Article

Equal But Separate? A Cross-National Study of Sex Segregation in Higher Education

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Abstract

The contours and correlates of sex segregation in higher education are explored using data from twelve advanced industrialized countries. Tertiary sex segregation is examined across two dimensions: field of study (horizontal segregation) and tertiary level (vertical segregation). The authors argue that the different aspects of female status in higher education (e.g., overall enrollments, representation at the post-graduate level, and representation in traditionally male-dominated fields of study) do not covary because each variable is affected in distinct ways by structural and cultural features commonly associated with "modernity." In particular, (1) ideals of universalism do more to undermine vertical segregation than horizontal segregation, and (2) some modern structural features may actually exacerbate specific forms of sex segregation. Consistent with these arguments, results suggest strongly integrative effects of gender-egalitarian cultural attitudes on distributions across tertiary levels, and weaker, less uniform cultural effects on distributions across fields of study (one notable exception being a strong positive effect on women's representation in engineering programs). Two modern structural features-diversified tertiary systems and high rates of female employment-show segregative effects in some fields and institutional sectors. Overall, few across-the-board integrative or segregative effects can be discerned that would lend support to evolutionary conceptualizations of gender stratification. Modern cultural and structural pressures are manifested unevenly and in contextually contingent ways.

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... Uma característica advinda desse processo foi a maior participação de mulheres em níveis educacionais mais elevados, o que provocou uma reversão da tendência da desigualdade de gênero no acesso ao ensino superior em vários países. As mulheres, que em diversos contextos nacionais tinham trajetórias educacionais mais curtas do que os homens, passaram a concluir níveis de ensino mais avançados ao redor do mundo (Charles & Bradley, 2002). ...
... Tal fato, em si, não é um problema, mas as mulheres costumam escolher cursos de ensino superior que acarretam sua sobrerrepresentação em profissões com menor retorno financeiro no mercado de trabalho, como pedagogia, serviço social e enfermagem, conforme apontam pesquisas no Brasil (Carvalhaes & Ribeiro, 2019). Os homens, por sua vez, operam sistematicamente no sentido oposto, estando sobrerrepresentados em profissões de áreas técnicas, como engenharias e computação (Charles & Bradley, 2002. Entender a relação entre gênero e escolhas educacionais, além de ser uma base interessante por si só para uma investigação sociológica, contribui para compreender um dos processos que alimentam a segregação ocupacional, uma parte não trivial do hiato salarial por sexo no mercado de trabalho (Charles & Grusky, 2004;Galvão, 2015). ...
... Pesqui., São Paulo, v.51, e-07830, 2021 intensa do que os homens no sentido oposto. De acordo com England (2010), isso ocorre porque as mulheres recebem mais incentivos para adentrar áreas masculinas, sendo mais valorizadas do que seriam nas áreas femininas, enquanto os homens seriam desvalorizados adentrando áreas femininas, com perdas econômicas e culturais, o que implica a internalização de estereótipos de gênero e seu impacto na escolha de área de estudo (Charles & Bradley, 2002;Barone, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
O artigo examina como estudantes dos sexos masculino e feminino estão alocados em diferentes grupos de curso do ensino superior brasileiro em 2002 e em 2016. Foram utilizados os microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios 2014 e do Censo do Ensino Superior 2002 e 2016. Os resultados indicam que a conclusão do ensino superior é desproporcionalmente feminina, padrão que se intensificou na última coorte avaliada. Por outro lado, existem diferenças significativas indicando que mulheres estão sobrerrepresentadas em grupos de curso com menores retornos no mercado de trabalho. O padrão de segregação de gênero das escolhas educacionais é estável ao longo do tempo. No entanto, observou-se que isso não se deve a um comportamento estático da segregação de gênero nos grupos de curso, mas sim à compensação de cursos que diminuem e aumentam a segregação.
... The concept of gender segregation in employment has been used widely and is useful. Several literature reviews discuss gender disparities in employment (Charles & Bradley, 2002;Hakim, 1979;1992). However, the frequently used concept of segregation is misinterpreted and used to explain the concentration of the proportion of the workforce, a different aspect of the pattern of employment by gender. ...
... A follow-up study that discusses structural changes, in particular, the improvement of the service sector which will increase the participation of women forces which will affect the occupations of women in the future (see Akbulut Blackburn et al. (2001) and several literature reviews that discuss gender disparities in employment (Charles & Bradley, 2002;Hakim, 1979;1992). Then a conceptual framework is built as follows. ...
... Meanwhile, men advantage from occupations with high social stratification, namely Leadership and Management Personnel and Other Personnel. This is in line with research (Gedikli 2020; Charles & Bradley, 2002;Blackburn et al., 2001;Hakim, 1979;1992) which found that based on the vertical dimension it proves that women are disadvantaged in occupations with high wage rates. The condition of wage inequality is not proven in this study in terms of the value of the horizontal dimension which is higher than the vertical dimension, which means that the overall segregation is caused by differences in male and female employment patterns across jobs rather than inequality (measured by wages and working hours). ...
Article
Purpose: this study measures gender segregation by occupations and wage inequality based on overall segregation, vertical segregation, and horizontal segregation in terms of labour supply, namely differences in wages, hours of work, age, level of education, and mobility (rural and urban) in South Sumatra Province in 2019. Methods: the data used in this study are secondary data sourced from the 2019 South Sumatra Province Labour Force Survey (SAK19.AK) which is limited to individuals aged 15 to 64 who are currently working, namely as many as 10,429 individuals, of whom 6,873 men and 3,556 women. Classification of the main occupations using quantitative analysis techniques, namely measuring segregation is based on the overall, vertical and horizontal dimensions based on the Gini coefficient, Somer D Statistic, and Pythagorean Theorem. Results: (1) Women are more segregated based on the main occupations, especially jobs with high social stratification and wage groups. (2) Women have more advantages in workplaces with low social stratification and higher education categories. (3) There is no wage inequality based on the main occupations, education, age, and mobility. Conclusions and Relevance: the results of the study prove that there is high segregation based on wage groups and educational composition. Women emphasize increasing education because based on vertical segregation, women with higher education level advantage more and they occupy jobs that are equal to men based on wage stratification.
... Uma característica advinda desse processo foi a maior participação de mulheres em níveis educacionais mais elevados, o que provocou uma reversão da tendência da desigualdade de gênero no acesso ao ensino superior em vários países. As mulheres, que em diversos contextos nacionais tinham trajetórias educacionais mais curtas do que os homens, passaram a concluir níveis de ensino mais avançados ao redor do mundo (Charles & Bradley, 2002). ...
... Tal fato, em si, não é um problema, mas as mulheres costumam escolher cursos de ensino superior que acarretam sua sobrerrepresentação em profissões com menor retorno financeiro no mercado de trabalho, como pedagogia, serviço social e enfermagem, conforme apontam pesquisas no Brasil (Carvalhaes & Ribeiro, 2019). Os homens, por sua vez, operam sistematicamente no sentido oposto, estando sobrerrepresentados em profissões de áreas técnicas, como engenharias e computação (Charles & Bradley, 2002. Entender a relação entre gênero e escolhas educacionais, além de ser uma base interessante por si só para uma investigação sociológica, contribui para compreender um dos processos que alimentam a segregação ocupacional, uma parte não trivial do hiato salarial por sexo no mercado de trabalho (Charles & Grusky, 2004;Galvão, 2015). ...
... Pesqui., São Paulo, v.51, e-07830, 2021 intensa do que os homens no sentido oposto. De acordo com England (2010), isso ocorre porque as mulheres recebem mais incentivos para adentrar áreas masculinas, sendo mais valorizadas do que seriam nas áreas femininas, enquanto os homens seriam desvalorizados adentrando áreas femininas, com perdas econômicas e culturais, o que implica a internalização de estereótipos de gênero e seu impacto na escolha de área de estudo (Charles & Bradley, 2002;Barone, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
O artigo examina como estudantes dos sexos masculino e feminino estão alocados em diferentes grupos de curso do ensino superior brasileiro em 2002 e em 2016. Foram utilizados os microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios 2014 e do Censo do Ensino Superior 2002 e 2016. Os resultados indicam que a conclusão do ensino superior é desproporcionalmente feminina, padrão que se intensificou na última coorte avaliada. Por outro lado, existem diferenças significativas indicando que mulheres estão sobrerrepresentadas em grupos de curso com menores retornos no mercado de trabalho. O padrão de segregação de gênero das escolhas educacionais é estável ao longo do tempo. No entanto, observou-se que isso não se deve a um comportamento estático da segregação de gênero nos grupos de curso, mas sim à compensação de cursos que diminuem e aumentam a segregação.
