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The use of honey as a natural preventive therapy of cognitive decline and dementia in the Middle East

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... Increasing body of evidence had shown that honey exert several medicinal beneficial effects such as gastroprotective [7] reproductive [8,9] hepatoprotective [10], antihyperglycemic [11] antioxidant [11] and anti-inflammatory [12,13] properties. SBH or Trigona Honey which is rich in polyphenols is an antioxidant has been shown to prevent neuroinflammation, promote learning, memory, and cognitive function, and protect against neurotoxin-induced neuronal injury in the brain [14][15][16][17]. Therefore, this Chapter attempts to describe the cerebral plasticity prospect of SBHpolyphenols supplementation in rehabilitation of PSVCI. ...
... SBH with phenolic acid consumption is an antioxidant that act as neuroprotective effect to prevent neuro-inflammation, promote memory, learning, cognitive function and protect against neurotoxin-induced neuronal injury in brain [14, 16,129]. Flavonoid or myricetin modulates an interleukin −1 betamediated inflammatory response in human astrocytes in alleviation of neuroinflammation [15]. ...
... In this perspective, the role of honey as one of the natural supplements worth to be explored for its potential in halting the progression of cognitive impairment and dementia [15,16,95]. Nevertheless, to our best knowledge, limited such study exists on stroke patients whether with cognitive or physical impairment with the used of honey in promoting recovery in functional and to delay the progression of impairments. ...
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The neuroprotective potential of stingless bee honey (SBH) is still to be documented from numerous studies including that of its effect on cerebrovascular event. This review should guide stroke rehabilitation specialties to a high understanding of the overall circuit changes post-stroke, the clinical relevance of this change in stroke to cognitive impairment and dementia, and SBH as a supplementation in modern stroke rehabilitation in progresses. However, the potential of SBH as a supplementation therapy and highlights treatment to induced plasticity for post-stroke vascular cogni-tive impairment (PSVCI) remains largely unexplored. This Chapter attempts to deliberate on recent evidence that highlight the therapeutic properties of honey and SBH, the features of PSVCI, and proposing the plausible mechanism of action for SBH as a supplementation during stroke rehabilitation that could halt the progression of PSVCI. It is hoped that such an approach could complement the existing evidence-based stroke care, and which will help in the development of future direction of brain plasticity to delay the progression of cognitive impairment post-stroke.
... Increasing body of evidence had shown that honey exert several medicinal beneficial effects such as gastroprotective [7] reproductive [8,9] hepatoprotective [10], antihyperglycemic [11] antioxidant [11] and anti-inflammatory [12,13] properties. SBH or Trigona Honey which is rich in polyphenols is an antioxidant has been shown to prevent neuroinflammation, promote learning, memory, and cognitive function, and protect against neurotoxin-induced neuronal injury in the brain [14][15][16][17]. Therefore, this Chapter attempts to describe the cerebral plasticity prospect of SBHpolyphenols supplementation in rehabilitation of PSVCI. ...
... SBH with phenolic acid consumption is an antioxidant that act as neuroprotective effect to prevent neuro-inflammation, promote memory, learning, cognitive function and protect against neurotoxin-induced neuronal injury in brain [14, 16,129]. Flavonoid or myricetin modulates an interleukin −1 betamediated inflammatory response in human astrocytes in alleviation of neuroinflammation [15]. ...
... In this perspective, the role of honey as one of the natural supplements worth to be explored for its potential in halting the progression of cognitive impairment and dementia [15,16,95]. Nevertheless, to our best knowledge, limited such study exists on stroke patients whether with cognitive or physical impairment with the used of honey in promoting recovery in functional and to delay the progression of impairments. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The neuroprotective potential of stingless bee honey (SBH) is still to be documented from numerous studies including that of its effect on cerebrovascular event. This review should guide stroke rehabilitation specialties to a high understanding of the overall circuit changes post-stroke, the clinical relevance of this change in stroke to cognitive impairment and dementia, and SBH as a supplementation in modern stroke rehabilitation in progresses. However, the potential of SBH as a supplementation therapy and highlights treatment to induced plasticity for post-stroke vascular cogni-tive impairment (PSVCI) remains largely unexplored. This Chapter attempts to deliber-ate on recent evidence that highlight the therapeutic properties of honey and SBH, the features of PSVCI, and proposing the plausible mechanism of action for SBH as a supplementation during stroke rehabilitation that could halt the progression of PSVCI. It is hoped that such an approach could complement the existing evidence-based stroke care, and which will help in the development of future direction of brain plasticity to delay the progression of cognitive impairment post-stroke. Keywords: stingless bee honey, plasticity, stroke, post-stroke vascular cognitive impairment, rehabilitation, stroke survivors
... Within the last decade, studies used regional honey to investigate effects on learning and memory (Al-Himyari 2009;Chepulis et al. 2009;Al-Rahbi et al. 2014a), stress and anxietylike behavioural in postmenopausal women (Al-Rahbi et al. 2014b), depressive-like behaviour and reduce cognitive function secondary to noise stress induced exposure (Azman et al. 2015), kainic acid-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration (Sairazi et al. 2017). This review provides the efficacy of different kind of honey on brain. ...
