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Abstract

The eucalyptus snout beetle is a defoliator with tremendous potential to damage urban and commercial forest plantings of eucalyptus. It has just recently been detected in California, but experience gained from other parts of the world gives us advance knowledge of its life history and host preferences. As with other recently introduced eucalyptus pests, use of host resistance and biological control appear to be the most appropriate management options.

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... In Europe, ESB was first detected in Italy in 1975, after which it was detected in France (1978), Spain (1991) and Portugal (1995) (Cadahia 1980;Mansilla Vazquez 1992;Mazza et al. 2015;Rabasse and Perrin 1979;Pérez Otero et al. 2003). In the USA, ESB was first reported in California in 1994 (Cowles and Downer 1995;Hanks et al. 2000). In the twenty-first century, the ESB continued to spread and there were reports of the pest in China in 2003, (EPPO 2005) although its presence in that country has not been confirmed (Jeger et al. 2018). ...
... In the invasive range, G. platensis is known from New Zealand, South America, the USA, the Iberian Peninsula in Europe and Western Australia. G. pulverulentus was identified from Uruguay in South America Cadahia (1980), Cadahia (1986Cadahia ( , 1931, Clark (1937), Cowles and Downer (1995), EPPO (2005), Haines (2006), Lanfranco and Dungey (2001), Mally (1924), Mansilla Vazquez (1992), Mapondera et al. (2012), Mazza et al. (2015), Miller (1927), Tooke (1955), Pinet (1986), Rabassa and Perrin (1995), Rodas (2018), Rosado-Neto and Marques (1996) and Williams et al. (1951) G. scutellatus was identified as a cryptic species complex consisting of 8 closely related species ...
... Confusion regarding the taxonomy of ESB, and the recognition that most early reports referring to a single species actually represented numerous different taxa, has been one of the most important obstacles to research and management of these pests in Eucalyptus plantations. A comprehensive understanding of the morphological as well as the ecological differences between cryptic species and the environment in which they occur is key to developing successful Sources: Cadahia (1980), Clark (1931Clark ( , 1937, Cowles and Downer (1995), EPPO (2005), Frappa (1950), Haines (2006), Hanks et al. (2000), Kevan (1946), Lanfranco and Dungey (2001), Mally (1924), Mansilla Vazquez (1992), Mapondera et al. (2012), Marelli (1926Marelli ( , 1927, Mazza et al. (2015), Pinet (1986), Rabasse and Perrin (1979), Rodas (2018), Rosado-Neto and Marques (1996), Tooke (1955) and Williams et al. (1951) management strategies (Debach 1960;Rosen 1986;Thomas 1999;Thomas and Blanford 2003;Wharton and Kriticos 2004). Even though the cryptic species in the G. scutellatus complex are closely related, differences have commonly been found in the colouration and markings of different life stages, as well as in host and seasonal preferences (Berkov 2002;Burns et al. 2008;Hebert et al. 2004). ...
Article
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Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), once thought to be a single species, is now known to reside in a complex of at least eight cryptic species. Two of these species (G. platensis and G. pulverulentus) and an undescribed species (Gonipterus sp. n. 2) are invasive pests on five continents. A single population of Anaphes nitens, an egg parasitoid, has been used to control all three species of Gonipterus throughout the invaded range. Limited knowledge regarding the different cryptic species and their diversity significantly impedes efforts to manage the pest complex outside the native range. In this review, we consider the invasion and taxonomic history of the G. scutellatus cryptic species complex and the implications that the cryptic species diversity could have on management strategies. The ecological and biological aspects of these pests that require further research are identified. Strategies that could be used to develop an ecological approach towards managing the G. scutellatus species complex are also suggested.
... Assessor-William E. Wallner (Cowles and Downer 1995) and is now found in Ventura, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara Counties (Hanks and others 2000). Gonipterus scutellatus, native to Australia, also was introduced into the European Mediterranean in 1975 where it has been principally a pest of ornamental eucalypts along the French and Italian Riviera. ...
... Gonipterus scutellatus, native to Australia, also was introduced into the European Mediterranean in 1975 where it has been principally a pest of ornamental eucalypts along the French and Italian Riviera. (Cowles and Downer 1995). Both Gonipterus spp. ...