... A similar case is seen at the University of Malaysia, in which there is a 50% higher retention of women than men [3]. Charles and Bradley (2002) have mentioned that factors such as self-expression and individualism are fundamental elements when choosing an undergraduate career, leading to a higher level of segregation in industrialized countries than in less developed countries [4]. ...
... A similar case is seen at the University of Malaysia, in which there is a 50% higher retention of women than men [3]. Charles and Bradley (2002) have mentioned that factors such as self-expression and individualism are fundamental elements when choosing an undergraduate career, leading to a higher level of segregation in industrialized countries than in less developed countries [4]. ...
Conference Paper
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Historically, women's participation worldwide in STEM disciplines has been lower than men's participation. Related literature recognizes that the engineering area is one of the most segregated occupations gender-wise. According to the OECD, the percentage of women who enroll in their first year in STEM disciplines does not exceed 19.8%. In Chile, the number of students who pursue a tertiary education diploma or degree has been increasing steadily in recent years; this is due to the strengthening of the Chilean educational ecosystem incorporating various modalities of schools and study programs. Despite the above, Chilean women's participation in STEM areas is not higher than the previously mentioned average. Our main objective is to analyze trends on this topic for Chilean students based on the following variables: type of institution, school shift and modality, age of students, and career type. We made a percentage analysis to investigate trends over time about students' gender within the variables: (1) type of institution (Community College, Professional Institute, and University); (2) school shift and modality (daytime face-to-face class, evening face-to-face class, and online class); (3) age of students; and (4) type of career (first or second career). We analyzed the responses given by n = 3,208,211 students entering the first year of higher education (registered data from 2008 to 2020). According to the results obtained, we assume that participation in women's careers in STEM disciplines has been gradually increasing. However, we find that the differences between males and females who hold a university career remain constant over time. Results suggest that further study is needed to investigate the predictors and correlates of students' career choices qualitative measures to support and more clearly interpret the numerical findings.
... Role theory suggests that culture acts on the sorting process rather than on the valuation process, resulting in gender difference in society (Charles & Bradley, 2002;Charles & Bradley, 2009). In this view, women are socialized to choose the fields of study that furnish students with more cultural than economic capital, which makes them feel more sensitive to cultural change (Hakim, 2000). ...
... In addition, based on role theory, women should overcome difficulties in adapting to the host society and perform well (Shimanoff, 2009). These difficulties might result from the female characteristic of being sensitive to cultural distance (Charles & Bradley, 2002;Charles & Bradley, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cross-border students’ academic performance draws people’s attention, whereas perceived cultural distance might influence their performance with gender difference. Based on role theory, men and women present different roles in society, and women are good at perceptual, cognitive aspects, making them more sensitive to cultural distance. Finding shows that the negative moderation role of gender existed in the relationship between cultural distance and academic performance. Particularly, female students showed lower cultural adaptation after cross-border migration, which then influenced their academic performance in universities. This study provides implication for policymakers and universities to pay more attention with additional resources to support female students’ cultural adaption.
... Existing literature suggests that an important part of the gender pay gap among university graduates stems from choices made earlier in the life course, namely university majors (Brown and Corcoran, 1997;Charles and Bradley, 2002;Machin and Puhani, 2003;Black et al. , 2008). Men are more likely than women to study STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) fields. ...
... Women are more likely to choose majors that typically lead to occupations with lower earnings and fewer opportunities for career progression (Charles and Bradley, 2002;Blau and Kahn, 2017). Gendered major choices thus have direct consequences on occupational segregation, on wage gaps, and on so-called glass ceilings-the idea that there are invisible barriers that prevent women from achieving top incomes and positions (Ponthieux and Meurs 2015;Bertrand, 2018). ...
Article
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In this paper, I study the role of gender-typical parental occupation for young adults’ gender-typical university major choice using data on a recent cohort of university students in Germany. Results show significant intergenerational associations between the gender typicality in parental occupation and young adults’ majors. As to why these effects occur, findings suggest that the transfer of occupation-specific resources from parents to their children plays an important role and that a transmission of gender roles explains at least some of the father-son associations. The paper contributes to existing literature by introducing a novel measure that operationalises the extent to which majors and occupations are ‘typically female’ or ‘typically male’ and by studying different transmission channels.
... We focus analytically on two distinct classifications, applied majors and academic majors. This distinction, utilized in recent research on unique breakdowns among college majors (see Charles and Bradley 2002;Quadlin 2017;Roksa and Levey 2010), captures horizontal dynamics within higher education based on the variation in and the consequences of the type of major students choose and graduate with. Detailed classifications based on the respondents' self-reported field of study (see Table 1) were collapsed into one of the two categories based on the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) developed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES 2012). ...
... Although a college degree remains a key pathway to social mobility, fields of study yield differential returns (Hout 2012;Roksa and Levey 2010). Even when they beat the odds and attain a degree, first-generation college students experience disadvantages surrounding the type of education they receive (Charles and Bradley 2002;Roksa and Levey 2010), including underrepresentation in fields of study that lead to enhanced earnings over the course of their careers (Cataldi, Bennett, and Chen 2018;Van Noy and Ruder 2017). For these reasons, we analyzed first-generation students' choice in college major; how their major choices varied from continuing-generation students; and whether their major selection varied in gendered ways. ...
Article
Emerging literatures have highlighted the social- and resource-related inequalities among first-generation college students. Less attention has been devoted to the curricular pathways (i.e., college majors) these students follow and their potentially gendered character. We build on educational inequality and gender literatures in this article, and arguments surrounding habitus and class-based dispositions to address this gap. Our analyses draw on several waves of the Education Longitudinal Survey (ELS-2002) merged with national data on sex composition of fields of study. Our results suggest unique pathways in college for first-generation compared to continuing-generation students. Specifically, first-generation students are more likely to choose occupationally specific “applied” majors than their continuing-generation counterparts. Modeling by gender reveals little to moderate variation between first- and continuing-generation students’ representation in female-dominated majors. These patterns generally hold for 2- and 4-year college going samples. We conclude by discussing the relevance of these findings for educational inequality, eventual job returns, and occupational mobility.
... Following Katz and Murphy (1992), who pointed out the importance of education in occupational opportunities and related earning capacities, several scholars have focused on the relation between the GWG and education (Blau and Kahn 2008;de la Rica et al. 2008;Kolesnikova and Liu 2011). The literature has identified two mechanisms by which education affects occupational choices and, consequently, the wages associated with them: (i) vertical segregation, i.e., concentration in lower levels of education and less prestigious institutions; and (ii) horizontal segregation, i.e., engagement in certain fields of study (Charles and Bradley 2002;Charles and Grusky 2004). ...
... There is a broad consensus around the idea that women are underrepresented in STEM and ICT, and are instead concentrated in humanistic fields (Brush 1991;Seymour 1995), more specifically in nursing and education (Jacobs 1995). Nevertheless, significant differences regarding empirical approaches and findings have emerged in the research of explanations for this phenomenon (Becker 1985;Charles and Bradley 2002;Clark 1992;Maple and Stage 1991;Polachek 1978;Strenta et al. 1994;Ware and Lee 1988;Wilson and Boldizar 1990). ...
Article
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This paper contributes to the literature on the gender wage gap by empirically analyzing those workers who hold the highest possible educational qualification, i.e., a Ph.D. The analysis relies on recent Italian cross-sectional data collected through a survey on the employment conditions of Ph.D. holders. The Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition analysis and quantile decomposition analysis are carried out, and the selection of Ph.D. holders into employment and STEM/non-STEM fields of specialization is taken into account. Findings suggest that a gender gap in hourly wages exists among Ph.D. holders, with sizeable differences by sector of employment and field of specialization.
... This reform might be interpreted as following the belief that the most effective way of changing the social distribution of scientific opportunities would be by changing the structure of the curriculum, not by, for example, campaigns merely to encourage more girls to take science (Jacob et al. 2020). Scotland thus followed an international tendency in curricular reform whereby an attachment to universalistic principles weakened the socially invidious patterns of subject choice that had been common (Ayalon and Livneh 2013;Charles and Bradley 2002). ...
