Article

Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Supplementation During Energy Restriction in Female Judo Athletes

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Abstract

Supplementation of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been suggested to help increase muscle mass or reduce body fat in resistance-trained subjects and patients in catabolic states. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of oral supplementation of 3 g·day -1 HMB for 3 days on body composition and exercise performance in well-trained female judo athletes during energy restriction. Eight female judo athletes were matched for body weight and divided into HMB and control groups. All subjects consumed food containing 20 kcal·kg -1 with carbohydrate 3.6 g·kg -1 , protein 1.33 g·kg -1 , and fat 0.03 g·kg -1 each day. Body weight and body fat percentage were significantly decreased in the HMB group, but remained unchanged in the control group after the study period. Muscle mass and the anaerobic performance of the lower and upper body were unchanged in both groups. The HMB group showed significant increases in total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, and uric acid after the study period. The control group did not show any sig- nificant changes in all blood parameters. This study suggested that short-term supplementation of HMB dur- ing energy restriction may help to reduce body fat but has no effect on lean body mass or exercise performance in female athletes. (J Exerc Sci Fit  Vol 8  No 1  50-53  2010)

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... However, certain studies did not show the effect of HMB on participants involved in resistance training. No significant changes were found in muscle strength [35,42,43], power [44,45] and muscle work capacity [42], fat free mass [42], fat mass [42,43], muscle damage markers (CK) in blood [42,44,46], as well as testosterone or cortisol concentrations in blood [3,44,46]. ...
... Furthermore, it should be highlighted that so far there have been limited studies involving different training procedures, Nutrients 2017, 9, 753 3 of 21 e.g., those typical of combat sports or intense military training. In the case of energy-restricted female Judo athletes [45] and male soldiers from an elite combat unit [5], a greater decrease in body weight and body fat levels, attenuation of the inflammatory response and maintenance of muscle quality were, respectively, observed after HMB supplementation. ...
... In turn, in a study on judoists subjected to a three-day limitation of energy intake (20 kcal/kg bm /day), a reduction was recorded for fat mass (−0.85 percent point HMB vs. +0.2 percent point PLA ) only in the group of athletes supplemented with HMB, although no differences were found in the anaerobic power between athletes using HMB and a placebo [45]. Apart from the negative energy balance, this may have resulted from the fact that the HMB supplementation lasted only three days, which seems too short to cause significant changes in the systemic anaerobic potential. ...
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The aim of this study was to verify the effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on physical capacity, body composition and the value of biochemical parameters in highly-trained combat sports athletes. Forty-two males highly-trained in combat sports were subjected to 12 weeks of supplementation with HMB and a placebo in a randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind crossover manner. Over the course of the experiment, aerobic and anaerobic capacity was determined, while analyses were conducted on body composition and levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, testosterone, cortisol and lactate. Following HMB supplementation, fat-free mass increased (p = 0.049) with a simultaneous reduction of fat mass (p = 0.016) in comparison to placebo. In turn, after HMB supplementation, the following indicators increased significantly in comparison to the placebo: the time to reach ventilatory threshold (p < 0.0001), threshold load (p = 0.017) and the threshold HR (p < 0.0001), as well as anaerobic peak power (p = 0.005), average power (p = 0.029), maximum speed (p < 0.001) and post-exercise lactate concentrations (p < 0.0001). However, when compared to the placebo, no differences were observed in blood marker levels. The results indicate that supplying HMB promotes advantageous changes in body composition and stimulates an increase in aerobic and anaerobic capacity in combat sports athletes.
... 3,4 The main effects attributed to HMB are associated with resistance training, including fat-free mass gains, 1, 5 muscle proteolysis reduction, 1, 5 increase in strength, 1,4 and reduction in fat mass. 3,6 Several mechanisms have been proposed for the action of HMB supplementation on enhanced strength and body composition: i) increased muscle hypertrophy resulting from elevation of muscle protein synthesis, 7,8 through stimulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation 7 and increased expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth hormone; 9 ii) inhibition of muscle protein catabolism 8 by inhibition of myonuclear apoptosis via suppression of mitochondrial-caspase signaling pathway, 10 modulation of the autophagy-lysosomal system, 11 and down-regulation of ubiquitinproteasome proteolytic pathway; 12 iii) attenuation of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines expression during recovery 13 (e.g. HMB attenuates circulating Tumor Necrosis Factor-α [TNF-α] and monocyte TNFα receptor 1 expression after an acute and intense exercise protocol, which prevents catabolism, contractile dysfunction, and disruption of myogenesis), 14 that in turn, it is related to the etiology of muscle wasting; iv) promotion of muscle fibre cholesterol synthesis, augmenting the cholesterol concentration in the cellular matrix, which would reduce proteolysis 15 and, v) increasing the efficiency of oxidative metabolism, which is associated with increased muscle strength generation. ...
... 16,17 Several studies have assessed HMB supplementation effects on strength and body composition. 3,4,6,[18][19][20] However, published investigation 1 results are inconclusive, reporting favorable variations in some studies, 1, 3, 4, 6, 21 whereas others not. [18][19][20] To date, three meta-analyses have been carried out in different populations in order to elucidate doubts about the supplementation effects of HMB. ...
... 18 Most of the studies were performed in men (5/6), while only one was carried out in women. 6 The minimum sample contained eight participants, 6 and the maximum 32. 3 The total sample in this meta-analysis was 193 participants (99 HMB group and 94 control group). The mean training experience was 4.7 ± 1.1 years in trained, and 5.9 ± 2.3 years in competitive athletes. ...
