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The Use of Visual Supports to Facilitate Transitions of Students with Autism

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Abstract

A combination of visual supports for two elementary-age boys with autism was evaluated. The visual supports were used to aid transitions from one activity to another in community and home settings. The effectiveness of the visual supports was assessed using single-subject reversal designs (ABAB). The data revealed a significant decrease in the latency between the time the students were given instructions and the time they began the next activity when the visual supports were used. Visual supports also resulted in a significant decrease in teacher-delivered verbal and physical transition prompts required for one of the students.
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The use of visual supports to facilitate transitions of students with autism
Sarah Dettmer; Richard L Simpson; Brenda Smith Myles; Jennifer B Ganz
Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities; Fall 2000; 15, 3; ProQuest Education Journals
pg. 163
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
... Several studies have investigated the efficacy of different antecedent-based transition strategies to facilitate transitions for children with ASD. These studies revealed that antecedent-based transition strategies, such as visual schedules (Dettmer et al., 2000;Macdonald et al., 2018;Pierce et al., 2013), finished boxes (Dettmer et al., 2000), timers (Dettmer et al., 2000), behavioral momentum (Banda & Kubina, 2006;Fisher et al., 2018;Hu et al., 2021), and transition songs (Graber-Juhnke, 2015; Mercurio et al., 2021) are effective on increasing independent transition behaviors and decreasing transition duration between activities and settings in children with ASD. Another strategy used to facilitate the transitions for children with ASD is video priming (Hume, 2008). ...
... Several studies have investigated the efficacy of different antecedent-based transition strategies to facilitate transitions for children with ASD. These studies revealed that antecedent-based transition strategies, such as visual schedules (Dettmer et al., 2000;Macdonald et al., 2018;Pierce et al., 2013), finished boxes (Dettmer et al., 2000), timers (Dettmer et al., 2000), behavioral momentum (Banda & Kubina, 2006;Fisher et al., 2018;Hu et al., 2021), and transition songs (Graber-Juhnke, 2015; Mercurio et al., 2021) are effective on increasing independent transition behaviors and decreasing transition duration between activities and settings in children with ASD. Another strategy used to facilitate the transitions for children with ASD is video priming (Hume, 2008). ...
... Several studies have investigated the efficacy of different antecedent-based transition strategies to facilitate transitions for children with ASD. These studies revealed that antecedent-based transition strategies, such as visual schedules (Dettmer et al., 2000;Macdonald et al., 2018;Pierce et al., 2013), finished boxes (Dettmer et al., 2000), timers (Dettmer et al., 2000), behavioral momentum (Banda & Kubina, 2006;Fisher et al., 2018;Hu et al., 2021), and transition songs (Graber-Juhnke, 2015; Mercurio et al., 2021) are effective on increasing independent transition behaviors and decreasing transition duration between activities and settings in children with ASD. Another strategy used to facilitate the transitions for children with ASD is video priming (Hume, 2008). ...
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... Specifically, the Australian Joy of Moving (AJoM) program will be implemented, as it is a novel and psychologically-focussed classroom-based PA break program containing elements aligned with the implementation considerations identified by McMinn and colleagues [39]. For example, the AJoM program contains psychoeducation emphasising the benefit of PA for psychological wellbeing using storybooks, which provide a visual support that could assist with students' anxiety and apprehension of transitioning to a new activity [45,46]. The program also takes a flexible approach to implementing movement activities to allow tailoring to the developmental abilities of the class. ...
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... Such skills allow children to gain the required input, complete tasks or assignments, and be active during discussions that are held in a classroom [15]. VASs have been used to reduce the latency to initiate a new activity [16], reduce temper tantrums during transitions [17], and to enhance and maintain multiple social skills [14]. The implementation of VAS intervention programs such as providing smallgroup directions have been used in general classrooms and/ or educational settings [18], aiding in the enhancement of academic skills and the degree of interaction between peers, thereby reducing disruptive behaviors in classrooms [19]. ...
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Objectives: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to be noisy and violate rules with their disruptive behaviors, resulting in greater difficulties with off-task behaviors and being at risk for social refusal. The visual activity schedule (VAS) intervention program is a frequently used method to teach multiple skills involving on-task, use of schedules, transition behaviors, social initiation, independent play skills, classroom skills, and academic skills. The current systematic review aimed to examine the efficacy of using VAS intervention in reducing problem behaviors in children with ADHD between 5 and 12 years of age. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted using two electronic databases (PubMed and Scopus) to identify relevant studies published in English between 2010 and 2020. Four studies met the inclusion criteria: two studies examined the effect of schedule-based tasks and the use of an iPad on classroom skills, while the other two examined randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of psychosocial treatment for ADHD inattentive type and a cross-sectional study examined the impact of the group size on task behavior and work productivity in children with ADHD. Results: The findings indicate that the interventions used in all four studies could lead to increased satisfaction among participants and parents, as well as a reduction in problem behavior. In terms of the research indicators, the RCT had low quality, while the others were of high quality. Conclusion: A larger number of studies and the ADHD clinical population would help to increase the generalizability of future reviews of treatments in this context.
... They were then asked to provide detailed verbal descriptions of their submissions. Visual elicitation methods often help participants articulate mental models associated with sensitive topics, facilitating flexibility and reflection [71][72][73]. Studies on pregnancy support networks [74] have used similar methods. ...
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... Advance notice has been provided through the use of visual or auditory cues to signal the end of an activity (turning lights off and on, showing visual representations of the amount of time remaining, ringing bells) and instructions that inform participants of the upcoming activity (Dettmer, Simpson, Myles, & Ganz, 2000;Ferguson, Ashbaugh, O'Reilley, & McLaughlin, 2004). Advance notice has also been delivered by providing students with instructions to end an activity and then showing the students videos of themselves engaging in the activity scheduled to occur next (Schreibman, Whalen, & Stahmer, 2000). ...
Thesis
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“Advance notice” refers to procedures in which a stimulus is provided to signal the end of an ongoing activity and the nature of the upcoming activity. Applied research has considered whether advance notice will reduce the problem behavior that sometimes occurs during transitions. Interpretation of this research is complicated by procedural variations in the type of transitions arranged, the consequences of transition-related problem behavior, the method of providing advance notice, and the measurement of the effects of advance notice. The present experiment investigated effects of advance notice using an animal model of transition-related problem behavior. Key-pecking was maintained on a two-component multiple schedule. In the “lean” component, completing a fixed-ratio produced access to food pellets for a short time; in the “rich” component, completing the ratio produced longer access. The problem behavior was measured as the disruption in pecking that occurred in the transition between rich and lean components. Advance notice was provided in some conditions by flashing the houselight in half of the ratios preceding a lean component. In the present experiment, advance notice did not reduce disruptions in pecking. Instead, when advance notice had any effect, it extended the disruptions. Additional analyses revealed that delivery of notice also disrupted responding within the ratios. The results from the present experiment are discussed in the context of applied research on advance notice.
... The present research is concerned with the procedure known as advance notice, in which an individual is warned of an upcoming transition before they are required to stop the ongoing activity (Brewer et al., 2014). In clinical settings, this may be accomplished by presenting a stimulus that has been paired with the end of an ongoing activity and the start of a new one, such as a timer (Dettmer et al., 2000), a visual schedule (Waters et al., 2009), or a spoken warning (Tustin, 1995). The rationale behind this procedure is based on Flannery and Horner's (1994) hypothesis that the disruptions in behavior occur because transitions produce escape or avoidance of situations in which there is uncertainty about the timing of a transition and the behavior required to perform an upcoming activity. ...
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