... This conclusion about the importance of reforms to the secondary-school curriculum in changing the social distribution of scientific study is similar to that by, for example, Ayalon and Livneh (2013), Charles and Bradley (2002) and Jacob et al. (2020), but has been reached, not by comparative research as in these authors' work, but by following a single country over a long period of time The present research thus adds a new chronological dimension to these authors' conclusions. ...
Article
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Scientific and mathematical education has expanded in most education systems in the twentieth century, especially in the second half when there emerged the perception among policy-makers that science and technology were essential to a flourishing economy and to individual opportunity. Scotland provides a useful case study of the expansion, for two reasons. One is that it has included natural science in its emerging secondary-school curriculum at an early period by international standards, well before the middle of the century. That inclusion was carried over into the new curricula at the mid-secondary level, which aimed to cater for all students when the public sector of secondary schooling became non-selective after the 1960s. So Scotland is a test case of whether a gradually democratising system of secondary schooling could widen access to science and mathematics, and of whether and how changes at the school level contributed to the expansion of school-leaver entry to science in higher education. The other reason why the Scottish case is potentially revealing is a unique series of surveys of school students that cover the whole of the second half of the century.
... Existing literature suggests that an important part of the gender pay gap among university graduates stems from choices made earlier in the life course. That is, gender differences in university majors (Brown & Corcoran 1997, Charles & Bradley 2002, Machin & Puhani 2003, Black et al. 2008). Men are more likely than women to study STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) fields. ...
... Women are more likely to choose majors that typically lead to occupations with lower earnings and fewer opportunities for career progression (Charles & Bradley 2002, Blau & Kahn 2017. Gendered major choices thus have direct consequences on occupational segregation, on wage gaps, and on so-called glass ceilings -the idea that there are invisible barriers that prevent women from achieving top incomes and positions (Ponthieux & Meurs 2015, Bertrand 2018. ...
Thesis
Despite substantial progress, gender gaps in labour market outcomes persist. Several key factors help explain remaining gaps. First, men and women continue to work in different jobs. Second, parenthood appears to be a crucial point in the life course at which gender gaps widen. Third, traditional beliefs and norms about the appropriate roles of men and women, particularly in the context of parenthood, are obstacles to closing remaining gender gaps. At the same time, advancements in automation technologies are transforming the world of work and may have genderspecific impacts. Motivated by these observations, this thesis advances understanding of several factors related to gender inequality in the labour market. These factors are gendered university major choices, attitudes towards gender roles in the context of parenthood, and effects of recent transformations in labour markets on the gender gap in pay. The thesis consists of four empirical papers. The first paper studies the role of intergenerational transmission for gendered university major choices of young adults. Using regression analysis and exploiting survey data from a recent cohort of university students in Germany, the paper investigates to what extent and why gender-typicality of mother's and father's occupation affect the gender-typicality of their child's university major. Results show signifficant intergenerational associations and indicate that parental resources and a transmission of gender roles are both relevant transmission channels, particularly for sons' major choices. The second and third paper examine how gender role attitudes are shaped in the context of parenthood. The second paper analyses effects of the 2007 paid parental leave reform (Elterngeld) in Germany on parents' gender role attitudes; specifically, attitudes towards the gender division of work, towards the roles of fathers, and towards the labour force participation of mothers. Exploiting the reform as a natural experiment, results indicate that men affected by the reform hold more traditional attitudes towards the role of fathers, whereas there is no effect on the other two iv outcomes. Focusing on the UK, the third paper explores whether parenting daughters affects attitudes towards a traditional male breadwinner model in which it is the husband's role to work and the wife's to stay at home. Using panel data and individual fixed effects models, the results indicate that fathers are less likely to hold traditional views on the gender division of work if they raise a girl. No robust effects on mothers' attitudes are found. Results from the second and third paper inform the broader literature on attitudinal change, suggesting that gender role attitudes are not stable throughout the life course and can be significantly shaped by adulthood experiences. The final paper studies whether technological change increases gender inequality. Using individual-level data from around 28 million individuals in 20 European countries and an instrumental variable strategy, the study provides the first large-scale evidence concerning the impact of industrial robots on the gender gap in earnings. Findings indicate that robot adoption increases both male and female earnings but also increases the gender pay gap. These results are driven by countries with high initial levels of gender inequality and can be explained by the fact that men in medium- and high-skilled occupations disproportionately benefit from robotization, through a productivity effect.
... Meanwhile, other accounts of the gender-equality paradox assume the opposite pattern, in which the genderequality paradox in fields dominated by men emerges because the representation of women declines in countries with higher gender equality. For instance, according to the motivational account of the gender-equality paradox, people in societies with greater political and economic gender equality seek to maintain gender differentiation by creating and enforcing gender stereotypes in other domains (Breda et al., 2020;Charles & Bradley, 2002Vishkin et al., 2021), leading to a decline in the representation of women in fields dominated by men. Similarly, according to the account that innate differences exist between men and women, societies with greater gender equality and the concomitant increase in economic development are more able to allow men and women to express their innate preferences (e.g., Geary & Stoet, 2020;Su & Rounds, 2015), leading to a decline in the representation of women in fields dominated by men. ...
... Results were not consistent with previous accounts for the gender-equality paradox, including the accounts that larger gender differences emerge in more gender-equal societies so that gender distinctiveness can be maintained (Charles & Bradley, 2002 or as an expression of innate differences between men and women (Geary & Stoet, 2020;Su & Rounds, 2015) because the trend across age cohorts in almost all countries reflected an increase in the proportion of female chess players. Instead, the present investigation tested the generational-shift account, a novel mechanism not previously explored in the literature on the gender-equality paradox. ...
Article
Full-text available
The gender-equality paradox refers to the puzzling finding that societies with more gender equality demonstrate larger gender differences across a range of phenomena, most notably in the proportion of women who pursue degrees in science, technology, engineering, and math. The present investigation demonstrates across two different measures of gender equality that this paradox extends to chess participation ( N = 803,485 across 160 countries; age range: 3–100 years), specifically that women participate more often in countries with less gender equality. Previous explanations for the paradox fail to account for this finding. Instead, consistent with the notion that gender equality reflects a generational shift, mediation analyses suggest that the gender-equality paradox in chess is driven by the greater participation of younger players in countries with less gender equality. A curvilinear effect of gender equality on the participation of female players was also found, demonstrating that gender differences in chess participation are largest at the highest and lowest ends of the gender-equality spectrum.
... A vertikális és horizontális szegregáció okait együttesen is vizsgálták kutatók a felsőoktatásban, több fejlett országban (Charles-Bradley 2002). Három makrotényező hatását vizsgálták a szegregáció alakulására. ...
Article
Tanulmányunkban egy kvantitatív kutatás másodelemzésére vállalkoztunk az NKFI (K116099) kutatás keretében. Az eredeti kutatás a nők esélyegyenlőségét vizsgálta a tudományos szférában. A vizsgálat 2007–2009 között zajlott, a mintavétel alapja az MTA köztestületi tagok névsora volt. A jelen kutatás célja a tudományos fokozattal rendelkező nők és férfiak összevetése tudományos és munkaerőpiaci eredményességük egyes mutatói szerint. Az elméleti részben az oktatásban és a tudományos életben levő horizontális és vertikális szegregációval foglalkozunk, ami hipotézisünk szerint hatással lehet a nők karrierjére, emellett kitérünk a családi, magánéleti hatásokra is. Eredményeink és a korábbi vizsgálatok szerint is a tudományos fokozattal rendelkező nők hátrányos helyzetben vannak, kevésbé sikeres a magánéletük, mint a fokozattal rendelkező férfiaknak, és jobb társadalmi háttér kell az érvényesülésükhöz. Regressziós eredményeink azt mutatják, hogy a férfiak és nők tudományos eredményessége hasonlóan alakul, figyelembe véve a társadalmi és családi háttér nemi különbségeit is. Ennek ellenére további eredményeink szerint a férfiak nagyobb mértékben elégedettek foglalkozásukkal, valamint karrierjük – ellentétben a női kollégákéval – nem lassul, és vezető pozíciót is nagyobb eséllyel érnek el.
