High Intensity Interval Training Increases Aerobic And Anaerobic Capacity In Collegiate Female Soccer Players: 2643

To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.


The physical requirements for women soccer players appear to be similar to those for men, with high levels of aerobic capacity, sprint speed and recovery being fundamental for success (Krustrup et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37: 1242-1248, 2005). Specific interventions designed to improve training status in male soccer players have been assessed in several previous studies (e.g. Hoff et al. Br J Sports Med 36: 218-221, 2001). However, to our knowledge only one study has examined the responses to training interventions in female players (Polman et al. J Sports Sci 22: 191-203, 2004) and the most effective method remains to be determined. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of three training interventions on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of collegiate level female soccer players. METHODS: The aerobic and anaerobic capacities of 23 members of an NAIA division 1 soccer program were assessed pre- and post-training by a 20m multi-stage fitness test and a 5m multiple shuttle test (Boddington et al. J Sports Sci 19: 223-228, 2001). Participants were matched for aerobic capacity and assigned to one of three training groups, and trained twice per week for 4 weeks. One group participated in a novel high intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention consisting of a series of 30 s shuttle runs at speeds above the velocity at aerobic capacity, interspersed with 30 s periods of rest. The second group completed interval training (IT) consisting of 4 bouts of 4 min running at 90-95% maximum heart rate followed by a 3 min rest period. The final group completed continuous training (CT) involving a continuous 28 min run at 70-80% maximum heart rate. RESULTS: Aerobic capacity increased significantly in both the HIIT and IT groups (mean ± s.d: HIIT: 10.2 ± 4.5%; p < 0.001, IT: 6.1 ± 2.5%; p < 0.01) and increased by a small but non-significant amount in the CT group (3.8 ± 4.6%; p = 0.19) The distance covered during the anaerobic performance test increased in all groups, but only significantly in the HIIT group (HIIT: 31 ± 19 m; p < 0.01, IT: 14 ± 23 m; p = 0.26, CT: 13 ± 23 m; p = 0.34). CONCLUSION: The novel HIIT intervention results in significant increases in both aerobic and anaerobic capacity and therefore appears to be an effective method of fitness training for female soccer players.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Fatiguing contractions (irrespective of exercise mode) result in increased relative effort and subsequent sequential motor unit recruitment to meet the required force demands of the task being performed (1,12,16,64). Previous studies comparing traditional aerobic modalities of exercise and resistance training-based HIIT have not clearly controlled intensity of effort (15,59). In addition, other studies investigating the effect of different exercise modes using HIIT often report only 1 physiological adaptation such as strength or aerobic fitness without assessing and comparing both (18,59). ...
... Several recent reviews have concluded that aerobic adaptations can indeed occur as a result of resistance training (49,63), particularly if the intensity of effort is sufficiently high (63). Butcher et al. (11) have reported high RPE values for resistance training-based HIIT and other recent works have suggested that HIIT interventions including resistance training-based modes can improve aerobic fitness (9,14,15,59). The large improvements in aerobic fitness in the SM group in this study might therefore be a result of the high intensity of effort employed. ...
Powerlifters and strongman athletes have a necessity for optimal levels of muscular strength whilst maintaining sufficient aerobic capacity to perform and recover between events. HIIT has been popularized for its efficacy in improving both aerobic fitness and strength but never assessed within the aforementioned population group. The present study looked to compare the effect of exercise modality, e.g. a traditional aerobic mode (AM), and strength mode, (SM), during HIIT upon aerobic fitness and strength. Sixteen well resistance trained male participants, currently competing in powerlifting and strongman events, completed 8 weeks of approximately effort- and volume-matched HIIT in 2 groups: AM (cycling, n=8) and SM (resistance training, n=8). Aerobic fitness was measured as predicted V O_2Max using the YMCA 3 minute step test and strength as predicted 1RM from a 4-6RM test using a leg extension. Both groups showed significant improvements in both strength and aerobic fitness. There was a significant between-group difference for aerobic fitness improvements favoring the AM group (p<0.05). There was no between-group difference for change in strength. Magnitude of change using within group effect size (ES) for aerobic fitness and strength were considered large for each group (aerobic fitness, AM = 2.6, SM = 2.0; strength, AM = 1.9, SM = 1.8). In conclusion, our results support enhanced strength and aerobic fitness irrespective of exercise modality (e.g. traditional aerobic and resistance training). However, powerlifters and strongman athletes wishing to enhance their aerobic fitness should consider HIIT using an aerobic HIIT mode.
... Previous studies have analysed the effects of HIIT in individual exercise modes on a single mode of activity (Cook et al., 2010;Sijie et al., 2012). However, the effects of this training method in running or cycling on performance in a single mode such as running in female athletes has not been studied. ...
Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to compare the changes in endurance running performance and physiological variables after a four-week period of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in either running or cycling in female athletes. Methods: Fourteen recreational female runners (age = 42  10 yr, height = 1.67  0.06 m, body mass = 61.6  10.4 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 22.2  3.4 kg.m-2) were randomly allocated to one of two HIIT training groups: running (HIITrun) or cycling (HIITbike). Each group performed two HIIT sessions per week for 4 weeks, which consisted of 6 x 2 min at 95% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) and 4 x 1 min all out efforts. Results: Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in treadmill running increased significantly after the HIITrun (p < 0.01, ES = 0.6) but remained unchanged in HIITbike. However, HIITbike improved average velocity in a 10 km running time trial (TTrun) (p < 0.05, ES = -0.4), whereas, no changes were found for the HIITrun group. Analysing the first and last HIIT sessions, for HIITrun only the average rate of perceived exertion (RPEav) increased significantly, whereas, performance variables such as average heart rate (HRav) and average pace (paceav) remained unchanged. HIITbike enhanced significantly the average speed of HIIT sets (speedav) and the peak power output (PPO) of the session, as well as, the RPEav and delayed onset muscle soreness immediately after HIIT session (DOMSpost) were increased significantly. Conclusion: A regime of HIIT in cycling may evoke increases in female recreational runners’ power, which may be related with improvements in a 10 km TTrun independent of changes in aerobic capacity. This may be advantageous in order to avoid overuse running related injuries.
... Although our study did not directly compare HIIT with continuous exercise, our findings are similar in regard to aerobic and anaerobic performance adaptations for both methods of HIIT training. Increases due to HIIT of 4%-13% for V O 2max and 4%-12% for anaerobic performance have been observed previously (Cook et al. 2010;Driller et al. 2009;Gist et al. 2013;Hazell et al. 2010;Rønnestad et al. 2015;Sloth et al. 2013). These changes are similar to the degree of adaptation we observed with both protocols, indicating that our novel MM-HIIT and the rowing HIIT are similarly effective for inducing metabolic system changes. ...
Full-text available
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient method of improving aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity. In most individuals, however, HIIT using modalities such as cycling, running, and rowing does not typically result in increased muscle strength, power, or endurance. The purpose of this study is to compare the physiological outcomes of traditional HIIT using rowing (Row-HIIT) with a novel multimodal HIIT (MM-HIIT) circuit incorporating multiple modalities, including strength exercises, within an interval. Twenty-eight recreationally active women (age 24.7 ± 5.4 years) completed 6 weeks of either Row-HIIT or MM-HIIT and were tested on multiple fitness parameters. MM-HIIT and Row-HIIT resulted in similar improvements (p < 0.05 for post hoc pre- vs. post-training increases for each group) in maximal aerobic power (7% vs. 5%), anaerobic threshold (13% vs. 12%), respiratory compensation threshold (7% vs. 5%), anaerobic power (15% vs. 12%), and anaerobic capacity (18% vs. 14%). The MM-HIIT group had significant (p < 0.01 for all) increases in squat (39%), press (27%), and deadlift (18%) strength, broad jump distance (6%), and squat endurance (280%), whereas the Row-HIIT group had no increase in any muscle performance variable (p values 0.33-0.90). Post-training, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat (64.2 ± 13.6 vs. 45.8 ± 16.2 kg, p = 0.02), 1RM press (33.2 ± 3.8 vs. 26.0 ± 9.6 kg, p = 0.01), and squat endurance (23.9 ± 12.3 vs. 10.2 ± 5.6 reps, p < 0.01) were greater in the MM-HIIT group than in the Row-HIIT group. MM-HIIT resulted in similar aerobic and anaerobic adaptations but greater muscle performance increases than Row-HIIT in recreationally active women.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training shock microcycles (HIITSM) on endurance, running economy and change of direction economy in female soccer players. Nineteen sub-elite female soccer players were randomised to two groups: HIITSM (10 HIIT sessions over 13 days) or HIITTRAD (4 HIIT sessions over 13 days) interventions. Endurance performance was evaluated through the 30–15 intermittent fitness test (30–15IFT); running economy over a 5-min treadmill run; and change of direction economy over two conditions: (1) 5-min 20m shuttle run, and (2) 5-min 10m shuttle run. HIITSM significantly improved 30–15IFT scores compared to baseline (+4.4%, p=0.009; d=0.96) and 30–15IFT scores relative to HIITTRAD (p=0.002; d=2.01). There was no significant interaction (group×time) for running economy and change of direction economy. Pre- to post- intervention there was a significant main time effect for blood lactate over 20m and 10m shuttle runs (p<0.001 and p=0.037, respectively), with large (d=0.93) and moderate (d=0.53) changes observed for the HIITSM over the two distances, respectively. HIITSM may be more effective than HIITTRAD to improve 30–15IFT over shorter training periods but may not affect running economy and change of direction economy.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.