... However, there is scarcity of literature on the effect of honey on this part of the cognitive function, especially in human (Table 1). Among the first to study the effect of honey on the cognition is a report by Al-Himyari (2009). In this doubleblind study, a mixed total of 2893 cognitively intact and mild cognitive impaired participants were given either Result showed a staggering 28% of the participant that receives placebo developed dementia compared to only 6% of participants that received honey. ...
... Both short and long term supplementation with honey at a dose of 250 mg/kg of rats' body weight significantly increased the total brain protein and cata-lase activities which acts as defense mechanism against cell damage 18) . A randomized controlled trial done in both cognitively intact and mild cognitive impaired subjects (n = 1493) receiving one table spoon of honey daily showed only 95 subjects (6.3%) developed dementia compared to 394 subjects (28%) from placebo group (n = 1400), suggesting honey as a natural preventive therapy in cognitive decline and dementia 19) . Mechanistically, honey improves cognitive functions through its several properties such as nootropic, antioxidant and nutraceutical properties which may facilitates neurogenesis and provide mechanism against oxidative stress 20,21) . ...
... Mechanistically, phenolic compounds in honey provide neuroprotection through the limitation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, reinforcement of the cellular antioxidant defense system and attenuation of neuroinflammation and apoptosis 13) . Honey was reported to protect against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion such as in Alzheimer's disease and provide stimulatory effect on memory and learning process in preventing dementia 19) . In an animal study, honey is shown to enhance memory by increasing the proliferation of neurons in hippocampal region 12) . ...
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ABSTRACT Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a syndrome that includes all neurological disorders from mild cognitive impairment to dementia caused primarily by cerebrovascular disease. The prevalence of post-stroke VCI reported between 36 to 67 % of survivors. This perspective review is to predict the potential effect of Trigona honey in halting the progression of VCI. Based on its rich content of phenolic compounds, Trigona honey could assist in regulation of oxidative stress, which attenuated free radical-mediated molecular destruction. This mechanism could prevent neuroinflammation and promote memory, learning, cognitive functions and protect against neurotoxin-induced neuronal injury. Besides, this antioxidant activity of Trigona honey could results in rapid decline in the levels of inflammatory biomarkers, and thus maintains healthier white matter microstructure in brain. Therefore, the use of Trigona honey to enhance cognitive performance would be an interesting target for the future studies. The biochemical impact of Trigona honey makes it a potential complementary remedy to decrease the neuroinflammation and prevent the rapid progression of post-stroke VCI. Key-words Trigona, VCI, stroke, cognitive impairment
... Various parameters, such as plasma glucose, plasma insulin, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TG), blood lipids, C-reactive proteins and homocysteine, were investigated following in vivo administration of natural and artificial honeys; natural honey was found to have significant ameliorative effects on the aforementioned parameters (Al-Waili, 2004). In particular, Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) honey has been reported to have protective effects in learning and memory, including enhanced morphology of memory-related brain areas, increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, reduced brain oxidative stress, increased acetylcholine concentration, and reduced acetyl cholinesterase activity in brain homogenates (Al-Himyari, 2009;Othman et al., 2015). ...
