pursuit of their purpose, and the value of life (Heintzelman and King, 2016). Frankl (1963) believed that the pursuit of the sense of meaning of life is a natural psychological process found in everyone and is the most basic primitive motivation of humankind. According to the meaningmaking model proposed by Park and George (2013), beliefs constitute the core schema of individuals' interpretation of life experience, which form an essential basis for individuals to develop their own unique and relatively stable experience of the meaning of life. ...
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Mental toughness is an essential component of adolescent athletes' athletic careers and lives. Evidence supports the positive effect of belief in a just world on individual psychological development, but the relationship between belief in a just world and mental toughness of adolescents has not been tested. In order to determine the influencing factors of mental toughness and explore effective strategies for improving adolescent athletes' mental toughness, this study introduced just world and life meaning theories to explore the relationship between belief in a just world, meaning in life (search for meaning/presence of meaning), and mental toughness. Based on the data of 1,544 adolescent athletes from Yantai and Qingdao in Shandong Province, China, we tested a parallel mediation model that considered the search for meaning and presence of meaning as mediators. The results were predicted as follows: there is a significant positive correlation between belief in a just world and mental toughness, while the relationship between belief in a just world and mental toughness was partially mediated by the search for meaning and the presence of meaning in life. Furthermore, it is worth noting that the presence of meaning played a more influential role than the search for meaning. The results suggest that belief in a just world is connected to the mental toughness of adolescent athletes via the meaning in life. Therefore, maintaining and promoting the level of belief in a just world and enhancing the sense of meaning in life may be an effective strategy to develop the mental toughness of adolescent athletes. The findings of this study can help develop the mental toughness of adolescent athletes and help them maintain a high level of subjective and objective performance under the pressure of training and competition, providing practical guidance for coaches and administrators in the training of adolescent athletes.
... According to Park's Meaning Making Model, meaning in life refers to fundamental life assumptions through which individuals hierarchically order personal goals and subjective perceptions of coherence, purpose, and meaning [17,18]. Frankl [19] argued that individuals have an innate drive to find meaning and that failure to achieve meaning results in psychological distress. Thus, individuals tend to generate hypotheses and draw conclusions about why events occur and what they will imply for their future [20]. ...
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Meaning in life and acceptance of cancer are critical for patients to adjust to a cancer diagnosis and to improve psychological wellbeing. Little is known about the relationship between meaning in life and the acceptance of cancer. This study provides a systematic review of the associations between meaning in life and the acceptance of cancer in cancer patients. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched until 15 March 2021. Studies were included if they quantitatively examined the association between meaning in life and the acceptance of cancer in adult cancer patients/survivors and if they were published in peer-reviewed journals or in books. The study quality was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools. Of the 4907 records identified through database searches, only 3 studies quantitatively examined the associations between meaning in life and the acceptance of cancer. The total sample involved 464 women with cancer. All three studies reported positive correlations between meaning in life and the acceptance of cancer (ranging from r = 0.19 to r = 0.38), whereas meaning in life did not predict the acceptance of cancer. Overall, the meaning in life–acceptance relationship has not been sufficiently investigated, though it has relevant theoretical and clinical implications for coping with cancer. High-quality studies are needed to better understand the relationship between meaning in life and the acceptance of cancer.
... Beyond its existential foundations from Viktor Frankl (1963), contemporary well-being research has presented meaning in life as a psychological construct that plays an influential role across the lifespan (Steger et al., 2009). Meaning in life is a relatively stable belief about one's life having mission and purpose (Steger & Kashdan, 2007). ...
Article
Meaning in life has been linked with academic and psychological outcomes. However, limited studies investigated the role of socioeconomic background on the association between meaning in life and persistence in the academic context. The present study examined the moderating role of socioeconomic background on the positive link between meaning in life and persistence among Fili-pino adolescents. This study involved a representative sample of 15-year-old high school students (N = 4512) from low-income (n = 1065) and high-income (n = 3447) regions in the Philippines. Data were extracted from OECD's Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018. The results revealed that meaning in life positively and significantly predicted persistence. Additionally , adolescents from high-income regions exhibited greater levels of persistence scores. Moderation analysis revealed that the positive association between meaning in life and persistence was stronger among adolescents from low-income regions, explaining that meaning in life is a salient internal psychological resource when economic resources are scarce. The findings provided insights on the dynamic interplay between meaning in life and socioeconomic factors in strengthening persistence among young individuals in a developing nation such as the Philippines. Implications for psychoeducational programs and interventions are discussed.