... were considered to be more susceptible to attack by the eucalyptus longhorned beetle, Phoracantha semipunctata (Fab.) (Cowles and Downer 1995). However, Hanks and others (2000) found no evidence that attack by the weevil increases susceptibility to attack by the eucalyptus longhorned borer. ...
Technical Report
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In this report, we assess the unmitigated pest risk potential of importing Eucalyptus logs and chips from South America into the United States. To do this, we estimated the likelihood and consequences of introducing representative insects and pathogens of concern. Nineteen individual pest risk assessments were prepared, eleven dealing with insects and eight with pathogens. The selected organisms were representative examples of insects and pathogens found on the foliage, on the bark, in the bark, and in the wood of Eucalyptus spp. Among the insects and pathogens assessed, eight were rated a high risk potential: purple moth (Sarsina violescens), scolytid bark and ambrosia beetles (Scolytopsis brasiliensis, Xyleborus retusus, Xyleborus biconicus, Xyleborus spp.), carpenterworm (Chilecomadia valdiviana) on Eucalyptus nitens, round-headed wood borers (Chydarteres striatus, Retrachyderes thoracicus, Trachyderes spp., Steirastoma breve, Stenodontes spinibarbis), eucalyptus longhorned borer (Phoracantha semipunctata), Botryosphaeria cankers (Botryosphaeria dothidea, Botryosphaeria obtusa, Botryosphaeria ribi), Ceratocystis canker (Ceratocystis fimbriata), and pink disease (Erythricium salmonicolor). A moderate pest risk potential was assigned to eleven other organisms or groups of organisms: eucalypt weevils (Gonipterus spp.), carpenterworm (Chilecomadia valdiviana) on two Eucalyptus species other than E. nitens, platypodid ambrosia beetle (Megaplatypus parasulcatus), yellow phorancantha borer (Phoracantha recurva), subterranean termites (Coptotermes spp., Heterotermes spp.), foliar diseases (Aulographina eucalypti, Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti, Cylindrocladium spp., Phaeophleospora spp., Mycosphaerella spp.), eucalyptus rust (Puccinia psidii), Cryphonectria canker (Cryphonectria cubensis), Cytospora cankers (Cytospora eucalypticola, Cytospora eucalyptina), Coniothyrium canker (Coniothyrium zuluense), and root and stem rots (Armillaria spp., Phellinus spp., Ganoderma sp., Gymnopilus spectabilis). For those organisms of concern that are associated with logs and chips of South American Eucalyptus spp., specific phytosanitary measures may be required to ensure the quarantine safety of proposed importations.
... As in hole feeding, margin feeding is produced by insects with mandibulate mouthparts, although the spectrum of groups that feed on leaf edges are somewhat different than those engaged in hole feeding (Edwards and Wratten, 1983). Typical margin feeders include nymphs and adults of katydids and grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae, Acrididae), larvae of scarab beetles, leaf beetles, and weevils (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae, Curculionidae) (Cowles and Downer, 1995;Urban, 2005; Bie nkowski, 2010); ditrysian moths (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia) (Ericksen, 1993;Chandra et al., 2011); and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthridinidae) (Cranshaw et al., 1994). ...
... The spectrum of surface-feeding DTs at Rose Creek consists of DT29, DT30 and DT31 that are variously shaped patches of surface-fed tissue with variable development of reaction rims, more complex rows along primary veins (DT276), and broad swaths of damage ensconced between adjacent primary veins that expose finer ranked veins (DT333). Surface feeding is common in modern floras, where it is accomplished primarily by larval polyphagous beetles (Cowles and Downer, 1995), occasionally as leaf rollers or leaf folders (Hamilton, 1994;Hall and Buss, 2012;Urban, 2012), by ditrysian moth larvae (Korth et al., 2006), or occasionally mites (Briones and McDaniel, 1976). ...