Article
Objectives The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of beta-hy- droxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation interventions on modification in strength and body composition in trained and competitive athletes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods A systematic search was performed using three databases: MEDLINE, EBSCO and Web of Science. The analysis was restricted to randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of HMB supplementation in- terventions on modification in bench and leg press strength, body mass, fat-free mass and fat mass. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed effect meta-analysis due to low value of the heterogeneity. The Egger test was used to determine the presence of publication bias, and the Q and I2 statistics were used to assess heterogeneity among studies. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Six studies were selected for meta-analysis, as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria (n = 193 participants). HMB supplementation interventions present a trivial non-significant ES in all variables studied (bench press ES = 0.00, leg press ES = 0.09, body mass ES = −0.01, fat-free mass ES = 0.16, and fat mass ES = −0.20; all cases p > 0.05, and null heterogeneity I2 = 0.0% p > 0.05). These results remained constant even analyzing by subgroups (HMB doses, duration of intervention, training level and diet co-intervention). Conclusions This meta-analysis found no effect of HMB supplementation on strength and body composition in trained and competitive athletes.
... After reading each of these 236 articles and applying the exclusion criteria, a total of 12 articles were finally selected for review (Artioli et al., 2007;Astley et al., 2017;de Andrade Kratz et al., 2017;Durkalec-Michalski et al., 2017;Felippe et al., 2016;Hung et al., 2010;Lopes-Silva et al., 2014;Lopez-Grueso et al., 2014;Souissi et al., 2012Souissi et al., , 2015Sterkowicz et al., 2012;Tobias et al., 2013) (Figure 1). However, one article was later excluded, since no p-values were specified for each of the performed statistical tests (Lopez-Grueso et al., 2014). ...
... In addition to judokas, one article also tested Brazilian jiujitsu athletes (Tobias et al., 2013), whereas in the second article wrestlers and Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes were also evaluated (Durkalec-Michalski et al., 2017). In ten studies, adult judokas were evaluated (n = 112) (Artioli et al., 2007;de Andrade Kratz et al., 2017;Durkalec-Michalski et al., 2017;Felippe et al., 2016;Hung et al., 2010;Lopes-Silva et al., 2014;Souissi et al., 2012Souissi et al., , 2015Sterkowicz et al., 2012;Tobias et al., 2013), whereas one article evaluated teen-athletes (n = 18) (Astley et al., 2017). ...
... Regarding the indirect judo-related performance test utilized, the 30 s all-out sprint test (Wingate test) was applied in seven studies (Artioli et al., 2007;Durkalec-Michalski et al., 2017;Hung et al., 2010;Souissi et al., 2012Souissi et al., , 2015Sterkowicz et al., 2012;Tobias et al., 2013): in five studies participants were asked to perform this test with the lower-limbs (Durkalec-Michalski et al., 2017;Hung et al., 2010;Souissi et al., 2012Souissi et al., , 2015Sterkowicz et al., 2012), whereas in two studies this test was performed with the upperlimbs (Artioli et al., 2007;Tobias et al., 2013). ...
Article
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The potential ergogenic effect of nutritional supplements depends on their dosage and the type of exercise executed. Aiming at reviewing the research literature regarding sport supplements utilized in judo in order to improve performance, a literature search was performed at the following databases: Dialnet, PubMed, Scielo, Scopus and SportDiscus. A total of 11 articles met the inclusion criteria and were selected. Evidence revised indicates that supplementation with caffeine, β-alanine, sodium bicarbonate, creatine, and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate has a positive effect on judo-related performance. Moreover, there is evidence suggesting that combining some of these nutritional supplements may produce an additive effect.
... In bodybuilders and weightlifters, calorie restriction is customary before a race. Calorie restriction can result in a loss of lean mass and athletic performance [34] . Body weight was lowered less in the HMB group than in the control group in female judokas who followed a 3-day calorie restriction. ...
... There was a lesser drop in lean body mass and maximum strength in the same group (HMB). Overall, the findings imply that HMB administration may prevent future loss of lean body mass in people who are on a moderate calorie restriction and thus be helpful [34,35] . ...
Article
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Athletes take nutritional supplements because they believe it will provide them with a convenient and effective source of nutrients. Creatine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methyl-butyrate (HMB) are two of the most popular and legal ergogenic dietary supplements. These two compounds may have a comparable ergogenic effect since they favor muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis during exercise. This narrative review seeks to offer the most recent scientific literature on these two ergogenic aids in detail. HMB has been found to improve strength and lean muscle mass by acting as an anti-catabolic agent, reducing muscle breakdown and protein degradation following exercise. In terms of muscle absorption and the ability to boost high-intensity exercise capacity, creatine monohydrate (CM) is the most clinically effective nutritional supplement. Athletes utilize creatine pills to boost their exercise performance. The combination of CM and HMB has the potential to increase fat-free mass while lowering fat mass.
... The efficacy of HMB, when investigated in clinical trials, is inconsistent and unclear (24)(25)(26)(27). Some studies show the benefit of HMB (24,25), while other studies found that HMB has no effect on muscle metabolism (26,27). ...
... The efficacy of HMB, when investigated in clinical trials, is inconsistent and unclear (24)(25)(26)(27). Some studies show the benefit of HMB (24,25), while other studies found that HMB has no effect on muscle metabolism (26,27). A number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses examined on the effectiveness of HMB on muscle mass in various populations including trained individuals, untrained individuals and healthy older adults (8,17,18,28). ...