... The major hypothesis in this study is that the life satisfaction model of seminary lecturers in East Java can be improved by religiosity, self-efficacy, social support, and perceived organizational support This study aims to determine the effect of religiosity, social support, self-efficacy, and POS on the life satisfaction of seminary lecturers through the variable meaning of work as a mediator. The choice of the meaning of work as a mediator is based on the thinking of Frankl (1984) and research by Erdogan et al. (2012). Until now, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the meaning of work has never been used as a mediating variable to examine the effect of these variables on life satisfaction. ...
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Achieving life satisfaction is the hope of every person, including academicians. Based on a preliminary study, the problem of life satisfaction of Christian theological seminary lecturers is a real phenomenon that has never been studied scientifically to date. This study aims to examine the life satisfaction model of seminary lecturers in terms of religiosity, self-efficacy, social support, and perceived organizational support with the meaning of work as a mediating variable. The method used in this research is quantitatively correlational; 252 lecturers from 41 theological seminaries in East Java were participants in this research. This study used six instruments to measure each variable, and the data were analyzed using the SEM-PLS technique. Based on the R 2 value for the endogenous variables, it was found that the meaning of work had a significant positive effect of 36.8% obtained from the independent variables, while the R 2 value for the life satisfaction variable is 0.259, meaning that life satisfaction can be explained by variance of 25.9% in the independent variables. The results of the research hypothesis indicate that religiosity and self-efficacy have an indirect effect on life satisfaction with the meaning of work as a full mediator, while social support does not affect both the meaning of work and life satisfaction. This study also confirms that perceived organizational support has a direct and indirect effect on life satisfaction with the meaning of work as a partial mediator. This research result is expected to enhance efforts made by seminary leaders and the government to increase the life satisfaction of lecturers in Christian theological seminaries in East Java.
... Current psychological research on meaning in life mostly relates to the fields of existential and positive psychology. This contemporary work finds important foundations in the work of existential-humanistic psychotherapists and psychologists such as Frankl [1,2], Maddi [3], Maslow [4] and Yalom [5]. They proposed that searching for meaning in life is a fundamental quest for humans and that the failure to find meaning is a major source of mental ill being. ...
Chapter
Dementia is increasingly being recognised as a public health priority and poses one of the largest challenges we face as a society. At the same time, there is a growing awareness that the quest for a cure for Alzheimer's disease and other causes of dementia needs to be complemented by efforts to improve the lives of people with dementia. To gain a better understanding of dementia and of how to organize dementia care, there is a need to bring together insights from many different disciplines. Filling this knowledge gap, this book provides an integrated view on dementia resulting from extensive discussions between world experts from different fields, including medicine, social psychology, nursing, economics and literary studies. Working towards a development of integrative policies focused on social inclusion and quality of life, Dementia and Society reminds the reader that a better future for persons with dementia is a collective responsibility.
... Individuals seek to find meaning in their working life (Frankl, 1992). Meaningfulness, which expresses an inclusive state of existence, contributes significantly to individuals' sense of reaching their life goals. ...
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Ensuring teachers' job engagement is critical in achieving educational goals. This study examined the relationship between meaningful work and job engagement using the data collected from 452 teachers in Turkey. The data collected by using Meaningful Work Scale and Job Engagement Scale Turkish Form were analyzed by descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis, multivariate regression analysis, and moderation analyses. We found a positive, moderate, and significant relationship between meaningful work and job engagement. We tested the predictive effects of meaningful work and demographic variables (gender, seniority, and educational status). Meaningful work explained 47% of the variance in teachers' job engagement in the first model. All subdimensions of meaningful work except for the search for meaning at work and work relations were found to be significant predictors of job engagement. With the inclusion of demographic variables, the second model again explained 47% of the variance in teachers' job engagement. Furthermore, we found that seniority was a significant and positive predictor of job engagement. Moderation analyses indicated gender and educational status did not have a moderator role in the relationship between meaningful work and job engagement. We found that seniority had a moderator effect on the relationship between work relationships and job engagement. This study contributes to meaningful work and job engagement literature in the context of teachers.