... Several studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of honey on memory and learning processes. A long-term study on the efficacy of honey in treating dementia in humans found that honey and the components present in honey may prevent dementia and other cognitive diseases (Al-Himyari, 2009). Another study in which honey was continuously administered to animals revealed that memory is enhanced and there is increased proliferation of neurons in hippocampal regions (Al-Rahbi et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Honey is a natural product produced by both honey bees and stingless bees. Both types of honey contain unique and distinct types of phenolic and flavonoid compounds of variable biological and clinical importance. Honey is one of the most effective natural products used for wound healing. In this review, the traditional uses and clinical applications of both honey bee and stingless bee honey – such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and cardioprotective properties; the treatment of eye disorders, gastrointestinal tract diseases, neurological disorders, and fertility disorders and wound healing activity are described.
... Honey had been shown to reduce cognitive impairment in human as well as in animal model. Al-Himyari et al. [35] found that only 95 subjects who received honey compared to 394 who received placebo developed dementia in a 5-year study involving 2893 subjects aged 65 and older. They concluded that honey acts as natural preventive therapy for both cognitive decline and dementia. ...
Article
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We examined association between the changes in blood oxidative stress level/activity and the changes in memory performance in postmenopausal women receiving Tualang honey (TH). The verbal learning and memory performances of thirty nine postmenopausal women were assessed using the Malay version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (MVAVLT) and their oxidative stress levels/activities were determined using commercially available kits before and 16 weeks after TH supplementation. The plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities were considerably increased but the 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) level was notably decreased after 16 weeks of TH supplementation. There were positive correlations between the changes in plasma GPx and the changes in trial A6 scores (r = 0.48, P < 0.05) and between the changes in plasma CAT and the changes in recognition score (r = 0.32, P < 0.05). TH supplementation for 16 weeks reduced blood oxidative stress but most of the changes in blood oxidative stress level/activity were not significantly correlated with the changes in memory performance
... [11] It is also reported that honey is used in natural preventive therapies for both cognitive decline and dementia, as it possesses antioxidant properties and enhances the brain's cholinergic system and circulation. [12] In closely related studies, it was demonstrated that Tualang honey was able to improve memory performance in stressed ovariectomized (OVX) rats [13] and postmenopausal women. [14] To our knowledge, no previous research had been done regarding the effects of Tualang honey on cognitive functions and depression in rats exposed to loud noise stress. ...
Article
Recent evidence has exhibited dietary influence on the manifestation of different types of behavior induced by stressor tasks. The present study examined the effects of Tualang honey supplement administered with the goal of preventing or attenuating the occurrence of stress-related behaviors in male rats subjected to noise stress. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: i) nonstressed with vehicle, ii) nonstressed with Tualang honey, iii) stressed with vehicle, and iv) stressed with honey. The supplement was given once daily via oral gavage at 0.2 g/kg body weight. Two types of behavioral tests were performed, namely, the novel object recognition test to evaluate working memory and the forced swimming test to evaluate depressive-like behavior. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using IBM SPSS 18.0. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress expressed higher levels of depressive-like behavior and lower memory functions compared to the unexposed control rats. In addition, our results indicated that the supplementation regimen successfully counteracted the effects of noise stress. The forced swimming test indicated that climbing and swimming times were significantly increased and immobility times significantly decreased in honey-supplemented rats, thereby demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. Furthermore, cognitive function was shown to be intensely affected by noise stress, but the effects were counteracted by the honey supplement. These findings suggest that subchronic exposure to noise stress induces depressive-like behavior and reduces cognitive functions, and that these effects can be attenuated by Tualang honey supplementation. This warrants further studies to examine the role of Tulang honey in mediating such effects.
... Within the last decade, studies have been conducted using regional honey to investigate effects on learning and memory. Al-Himyari et al. [10] conducted a five-year pilot study involving 2290 cognitively intact subjects and 603 with mild cognitive impairment aged 65 and older. They were randomized to receive either one daily tablespoon of Middle East honey or placebo. ...
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The composition and physicochemical properties of honey are variable depending on its floral source and often named according to the geographical location. The potential medicinal benefits of Tualang honey, a multifloral jungle honey found in Malaysia, have recently been attracting attention because of its reported beneficial effects in various diseases. This paper reviews the effects of honey, particularly Tualang honey, on learning and memory. Information regarding the effects of Tualang honey on learning and memory in human as well as animal models is gleaned to hypothesize its underlying mechanisms. These studies show that Tualang honey improves morphology of memory-related brain areas, reduces brain oxidative stress, increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations, and reduces acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain homogenates. Its anti-inflammatory roles in reducing inflammatory trigger and microglial activation have yet to be investigated. It is hypothesized that the improvement in learning and memory following Tualang honey supplementation is due to the significant improvement in brain morphology and enhancement of brain cholinergic system secondary to reduction in brain oxidative damage and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration. Further studies are imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions.