Article
Background Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been shown to be effective and superior to other types of protein supplements to attenuate loss of muscle mass, strength and function, however, its benefits in sarcopenic and frail older people remain unclear. Objective We seek to determine the effect of HMB on muscle mass, strength and function in older people with sarcopenia or frailty by reviewing results from available randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Design This review was registered at PROSPERO (University of York) with registration number CRD42018088462 and conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Using a pre-determined e-search strategy, we searched PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, Web of Science, Cochrane and Scopus databases. Our inclusion criteria were RCTs that assessed the effect of HMB on muscle mass, strength and function in older people with sarcopenia and frailty aged ≥60 years. The main outcomes were lean body mass, handgrip, leg press strength, and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) score. Results Three studies matched our eligibility criteria which enrolled 203 subjects through a variety of definitions of sarcopenia or frailty. Lean body mass increased and muscle strength and function were preserved following HMB supplementation. Conclusion HMB improves lean muscle mass and preserves muscle strength and function in older people with sarcopenia or frailty.
... Studies assessing the effects of HMB in physically active individuals have mainly focused on verifying changes in the state of nutrition, assessing protein synthesis and proteolysis rates, and monitoring hormone levels and selected indices illustrating, for example, the degree of muscle damage and determination of changes in physical capacity [3,[19][20][21][22]. Since 1996, studies have been published that claim that HMB uptake may promote advantageous changes in body composition and strength, and reduced levels of muscle damage markers during resistance training [3,18,22,23]. Further, in a meta-analysis by Nissen and Sharp [21], it was found that HMB supplementation for resistance exercise resulted in increased strength and fat-free mass by (net value) 1.4 and 0.28 % per week, respectively, in both trained and untrained individuals. ...
... These observations may be confirmed by a study by Molinari et al. [38], who recorded increased muscle power (9.2 % HMB vs. 1.7 % PLA ) in volleyball players using HMB. In turn, in a study on judoists subjected to a 3-day limitation of energy intake (20 kcal · kg bm −1 day −1 ) a reduction (p < 0.05) was recorded for fat mass (−0.85 % HMB vs. 0.2 % PLA ) only in the group of athletes supplemented with HMB, although no differences were found in indices of anaerobic power between athletes using HMB and placebos [23]. Apart from the negative energy balance, this may have resulted from the fact that HMB supplementation lasted only 3 days, which seems too short to cause significant changes in systemic anaerobic potential. ...
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β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) is an interesting supplement in sports. However, literature sources present a limited number of studies that verify the efficacy of HMB intake over a longer time period among endurance athletes. For this reason, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of HMB supplementation on physical capacity, body composition and levels of biochemical markers in rowers. Sixteen elite male rowers were administered a 12-week HMB supplementation (3×1 gHMB · day(-1)) and placebo administration (PLA) following the model of a randomised, placebo controlled, double-blind crossover study with a 10 days washout period. Over the course of the experiment, aerobic (maximal oxygen uptake, ventilatory threshold) and anaerobic (anaerobic power indices) capacity were determined, while analyses were conducted on body composition as well as levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, testosterone, cortisol and the T/C ratio. A normal distribution of variables was tested using the paired 2-tailed t-tests; the Mann-Whitney U-test or the Wilcoxon-signed rank test were applied for non-normally distributed variables. Following HMB supplementation, [Formula: see text] increased (+2.7 mL · min(-1) · kg(-1)) significantly (p < 0.001) in comparison to its reduction after PLA (-1.0 mL · min(-1) · kg(-1)). In turn, at the ventilatory threshold, a longer time was required to reach this point (+1.2 minHMB vs. -0.2 minPLA, p = 0.012), while threshold load (+0.42 W · kg(-1) HMB vs. -0.06 W · kg(-1) PLA, p = 0.002) and threshold heart rate (+9 bpmHMB vs. +1 bpmPLA, p < 0.001) increased. After HMB supplementation, fat mass decreased (-0.9 kgHMB vs. +0.8 kgPLA, p = 0.03). In relation to the initial values after HMB supplementation, the refusal time to continue in the progressive test was extended (p = 0.04), maximum load (p = 0.04) and anaerobic peak power (p = 0.02) increased. However, in relation to the placebo, no differences were observed in anaerobic adaptation or blood marker levels. The results indicate that HMB intake in endurance training has an advantageous effect on the increase in aerobic capacity and the reduction of fat mass. It may also stimulate an increase in peak anaerobic power, while it seems to have no effect on other indices of anaerobic adaptation and levels of investigated markers in the blood.
... In 1996, Nissen et al. (26) published one of the first studies to stat that HMB uptake promotes an increase in fat-free mass and muscle strength, as well as a reduction of fat mass (FM) and muscle damage after training. The above-mentioned observations of advantageous changes in body composition and strength, and of reduced levels of muscle damage markers (mainly creatine kinase [CK] activity), after HMB supplementation during resistance training were also shown in studies by other authors (11,15,30,36,38). These positive effects of HMB supplementation in resistance training were also observed in the elderly (6,10,16). ...
... In the case of volleyball players given 7 weeks of HMB supplementation, Portal et al. (30) also stated a similar decrease in FM (by 6.6% FM ) and an increase in fat-free mass by 2.3 kg (3.9% FFM ), whereas the group with the PLA treatment showed a slight decrease in this tissue component of 0.1 kg (20.2% FFM ), accompanied by an increase in the adipose tissue content of 3.6% FM . In turn, in a study of female judoists subjected to a 3-day limitation on energy uptake (to 20 kcal$kg bm 21 $d 21 ), only the group of athletes supplemented with HMB displayed a reduction (p # 0.05) in FM (20.85% HMB vs. 0.2% placebo ) (15). ...