... Maslow menyarankan bahwa ketika orang menjadi lebih aktualisasi diri dan transenden, mereka mengembangkan kebijaksanaan (kekuatan yang diakui secara budaya dan universal). Selain itu, logotherapy Frankl (1963) membentuk landasan untuk Strength Based Counseling, dengan penekanan pada pencarian untuk menemukan makna dari kesulitan. Demikian pula, perspektif kekuatan berfokus pada membantu klien untuk menemukan makna dari keadaan kehidupan yang merugikan mereka. ...
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Schools, as formal education institutions, are supposed to be a pleasant place and able to facilitate the learning process. However, in reality, it seems that learning difficulties still occur among students. The purpose of this study is to describe alternative actions in overcoming learning difficulties. This study uses a qualitative approach and a case study method. The researchers acted as the main instrument. Interviews and documentation studies were employed as data collection techniques. After the data was collected, the researchers used descriptive data analysis techniques. Based on the results of the study, several learning difficulties that were experienced by the students occurred due to several factors, namely lack of motivation in learning, fluctuating enthusiasm, family background, lack of interest in one subject that often led to students absent from school, the condition of the class that is not conducive, and student’s health history of certain diseases. Basically, every learning difficulty experienced by the students can be overcome through Islamic guidance and counseling such as providing assistance in the form of guidance and advising to individuals who are facing problems and to those who are not to develop their potentials, so that they are always in harmony with the Islamic provisions and instructions. Islamic guidance and counseling methods include Qur'anic counseling, Ṣalat therapy, habituation of dhikr, and other good deeds, through the approach of Sufism. As for the strategy in approaching students who have learning difficulties is done in a subtle way and easy to understand by using three methods namely al-hikmah, maui’ẓah hasanah, and mujādalah. The implication is that the Islamic guidance and counseling are very important to be learned, pondered, understood, developed, and implemented in overcoming learning difficulties.
... 7KH SV\FKLFDO VLJQLÀFDQFH RI KXPDQLW\·V VHDUFK IRU H[LVWHQWLDO meaning is associated with the so-called Third Vienna School of Psychotherapy, which is based on the innovative work of Viktor )UDQNO )ROORZLQJ IURP )UHXG·V WKHRU\ WKDW SV\FKLF FRQÁLFWV are the result of an unconscious 'will to pleasure' (First Vienna 6FKRRO WR $OIUHG $GOHU·V WKHRU\ WKDW SV\FKLF FRQÁLFWV DUH FDXVHG by an unconscious 'will to power' (Second Vienna School), Frankl (1984) developed an existentialist scheme tracing psychic problems to an unconscious 'will to meaning'. His theory, also known as logotherapy, was developed out of his own experience in Nazi concentration camps, where death was imminent, life stripped of any value or meaning, yet survivors managed to linger on by having or constructing a logos, a reason for being. ...
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There is an old joke about the Cyprus Problem: "Three men are sentenced to death in a faraway country: an Englishman, a Frenchman and a Cypriot. On the day of their execution they are asked to name their last wish. The Englishman asks for a cigar; the Frenchman for a glass of wine. The Cypriot asks to be granted a last opportunity to talk to the execution squad about the Cyprus Problem. On hearing this, the Frenchman and the Englishman change their last wish and beg to be shot before the Cypriot starts talking". We know, at least since Sigmund Freud's seminal work, that a joke is never just a laughing matter. It can have a social function, publicly releasing repressed ideas and feelings that often remain unconscious or unstated. To that extent, psychoanalysis combined with hermeneutics can account for the euphoria and offer insight to some participants and not others. Why and how is a joke funny or not funny? What ways of life (and what ways of death, as in the joke above) does it consciously or unconsciously ridicule or celebrate? And for our purposes in this short chapter, how can a joke inform the current 'problem' in Cyprus who is not just political but psychological.