Article
Quantitative studies rarely address arthropod herbivory on early angiosperms. We assessed arthropod herbivory from highly sampled, abundant, diverse, and well preserved Early Cretaceous (late Albian) Rose Creek plant assemblage of southeastern Nebraska, USA. We examined 2084 specimens representing 49 species/morphotypes of which 21 are angiosperms of Austrobaileyales, Chloranthales, Laurales, Magnoliales, and Eurosidae. We used six metrics to assess arthropod herbivory. Richness metrics were damage type (DT) richness, component community structure, and host specificity level; intensity metrics were DT frequency, herbivorized surface area, and feeding event occurrences. Eleven functional feeding groups (FFGs) and 114 DTs were present; 87.3% were angiosperm interactions; and 3.14% of surface area was herbivorized. NMDS ordinations show herbivore component communities are distinctive on particular plant lineages, based on herbivorized surface area. Four mostly quantitative measures indicate that piercing-and-sucking and pathogens were the most highly ranked FFGs; mining, hole feeding, galling, and margin feeding were middle ranked; oviposition, surface feeding, and skeletonization were low ranked; and seed predation and borings were inconsequential. Component community structure of the three most intensively herbivorized hosts, a chloranthalean and two lauralean species, parallel that of a modern fern and four angiosperm species. DT specificities on plant hosts across the assemblage are generalists (64.10%), intermediates (17.95%), and specialists (17.95%). Mining and pathogens lacked whereas gallers were enriched in specialists. Most plant hosts display substantial herbivory richness and intensity, buttressed by distinct herbivore component communities of highly herbivorized species. The Rose Creek herbivory index approximates 0.72% of modern warm-temperate and 0.44% of tropical forests.
... The survey asked respondents to evaluate three alternative public pest control programs to manage a newly discovered pest, the eucalyptus snout beetle, Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Although native to Australia, the beetle was discovered in Ventura County in March 1994 (Cowles and Downer, 1995). The snout beetle adults and larvae feed on the leaves and tender shoots of susceptible eucalyptus species, especially Eucalyptus viminalis LaBillardiere and Eucalyptus globulus LaBillardiere (Mally, 1924). ...
... The significance of the results may be reinforced by the context of the survey. When we chose the eucalyptus snout beetle as a case study in 1995, the insect had been recently introduced into the region (Cowles and Downer, 1995), but had not become broadly distributed. In fact, at the time of the survey, the insect was confined to a relatively rural agricultural district and there had not been any information released to the public about the program . ...
Article
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Urban and suburban residents have more contact with the landscape environment than with any other exterior environment. They place high value on the aesthetic quality of the urban landscape and express significant concerns about managing insect herbivores that damage trees and shrubs. A comprehensive survey was initiated to assess the preference of urban residents for three pest management approaches (chemical pesticide, biorational insecticide, or introduction of a specific natural enemy) to control an introduced urban forest pest. Potential survey participants were initially contacted by telephone. Those agreeing to be interviewed were provided with written background information on the pest, the control options, and given one of 48 different cost and program attribute scenarios for implementation of the three approaches. They were contacted a second time by telephone for a final survey that asked them whether they were willing to pay the annual cost for the program attributes stated in their survey. Release of natural enemies was the overwhelming first choice among control options and application of chemical insecticides was least favored. When the price of all options was low, the respondents preferred the biological control option. As prices for all options rose, the chemical and bacterial options increased in preference, but when prices became high, preferences shifted again to the natural enemy option. The social characteristics of respondents favoring the different options were also examined in a contingent valuation analysis. From the survey, it was possible to calculate a respondent’s annual willingness to pay $485 for the natural enemy option, $131 for the bacterial spray option, and $23 for the chemical pesticide option. The results suggest that it may be possible to generate social and financial support from urban residents for introduction/classical biological control programs for landscape insect pests.
... Hay variación en la susceptibilidad de Eucalyptus spp., y se consideran sensibles a G. scutellatus: E. globulus, E. camaldulensis, E. viminalis, E. robusta, E. punctata, E. maideni y E. smithi; y resistente E. saligna, e inmune E. citriodora (Romanyk y Cadahia, (Mansilla, 1992;Cordero et al., 1999), California (Cowles and Downer, 1995;Hanks et al., 2000) and New Zealand (Withers, 2001). In South America it was described in Argentina in 1926(Rosado-Neto, 1993), in Uruguay in 1943, in Brazil in 1955and in Chile in 1998(Rosado-Neto, 1993Beéche, 1999). ...