Article
Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) affects body composition, aerobic capacity, or intramuscular enzymes activity, as well as in anabolic/catabolic hormones and lactate concentrations. Methods: A cohort of 58 highly-trained males was subjected to 12 weeks supplementation with HMB (3x1gHMB·day) and a placebo (PLA) in randomised, placebo controlled, double-blind crossover trials, with a 10 days washout period. Body composition and aerobic capacity were recorded, while the levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, testosterone, cortisol, and lactate, as well as the T/C ratio, in blood samples were measured. Results: Following HMB supplementation fat-free mass increased (+0.2 kgHMB vs. -1.0 kgPLA, P = 0.021), with a simultaneous reduction of fat mass (-0.8 kgHMB vs. +0.8 kgPLA, P < 0.001). In turn, after HMB supplementation, in comparison to placebo: maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: +0.102 L·minHMB vs. -0.063 L·minPLA, P = 0.013), time to reach VT (TVT: +1.0 minHMB vs. -0.4 minPLA, P < 0.0001), threshold load at VT (WVT: +20 WHMB vs. -7 WPLA, P = 0.001), and the threshold HR at VT (HRVT: +8 bpmHMB vs. -1 bpmPLA, P < 0.0001) increased significantly. Analysis of the tested biochemical markers show significant differences only in relation to the initial concentration. In HMB group testosterone levels increased (P = 0.047) and in both groups (HMB: P = 0.008; PLA: P = 0.008) higher cortisol levels were observed. Conclusion: The results indicate that supplying HMB promotes advantageous changes in body composition and stimulates an increase in aerobic capacity, while seeming not to significantly affect the levels of the analyzed blood markers.
... Restricting calories prior to competition is commonly used by bodybuilders and those in weight-classified sports. However, research demonstrates that calorie restriction can cause decreases in lean mass and exercise performance [50]. In a recent study [50] on female judo athletes who were calorically restricted for three days, body weight and body fat percentage were significantly decreased in the subjects consuming HMB-Ca compared to the control group. ...
... However, research demonstrates that calorie restriction can cause decreases in lean mass and exercise performance [50]. In a recent study [50] on female judo athletes who were calorically restricted for three days, body weight and body fat percentage were significantly decreased in the subjects consuming HMB-Ca compared to the control group. There were also trends for HMB to have positive effects on LBM, which tended to decrease more in the control group (−1.6%) than in the HMB group (−0.5%). ...
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Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature on the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) as a nutritional supplement. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1. HMB can be used to enhance recovery by attenuating exercise induced skeletal muscle damage in trained and untrained populations. 2. If consuming HMB, an athlete will benefit from consuming the supplement in close proximity to their workout. 3. HMB appears to be most effective when consumed for 2 weeks prior to an exercise bout. 4. Thirty-eight mg.kg.BM-1 daily of HMB has been demonstrated to enhance skeletal muscle hypertrophy, strength, and power in untrained and trained populations when the appropriate exercise prescription is utilized. 5. Currently, two forms of HMB have been used: Calcium HMB (HMB-Ca) and a free acid form of HMB (HMB-FA). HMB-FA may increase plasma absorption and retention of HMB to a greater extent than HMB-CA. However, research with HMB-FA is in its infancy, and there is not enough research to support whether one form is superior. 6. HMB has been demonstrated to increase LBM and functionality in elderly, sedentary populations. 7. HMB ingestion in conjunction with a structured exercise program may result in greater declines in fat mass (FM). 8. HMB's mechanisms of action include an inhibition and increase of proteolysis and protein synthesis, respectively. 9. Chronic consumption of HMB is safe in both young and old populations.
... Research has demonstrated HMB increases muscle protein synthesis (;70%) (40,41), decreases muscle protein breakdown (;57%) (40,41), and improves muscle membrane stability (;25%) (4). However, results from human trials supplemented with HMB are equivocal, with some studies suggesting a benefit (8,9,13,16,18,19,25), while others showing none (12,17,24,27,28,31,35). Owing to the variability in the results of HMB studies, this meta-analysis sought to clarify the effects of HMB on body composition in athletes, a population that would seemingly benefit from the supplement given their rigorous training practices. ...
... Indeed, the current analysis identified moderate levels of heterogeneity (.30%) for FFM and FM, whereas Sanchez-Martinez et al. (32) found minimal heterogeneity (,25%). Examination of the data included in the study by Sanchez-Martinez et al. (32) demonstrates 1 study that lacked randomization (24), 1 study performed in recreational individuals (37), and 1 study that was completed over a 3-day period (13). These studies failed to satisfy the inclusion criteria of the current analysis. ...
Article
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Holland, BM, Roberts, BM, Krieger, JW, and Schoenfeld, BJ. Does HMB enhance body composition in athletes? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The purpose of this article was to systematically review and meta-analyze the current literature to determine the effects of HMB on body composition in athletes. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: (a) were an experimental design published in a peer-reviewed, English-language journal; (b) included human athletic populations; (c) assessed body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), or fat-free mass (FFM) using a validated measure; (d) and had a minimum supplementation period of 4 weeks. Separate analyses were performed for BM, FM, and FFM using robust variance random-effects meta-regression for multilevel data structures, with adjustments for small samples. The final analysis of BM comprised a total of 208 subjects from 7 studies. Analysis of FFM and FM encompassed 5 studies comprising 161 subjects and 5 studies comprising 128 subjects, respectively. The principal finding of this analysis suggests HMB may have a small, positive impact on FFM in athletes (0.30 ± 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.07 to 0.68; p = 0.08), although this seems specific to when protein intake is suboptimal (<1.6 g·kg·d). Consistent with previous research on athletes, HMB demonstrated no significant effect on BM (-0.02 ± 0.04; 95% CI: -0.14 to 0.10; p = 0.70) and a small, nonsignificant effect on FM (-0.33 ± 0.23; 95% CI: -0.96 to 0.31; p = 0.22). More research is required to establish HMB's influence on FFM in athletes. It is also important to consider the dosage of HMB and training parameters of athletes because these will likely influence the efficacy of supplementation.