... The affective component complements the two with feelings of fulfilment and satisfaction which are present when individual engages in whatever is meaningful in life (Reker & Wong, 1988). Frankl (1963) viewed meaning in life as an innate drive which if unfulfilled, leads to psychological distress. However, if present, it has the capacity to alleviate stress and increase life satisfaction. ...
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While it was established that COVID-19 pandemic had negative consequences on several aspects of mental health, little is known about the role of positive mental health indicators in pregnant women during this period. The purpose of the present study was to examine relationships between meaning in life, life satisfaction and happiness and the extent to which meaning in life predicts life satisfaction and happiness. The sample consisted of 161 pregnant women from Slovakia. Data were collecting using Life Meaningfulness Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Subjective Happiness Scale. As predicted, results showed that meaning in life is a predictor of life satisfaction and happiness. Higher happiness was related to increasing degree of meaning in life and absence of pregnancy-related health problems. 65% of participants reported high level of satisfaction with life and 48% of participants reported higher happiness than average person. These findings provide evidence for associations between meaning in life, life satisfaction and happiness in Slovak pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic and indicate that despite negative consequences of the pandemic, positive indicators of mental health in pregnancy play a significant role.
... Love and work are the life domains that emerging adults are most exploring and committing to, to fulfill their need for meaning and find their path toward adulthood (Frankl, 1963;Mayseless & Keren, 2014;Schnell, 2009;Steger et al., 2006). The transitional condition of imbalance experienced in these two domains might drive emerging adults toward specific meaning-making configurations (i.e. ...
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Empirical evidence supported the existence of different meaning-making profiles among youths, however, it is unknown whether these profiles are related to specific transitional conditions. The present study applied a multi-group Latent Profile Analysis to examine the generalizability and criterion-validity of meaning-making profiles across two samples of emerging and young adults living different contextual situations (pre-COVID-19 vs during COVID-19), and to investigate their association with the balanced versus imbalanced conditions in the romantic and work role transitions. Three meaning-making profiles, searchers (high search, average presence of meaning), in-between (low search, average presence), and fulfilled (very low search, high presence) were supported by strong generalizability and criterion-validity evidence (i.e. fulfilled individuals showed higher well-being). As expected, older individuals were more likely to be fulfilled, while gender wasn’t a predictor of profiles. Imbalanced individuals in love and work were more likely to be searchers, while fulfilled individuals were predominantly living a balanced condition.
... The broad conceptualization that "meaning is about transcending the self" has been considered by many theorists. As one of its most seminal advocates, Viktor Frankl (1984) argues, life has a meaning when "He becomes so, not by concerning himself with his self's actualization, but by forgetting himself and giving himself, overlooking himself and focusing outward." (p. ...
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We all desire to have meaningful experiences in life, but what factors give rise to perceptions of meaning? Across 7 preregistered studies (total N = 1362), we examined the role of self-transcendence (i.e., benefits to society) and self-enhancement (i.e., benefits to the self) in people’s judgments of meaning, in comparison to their judgments of happiness. We found that people weighed benefits to society more heavily than benefits to the self when evaluating the meaning of different jobs (Study 1), other people’s life (Study 2a), and advice given to others (Study 2b). In contrast, benefits to the self were weighed similarly to (Studies 1-2) or even more heavily than benefits to society (Study 3) in people’s judgments about happiness, suggesting people’s meaning judgment is more self-transcendent than happiness judgment. Similar differences between meaning and happiness were found in participants’ first-party perceptions of their own jobs (Study 4), advice intended to improve their own lives (Study 5), and actual feelings of completing a behavioral task (Study 7), except that self-enhancement played a relatively bigger role in first-party meaning judgments than in third-party meaning judgments (Studies 4-6). The results consistently suggest that people’s meaning perceptions are more self-transcendent than their happiness perceptions (Studies 1-7). Our findings help illuminate the social cognitive processes underlying people’s perceptions of meaning, as well as shed light on the similarities and differences between people’s conceptualizations of meaning and happiness.