... Whether they are historical, due to outdated attitudes, or coming from lower status people such as operators, respondents partitioned off and dismissed these instances as exceptions to keep the overall frame of the meritocracy intact (Britton, 2017;Francis et al., 2017;Powell et al., 2009). Second, if our respondents did recognize gender segregation in the workplace, they tended to explain it as a logical and efficient extension of different natural abilities and preferences between men and women; this is consistent with theories of gender essentialism, which detail how common narratives about women and men's 'natural' differences underlie and are used to justify continued inequality in the labor force (Charles & Bradley, 2002. From this perspective, different career paths were not viewed as the result of biased assessments and structures of inequality, but simply the result of individual and authentic choices freely made. ...
Article
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This study utilizes interviews from 22 young female engineers from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds as they first entered the White and male-dominated engineering labor force with the goal of examining: (1) how these women endorsed a gender-blind frame that characterizes their workplaces as fundamentally meritocratic, and alternatively, (2) how they named gender as relevant or salient to experiences and interactions at work. Drawing on the insights of intersectional scholars to answer the previous questions, the study calls attention to how the invocation of these frames differed for women of color compared to their majority White female peers. Results revealed that most respondents strongly endorsed the idea that engineering workplaces are meritocratic and that their gender is not relevant. However, there is also evidence of racial divergence in the themes expressed. For example, some White women expressed a narrative contradictory to meritocracy, discussing their workplaces as like family, while in contrast, women of color often expressed uncomfortable experiences of standing out. Overall, the results suggest that female engineers’ tendency to disavow, either explicitly or implicitly, that discrimination and bias occurs in their workplaces, likely contributes to continued gender and racial inequality; subsequently, programs and interventions to facilitate awareness of inequality are critically needed.
... There are also structural aspects of the higher-education system that add to differences in labour-market outcomes. 1 Aside from the vertical differentiation in a twotier degree structure (Noelke et al. 2012), two important horizontal dimensions of the higher-education system can be distinguished (Charles and Bradley 2002;Triventi 2013): the institution of higher education attended and the field of study. ...
Article
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This paper focuses on the structure and extent of wage differences among graduates of different higher-education institutions in Germany. We ask how large these differences are and how they relate to fields of study and regional labour markets. The results from our application of cross-classified random-effects models to a cohort of the DZHW Graduate Panel show that there is a considerable amount of wage variation depending on the graduates’ alma mater. However, this variation can be fully explained by structural characteristics: Selection based on individual characteristics is of only minor importance, while regional labour markets do matter. Most of all, however, the differences relate to fields of study.
... On the other hand, Ceci et al. (2014) and Ceci and Williams (2011) argue that the main barriers to participation in intensive fields in mathematics today are no longer related to discrimination factors within the scientific field and universities but are rooted in socialization, in pre-university education and in the subsequent probability of specializing in scientific fields. However, another group of authors considers these explanations insufficient and demands comprehensive approaches, including the influence of power relations, gender systems, and sociocultural inequalities on horizontal and vertical segregation in science (Charles and Bradley 2002;Riegle-Crumb et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Despite improvements in incorporating women in tertiary education and science, several gender gaps persist today in some scientific and technological areas worldwide. Understanding the factors that determine these gaps is essential to incorporating women into knowledge societies on equal terms. The present research sought to explore and systematize the explanations given to this phenomenon by the international literature in the last four decades. The objectives were: (1). Analyze the evolution of the leading research agendas and categorize these into groups (or clusters) of explanations, and (2) discuss the challenges that research agendas face in addressing the phenomenon in a multi-causal way. The data were obtained from the articles contained in the Web of Science (WoS) and were sub-jected to a systematic review using bibliometric and qualitative techniques. The analysis reveals an essential growth of research in this area within the social sciences, which is grouped into five main types of explanation: (1) student performance in STEM areas, (2) influence of gender stereotypes and models, (3) interests and educational-learning experiences, (4) educational-occupational expectations and choices, and (5) uneven advancement and performance in scientific careers. Evolution shows that explanations about performance and individual choice have diminished noticeably in the present, giv-ing rise to explanations regarding the influence of gender stereotypes and models within educational systems and socialization stages. This study thus contributes to understanding the causal factors that have determined gender gaps in science while identifying some new issues in research agendas.
... 1. Introduzione 1 L'agenda politica europea continua ad incoraggiare misure (EIGE 2013; EU 2019) per incrementare la partecipazione delle donne nei settori delle STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) ma la loro sotto-rappresentanza risulta ancora significativa, generando e perpetuando il fenomeno della segregazione occupazionale di uomini e donne (Charles and Bradley 2002). L'uguaglianza di genere e quindi le pari opportunità tra uomini e donne sono componenti di un processo vitale per una crescita intelligente e sostenibile dell'Unione Europea (EU 2010). ...
Article
Ingegneria come percorso di studio e di carriera per le studentesse: fattori che ne determinano la scelta / Engineering as a study and career path for female students: factors that determine their choice
... The state established wage grids where the income differences between skilled and unskilled jobs were relatively small, so as to promote vocational education (Munich et al. 2005), with the overarching goal of achieving social equality. Further research on Russian and indeed soviet educational systems have been studied from the perspectives of sociology and/or gender studies (Saar et al. 2008;Charles 2005;Pascall and Lewis 2004;Charles and Bradley 2002) and educational policy (Dobbins 2011, Heyneman et al. 2008Silova 2005;Tomusk 2004). It has also been examined in country/region specific research (Heynemann 2007;Tominc 2001). ...
Book
This timely book presents a remarkable collection of chapters that provides readers with a coherent framework for understanding the factors driving industry competitiveness in contemporary conditions of economic digitalization and the ongoing transition to industry 4.0. Presenting contributions by scientists, engineers, and field experts, the book focuses on using advanced technologies and applications, building innovative and resilient systems in industrial enterprises, developing competitive management systems, creating competence networks, and enhancing integration to foster and sustain industry competitiveness. Both qualitative and quantitative studies are included, and this collection of diverse perspectives adds to the richness of the volume’s insights. Along with reviewing deep theoretical concepts and innovative approaches, the publication provides practical applications and technological solutions to real-world problems existing in industry. Recent advances in management theory and practice focused on the forces driving competition in industry are also extensively covered by the leading scholars and practitioners.
... , qui elle-même peut s'expliquer par les différences significatives en matière de choix (de domaines) éducatif. Par exemple,Charles & Bradley (2002) montrent l'existence d'une sous-représentation des femmes dans les domaines de l'ingénierie, des mathématiques et de l'informatique; une surreprésentation des femmes dans les domaines de l'éducation, des sciences humaines et de la santé 18 . Dans la même veine,Leoni & Falk, (2010) montrent dans le cas de l'Autriche que les différences dans la participation dans l'entrepreneuriat selon le genre s'expliquent principalement par le domaine d'études qui représenent. ...
Thesis
La perception dominante de l’entrepreneuriat, notamment dans les pays développés, est celle d’une activité risquée, dynamique et entreprise volontairement par une certaine catégorie d’individus – des « superstars » - afin de bénéficier d’opportunités de gains et une influence sociale plus importante. Cependant, ce point de vue dynamique de l’entrepreneuriat contraste avec celui généralement présenté dans les pays en développement où l’emploi indépendant est en grande partie exercé dans le secteur informel ; un segment considéré « précaire » du marché du travail et permettant uniquement à l’individu d’échapper au chômage. Néanmoins de plus en plus d’études, en Afrique et davantage en Amérique Latine, montrent que ce segment est désirable et susceptible de procurer à certains individus, notamment aux entrepreneurs, des revenus plus compétitifs que ceux travaillant dans la sphère formelle.De ce fait, la première partie de cette thèse s’intéresse à l’entrée des individus dans l’entrepreneuriat au Burkina Faso, notamment dans le secteur informel. Ce choix est-il rationnel et motivé par les opportunités de gains et/ou plutôt contrainte par l’absence d’opportunité d’emploi ? Cette partie questionne aussi les motivations d’entrée dans l’entrepreneuriat selon le genre. Pour répondre à ces interrogations, nous avons utilisé les données de l’Enquête Nationale sur le Secteur Informel collectées en 2015 auprès des ménages, au Burkina Faso. Nous avons analysé les écarts de gains entre les différents segments d’emplois et examiné les déterminants du choix de l’entrepreneuriat par le biais de modèles structurels. Dans un premier temps, l’analyse sur l’ensemble de la population active occupée montre que les salariés disposent en moyenne de revenus plus élevés que les entrepreneurs. Elle montre également que le choix du statut d’entrepreneur est principalement fondé sur le différentiel de gains escompté, soutenant ainsi le principe de l’avantage comparatif décrit dans les modèles d’auto-sélection. Cependant, en tenant compte de l’hétérogénéité des statuts d’emplois (formel et informel) nous remarquons que les emplois informels sont en moyenne moins rémunérateurs que les emplois formels, et que l’écart de gains escompté a, cette fois-ci, un impact négatif et significatif sur la probabilité d’entreprendre de manière informelle. Par ailleurs, le risque d’être au chômage constitue un élément déterminant du choix de ce statut d’emploi. Ces résultats, observés chez les hommes comme chez les femmes, indiquent que le marché du travail dans les pays en développement est segmenté et que l’entrée dans l’entrepreneuriat informel est particulièrement contrainte.Les résultats de cette partie nous ont ensuite conduit à nous interroger, dans une deuxième partie de la thèse, sur le projet professionnel des individus qui n’étaient pas encore entrés sur le marché du travail. A partir de données collectées auprès des étudiants des Universités Ouaga 1 et Ouaga 2, nous avons cherché à comprendre quels pourraient être les facteurs susceptibles de favoriser ou d’inhiber leur projet de création. Nous avons ainsi analysé les déterminants de l’intention entrepreneuriale à travers différentes méthodes d’estimations. Les résultats de nos analyses montrent que l’aspiration entrepreneuriale des étudiants est fondée sur l’espérance de gains mais également sur des attentes non pécuniaires, en particulier le besoin d’indépendance/d’autonomie. Nous remarquons que ce sont les individus disposant d’un stock de capital humain plus étendu – les jack off all trades – qui sont plus susceptibles de proclamer leur projet de création, et non ceux qui étaient à un stade avancé dans leurs études. Nous constatons également que ce sont les individus qui ont une plus grande maitrise en compétences managériales et spécifiques, et qui ont bénéficié d’un enseignement spécifique à l’entrepreneuriat qui sont davantage susceptibles de vouloir créer une entreprise.