... The most common preparations were the combination of protein supplements with BCAA, creatine, vitamins and minerals. Only in a few cases the combination of proteins with carbohydrate supplements was declared, which in the light of reports from the literature seems to be favourable, mainly due to the postexercise recovery [1,14,15]. ...
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Background The aim of the study was to determine the preferences in the use of nutritional supplements and the correctness of their selection in training among recreational athletes attending classes at the gym. Material/Methods A group 169 of recreational athletes was surveyed in ”AWF Warszawa” and ”Warszawianka” gyms; they were 26.6 years old ±6.48 yrs and had 4 years ±4.57 of training experience. The diagnostic survey method was used, with questionnaires developed by the authors of this study. Results A significantly smaller proportion of respondents declared the use of supplements. The supplementation declared most often involved the use of chain amino acids (BCAA), highprotein supplements and creatine. A small proportion of the respondents declared the use of carbohydrate supplements. Respondents declared taking more than one supplement at the same time. Most often the protein supplements were combined with BCAA, creatine, vitamins and minerals. A lack of knowledge manifested itself in many declarations such as taking supplements with similar composition at the same time, the consumption of excessive doses of certain substances, not knowing rules for maintaining the correct proportions of the basic ingredients of a diet or a need for supplementation with certain substances, depending on the type of exercise. Athletes wanted to achieve one to two training goals in their classes, but the selection of supplements to help achieve these goals was wrong. There was no significant preference given to the type of exercise (aerobic, strength), indicating that many types of exercise were to be implemented in parallel during one training session. Conclusions The use of supplements among recreational athletes is not as widespread as is commonly thought. The declared supplementation had a standard structure. The number of substances used at the same time is lower than in athletes in high sports classes. A widespread lack of knowledge of the training process can eliminate the effects of supplementation. It can also cause harm to health and nutritional deficiencies. The implementation of properly selected training goals may be impossible when supplementation is chosen poorly. Although it is permissible to perform different types of exercise in a training session, the exercise choices made by recreational athletes often seem accidental. Key words Supplements, physical activity, training
... In trained athletes, 3 g of HMB supplementation for 4-12 weeks has been linked to improvements in athletic performance [22,23] and lean mass [23,24] in some, but not all studies [25][26][27][28][29]. It has been speculated that the degree of damage and stress associated with training influences the occurrence of a positive effect [30], for example, during periods of caloric restriction [31,32]. The rigors of a rugby season may also satisfy this prerequisite, and combining HMB with creatine monohydrate, may elicit a more pronounced effect on performance due to their different proposed mechanisms of action [10,18]. ...
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Background: Muscular damage sustained while playing rugby may hinder performance across a season. β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) may help attenuate muscle damage and maintain lean mass and performance. This study sought to determine the effect of combining HMB with creatine monohydrate supplementation on measures of stress and muscle damage, body composition, strength and sprinting kinetics throughout a rugby season. Methods: This double-blind, cross-over investigation recruited 16 male collegiate rugby players to provide resting blood samples and complete assessments of body composition, strength and sprinting performance prior to their fall season (PREFALL). After testing, the athletes were matched for fat-free mass and assigned to consume one of two supplementation regimens for 6 weeks: 5 g HMB + 5 g creatine per day (HMB-Cr: 20.9 ± 1.1 years; 177 ± 2 cm; 88.4 ± 4.9 kg) or 5 g creatine + 5 g placebo per day (Cr: 21.4 ± 2.1 years; 179 ± 2 cm; 88.3 ± 4.9 kg). After 6 weeks (POSTFALL), PREFALL testing was repeated in 13 of the original 16 athletes before a 10-wk wash-out period. Athletes who returned for the spring season (n = 8) repeated all fall-season procedures and testing prior to (PRESPRING) and following (POSTSPRING) their 6-wk spring season, except they were assigned to the opposite supplementation regimen. Results: Linear mixed models with repeated measures revealed group x time interactions (p < 0.05) for observed for several measures but did not consistently and positively favor one group. During the fall season, knee extensor peak torque was reduced by 40.7 ± 28.1 Nm (p = 0.035) for HMB-Cr but remained consistent for Cr, and no group differences or changes were noted in the spring. In the spring, greater knee flexor rate of torque development (~ 149 Nm·sec- 1, p = 0.003) and impulse (~ 4.5 Nm·sec, p = 0.022) were observed in Cr at PRESPRING but not at POSTSPRING. Although significant interactions were found for cortisol concentrations, vastus lateralis pennation angle, and sprinting force, post-hoc analysis only revealed differences between fall and spring seasons. No other differences were observed. Conclusions: The combination of HMB and creatine monohydrate supplementation does not provide a greater ergogenic benefit compared to creatine monohydrate supplementation alone. Body composition, strength, and sprinting ability did not change across the season with creatine monohydrate supplementation.
... Results of this study were in agreement with the findings of previous studies. 23,24 It might be attributed to the extent of tissue damage-induced acute phase reaction and/ or a significant increase in plasma fibrinogen levels in judo athletes. Although serum T.chol and HDL cholesterol levels increased after the exercises, LDL cholesterol levels decreased during all measurements in the present study. ...