... Similarly, meaning in life is addressed in existential theory and considered the primary motive of people's behaviors (Frankl, 1992), so it is theoretically possible to expect a negative association between meaning in life and school burnout. In addition, the literature showed that meaning in life is positively related to intrinsic motivation and negatively associated with amotivation and extrinsic motivation (Bailey & Phillips, 2016;Siwek et al., 2017;Utvaer, 2014). ...
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School burnout refers to psychological reactions to academic stress and loads and has been identified as a risk factor contributing to academic failure and subsequent mental health challenges. However, academic motivation, hope, and meaning in life can be potential combating factors against school burnout. This study aimed to examine the effects of academic motivation on school burnout in college students and explore mediator roles of hope and meaning in life. A path analysis was performed with the data collected from 544 Turkish college students to test the direct and indirect effects. The results showed that the direct effects from the three academic motivation variables to school burnout variables were larger than the indirect effects. Both mediators played roles in the relations between amotivation and efficacy and intrinsic motivation and efficacy. The last finding was that hope played more significant mediator roles than meaning in life. The results were discussed, along with implications for faculty, college counselors, and future studies.
... It would exceed the scope of this pictorial to claim completeness, yet the author would like to highlight some specific viewpoints of this topic. Frankl (1946) dramatically draws from his life experiences and points to purpose as an essential meaning and motivation to be able to overcome existential crises. Berg (2015) describes individual purpose as "a deliberate choice to pursue a future directed intention that is personally meaningful, and beneficial to the greater society, that influences one's goals and behaviours". ...
Conference Paper
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"Decent Intellectual Work and Enlightenment of the Russian Society" Biographical Trajectories of the First Women Professional Translators in Russia.
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Equality in the city is an aspiration. Cities have never been equal, equitable or fair. Now, optimum efficiency is celebrated as progress, and reconfigurations of urban spaces are focused on the clean lines of punctual service delivery. Smart cites are controlled cities, where data is the fuel that pumps through the heart. The common denominator in smart city rhetoric is the assumption that organization, planning and programmability will provide optimum conditions for comfortable urban life. Yet some aspects of our cities and our lives within them will never be machine-readable (Mattern 2014) and there may be a growing disparity between the natural and the constructed; the vagaries and messiness versus the program-mable and measurable life in cities. Giddens's theory of social structure suggested that spaces and buildings are what people do with them-spaces themselves structure social relations and practices, and therefore 'relations of power and discipline are inscribed into the apparently innocent spatiality of social life' (Soja 1989: 6). If urban life is to be smart, digital and codified, then what becomes of the varied human experiences and how can we consider their relation to power? How can this be married to digital futures? The smart city emerges from networked urbanism, propagated by the promises of efficiency, using technologies to deliver and manage services to city dwellers; embedded sensors, drone surveillance and real-time monitoring to give us more effective transportation, waste, security and energy systems. Within this discourse, people are sources of data that are fed into algorithms; their experience of the city is muted in favour of the foregrounding of digital efficiency. Much great work on the neo-liberal ideals that underpin smart discourse has already been done (Kitchin 2014; Mattern 2017; Cardullo et al. 2018; Kitchin et al. 2018; Cardullo and Kitchin 2019). The various essays in this collection consider the promises of the smart future and provide some new discussions and provocations, moving 2 EqUALITY IN THE CITY beyond the field of human geography and urban planning to a social, personal and egalitarian approach. By theorizing and interrogating various theoretical approaches to the promises of the smart city, we question how humans can feasibly have fair and equal access to those smart technologies that promise a better future. How can cities better support human life? What makes cities liveable in an era of growing urban inequality? While housing, service provision, health care, education and other important social needs are critical issues in imagining future cities, this collection looks more broadly at how we conceive of the city of the future and what sorts of steps can be taken to 'take back the city' in the digital future. Smart futures and smart urbanism are situated in a paternalistic ethos rather than focused on human rights, citizenship and fair access to digital technologies that ostensibly improve human life. Such technologies are changing the places in which we live and the way we live in them. They also impact on our ideas about how and where we might live in the future. There is a reverence for what is called 'disruptive technologies' and the way in which disruption is deemed not just ok, but excellent, when it comes to how we live, work and exist in spaces. Disparate fields such as human geography, information and communications technology (ICT), engineering and social sciences have addressed many of the debates around the forms of (digitized) governance that smart cities propose. Here, we bring together scholars from across disciplines to consider ideas of active participation in the imagined smart cities of the future. The essays consider the ruptures in smart discourse , the spaces where we might envisage a more user-friendly and bottom-up version of the smart future and imagine participation in novel ways.