... The pattern demonstrated in China indicates that there are a disproportionate number of women pursuing STEM fields. According to the terminology used by Charles & Bradley (2002), sex segregation in college major choice can be seen as one aspect of the intensifying, hidden form of horizontal educational stratification that warrants constant scholarly attention. Hu and Hibel (2015) found that on average, STEM majors are more lucrative than non-STEM majors in reform China and that STEM graduates receive significantly higher median earnings than non-STEM graduates. ...
Thesis
The sociological study of inequalities has long been concerned with questions concerning the role of education in creating a fairer society and whether it just serves as a means for the advantaged to consolidate pre-existing privileges. This thesis adds to the existing literature by addressing the questions of how family background, types of high school, college entrance scores, and participation in the alternative admissions scheme – Independent Freshman’s Admission (IFA) – help structure access to tertiary education in Beijing, China. I examine tertiary education in terms of both university prestige and choice of university major. Using a mixed-methods study, I draw on qualitative data from my fieldwork in Beijing where I interviewed 60 first-year students and 2 admissions tutors, drawn from across seven universities of different levels of prestige, with both STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) and non-STEM subject majors. I also analyse quantitative data from the 2009 Beijing College Student Panel Study (BCSPS) consisting of 4771 students from 15 universities (3 elite, 6 selective and 6 less-selective universities). First, my qualitative analysis reveals the important role of residential background and hukou status, as well as key- point school attendance in university admission of students both through Gaokao route and IFA participation. I also explored some of the reasons behind female students’ uptake of a STEM degree. Second, using multinomial logit models for analysing BCSPS data, I confirmed the importance of family background, residence of origin and school attendance for access to universities of different levels of prestige. Further, using logistic regression, I showed gender differences in personal attributes relevant to the pursuit of STEM fields, but no associations between different beliefs about marriage and family and educational choices. Taken, together, these findings uncover the ongoing importance of institutional barriers in accessing elite and selective tertiary education in China and illustrate how the meritocratic policy objectives of IFA were undermined in practice. In moving forwards, now that IFA has been scrapped, my study suggests that, without a marked change of direction, the conflict will continue between meritocratic principles and elitist goals, and the quest to improve equality in region, class and gender will remain elusive.
... Honorato et al. (2018, p. 33) afirmam que o perfil social dos estudantes dos cursos superiores da área de Educação, incluindo Pedagogia, é majoritariamente composto por "mulheres, estudantes de cursos noturnos, de origem familiar desfavorecida e, cada vez mais, matriculados em cursos à distância de instituições privadas". Nessa linha, análises mais aprofundadas sobre a formação dos professores devem ser capazes de levar em conta a "estratificação horizontal do ensino superior" (Lucas, 2001;Charles & Bradley, 2002;Gerber & Cheung, 2008), já que os cursos de Pedagogia no Brasil são reveladores de aspectos sociais estruturais (Grill & Honorato, 2019). Em sua expressiva maioria, os alunos de Pedagogia no Brasil provêm de famílias com baixo nível de escolaridade, baixa renda e estudam à noite porque trabalham durante do dia (Gripp & Rodrigues, 2019). ...
Article
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Resumo Em meio às tendências da rede privada de ensino no Brasil de atender à demanda das elites, o artigo discute a oferta de bilinguismo na educação infantil, analisando a qualificação exigida dos professores à luz das discussões sobre a estratificação horizontal do sistema de ensino superior brasileiro e seus efeitos para os cursos de Pedagogia. Foram realizadas entrevistas com representantes de cinco estabelecimentos em bairros nobres da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Titulações, comprovação de proficiência, fluência “nativa” e habilidades práticas são requisitos básicos da qualificação docente para atuar com crianças de 0 a 5 anos. Evidencia-se que a tendência ao bilinguismo nas escolas privadas agrava as desigualdades de oportunidades entre os docentes.
... Thereby, using the proper literature, I will provide an explanation of the hypothesis that argues the perception of benefits that come from educational trajectories present some dissimilarities according to gender. As stated by socialization theories, individuals have separate passions and objectives, mainly by gender (Charles and Bradley, 2002).Consequently, women view the advantages of educational trajectories taking into account distinct matters compared to men. For instance, women prefer more occupations that enable social connection, empathy or prosocial behavior (Marini, Fan, Finley, & Beutel, 1996), while men have a bigger interest in obtaining jobs with good pays and chance of promotions (Bradley, 2000;Davies and Guppy, 1997).Another explanation concerns the differences between lifeplans. ...
Article
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The central idea of this paper concerns the gender gap in educational pathways. This issue can be addressed from more perspectives. On the one hand, we can analyse this problem from the socialization process perspective. Through this process, individuals learn how to behave and make some evaluations regarding a particular aspect of their lives, in our case the decision-making process in educational career choices. What we can observe here in this paper, is the fact that the socialization process is gendered, prescribing from the earliest stages of life specific educational routes for men and women. On the other hand, we can move further and we can use another perspective such as the expectation-values theory. This theory takes into account the self-perceptions of students regarding their strengths and weaknesses within some disciplines. After this self-evaluation students make some decisions with respect to their future field of study that subsequently will shape their professional career. From the perspective of gender segregation, there are important and persistent disparities due to the uneven concentration of women and men in various fields of study, an issue that should be studied and addressed more, particularly in terms of policies. Therefore, this issue will be presented and analysed in this paper by using the literature in this domain of interest. Also, I will use some statistical data to support this statement.
... The role of education is often emphasized in explanations of innovation gaps, with much research pointing to the stubborn gender segregation of academic fields (e.g. Charles & Bradley, 2002. While the share of women and BIPOC students earning both bachelor's and doctorate degrees in science and engineering (the fields most closely associated with innovation) has increased since 1970, these increases vary across field of study (National Science Foundation [NSF], 2017). ...
Article
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How to study inequality in innovation? Often, the focus has been gender gaps in patenting. Yet much is missing from our understanding of gendered inequality in innovation with this focus. This review discusses how gender and innovation are intertwined in durable academic inequalities and have implications for who is served by innovation. It summarizes research on gender and race gaps in academic entrepreneurship (including patenting), reasons for those longstanding inequities, and concludes with discussing why innovation gaps matter, including the need to think critically about academic commercialization. And while literature exists on gender gaps in academic entrepreneurship and race gaps in patenting, intersectional analyses of innovation are missing. Black feminist theorists have taught us that gender and race are overlapping and inseparable systems of oppression. We cannot accurately understand inequality in innovation without intersectionality, so this is a serious gap in current research. Intersectional research on gender and innovation is needed across epistemic approaches and methods. From understanding discrimination in academic entrepreneurship to bringing together critical analyses of racial capitalism and academic capitalism, there is much work to do.