... Malaysia Tualang honey is a wild pure multifloral honey produced by Asian rock bee species (Apis dorsata), which builds hives on the branches of Tualang tree (Koompassia excelsa) located mainly in the rainforest of northern Peninsular Malaysia. Honey contains significant antioxidant activities as well as choline and acetylcholine which are essential for brain function and as neurotransmitters [21][22][23][24][25]. Recent studies reported that honey is one of the natural preventive therapies of both cognitive decline and dementia, as it possesses antioxidant properties and it enhances the brain's cholinergic system [26]. Correspondingly, another study reported that consumptions of honey may improve spatial memory in middle aged rats compared to those fed sucrose or sugar-free diet [27]. ...
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Ageing and stress exposure may lead to memory impairment while oxidative stress is thought to be one of the underlying mechanisms involved. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey supplementation on memory performance in aged rats exposed to noise stress. Tualang honey supplementation was given orally, 200 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Rats in the stress group were subjected to loud noise, 100 dB(A), 4 hours daily for 14 days. All rats were subjected to novel object recognition test for evaluation of memory performance. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress exhibited significantly lower memory performance and higher oxidative stress as evident by elevated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and reduction of antioxidant enzymes activities compared to the nonstressed rats. Tualang honey supplementation was able to improve memory performance, decrease oxidative stress levels, increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration, decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, and enhance neuronal proliferation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. In conclusion, Tualang honey protects against memory decline due to stress exposure and/or ageing via enhancement of mPFC and hippocampal morphology possibly secondary to reduction in brain oxidative stress and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration and cholinergic system.
... They found that only 95 subjects who received honey compared to 394 who received placebo developed dementia. The study concluded that honey and its properties act as natural preventive therapies for both cognitive decline and dementia 12 A study using Tualang honey was conducted on 102 healthy postmenopausal women randomly assigned to one of three groups; untreated control, estrogen plus progestin therapy and Tualang honey. The participants in Tualang honey and estrogen plus progestin therapy groups received 20 g Tualang honey supplement and Femoston conti 1/5 (1 mg 17-β estradiol and 5 mg dydrogesterone), respectively, daily for 16 weeks. ...
Article
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... Malaysia Tualang honey is a wild pure multifloral honey produced by Asian rock bee species (Apis dorsata), which builds hives on the branches of Tualang tree (Kompassia excelsa) located mainly in the rainforest of northern Peninsular Malaysia. Honey contains significant antioxidant activities as well as choline and acetylcholine which are essential for brain function and as neurotransmitters [25][26][27][28][29]. Recent studies reported that honey is one of the natural preventive therapies of both cognitive decline and dementia, as it possesses antioxidant properties and it enhances the brain's cholinergic system [30]. Correspondingly, another study reported that consumptions of honey may improve spatial memory in middle-aged rats compared to those sucrose-fed or sugar-free diet [31]. ...
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The neuroprotective effects of Tualang honey in stress-induced young and aged rats were investigated. Tualang honey (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered for 28 days. Stress-induced rats were subjected to loud noise 100 dB(A) 4 hours daily for 14 days. Stress exposure significantly induced memory impairment, increased brain oxidation indices, and decreased antioxidant enzymes activities and neuronal density in mPFC, CA2 and CA3 hippocampal areas in both young and aged rats. The stressed rats treated with Tualang honey showed a significant decrease in stress hormone levels and brain oxidation indices, and increase in memory, antioxidant enzymes activities, and neuronal density in mPFC and hippocampus compared to the vehicle-treated stressed rats. The protective effect of Tualang honey was more prominent in young than aged rats. These results suggest the neuroprotective effects of Tualang honey against oxidative stress and memory decline due to stress exposure and/or ageing through its antioxidant property.
... Honey has long been used as food as well as a natural remedy for various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory disorders, cancer, neurological degeneration, infectious diseases and aging [29,30]. Al-Himyari [31] had proposed that honey intake is associated with a low risk of AD and may prevent neurodegenerative process of the disease. However, based on the current literature search, the data evaluating the efficacy of honey in learning and memory models is still lacking. ...