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Chapter
The percentage of the population in the United States comprised of older adults (65+), sometimes referred to as Baby Boomers (birth year 1946 – 1964) and the Silent Generation (birth year 1925 – 1945), is steadily on the rise. This population is often overlooked and has a unique subset of issues when it comes to counseling competencies. Layered multicultural competencies affecting these individuals include race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, and ageism. Counseling concerns related to age include but are not limited to loss of autonomy, loss of physical ability, loss of loved ones, and changing definition of self. From an existential therapeutic background blended with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) interventions, the author reviews the case study of Lucille with a focus on therapeutic intervention and Multicultural and Social Justice Counseling Competencies (MSJCCs).
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This chapter first gives an outline of the international understanding of peace that is rooted in the Kantian concept of human dignity and has found its latest concretization in the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals laid out in 2015. Thus, peace is a vison within a predominant culture of war requiring more or less drastic changes of individual mindsets that, collectively, form a culture. The second part addresses the role of a peace leader who aligns followers around the vision of peace and acts as a catalyst for the required change in viewing one's self, the other, and the world. It addresses obstacles to move towards a culture of peace that are based on the same psychological features that can be used by a peace leader to engage followers in transformative processes. It also discusses the challenges for a peace leader as a situated individual, the necessity of accepting multiculturalism, and an ethics that helps a peace leader to stay on course.
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The current research aims to identify personal hardness and tragic optimism of university students, to know the differences in relationship depending on the gender variable. The current research sample included 200 students of both sexes of languages and humanities at Kermienne University. A measure of personal rigidity with sequomatic characteristics has been built and the tragic optimism measure of Naji, 2021, has been adopted When analyzing the data statistically, it was found that the research sample had personal rigidity and there were no differences depending on the sex change.
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This correlational study examined the relationship between self‐care, burnout, compassion satisfaction, and secondary traumatic stress among higher education faculty members during the COVID‐19 pandemic. The results inform higher education faculty members about the effects of self‐care and suggest strategies to reduce burnout, compassion satisfaction and secondary traumatic stress.
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Black youth violence remains a topical issue for Canadians. It is not unusual to wake up to daily media news of Black youth shootings, stabbings, and beatings in Toronto and surrounding areas. As usual, media’s discourse and public debates around Black youth violence are framed in languages that ultimately suggest that violence is congealed in the culture and DNA of Black families. In such a colonial and racist-charged discussion, differences in Black culture are conflated with physical, biological, mental, and emotional characteristics of Black people. Our central thesis is that Black youth violence in Toronto is neither a pathology nor is an aberrant behaviour of Black families, but it is a symptom of a colonial, racist, and classist society. As such, we argue that increased policing and harsher penalties for perpetrators of violent crimes, as well as draconian policies do not address systemic and institutional anti-Black racism and classism that create displacements, alienation, rejections, and a sense of hopelessness that can motivate Black youth violence. How, then, do we approach the challenge of Black youth violence in Toronto? We explore this question with the premise that Black youth violence concerns all sectors of our society. Accordingly, a collaborative approach among stakeholders and decision-makers is necessary to ensure that the situation is adequately addressed.