... Inequalities do not arise from the mere fact of admission but rather from the types of institutions, fields, and programs where gender and social inequalities are present. In other words, inequalities of access are replaced by social (Altbach 2010;Goastellec 2010;Hrubos 2014;Lipset and Zetterberg 1970;Lipset et al. 1959;Lucas 2001;Róbert 2000;Shavit et al. 2007;Stich 2018;Vukasovic and Sarrico 2010) and gender (Bradley 2000;Charles and Bradley 2002;2009;Dryler 1998;Jacobs 1996;Macarie and Moldovan 2015;OECD 2019;Pinker 2008;Seehuus 2019) inequalities through the internal stratification of higher education. ...
Article
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Based on several studies, after exiting higher education there are serious gender differences in the labor market, and disadvantages of people with worse social background also exist. Research question of this study is whether such inequalities in students’ persistence also exist, or not. Based on a survey (n = 2199) conducted in a region of Central and Eastern Europe, we use cluster analysis to characterize resilient students (with unfavorable social backgrounds and good performances), and carry out stepwise linear regression to reveal the effects on students’ persistence. We found that persistence is not the highest among resilient students, as presumed. They still cannot break through the glass ceiling set by students from better social backgrounds in relation to persistence. In accordance with the previous research results, however, females’ higher persistence can still be shown, despite their less favorable social background.
... This could explain that essentialist gender norms can be more easily internalized in these countries, as these norms will give individuals a cultural background on which they can fall back when facing the need to express their social identities. This explanation has been developed extensively by Charles and coauthors [see (22,(62)(63)(64)] to explain math attitudes and the larger extent of occupational segregation in more developed countries. We argue here that it can also apply to gender stereotypes regarding talent. ...
Article
Recent research has shown that there exist gender stereotypes that portray men as more brilliant or inherently talented than women. We provide a large-scale multinational investigation of these stereotypes and their relationship with other gender gaps. Using a survey question asked to more than 500,000 students in 72 countries, we build a measure of the stereotypes associating talent with men and show that they are present in almost all studied countries. These stereotypes are stronger among high-achieving students and in more developed or more gender-egalitarian countries. Similar patterns are observed for gender gaps in competitiveness, self-confidence, and willingness to work in an ICT (Information and Communication Technology)-related occupation. Statistical analysis suggests that these three latter gender gaps could be related to stereotypes associating talent with men. We conclude that these stereotypes should be more systematically considered as a possible explanation for the glass ceiling.
... According to studies of horizontal segregation, cultural norms and expectations push women and men towards different areas of work and study, with men more likely to be involved in activities with technical and operational aspects (Bettio and Verashchagina 2009). This cultural pressure impacts on career choices already starting in higher education and then in the labor market (Cech 2013;Charles and Bradley 2002), as seen by the under-representation of female undergrad and PhD students in STEM areas (Hunt et al. 2013;Loan and Hussain 2017;Toivanen and Väänänen 2016). Horizontal segregation in the intellectual workforce is well documented in the production of scientific articles, where women and minorities are systematically underrepresented in less technical fields (Kozlowski et al. 2022). ...
... At the same time, we observe ongoing horizontal gender segregation in fields of study (England, 2010;England & Li, 2006;Quadlin, 2017). While women are more likely to self-select into the humanities and social sciences, men are overrepresented in other areas, especially technical and engineering fields (Charles & Bradley, 2002;DiPrete & Buchmann, 2013;Kahn & Ginther, 2018;McNally, 2020;Smyth & Steinmetz, 2008). These gender differences in subject choice are problematic in two ways. ...
Article
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Gender segregation in fields of study represents an important explanation for gender inequalities in the labor market, such as the gender wage gap. Research shows that horizontal gender segregation in higher education persists for a variety of reasons, including women’s greater communal goals and men’s greater motivation to earn high incomes. Yet with the male breadwinner model in decline, a key question is whether women’s motivation to earn high incomes might contribute to increasing women’s participation in female-atypical fields of study. Using data from the German Student Survey over a period of 30 years, our findings show that the proportion of women enrolled in female-atypical fields of study increased from 1984 to 2015. Moreover, women’s motivation to earn high incomes mediates the effect of time on enrollment in female-atypical fields of study. Their motivation to earn high incomes might thus be a factor contributing to the disruption of gender segregation in fields of study over time. Furthermore, contrary to expectations, the motivation to earn high incomes as a driving force for women to opt for gender-atypical fields of study is not stratified by social background.
... Sex segregation occurs both horizontally and vertically ( Charles & Bradley, 2002). In horizontal segregation, while women and men have the same position and official role in the organization, it is possible that they assume different duties and responsibilities. ...
Chapter
Newspapers are considered to be the mirrors reflecting what is happening within different societies. Thus, analyzing online newspaper contents across languages can help us to understand the language-dependent implicit biases, i.e. gender bias at a global scale. Implicit biases occur when someone consciously rejects stereotypes and supports anti-discrimination efforts but also holds negative associations in his/her mind unconsciously. In this research, we present a comparative study of gender bias in the published news from conservative (Arabic peninsula, and Pakistan), semi or lower-conservative (Bangladesh, Indonesia, West Bengal, and India), and western (USA, Canada, and UK) countries. As a result of the study, we present the current scenario of gender bias in different occupations in the above-mentioned countries. We evaluate the results of computational methods in the light of recent literature discussing gender biases in the regions of our interest. Finally, we present a list of occupations in which gender bias is more prevalent in those countries.
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China has undergone extensive changes since its transition from the socialist era to the reform era in 1978. It is said there was a revival of traditional gender ideologies in the reform era. Nonetheless, individuals’ socioeconomic status improved greatly, and according to cohort replacement theory and interest- and exposure-based theories, this should imply progress in gender attitudes. Drawing on nationwide repeated cross-sectional data from the 2010–2015 Chinese General Social Survey ( N = 44,900), this study explores changes in gender attitudes in relation to cohort in China. Sex-stratified hierarchical age–period–cohort cross-classified random-effects models are used to (a) explore cohort differences in attitude for four gender norm dimensions (ability and work dimensions in the public sphere and division of labor and marriage dimensions in the private sphere), and across three cohort groups, that is, the “war baby” (born 1926–1948), the “pre-reform baby” (born 1949–1977), and the “reform baby” (born 1978–1995) groups, and (b) examine how cohort differences in relation to each attitude have been modified by socioeconomic status and demographic characteristics, and how men’s and women’s gender attitudes are influenced in different ways by these factors. The results reveal the uneven pace of development toward egalitarian gender ideologies in China, with respondents being more supportive of egalitarianism in the public sphere than in the private sphere. Although the movement toward greater gender egalitarianism in the public sphere started from the pre-reform baby cohort, the movement in the private sphere began to emerge only in the reform baby cohort. Additionally, the sex gap in gender attitudes widened and peaked in the reform baby cohort. Women’s attitudes were influenced to a greater extent by socioeconomic and demographic factors than men’s.
Chapter
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The paper provides theoretical and empirical analysis on the choice problem of individuals' self-employment entry. With more focus on social entrepreneurship, the authors attempt to answer the question of how self-employment entry is different for social and conventional entrepreneurship. Drawing on the national employment survey, the empirical analysis and methodology approach allows the employment status preferences between cooperatives self-employment, independent self-employment, and employer self-employment. For the comparative analysis purpose, the probability of choosing paid job employment is also addressed. The empirical results indicate that the main positive determinants of social entrepreneurship entry are the risk tolerance, basic education, secondary education, and the attractiveness of rural areas. The results reveal also evidences of weak entrepreneurial culture in the Moroccan context. By comparison to conventional entrepreneurship, the empirical section contains additional information. The paper moves policymakers close to individuals' determinants and contributes to the socioeconomic incentive for social entrepreneurship.
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What is the future trend of gender (dis)parity in the U.S. higher education and workforce populations? I take a systems approach to develop a dynamic simulation model of gender diversity in U.S. higher education. The model consists of an education pipeline for males and females and includes several mechanisms that reinforce interest in higher education or affect university admission or dropout rates. I simulated a model and examined its fidelity in replicating the historical data of U.S. higher education from 1970 to 2014. I then simulated the model to forecast future gender composition trends at different levels of education over the next two decades. The model forecasts that women will be the majority of university degree holders in the United States by 2035 (i.e., female to male ratio of 1.7 for advanced degrees) with lower dropout rates. Additionally, a discussion is provided on the study’s findings and subsequent implications.