Article
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In Chile, the Australian weevil Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), specific to eucalyptus, was first detected in 1998. It has spread trough the IV to IX Regions and could affect more than 525 thousand ha of Eucalyptus. The insect feeds on new foliage and causes losses in growth. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the susceptibility of Chile's most important eucalyptus species to damage by G. scutellatus, to characterize the molecular weight (kDa) of proteins of adult weevils that feed on the trees, and to identify marker proteins of the insects associated with the species of eucalyptus on which they feed. Susceptibility of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., E. globulus sp. globulus Labill. and E. robusta Smith to adult insects was measured by leaf area loss. The proteins of the adults were analyzed by electrophoresis, comparing size and intensity of the bands of gels. E. camaldulensis was more susceptible (p <= 0.05; 12.93% leaf area loss) than E. robusta (6.36%) or E. globulus (5.46%). Adults fed with E. robusta had the highest number of proteins (22). Those fed with each one of the three eucalyptus species separately had 15 proteins in common, and nine exhibited variations (marker proteins). Adult weevils fed E. robusta had seven marker proteins; E. camaldulensis and E. globulus had three marker proteins each. Weevils fed E. robusta had three marker proteins exclusive to these insects (9, 31 and 38 kDa), while those fed with E. camaldulensis and E. globulus had only one each (35 and 47 kDa). Thus, the three groups of weevils fed with different eucalyptus species had different protein profiles.
... Gyllenhal is an Australian insect specialised for eucalyptus (Withers 2001), where it is considered one of its major pests because of the important damage caused to plantations in many countries in Africa and europe (e.g., Arzone & meotto 1978; rabasse & Perrin 1979; richardson & meakins 1986; mansilla 1992; Cordero et al. 1999), California, united States (Cowles & downer 1995; Hanks et al. 2000), and new zealand (Cadahía 1980). In South America, the species was first reported for Argentina in 1926 by marelli (rosado 1993). ...
Article
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Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of eucalyptus in Chile. Susceptibility of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. globulus ssp. globulus, and E. robusta to larval feeding were studied by determining foliar area loss. The effect of feeding on larval protein profiles was analysed by electrophoresis. E. camaldulensis was more susceptible (11.21% foliar area consumed) than E. globulus (6.47%) and E. robusta (3.62%). Nineteen proteins were common in larvae fed the three kinds of food, whereas 11 exhibited variations (marker proteins). As all larvae came from E. globulus providing the same nutrition, relatively few species(20) proteins were detected in them. More proteins (30) were found in larvae feeding on E. robusta. The greatest number of marker proteins occurred in E. robusta (11), followed by E. camaldulensis (9), and E. globulus (1). Thus, larvae fed on three eucalyptus species had three different protein profiles. Study funded through the University of Chile DID I-02/6-2 research project “Determination of resistance of different species of Eucalyptus to damage by eucalyptus snout weevil Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Col., Curculionidae)”.
... The parasitoid has subsequently been introduced to New Zealand (Clark, 1931), Zimbabwe (Mossop, 1955), Mauritius (Moutia & Vinson, 1945; Williams et al., 1951), Madagascar (Frappa, 1950), Argentina (Marelli, 1928), Italy (Arzone, 1985), France (Pinet, 1986) and Spain (Mansilla & Pe Ârez, 1992). There are also plans to introduce it into California (Cowles & Downer, 1995). In most cases control was highly effective, and this is the only biological control example where an egg parasitoid acting alone was able to control a pest successfully (DeBach & Rosen, 1991). ...
Article
1 Gonipterus scutellatus is a weevil that has become a pest in most Eucalyptus plantations in Africa, America and Europe. The egg parasitoid Anaphes nitens has been introduced into many countries as a biological control agent. Even if control has been successful in most countries no detailed study of the interactions between both species has been published. 2 Gonipterus scutellatus was detected in 1991 in north-west Spain and A. nitens was introduced in early 1994. Here we report on the results of a 2-year study of parasitism in a field plot and a survey of 16 localities in North-west Spain. In 1996, parasitism was so intense (80–100% of eggs) that G. scutellatus became locally extinct, and as a consequence A. nitens disappeared. In 1997, G. scutellatus recolonized the area and was followed by its parasitoid, but parasitism was low in spring, probably because the parasitoid population needed 3 weeks to achieve a similar size as in 1996. Consequently, damage to the trees was extreme in 1997. We interpret these results as population fluctuations due to parasitoid–host interactions and suggest that parasitoids should not to be so effective as to locally extinguish their host to be useful for biological control. 3 The analysis of parasitism level in 16 localities indicates that A. nitens is highly efficient in finding G. scutellatus egg-masses. At a small spatial scale (single trees) positive density dependence was detected where parasitism was low and inverse density dependence where parasitism was high.