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این پژوهش با هدف بررسی رابطه هوش معنوی و سخت رویی با معنای زندگی دانشجویان دانشگاه آزاد اسالمی واحد تهران مرکزی صورت گرفت. این طرح توصیفی و به روش همبستگی است. روش نمونه گیری تصادفی، از نوع خوشه ای چندمرحله ای است باحجم 194 نفر که از بین دانشجویانی که در دانشگاه آزاد واحد تهران مرکزی در سال تحصیلی 99-98مشغول به تحصیل بودند انتخاب شدند. ابزار پژوهش پرسشنامه استگر )2006،)پرسشنامه هوش معنوی کینگ)2008 )و پرسشنامه سخت رویی روانشناختی کوباسا)1982 )می باشد. اطالعات جمع آوری شده با استفاده ازضریب همبستگی و روش رگرسیون چند گانه تحلیل شد. نتایج حاصله نشان می دهد، بین میزان هوش معنوی با معنای زندگی و بین سخت رویی با معنای زندگی در بین دانشجویان رابطه معنی دار وجود دارد و از بین مولفه های سخت رویی، تعهد در پیش بینی معنای زندگی دانشجویان نقش بیشتری دارد. بر این اساس پیشنهاد می شود متولیان امور آموزشی برنامه ها و آموزش های مناسبی جهت بهبود و تقویت هوش معنوی و سخت رویی به منظور افزایش معنای زندگی دانشجویان ارائه نمایند
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Purpose Meaning in life (MIL) and family cohesion are important concerns for the palliative care population; however, evidence of the relationship between MIL and family cohesion is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between meaning in life and family cohesion, and explore the factors that influence MIL among the palliative care population. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 205 patients with advanced cancer were recruited from two palliative care units in China. Data were collected using the Meaning in Life Scale (MiLS), the family cohesion subscale of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, second edition, Chinese version, and the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS). Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between family cohesion and perceived MIL, and to identify the potential factors of participants’ MiLS score. Results The mean MiLS score was 100.90 (SD = 9.17). The results showed that family cohesion (r = 0.313, p < 0.001) and KPS scores (r = 0.311, p < 0.001) were positively correlated with MiLS scores. Multivariate linear regression revealed that MIL was significantly influenced by family cohesion, KPS score, sex, religiosity, whether participants lived alone, and their medical insurance payment method (Adjust R² = 28.4%, F = 6.281, p = 0.013). Conclusions Our findings indicate a positive relationship between family cohesion and MIL, suggesting that clinicians should consider increasing patients’ family cohesion as an approach to enhance perceived MIL.
Chapter
The self-concordance model proposes that the concordance of goals and meaning may be associated with higher levels of well-being. But is this the case for specific life domains such as the interpersonal relationships domain? Are the patterns of goals and meaning alignment the same for different sociodemographic subgroups? As no studies could be sourced on this topic, this study explores these dynamics. Open-ended questions on important goals and meaningful things, a sociodemographic questionnaire, and selected well-being questionnaires were administered to a multicultural South African sample (N = 585) in a convergent parallel mixed methods research design. The content of the qualitative data were coded and converted to quantitative data. Associations between alignment patterns and selected sociodemographic variables were explored via contingency tables and Pearson’s chi-square test. A MANOVA was performed followed by a series of one-way ANOVAs to explore associations between alignment patterns and well-being variables. Alignment patterns were found to be associated with age, gender, level of education, and work status, and the MHC-SF (total score) index of well-being. Despite the statistically significant association of alignment patterns with the MHC-SF, the self-concordance model was not supported in this study with reference to the interpersonal relationships domain, as the both-goal-and-meaning pattern did not reveal a higher level of well-being compared to other patterns as predicted by the self-concordance model.
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The life script heptagon, developed by the author, is described to show how seven elements, all seven aspects of human personality – behaviour, feelings, thoughts, body holding patterns, habits, beliefs and attitudes, and early decisions – fit together geometrically so that they reinforce and support each other and make it hard for people to change their life scripts. These elements are then related to the ways in which different psychotherapies tend to work with them, and explanations are given of why the geometric nature of the model means that several aspects need to change because otherwise the remaining elements are reinforcing the unhelpful patterns. Editorial Note: This is an example of the saying ‘great minds think alike’ – this version of a heptagon was being developed over several years and the author was unaware that Benedetti, Benelli and Zanchetta (2020) had been developing a similar geometrical shape with different elements. Benedetti et al. were also unaware that the version described in this article was being developed. (Benedetti et al article is in this journal, Vol. 11, Issue 1 at https://doi.org/10.29044/v11i1p13)
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The spiritual but not religious (SBNR) identification is a burgeoning demographic with unique spiritual concerns often unmet by Eurocentric mainstream counseling theoretical orientations. This article presents an overview of Buddhist psychology, its intersection with SBNR values, and how Buddhist psychology may be a relevant theoretical orientation for SBNR clients.