Chapter
This paper seeks to compare the management and performance of higher educational institutions in Russia and the England, judging from the satisfactory levels of the students they teach. With the use of a survey carried out in both countries, via a representative sample of 2000 students, 1000 in each country, this paper found that on a general level, most UK respondents had a much more positive view of their educational institutions, except when it came to “affordability”, while the Russian respondents had a much more positive position in this area. The paper offers an original approach to making a contribution to the growing debate about the quality and effectiveness of higher education in the Russian Federation.
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Purpose: The expatriation literature has developed an insightful body of research on the reasons why women are not assigned abroad as frequently as men. However, we know very little about the systemic and recursive consequences of women’s underrepresentation in international assignments (IAs), which are examined in this conceptual paper. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing upon expatriation research and a system dynamics perspective, we propose a conceptual model to explain both women’s underrepresentation in IAs and its recursive consequences. Findings: We highlight how women’s underrepresentation in IAs results from a complex system of recursive effects that jeopardizes women’s professional development and undermines both their own career progression to top management and firms’ competitive advantage and international growth. We argue that organizations make decisions that contravene their own interest in a competitive global context. First, because they are limiting their talent pool by not considering female candidates. Second, because they are missing the opportunity to use IAs to advance women’s careers. Research implications/limitations: Our model serves as a platform for future research on selecting the most effective organisational actions and designing supportive measures to disrupt the recurrent effects that contribute to women’s underrepresentation in IAs. Future research should also address the limitations of our study, in particular with regard to individual differences and the proactive role that women may take. Managerial implications: Our model points to specific managerial interventions (e.g., increased access to job-training and specific training ahead of the assignment, dual-career support, women’s mentoring, and affirmative action) which have the potential to reduce women’s underrepresentation in IAs and in top management. Originality: Our system dynamics approach enables a broader understanding of why women are underrepresented in IAs, how this underrepresentation further exacerbates gender segregation in international business, and how these recursive outcomes can be averted to the advantage of firms’ sustainable growth.
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Fields of study are a persistent source of inequality among college graduates in the U.S., but surprisingly few studies have investigated factors that predict earnings within these fields. In this article, we focus on one dimension that has been central to studies of inequality in higher education—college selectivity—to examine how young adult earnings are stratified among college graduates who majored in the same fields, using data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS) from the U.S. (N = 2,952). We also assess gender differences in the relationships between fields of study, college selectivity, and earnings, given that gender is a consistent predictor of both majors and earnings. After accounting for selection bias using propensity score matching techniques, we find that recent college graduates in only two majors—business and the social sciences—experience a selectivity premium. Additionally, we find key gender differences in the majors that give rise to these premiums. Both men and women experience a selectivity premium in business and the social sciences, but within STEM fields, men benefit from a prestigious degree, but women do not. This finding underscores recent research showing that high-performing men in STEM fields receive outsized rewards relative to their women counterparts, thus deepening gender inequality in fields where women are underrepresented and assigned low expectations for performance.
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Women and men often contribute differently to research knowledge. Do differences in these contributions partially explain disparities in academic career outcomes? We explore this by looking at how gender is embodied in research language, and then ascertain whether the adoption of more gendered research language affects career outcomes beyond the researcher's attributes. We identify different forms of gendered knowledge—gender referents (explicit references to sex and gender) and gender-associated terms (words that are implicitly associated with women or men researchers)—by applying natural language processing techniques to nearly one million doctoral dissertations published in the United States between 1980 and 2010. We then determine whether employing gender referents and gender-associated terms affects the course of PhDs’ ensuing careers. We find women researchers have lower chances of securing academic positions than men in every field; explicit references to women as research subjects are modestly rewarded in comparison to references to men; and more career opportunities are afforded to research knowledge associated with men. These results suggest that academia is slowly correcting the traditional and explicit bias of studying men at the exclusion of women. Still, there remains a stronger implicit bias against knowledge associated with women scholars. We discuss relative differences between humanities and social sciences versus natural sciences, technology, engineering, and math, as well as potential treatments for offsetting bias in those fields.
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Despite increased gender equality in many arenas in most of the Western world, women and men continue to choose different educational paths; this is one reason for the persistent gender segregation in the labour market. Cultural and economic explanations for occupational gender segregation both contend that gendered career choices reflect gendered preferences. By analysing data from a multifactorial survey experiment conducted in Norway, designed to isolate the preferences for occupations from preferences for job attributes with which occupation is often correlated: pay; type of position; and amount of work, this article examines whether and to what extent boys and girls who have not yet entered the labour market have different preferences for different work dimensions. The study shows some gender differences in occupational preferences, while also demonstrating similarities in boys’ and girls’ preferences for work dimensions, such as pay and working hours. This indicates that attributes tested by the experiment, which are typically associated with gendered occupations, cannot independently explain why boys and girls tend to have divergent occupational preferences. Importantly, however, the results suggest that boys’ reluctance to undertake some female-typed occupations might be reduced if they did not pay less than male-typed occupations requiring the same level of education.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate gender differences in the level of the quality of work life between male and female employees in IT industries. The sample comprised of 150 people, out of which 90 were males and 60 were females from IT industries. Quality of work life was measured through a seven-dimensioned quality of work life (QWL) scale developed by Angus S. McDonald. Following data collection, significant differences regarding quality of work life were examined by using t-test. The findings indicated significant difference in the exhibition of most of the facets of quality of work life between the two groups. These insights can be used for the improved level of quality of work life between males and females in IT industries. This paper presents data and provides insights into the level of quality of work life of the employees.
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Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth we examine processes by which students enter lucrative fields of study, selective colleges, and lucrative fields within selective colleges. We code fields by their graduates' average monthly income and use average incoming student's SAT scores to measure selectivity. We find that: (1) males are much more likely to enter fields of study with higher economic returns than are females; (2) socioeconomic factors do not affect chances of entry into lucrative fields net of other background factors, but SES predicts entry into selective colleges and lucrative fields within selective colleges; (3) measured academic ability is an important predictor for all dependent variables.
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This paper extends the conceptualisation and refines the operationalisation of gender inequality. The aim is to bridge theory - on gender relations - and measurement - of the reality of gender for women and men - by means of a set of social indicators of gender inequality. We first elaborate the concept of gender inequality and differentiate it from `women's status'. Gender inequality is defined as the departure from parity in the representation of women and men in key dimensions of social life. Next, we operationalise the concept through a set of social indicators developed from statistics provided in the United Nations Women's Statistics and Indicators (WISTAT) database. The 21 indicators measure disparities in the distribution of women and men in socially valued positions in five dimensions - physical well-being, public power, family formation, education and economic activity - within two spheres: human rights and social relations. Finally, we apply the social indicators of gender inequality in a cross-national analysis of the disparities between women and men at different levels of national development. The findings reveal the dismal state of women's human rights across all levels of national income and the disadvantage women experience in the interconnection between social relations of production and reproduction in countries rich or poor. This more complex measure of gender inequality has the potential to inform policy and practices aimed at achieving gender equality.
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Unlike the extensive cross-national research on occupational sex segregation, sex segregation within higher education has yet to be empirically examined comparatively. This article reports analyses for a wide range of countries from 1965 through 1990, using two measures of gender differentiation by field of study. The results indicate that gender differentiation has declined surprisingly little. Women are more likely to graduate from education, arts, humanities, social sciences, and law, and men are more likely to graduate from natural sciences, mathematics, and engineering. Few differences are found between more- and less economically developed countries. These findings echo those in the occupational sex segregation literature.
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This chapter sets forth a general theory of gender stratification. While both biological and ideological variables are taken into account, the emphasis is structural: It is proposed that the major independent variable affecting sexual inequality is each sex's economic power, understood as relative control over the means of production and allocation of surplus. For women, relative economic power is seen as varying-and not always in the same direction-at a variety of micro- and macrolevels, ranging from the household to the state. A series of propositions links the antecedents of women's relative economic power, the interrelationship between economic and other forms of power, and the forms of privilege and opportunity into which each gender can translate its relative power.
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This study uses data on sex differences in the eighth-grade mathematical performance of over 77,000 students in 19 countries, 1964 and 1982 data on such differences in 9 countries, and data on gender stratification of advanced educational and occupational opportunities to explore when and where gender will affect students' performance in mathematics. The analyses show that there is cross-national variation in the performance of mathematics and that it is related to variation in the gender stratification of educational and occupational opportunities in adulthood, that sex differences have declined over time, and that school and family factors leading to higher mathematical performance are less stratified by gender when women have more equal access to jobs and higher education.