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Introduction: Evaluation of health status and physical condition of Kyrgyz Judo Athletes before the Olympic Games. Objective: To evaluate changes in hematological, biochemical and blood gas values of athletes during the training period. Methods: Eight elite athletes (n=8 men), participated to the study. Before and after the exercise periods (baseline, 3rd month and 6th month), blood samples were taken, to determine plasma red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), blood clot cell (PLT), granulocyte (NOTR) and agranulocyte (LNF) counts, hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) values, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and venous blood pH, PO2, PCO2, SAT O2, HCO3, BE, Na, K, Cl values. In addition, serum glucose (Glu), total protein (TP), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, triglyceride (Trig), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Creat), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) values were measured. Results: Although, the athletes’ WBC and LNF counts increased significantly (p<0.05) in post-exercise periods, no statistical significance (p>0.05) was found in the other hematological parameters. Blood pH, pCO2, HCO3 and BE values decreased (P<0.05) after the exercise periods. Conclusion: The effects of exercise on judo athletes were evaluated before the Olympics. Level of Evidence III; Case-control study.
... 92-95 despite these effects, a recent meta-analysis found no effect of hMB supplementation on strength and body composition in trained and competitive athletes. 96 in contrast, hung et al. 97 analyzed the effects of hMB during energy restriction periods in judo athletes and found an increase in muscle mass and reductions in body fat. Short-term supplementation of hMB during energy restriction periods may help to reduce body fat but has no effect on lean body mass or exercise performance. ...
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Background: Some methods such as ergo nutritional aids, cooling or massage among others could improve recovery in combat sports (CS). The effects, doses, duration, and timing of these methods remains unknown. Nowadays, there is no clear consensus regarding the recovery strategies and it is necessary to understand the type of fatigue induced in CS and its underlying mechanisms. The main aim of this article is to review the update literature related to recovery strategies in CS. Methods: A literature search was conducted following preferred reporting items for review statement on the topic of: "combat sports", "recovery", "nutrition", "fatigue", "ergogenic aids", "weight cutting" and "hydration". Results: The initial search of the literature detected 369 articles about CS. Later, 307 were excluded after being determined unrelated to recovery or after failure to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Of the 80 included articles, 19 satisfied the final inclusion criteria. Conclusions: To optimize CS performance, adequate recovery is required during training and competition processes. Traditional ergo nutritional supplementation of carbohydrates and proteins combined. Besides, the consumption of evidence supported supplementation (green tea, beetroot gels, creatine or alkaline water) improve recovery processes. Further methods of recovery including: physical (cold water immersion, massage or Photobiomodulation) and physiological (types of active recovery, sleep and rest) therapies have also been shown useful. This narrative review elucidates the important role of recovery techniques in CS.
... Although our design was certainly innovative, the outcomes found agree with previously published studies. For example, HMB has been demonstrated to attenuate decreases in power and LBM in calorically restricted judo athletes subjected to highintensity training loads (12). Additionally, HMB supplementation has also been found to acutely blunt rises in cortisol after resistance training (16,33), as well as decrease or prevent the rise in serum indices of muscle damage (19,28), along with subjective measures of recovery after rigorous acute training regimens (33,34). ...
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... While our design was certainly innovative, the outcomes found agreed with the past literature. For example, HMB has been demonstrated to attenuate decreases in power and lBM in calorically restricted judo athletes subjected to high-intensity training loads (Hunga et al. 2010). HMB supplementation has also been found to acutely blunt rises in cortisol following resistance training (Kraemer et al. 2009), as well as decrease or prevent the rise in serum indices of muscle damage (nissen et al. 1996;van Someren et al. 2005), along with subjective measures of recovery following rigorous acute training regimens (van Someren et al. 2005). ...
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... In an additional study in combat athletes, elite female judokas were provided HMB (3 g· day −1 ) for 3 days during a period of caloric restriction. Judokas consuming HMB lost significantly more fat mass and body mass than the placebo group (Hung, Liu, Chen, & Chang, 2010), though no differences were noted in any performance variables. ...
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span lang="EN-US">Performance measurement in Judo usually focuses on some KPIs whose values indicate the final performance of the athlete. This paper deals with firstly identifying which these main KPIs in Judo are. Once this is done, the KPIs are classified into four different clusters: Physical training, specific training, Psychology and Lifestyle. Then, it proposes the multi-criteria decision aim technique of Analytic Network Process as the most indicate one to link not only the impact of the Judo KPIs with the achievement of the judoka’s strategic objectives but also to identify both the relative and the global importance of each of these KPIs. </span
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Introduction: although -hydroxy--methylbutyrate (HMB) is generally marketed as a supplement for increasing muscle mass and strength, it is still not fully understood how and in which particular sports and conditions HMB can be more effective. Aims: the primary purpose of this review is to update and summarize the current knowledge about the usefulness of HMB and to organize this information by different sports with specific reference to sports with high wear and tear phenomena as soccer, rugby or football. Methods: a search was performed in PubMed database. This review presents the results about HMB use in sport. Results: the articles identified in this review support the notion that HMB could help to attenuate tissue catabolism and initiate muscle anabolism particularly in untrained individuals exposed to strenuous exercise or when trained individual are exposed to periods of high physical stress. HMB could therefore be applied in some specific periods of athlete's season where there are high-intensity training periods, high density of competitions and little recovery time between them, starting recovery phases from an injury period and/or any other different situation where performance or recovery could be affected by a great catabolic environment. Conclusion: this update contributes to clarify and define possible mechanisms and/or effectiveness of HMB supplementation related to endurance sports (i.e. cycling and athletics), strength-power sports (i.e. resistance training, football, rugby, soccer, judo, waterpolo and rowing) and recreational activities.
