Article

Daylight saving time effect on fuel consumption and atmospheric pollution

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Abstract

On the basis of a traffic analysis made by means of the multiple regression method, it has been shown that the daylight saving time applied in summer months, causes a rise in evening traffic and creates an increase in fuel consumption and hence a higher pollution level in the atmosphere resulting from the products of fuel burning (NOx, volatile organic compounds). It has also been demonstrated — by using the recent version of the US EPA lagrangian EKMA trajectory model — that an increase in primary pollutants and the ‘shifting’ of traffic intensity with respect to sunlight intensity (UV) resulting from the launching of daylight savings time lead to a rise in secondary pollutants, especially in photochemical pollutants: ozone (O3) and peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN).

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... A review of research on the factors that could be associated with and/or affect fuel consumption optimization has shown several factors, including takeoff time [16]; age at flight [18]; number of crew and passengers [19]; dry operating weight (DOW), difference between planned and actual DOW, zero fuel weight (ZFW), difference between planned and actual ZFW [12,20]; air distance [14]; ground distance [21]; average W/C [22]; time, especially origin time, destination time, and actual flight time difference between planned and actual flight time [22,23]; alternate fuel and fuel properties [2,3,15]; aircraft type [24]; aircraft operation, aircraft technology and design, aviation infrastructure, socio-economic and political issues [2,3]. ...
... The results sho that the most positively associated factors with the total used fuel were the air dis (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), ground distance (r2 = 0.78, p < 0.01), TOW (r2 = 0.68, p < 0.01), and time (r2 = 0.68, p < 0.01). Alternate fuel (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.01), average ISA (r2 = 0.24, p < difference between planned and actual flight time (r2 = 0.16, p < 0.01), and alternate (r2 = 0.31, p < 0.01) were also positively correlated with total fuel but in a weak pa These results are consistent with previous research studies that found positive ass tions between fuel consumption optimizations and air distance [14], ground distance flight time [22,23], take-off weight [27], alternate fuel [15], difference between planned actual flight time [22,23]. On the other side, AVG W/C was negatively correlated with fuel (r2 = −0.35, ...
... The results sho that the most positively associated factors with the total used fuel were the air dis (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), ground distance (r2 = 0.78, p < 0.01), TOW (r2 = 0.68, p < 0.01), and time (r2 = 0.68, p < 0.01). Alternate fuel (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.01), average ISA (r2 = 0.24, p < difference between planned and actual flight time (r2 = 0.16, p < 0.01), and alternate (r2 = 0.31, p < 0.01) were also positively correlated with total fuel but in a weak pa These results are consistent with previous research studies that found positive ass tions between fuel consumption optimizations and air distance [14], ground distance flight time [22,23], take-off weight [27], alternate fuel [15], difference between planned actual flight time [22,23]. On the other side, AVG W/C was negatively correlated with fuel (r2 = −0.35, ...
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The cost of fuel and its availability are among the most major concerns for aircrafts and the aviation industry overall. Environmental difficulties with chemical pollutant emissions emitted by aviation machines are also connected to fuel consumption. As a result, it is crucial to examine factors that affect the overall fuel usage and consumption in the airport-based aviation industry. Several variables were investigated related to the total fuel consumed, such as dry operating weight (DOW) (KG), zero-fuel weight (ZFW), take-off weight (TOW), air distance (AIR DIST) (KM), and ground distance (GDN DIST). Analysis of the correlation between total fuel consumed as well as the extra fuel and selected variables was conducted. The results showed that the most positively associated factors with the total used fuel were the air distance (r² = 0.86, p < 0.01), ground distance (r² = 0.78, p < 0.01), TOW (r² = 0.68, p < 0.01), and flight time (r² = 0.68, p < 0.01). There was also a strong positive association between the average fuel flow (FF) and actual TOW (r² = 0.74, p < 0.01) as well as ZFW (r² = 0.61, p < 0.01). The generalized linear model (GLM) was utilized to assess the predictions of total energy usage after evaluating important outliers, stability of the homogeneity of variance, and the normalization of the parameter estimation. The results of multiple linear regression revealed that the most significant predictors of the total consumed fuel were the actual ZFW (p < 0.01), actual TOW (p < 0.01), and actual average FF (p < 0.05). The results interestingly confirmed that wind speed has some consequences and effects on arrival fuel usage. The result reflects that thermal and hydrodynamic economies impact on the flying fuel economy. The research has various implications for both scholars and practitioners of aviation industry.
... Methodological difficulties to detect the DST effect, as described in the next section, may be a reason for this paucity. Previous works (Cohen, 1991;Hecq et al., 1993) have focused on possible DST effects on photochemical smog due to the time shift of ozone precursor emissions with respect to the time of maximum solar radiation. A first description of the DST effect on the air pollution problem of Santiago was presented in a conference in 2007 (Muñoz and Schmitz, 2007), work that is hereby extended and supplemented with a statistical significance analysis. ...
... This increase could explain the larger evening peaks after the March DST adjustment, but not the decrease in the morning peaks. Another potentially more restrictive simplification of the proposed explanation is leaving out of the analysis the production of secondary aerosols that are not directly emitted by human activities and that could be affected by the DST adjustments (Cohen, 1991;Hecq et al., 1993). Analysis of these possibilities, however, calls for a modeling approach that falls beyond the scope of the present work. ...
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Daylight saving time (DST) is a common practice in many countries, in which Official Time (OT) is abruptly shifted 1 hour with respect to solar time on two occasions every year (in fall and spring). All anthropogenic emitting processes tied to OT like job and school commuting traffic, abruptly change in this moment their timing with respect to solar time, inducing a sudden shift between emissions and the meteorological factors that control the dispersion and transport of air pollutants. Analyzing 13 years of hourly particulate matter (PM10) concentrations measured in Santiago, Chile, we demonstrate that the DST practice has observable non-trivial effects in the PM10 diurnal cycle. The clearest impact is in the morning peak of PM10 during the fall DST change, which occurs later and has on average a significant smaller magnitude in the days after the DST change as compared to the days before it. This decrease in magnitude is most remarkable because it occurs in a period of the year when overall PM10 concentrations increase due to generally worsening of the dispersion conditions. Results are shown for seven monitoring stations around the city, and for the fall and spring DST changes. They show clearly the interplay of emissions and meteorology in conditioning urban air pollution problems, highlighting the role of the morning and evening transitions of the atmospheric boundary layer in shaping the diurnal pattern of urban air pollutant concentrations.
... Several studies above have suggested that DST leads to an increase in recreational traffic and fuel consumption. Hecq et al. (1993) translated this increased fuel use into increases in ozone and other air pollutants. On the other hand, Reincke and van den Broek (1999) give a rough estimate of the turnover increase for the leisure sector of around 3% for the EU as a whole. ...
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