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This cross-national study shows that women's enrollments in science and engineering fields in higher education increased between 1972 and 1992 throughout much of the world. This increase was positively influenced by women's level of enrollments in the nonscience and nonengineering fields. This finding suggests a positive spillover effect for women. The level of male enrollments in these fields also had a positive effect, thus suggesting that as fields of study become more open to men, they also become more open to women. These cross-national findings raise questions about the applicability of the persistence of an inequality perspective to women's expanded access to higher education.
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This article develops a supply-side mechanism about how cultural beliefs about gender differentially influence the early career-relevant decisions of men and women. Cultural beliefs about gender are argued to bias individuals' perceptions of their competence at var- ious career-relevant tasks, controlling for actual ability. To the extent that individuals then act on gender-differentiated perceptions when making career decisions, cultural beliefs about gender channel men and women in substantially different career directions. The hy- potheses are evaluated by considering how gendered beliefs about mathematics impact individuals' assessments of their own mathe- matical competence, which, in turn, leads to gender differences in decisions to persist on a path toward a career in science, math, or engineering.
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This paper uses cross-national data to examine how economic, political, and educational structures affect both the participation of women in the labor force and their employment in more powerful and wellrewarded positions. We find that both the level of industrialization and the degree of state corporateness positively influence the participation of women, but that these fail to affect the proportion of women in the administrative and managerial occupations. However, the relative number of women in higher education shows positive effects on both dependent variables. We interpret this finding as a process of ‘institutional demystification’ and discuss the overall pattern of effects as ‘incorporation at the rear of the bus.’
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This study uses a “science pipeline” model and cross-national data to examine women's participation in science education and occupations in seven countries. Gender stratification in later science education and in science occupations is found in every country examined. Young women's participation in science education decreases with each stage in the science pipeline, but there is considerable cross-national variation in the extent of gender stratification in science. Findings show greater gender stratification in science occupations than in science education, suggesting factors other than training help maintain inequality in high-status science occupations.
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This article develops an approach to cross-national research on the status of women that merges theoretical and methodological concerns. The approach consists of understanding the concept status of women within three dimensions—political, economic, and cultural. The article differentiates between a public and a private domain within each dimension. To understand and compare the status of women in different countries, it is argued that it is imperative to study the interrelationships among the dimensions and domains of status of women. Contrasting the approach taken here with that of extant research on gender inequality and with efforts to locate a universal measure of women's status provides an illustration of the complexity involved in analyzing the status of women, the meaninglessness of talking globally about a single measure of status of women, and the necessity to go beyond male-centered measures of status to capture more fully women's status and experiences.
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This article introduces a structural approach to analyzing sex segregation data that rests on margin-free measures of the underlying association in sex-by-occupation arrays. The starting point for the analyses is a log-multiplicative model that is formally consistent with the conventional practice of summarizing cross-national variability in a single parameter pertaining to the overall strength of sex segregation. Under this baseline specification, the segregation regime is forced to take on the same basic shape in each country, with the only form of permissible variability being a uniform compression or expansion of the peaks and valleys characterizing the shared segregation profile. Although the latter model does not account for the cross-national variability in our illustrative data, it can be readily generalized in ways that both improve the fit and yield new insights into the structure and sources of sex segregation. These elaborated models can be used to examine the hierarchical structure of segregation, to identify the dominant ''segregation profiles'' in industrial countries, and to parse out the net residue of segregation at multiple levels of analysis.
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Recent data indicate that, while almost the same proportion of male and female college freshmen enter undergraduate premedical programs, substantially fewer females eventually apply to medical school. College transcripts from a large eastern university were examined to determine whether the lower persistence rate of females is a consequence of a generally lower level of academic performance. The evidence indicates that the differential rate of application is only slightly determined by sex differences in academic performance. Most of the variance is the consequence of a unique pattern of persistence. Females with moderate and low levels of academic performance are substantially less likely than males with similar levels of performance to apply to medical school, but those with a high level of performance are equally likely to apply. Existing "normative" and "structural barriers" approaches in explaining the persistence gap are assessed in terms of logic and evidence. A "normative alternatives" approach that may provide a more adequate explanation of these findings is offered.
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This paper is concerned with one example of demographically related social change-women's changing work roles. The argument is that continued economic development in our society has led to increases in the demand for female labor which, combined with demographically induced shifts in the supply of unmarried and young women, have resulted in the considerable post-World War II rise in the labor-force participation of married women. The evidence is that these changes are irreversible and will not be greatly affected by the entry of the baby-boom cohorts into the labor market. Nevertheless, women's increasing dissatisfaction with job opportunities can be expected because several of the higher-level traditional female occupations will probably not expand greatly in the near future.
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This article addresses issues of cross-national convergence in patterns of occupational sex segregation in the context of a new typology that distinguishes between substantive-egalitarian, formal-egalitarian, traditional family-centered, and economy-centered systems. Each of these systems can be characterized by distinct underlying gender "logics" and by the context of state response to issues of gender equality in the labor market. Using census and labor force survey data from 1960 to 1990 for 14 industrialized countries, log-linear models are employed to evaluate how levels and patterns of occupational sex segregation have evolved over this time period. Analyses reveal that cross-national variation in both the levels and patterns of segregation is declining over time; but at the same time, the remaining diversity among countries is increasingly patterned according to one of four segregation regimes. It appears that wholly idiosyncratic cross-national differences in the contours of occupational sex segregation are withering away as countries Come to settle on, with ever-fewer exceptions, one of four possible segregation regimes.
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This article examines trends in the segregation of fields of study by sex for associate, bachelor's, master's and professional, and doctoral degrees from 1980 to 1990. Three dimensions of segregation are examined: unevenness, concentration or crowding, and intergroup academic contact. Trends in segregation during the college years are considered by comparing data on freshmen's intentions, based on data from the Cooperative institutional Research Program, with degrees earned four years later, based on data from the National Center for Educational Statistics. The data indicate a remarkable slowdown in the trend toward gender integration after 1985. The slowdown is interpreted from a social-control perspective on sex segregation.
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Presents results of a study investigating the role of academic achievement, internship experience, and college major in determining the gender gap in starting salaries of college graduates. Concludes that the gap in salaries would have been larger had females not achieved greater academic success, undertaken more internships, and majored in higher paying areas than their male counterparts. (DK)
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We review the logic underlying margin-free analyses of sex segregation arrays. In the course of our review, we show that the Karmel-MacLachlan decomposition does not live up to its margin-free billing, as the index upon which it rests, I p , is itself margin-sensitive. Moreover, because the implicit individualism of D is necessarily inconsistent with margin-free analysis, the field would do well to abandon not merely the Karmel-MacLachlan decomposition but all related efforts to purge marginal dependencies from D-inspired measures. The criticisms that Watts (1998) levels against our log-multiplicative approach are likewise unconvincing. We demonstrate that our preferred models pass the test of organizational equivalence, that the “problem⤎ of zero cells can be solved by applying well-developed methods for ransacking incomplete or sparse tables, and that simple log-multiplicative models can be readily devised to analyze disaggregate arrays. We illustrate these conclusions by analyzing a new cross-national archive of detailed segregation data.
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While women's suffrage has become completely institutionalized around the world, liberalized abortion is one indicator of the status of women that remains contested. Moreover, abortion rights differ fundamentally from women's suffrage in that they are not derivative of rights originally extended to men. In this article, we summarize and compare the results of prior studies that assess the effects of independence era, international linkages, modernization, state activism, and status of women on the rate of the adoption of women's suffrage and reproduction rights. We argue that world cultural models of progress and justice foster expanded models of political citizenship; these then provide more compelling rationales for further women's rights.
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Two assumptions undergird the argument: In all societies producers have more power than consumers; those who control the distribution of valued goods beyond the family have the most power. Historically, the requirements of population replacement have interacted with modes of subsistence technology to shape the differential distribution of power and prestige by sex. Evidence comes from societies based on foraging, the hoe, the plow, herding, and industrial technologies.
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Analysis of sex differences in choice of college major in the United States in 1955 and 1973, using nationwide data. Data on college major distribution by sex; Analysis of differences; Empirical estimation. (Abstract copyright EBSCO.)