... For 100 yr, California eucalypts remained free of signiÞcant insect pests; however, over the past 15 yr, 12 species of insects that are eucalypt associates in Australia have found their way into the state (Gill et al. 1998). Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal, an Australian weevil, was Þrst discovered in California in March 1994, feeding on eucalypts in the Simi Valley of Ventura County (Seeno andDavidson 1994, Cowles andDowner 1995). In that area, mature eucalypts serve primarily as windbreaks for the many citrus orchards. ...
Article
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In March 1994, Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal, an Australian weevil that feeds on foliage of eucalypts, was discovered in Ventura County, CA. By the time of its discovery, the weevil was defoliating eucalypt trees in citrus orchard windrows. We imported, reared, and released a parasitoid of the weevil's eggs, Anaphes nitens Siscaro (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). A. nitens was firmly established in several southern California counties by mid-1997 and was spreading in tandem with its host. The wasp has proven to be effective in suppressing weevil populations, killing >95% of weevil eggs, except possibly in areas where insecticides are applied to manage pests of field crops. A. nitens appears to be a promising biological control agent for G. scutellatus in California.
... The eucalyptus snout beetle, Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was discovered defoliating California eucalyptus trees in March 1994 (Cowles and Downer, 1995). Extensive feeding by this Australian insect can completely defoliate trees and kill branches, whereas intermediate levels of defoliation retard growth and affect tree shape. ...
... Na América do Sul, a praga encontra-se estabelecida na Argentina, no Chile, no Brasil (Lanfranco & Dungey, 2001) e no Uruguai (Eppo, 2005) (Mally, 1924). O parasitoide foi introduzido na Argentina em 1925 (Fiorentino & Medina, 1991), depois no Uruguai (Eppo, 2005), no Brasil (Andrade, 1928, nas Ilhas Maurício entre 1935 e 1940 (Willians, Moutia & Hermelin, 1951), em Madagascar em 1950 (Frappa, 1950), no Mediterrâneo europeu em 1975 (Cadahia, 1986), na Nova Zelândia em 1980(Bain, 1977, na Espanha em 1991(Mansilla-Vázquez, 1992, nos Estados Unidos (Califórnia) em 1994 (Cowles & Downer, 1995) e no Chile em 1998 (Parra & Gonzalez, 1999). ...
Chapter
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The Eucalyptus snout beetle, Gonipterus platensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)is a invasive pest in Brazil, detected first time in 1950's. This chapter bring information about taxonomy, morphology, geographic distribution, plant hosts, bioecology and control methods, mainly biological control, with egg parasitoid Anaphes nitens and entomopathogenic fungi. (text In portuguese).
... Hay variación en la susceptibilidad de Eucalyptus spp., y se consideran sensibles a G. scutellatus: E. globulus, E. camaldulensis, E. viminalis, E. robusta, E. punctata, E. maideni y E. smithi; y resistente E. saligna, e inmune E. citriodora (Romanyk y Cadahia, (Mansilla, 1992;Cordero et al., 1999), California (Cowles and Downer, 1995;Hanks et al., 2000) and New Zealand (Withers, 2001). In South America it was described in Argentina in 1926(Rosado-Neto, 1993), in Uruguay in 1943, in Brazil in 1955and in Chile in 1998(Rosado-Neto, 1993Beéche, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
In Chile, the Australian weevil Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), specific to eucalyptus, was first detected in 1998. It has spread trough the IV to IX Regions and could affect more than 525 thousand ha of Eucalyptus. The insect feeds on new foliage and causes losses in growth. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the susceptibility of Chile's most important eucalyptus species to damage by G. scutellatus, to characterize the molecular weight (kDa) of proteins of adult weevils that feed on the trees, and to identify marker proteins of the insects associated with the species of eucalyptus on which they feed. Susceptibility of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., E. globulus sp. globulus Labill. and E. robusta Smith to adult insects was measured by leaf area loss. The proteins of the adults were analyzed by electrophoresis, comparing size and intensity of the bands of gels. E. camaldulensis was more susceptible (p:≤0.05; 12.93% leaf area loss) than E. robusta (6.36%) or E. globulus (5.46%). Adults fed with E. robusta had the highest number of proteins (22). Those fed with each one of the three eucalyptus species separately had 15 proteins in common, and nine exhibited variations (marker proteins). Adult weevils fed E. robusta had seven marker proteins; E. camaldulensis and E. globulus had three marker proteins each. Weevils fed E. robusta had three marker proteins exclusive to these insects (9, 31 and 38 kDa), while those fed with E. camaldulensis and E. globulus had only one each (35 and 47 kDa). Thus, the three groups of weevils fed with different eucalyptus species had different protein profiles.