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The effects of dietary supplementation with the leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) were studied in two experiments. In study 1, subjects (n = 41) were randomized among three levels of HMB supplementation (0, 1.5 or 3.0 g HMB/day) and two protein levels (normal, 117 g/day, or high, 175 g/day) and weight lifted for 1.5 h 3 days/wk for 3 wk. In study 2, subjects (n = 28) were fed either 0 or 3.0 g HMB/day and weight lifted for 2-3 h 6 days/wk for 7 wk. In study 1, HMB significantly decreased the exercise-induced rise in muscle proteolysis as measured by urine 3-methylhistidine during the first 2 wk of exercise (linear decrease, P < 0.04). Plasma creatine phosphokinase was also decreased with HMB supplementation (week 3, linear decrease, P < 0.05). Weight lifted was increased by HMB supplementation when compared with the unsupplemented subjects during each week of the study (linear increase, P < 0.02). In study 2, fat-free mass was significantly increased in HMB-supplemented subjects compared with the unsupplemented group at 2 and 4-6 wk of the study (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation with either 1.5 or 3 g HMB/day can partly prevent exercise-induced proteolysis and/or muscle damage and result in larger gains in muscle function associated with resistance training.
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The purpose of this study was to quantify which dietary supplements augment lean mass and strength gains during resistance training. Peer-reviewed studies between the years 1967 and 2001 were included in the analysis if they met a predetermined set of experimental criteria, among which were at least 3-wk duration and resistance-training 2 or more times a week. Lean mass and strength were normalized for meta-analysis by conversion to percent change per week and by calculating the effect size for each variable. Of the 250 supplements examined, only 6 had more than 2 studies that met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Creatine and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) were found to significantly increase net lean mass gains of 0.36 and 0.28%/wk and strength gains of 1.09 and 1.40%/wk (P < 0.05), respectively. Chromium, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, and protein did not significantly affect lean gain or strength. In conclusion, two supplements, creatine and HMB, have data supporting their use to augment lean mass and strength gains with resistance training.
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The leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been extensively used as an ergogenic aid; particularly among bodybuilders and strength/power athletes, who use it to promote exercise performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. While numerous studies have supported the efficacy of HMB in exercise and clinical conditions, there have been a number of conflicting results. Therefore, the first purpose of this paper will be to provide an in depth and objective analysis of HMB research. Special care is taken to present critical details of each study in an attempt to both examine the effectiveness of HMB as well as explain possible reasons for conflicting results seen in the literature. Within this analysis, moderator variables such as age, training experience, various states of muscle catabolism, and optimal dosages of HMB are discussed. The validity of dependent measurements, clustering of data, and a conflict of interest bias will also be analyzed. A second purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive discussion on possible mechanisms, which HMB may operate through. Currently, the most readily discussed mechanism has been attributed to HMB as a precursor to the rate limiting enzyme to cholesterol synthesis HMG-coenzyme A reductase. However, an increase in research has been directed towards possible proteolytic pathways HMB may operate through. Evidence from cachectic cancer studies suggests that HMB may inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway responsible for the specific degradation of intracellular proteins. HMB may also directly stimulate protein synthesis, through an mTOR dependent mechanism. Finally, special care has been taken to provide future research implications.
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The effects of supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) were examined in a resistance training study. Thirty-nine men and 36 women between the ages of 20–40 y were randomized to either a placebo (P) supplemented or HMB supplemented (3.0 g HMB/d) group in two gender cohorts. All subjects trained three times per week for 4 wk. In the HMB group, plasma creatine phosphokinase levels tended to be suppressed compared to the placebo group following the 4 wk of resistance training (HMB:174.4 ± 26.8 to 173.5 ± 17.0 U/L; P:155.0 ± 20.8 to 195.2 ± 23.5 U/L). There were no significant differences in strength gains based on prior training status or gender with HMB supplementation. The HMB group had a greater increase in upper body strength than the placebo group (HMB:7.5 ± 0.6 kg; P:5.2 ± 0.6 kg; P = 0.008). The HMB groups increased fat-free weight by 1.4 ± 0.2 kg and decreased percent fat by 1.1% ± 0.2% while the placebo groups increased fat-free weight by 0.9 ± 0.2 kg and decreased percent fat by 0.5% ± 0.2% (fat-free weight P = 0.08, percent fat P = 0.08, HMB compared to placebo). In summary, this is the first short-term study to investigate the roles of gender and training status on the effects of HMB supplementation on strength and body composition. This study showed, regardless of gender or training status, HMB may increase upper body strength and minimize muscle damage when combined with an exercise program.
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Twelve competitive wrestlers restricted their caloric intake (92 kJ/kg FFW/day) for 7 days, using a high (HC) or normal (NC) carbohydrate diet to determine the acute effect of caloric deficiency on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance as well as growth hormone (hGH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. The subjects were tested while on a eucaloric diet and at the end of the dietary restriction. Neither the dietary restriction nor composition had an effect on the ability to complete an 8-minute run at 85% of maximal capacity, but both produced an increased fat utilization during the run. The responses to the Wingate Anaerobic Test indicated that the NC group had a significant reduction in total and mean power output (-7% & -6%, respectively; p less than 0.05), whereas the HC group maintained all power measures. The caloric restriction, regardless of dietary composition, increased the exercise hGH response more for the NC group than the HC group (p less than 0.05). IGF-1 levels were significantly lowered by the diet, but the diet composition had no effect. These results indicate that even during caloric restriction, a high carbohydrate diet better maintains anerobic exercise performance. Furthermore, the composition of the diet appears to have no effect on the resting hGH and IGF-1 responses to caloric deficits. However, carbohydrate composition may have an effect on the gGH response to exercise.