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The present study examines the role of death anxiety as an important mechanism underlying the relationship between fear of Covid-19 and hotel frontline employees’ (FLEs) sense of work alienation. Importantly, the study proposes FLEs’ intrinsic spirituality as being a relevant boundary condition. Results, based on time-lagged survey data (three rounds, 2 weeks apart) from 203 FLEs in 91 hotels and analyzed using structural equation modeling, reveal that death anxiety mediates the association between fear of Covid-19 and work alienation. In addition, FLEs’ intrinsic spirituality moderates the direct relationship between fear of Covid-19 and death anxiety and the indirect relationship between fear of Covid-19 and work alienation, such that the relationships are weak when intrinsic spirituality is high (vs. low). The study offers several important suggestions that can help hospitality managers address FLEs’ sense of work alienation during traumatic conditions.
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It was late 2019 when a new virus from the Coronavirus family with the ability of spreading in humans was identified in China for the first time. The speed of the global pandemic of this virous and the publication of news regarding its greater risks for the elderly led to numerous psychological disorders in this age group. Therefore, the present study was to consider the effectiveness of group logotherapy on death anxiety, feeling of loneliness and meaning of life in the elderly with fear of Coronavirus. This was a quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest and a control group design. The statistical population consisted of all the elderly women (65 years old and higher) who were member of the daily rehabilitation services working under supervision of Tabriz Welfare Organization in 2021, among whom 24 eligible women were selected based on inclusion criteria, and randomly assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental group received ten 90-minute sessions of group logotherapy, while the control group received no intervention. The tools used in this study included the Templer's death anxiety, Russell et al.'s feeling of loneliness, and the Steger et al.'s meaning of life questionnaires. The data were analyzed using univariate analysis of covariance)ANCOVA) in SPSS-24 software. The results revealed that there is a significant difference between control and experimental groups in terms of death anxiety, feeling of loneliness and meaning of life (P<0.05). In other words, group logotherapy decreased death anxiety and feeling of loneliness and increased the meaning of life in the elderly. According to the results, it appears that this treatment can be effectively used in rehabilitation centers and other psychological and counseling centers in order to improve the mental health of the elderly.
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Introduction: There are very few studies relating to spiritual aspects of death and it was felt that this is the area which needs further exploration. In the present study an attempt has been made to study effect of some selected interventions for death anxiety. Research Methodology: The design selected for the study was one group pre test-post test design. Dependent variables are psychological variations among critically ill and Independent variables were spiritual interventions. Results: pretest mean score was 7.81 and standard deviation was 3.52 where as post test mean score was 6.01 and standard deviation was2.99. Mean difference was 1.88 and paired t value was 0.98, which shows that there is significant effect of spiritual intervention on death anxiety. Conclusion: This study proved that a strong sense of spirituality in a person's life can be related to a lower sense of anxiety towards the death. We do not identified any association between spirituality and death anxiety but it has also been shown that death anxiety tends to be lower in individuals who are given regular spiritual interventions.
Article
Leaders are expected to enhance the work meaningfulness of followers, but little insight exists on the role of leaders’ own experience of meaningfulness in that process. We propose a leader‐follower transfer model of work meaningfulness through visionary leadership, grounded in self‐concept‐based theory, in which leader‐follower dyadic tenure shapes the effects of visionary leadership on followers. Moreover, we suggest that work meaningfulness can enhance followers’ goal achievement and reduce turnover intentions. We tested and confirmed our moderated‐mediation model in two independent, multi‐source, multilevel field data sets of 79 mid‐level leaders and 871 employees in Study 1 and 68 CEOs and 596 mid‐level leaders in Study 2. We also empirically ruled out a series of alternative transfer mechanisms, including transformational and transactional leadership, leader‐member exchange, and all sub‐dimensions of transformational leadership. This research contributes to the scholarly discussions on work meaningfulness and visionary leadership and offers novel insights for practitioners to enhance work meaningfulness in their organizations.
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