... The eucalyptus snout beetle, Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was discovered defoliating windrow eucalyptus trees along citrus groves in Ventura County in March 1994 (Cowles & Downer, 1995). This insect has been introduced into several eucalyptus-growing regions around the world from Australia, causing extensive damage wherever it has become established. ...
Article
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For the first 150 years following their introduction, eucalypts planted in the California landscape were free of both insect pests and diseases. In the last 15 years, numerous herbivorous insect species have been introduced accidentally into the State and have caused significant damage to the trees. Several of these species, e.g. Phoracantha semipunctata (Fabricius), Phoracantha recurva Newman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have also been introduced into other parts of the world where eucalypts are grown, whereas others, e.g. Glycaspsis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Spondyliaspidae) and Eucalyptolyma maideni Froggatt (Hemiptera: Spondyliaspidae), are currently restricted to California and Australia. Research programmes have provided management solutions to individual pest problems, but as more pest species are introduced, these solutions must be integrated across broad geographic, horticultural, and economic scales, in a systems approach.
Article
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In 1998 the eucalyptus weevil, Gonipterus scutellatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a major defoliator of the genus Eucalyptus, which causes growth and economic losses, was detected in Chile. This has caused concern because more than 525,000 ha are planted with species of eucalypt. To understand the protein responses of development stages of G. scutellatus fed on the three species of eucalypt trees most important in the country, electrophoretic profiles were obtained and characterized on polyacrylamide gels under denaturizing conditions, and marker proteins were sought through gel densitometry. Proteins became more numerous with insect development. Protein bands were concentrated between 20 and 120 kDa, with the exception of eggs, which presented lower values. The appearance of distinct bands of proteins in the extracts from larvae and adults of G. scutellatus fed on different species of eucalypts reflected changes in their metabolism. These results are useful for integrated pest management, as the identification of marker proteins is possibly associated with metabolic patterns related to the consumption of host plants. Changes in insect diet may affect the marker proteins, indicating a differential ability of G. scutellatus to use host plants.
Article
Gonipterus scutellatus is a significant insect pest of eucalypts in most countries where that genus has been introduced, but is usually only of minor significance in its native Australia. Because of this, much of the research on its biology and host preferences has been done outside Australia. This fact has the potential to produce misleading results as the insect may be forced to choose less preferred hosts, if normally preferred species are unavailable. In part of its native range, in Tasmania, oviposition of G. scutellatus was recorded on seven naturally co-occurring Eucalyptus species that were planted in even aged, replicated plots. Among the seven species were the economically important species, E. globulus and E. viminalis, which have been previously reported as highly preferred hosts. Within plots, oviposition occurred most commonly on three peppermint species (E. pulchella, E. tenuiramis and E. amygdalina) and was rare or absent on the other species (E. globulus, E. viminalis, E. ovata and E. obliqua). Of the peppermints, E. pulchella was the most preferred species for oviposition at this site. A low percentage of peppermints in mixed forest (containing these seven species) immediately adjacent to plots was always matched by low numbers of G. scutellatus eggs within plots; but high percentages of peppermints outside plots could either be matched by high or low numbers of eggs within plots. In the discussion, we suggest that previous studies of G. scutellatus host range may have been limited because the insect was not exposed to hosts it naturally encounters.
Article
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Eucalyptus trees have been important components of the California urban landscape for almost 150 years. Until 1984, they were free of both insect and disease pests. In the last 16 years, however, a series of herbivorous insect species have been introduced into the state, probably accidentally, causing significant damage to the trees. Research programs have provided solutions to some of these pest problems, but more pests are continually introduced, recently the red gum lerp psyllid, the lemon gum lerp psyllid, and the eucalyptus tortoise beetle. Scientists are developing new strategies to control the recent invaders in concert with existing pest management programs, integrating methods across broad geographic, horticultural and economic scales.