Article
Background Tualang honey (TH) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on learning and memory function in various animal models. However, its learning and memory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rat model have not been elucidated. Objective The present study aimed to investigate the cognitive-enhancing effects of TH and its methanolic fraction in comparison to the clinically approved N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (memantine) using LPS rat model. Methods A total of ninety male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: (i) control, (ii) untreated LPS (iii) LPS treated with 200 mg/kg TH, (iv) LPS treated with 150 mg/kg methanol fraction of TH (MTH) and (v) LPS treated with 10 mg/kg memantine. All treatments were administered intraperitoneally once daily for 14 days. Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests were performed to assess spatial and recognition memory function. Results The present study confirmed that LPS significantly impairs spatial and recognition memory and alone treatment with TH or MTH improved spatial and recognition memory comparable to memantine. Conclusion Both TH and its methanolic fraction improved spatial and recognition memory of LPS rat model comparable to memantine. Thus, TH and its methanolic fraction have potential preventivetherapeutic effects for neurodegenerative diseases involving neuroinflammation.
... • There are several studies supported that more than half of children with autism have problems with nutritional status due to their certain dietary behaviors such as picky in choosing food, food sensitivity and feeding problems [4,5]. • Purpose of parents who give their children with supplements is to improve overall health [6]. Sunnah food such as honey and dates can improve cognitive status among human beings [7]. ...
... Honey is also used as a natural preventive therapy for cognitive impairment and dementia, due to its antioxidant properties and enhances the brain's cholinergic system and circulation [50]. In line with the results obtained in a previous study using Tualang honey [51], stingless bee honey also showed an increase in the memory capacity of the study rat possibly due to its antioxidant ability as a result of its high polyphenolic content. ...
Article
Background Evidence suggested the involvement of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases through oxidative stress. Consumption of antioxidant compounds was found to be beneficial on brain-health by reducing brain oxidative stress level and improve cognitive performance in animal. Stingless bee honey or locally known as Kelulut honey (KH) exert high phenolic content and widely used as food supplement. Objectives In this study, we aim investigate the effects of KH on the brain of MetS-induced rats. Method: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups; 8 weeks (C8) and 16 weeks control groups (C16), groups that received high carbohydrate high fructose (HCHF) diet for 8 weeks (MS8) and 16 weeks (MS16), and a group that received HCHF for 16 weeks with KH supplemented for the last 35 days (KH). Results Serum fasting blood glucose decreased in the KH group compared to MS16 group. HDL levels were significantly decreased in MetS groups compared to control groups. Open field experiments showed KH group exhibits less anxious behavior compared to the MetS group. Probe trial of Morris water maze demonstrated significant memory retention of KH group compared to MS16 group. Nissl staining showed significant decrease in pyramidal hippocampal cell in the MS16 compared to KH group. Conclusion KH has the ability to normalise blood glucose and reduce serum triglyceride and LDL levels in MetS rats, while behavior studies complement its effect on anxiety and memory. This shows a promising role of KH in attenuating neurodegenerative diseases through the antioxidant activity of its polyphenolic content.
... Greek honey is a natural food product, which in addition to its nutritional importance, possesses valuable chemopreventive properties due to the presence of bioactive ingredients, mainly divided into its antibacterial and antioxidant capacity (11). These two pillars affect each other, and their combination engenders the high health-promoting properties of honey (12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17). Honey is characterized by its content variability since it is produced through water evaporation and the regurgitation of different plant nectars (18). ...
Article
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Current concerns over the modern health status have been transpired due to the desire of consumers to gain the benefits of quality biofunctional foods, and the will of producers to improve the scalability of their products. The constant flow of scientific knowledge and technology manifests the progressive exploitation of the biological capacity of foods to produce an economic output. Therefore, the assessment of specific properties that agricultural products contain, is a prerequisite prior to their entering the market. In the present review article, a wide array of methodologies is proposed which may be used to evaluate the antioxidant, reductive and DNA protective capacity of honey at cell‑free, cell‑based in vitro and in vivo experimental levels. This proposed array is compiled by non‑laborious techniques that do not demand sophisticated and expensive equipment. Moreover, they can be followed by scientists to screen different honey batches and other agricultural goods that will allow enhanced repeatability and comparability among studies.