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The current study was designed to examine whether a combination of three nutrients, consisting of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine, L-glutamine (Gln) and L-arginine (Arg), each of which has been previously shown to slow muscle proteolysis, could synergistically alter the course of muscle wasting in patients with established acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Sixty-eight human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with a documented weight loss of at least 5% in the previous 3 months were recruited from the HIV clinic at Nassau County Medical Center. The subjects were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either placebo containing maltodextrin or the nutrient mixture (HMB/Arg/Gln) containing 3 g HMB, 14 g L-glutamine, and 14 g L-arginine given in two divided doses daily for 8 weeks. Body weights (BW) were recorded weekly and lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) were measured by air displacement plethysmography and by a single computerized tomography (CT) slice through the thigh at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Forty-three subjects completed the 8-week protocol, (placebo, n = 21; HMB/Arg/Gln, n = 22). At 8 weeks, the subjects consuming the HMB/Arg/Gln mixture gained 3.0 +/- 0.5 kg of BW while those supplemented with the placebo gained 0.37 +/- 0.84 kg (p = .009). The BW gain in the HMB/Arg/Gln-treated subjects was predominantly LBM (2.55 +/- 0.75 kg) compared with the placebo-supplemented subjects who lost lean mass (-0.70 +/- 0.69 kg, p = .003). No significant change in FM gain was observed (0.43 +/- 0.83 kg for the group receiving HMB/Arg/Gln and 1.07 +/- 0.64 kg for the group receiving the placebo, p > .20). Similar percentage changes in muscle mass and fat mass were observed with CT scans. Immune status was also improved as evident by an increase in CD3 and CD8 cells and a decrease in the HIV viral load with HMB/Arg/Gln supplementation. The data indicate that the HMB/Arg/Gln mixture can markedly alter the course of lean tissue loss in patients with AIDS-associated wasting.
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Cancer-related cachexia is caused by a diverse combination of accelerated protein breakdown and slowed protein synthesis. The hypothesis proposed in this study is that supplementation of specific nutrients known to positively support protein synthesis and reduce protein breakdown will reverse the cachexia process in advanced cancer patients. Patients with solid tumors who had demonstrated a weight loss of at least 5% were considered for the study. Patients were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either an isonitrogenous control mixture of nonessential amino acids or an experimental treatment containing beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (3 g/d), L-arginine (14 g/d), and L-glutamine (14 g/d [HMB/Arg/Gln]). The primary outcomes measured were the change in body mass and fat-free mass (FFM), which were assessed at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks. Thirty-two patients (14 control, 18 HMB/Arg/Gln) were evaluated at the 4-week visit. The patients supplemented with HMB/Arg/Gln gained 0.95 +/- 0.66 kg of body mass in 4 weeks, whereas control subjects lost 0.26 +/- 0.78 kg during the same time period. This gain was the result of a significant increase in FFM in the HMB/Arg/Gln-supplemented group (1.12 +/- 0.68 kg), whereas the subjects supplemented with the control lost 1.34 +/- 0.78 kg of FFM (P = 0.02). The response to 24-weeks of supplementation was evaluated by an intent-to-treat statistical analysis. The effect of HMB/Arg/Gln on FFM increase was maintained over the 24 weeks (1.60 +/- 0.98 kg; quadratic contrast over time, P <0.05). There was no negative effect of treatment on the incidence of adverse effects or quality of life measures. The mixture of HMB/Arg/Gln was effective in increasing FFM of advanced (stage IV) cancer. The exact reasons for this improvement will require further investigation, but could be attributed to the observed effects of HMB on slowing rates of protein breakdown, with improvements in protein synthesis observed with arginine and glutamine.
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In this study, we examined the effects of weight reduction by restricting energy intake on muscle function and serum concentrations of myogenic enzymes in judoists. Twenty-seven male judoists aged 19.3 +/- 0.6 years (mean +/- s) were divided into three groups based on the extent of body weight reduction: high weight reduction (height 1.70 +/- 0.05 m, body mass 78.5 +/- 13.6 kg), low weight reduction (height 1.70 +/- 0.05 m, body mass 80.7 +/- 13.1 kg) and a group that maintained body weight while continuing to perform exercise training (height 1.78 +/- 0.07 m, body mass 78.7 +/- 8.8 kg). Body composition, blood biochemistry, energy intake and anaerobic power were assessed on four occasions: 20 days (baseline data), 4 days and 1 day before and 7 days after competition. Compared with baseline, body mass and fat-free mass were significantly lower 1 day before competition in the high and low weight reduction groups (both P < 0.01); these changes persisted for 7 days after competition in the high weight reduction group. Serum creatine kinase was significantly elevated 1 day before competition in all groups (all P < 0.05), and remained higher 7 days after competition in both the high and low weight reduction groups. Compared with baseline, maximal anaerobic power was significantly lower 1 day before competition only in the high weight reduction group (P < 0.01). Our results suggest that energy restriction in addition to intense exercise training before major competition has an adverse effect on anaerobic power and elevates serum creatine kinase concentration, leading to an impairment of muscular function and an increased susceptibility of muscle tissue to injury.
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Elevated inflammatory markers and muscle wasting were common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 7-day beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on inflammation, protein metabolism, and pulmonary function in COPD patients in an intensive care unit. Thirty-four COPD patients who required mechanical ventilators were randomly assigned to HMB (n=18) or control (n=16) groups. The HMB group received HMB 3 g/d for 7 days. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and creatinine were significantly lower, while cholesterol and total protein were significantly higher after HMB supplementation. The body weight remained unchanged in both groups. Ten subjects (55.6%) in the HMB group and 4 subjects (25.0%) in the control group had improved pulmonary function, indicated by their ventilator modes. This short-term study suggests that HMB supplementation may have anti-inflammatory and anticatabolic effect and improve pulmonary function in COPD patients in an intensive care unit setting.
Conference Paper
For more than forty years, discussion of scientific computing has been dominated by a minority who equate it with high performance computing. The result is a culture in which productivity is low, project failure rates are high, and quality is usually unknown. This talk examines how this situation arose, why it persists, and what can be done to fix it.