Article
The management of tropical forest ecosystems is essential to the health of the planet. This book addresses forest insect pest problems across the world's tropics, addressing the pests' ecology, impact and possible approaches for their control. Fully updated, this second edition also includes discussions of new areas of interest including climate change, invasive species, forest health and plant clinics. This work is an indispensible resource for students, researchers and practitioners of forestry, ecology, pest management and entomology in tropical and subtropical countries.
Chapter
The Mediterranean climate zone in North America is restricted to the states of California in the USA and parts of Baha California Norte in Mexico. As described in other chapters in this volume, the climate is characterized by cool wet winters and hot dry summer conditions. The greatest amount of precipitation falls in the late fall and winter months. The remainder of the year is dry. Eucalypts were introduced from Australia as seed in the mid nineteenth century and have been widely planted in California. Although there have been a few rare reports of occasional host use, no native insect species have undergone a host shift onto the trees. Until the mid 1980s there were only two exotic insects that feed on eucalypts introduced from Australia to California. In a 20 year period beginning in 1984, 16 exotic insects from four feeding guilds established in the state. Three of these insects are under complete biological control [the blue gum psyllid (Ctenerytinae eucalypti (Maskell)), the eucalyptys longhorned borer (Phoracantha semipunctata F), and the eucalyptus snout weevil (Gonipterus scutellatus Gyll.)] are under complete biological control. Several more [the red gum lerp psyllid (Glycaspsis brimblecombei Moore), the lemon gum psyllid (Cryptoneossa triangular Taylor), the spotted gum psyllid (Eucalytolyma maideni Froggatt), and, possibly, a second longhorned borer (Phoracantha recurva Newman)] are under partial biological control. The introductions have continued since 2004, but at a much slower pace than the previous 20 years. Although there have been differences in the patterns of introductions of insects that feed on eucalypts in different Mediterranean climates zones, the community of insects is becoming homogenized as movement of people and goods continues to spread the insects into new areas. The management approaches developed in one part of the Mediterranean world will find broader applications in other parts of that world as the movement of invasive arthropods continues.
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The study was initiated by the relative failure of the parasitoid Anaphes nitens in controlling the eucalypt weevil Gonipterus platensis on the Iberian Peninsula. Our aim was to gain insight into the community of Gonipterus egg parasitoids occurring in Tasmania. During surveys in 2016 and 2017, adult weevils and egg pods were collected from Eucalyptus trees in Tasmania. The weevils were identified using male genital structure and DNA extracted from hatched larvae. Parasitoids that emerged from the egg pods were identified, and trophic associations of egg parasitoids, weevils and host plants were analyzed. Five species of the Gonipterus scutellatus complex, to which G. platensis belongs, were found, including Gonipterus sp. 2, which is reported for the first time from Tasmania. Molecular analysis corroborated previous phylogenetic studies of this group of species. A sixth species, G. notographus, was also collected. Most species were found to overlap in distribution in Tasmania and, despite being oligophagous, to display selectivity among Eucalyptus species used as hosts: G. platensis and G. pulverulentus were mainly found on E. ovata, Gonipterus sp. 1 on E. nitens and E. globulus and G. notographus on ‘peppermint’ species (E. amygdalina and E. pulchella). Five egg parasitoid species were found associated with these Gonipterus species: Anaphes inexpectatus, A. nitens, A. tasmaniae, Cirrospilus sp. and Euderus sp., with no apparent host specialization. Anaphes nitens, Cirrospilus sp. and Euderus sp. were more frequently found on E. ovata, possibly associated with G. platensis and G. pulverulentus, which were dominant on this host species. Conversely, A. inexpectatus was dominantly found on peppermints (43%), suggesting a main association with G. notographus. Anaphes nitens was found at 23 locations out of 117 and in 2017 was the most abundant parasitoid obtained, with an average 20% parasitism rate, indicating that this species is undergoing a geographical and population expansion since its first report from Tasmania in 2012. These findings contribute to the understanding of the parasitoid-Gonipterus-Eucalyptus trophic relationship and stand to improve future classical biological control programs against G. platensis and other invasive Gonipterus species.
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