... In a pilot study more than 2000 healthy subjects were given a daily tablespoon of honey or placebo for 5 years and assessed for dementia every 6 months. The results showed that 95 subjects who received honey developed dementia compared to 394 who received placebo, supporting preventive properties for cognitive decline [107]. Moreover, postmenopausal women with reduced estrogen concentrations, showed improvement in the immediate memory after 16 weeks of daily 20 mg honey supplementation [108]. ...
Article
Honey is a natural product, containing flavonoids and phenolic acids, appreciated for its therapeutic abilities since ancient times. Although the bioactive potential is linked to the composition, that is variable depending on mainly the botanical origin, honey has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might result useful in the management of chronic diseases that are commonly associated with oxidative stress and inflammation state. Obesity is a metabolic disorder characterized by visceral adiposity. The adipose tissue becomes hypertrophic and undergoes hyperplasia, resulting in a hypoxic environment, oxidative stress and production of pro-inflammatory mediators that can be responsible for other disorders, such as metabolic syndrome and neurodegeneration. Experimental evidence from animals have shown that honey improves glycemic control and lipid profile with consequent protection from endothelial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the current literature concerning the beneficial effects of honey in the management of the obesity-related dysfunctions, including neurodegeneration. Based on the key constituents of honey, the paper also highlights polyphenols to be potentially responsible for the health benefits of honey. Further well-designed and controlled studies are necessary to validate these benefits in humans.
... The administration of Tualang honey in 80 patients with Schizophrenia significantly improved learning and memory over 8-weeks (Yahaya et al., 2020). In a double-blind placebo-controlled RCT, intake of honey significantly declined the incidence of dementia in patients aged 65 years or older (Al-Himyari, 2009). Intake of Tualang honey improved cognitive functions in Schizophrenia patients over 8-weeks (Yahaya et al., 2020). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Honey is one of the most popular functional foods, speculated to be in use since the advent of human civilization. Its health-protective activity is endorsed by many religions and traditional medicines. In Unani medicine, honey is prescribed for many health conditions as wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, etc. In the present era, honey is gaining popularity over sugar for its myriad health benefits and low glycemic index. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the biological activities and potential therapeutic uses of honey, with scientific evidence. Methodology In this paper, we have provided a comprehensive overview of historical uses, types, physical characteristics, bioactive constituents and pharmacological activities of honey. The information was gathered from Classical Unani textbooks and leading scientific databases. There is a plethora of information regarding various therapeutic activities of honey, and it is daunting to draw practical conclusions. Hence, in this paper, we have tried to summarize those aspects which are most relevant to clinical application. Observations and conclusions Many important bioactive constituents are identified in different honey types, e.g. phenolics, proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, etc., which exert important biological activities like anti-microbial, wound healing, immunomodulatory, anti-toxin, antioxidant, and many others. Honey has the potential to alleviate many lifestyle disorders, mitigate the adverse effects of drugs and toxins, and also provide healthy nutrition. Although conclusive clinical evidence is not available, yet honey may potentially be a safer alternative to sucrose for diabetic patients.
... Moreover, previous studies on animals reported that intake of honey was beneficial and improved memory loss and cognitive decline caused by different conditions, such as aging, stress, ovariectomy [40][41][42] and neuroinflammation induced by Aβ-42 injection [43]. The beneficial effects of honey on the brain have been associated with the presence of components such as flavonoids and phenolic acids that can improve oxidative stress and oxidative stress-linked effects [17,44,45]. ...
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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of long-term honey ingestion on metabolic disorders and neurodegeneration in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Three groups of mice were fed with a standard diet (STD), HFD or HFD supplemented with honey (HFD-H) for 16 weeks. Biochemical, histological, Western blotting, RT-PCR and Profiler PCR array were performed to assess metabolic parameters, peripheral and central insulin resistance and neurodegeneration. Daily honey intake prevented the HFD-induced glucose dysmetabolism. In fact, it reduced plasma fasting glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations and increased adiponectin levels. It improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and HOMA index without affecting plasma lipid concentration. HFD mice showed a significantly higher number of apoptotic nuclei in the superficial and deep cerebral cortex, upregulation of Fas-L, Bim and P27 (neuronal pro-apoptotic markers) and downregulation of Bcl-2 and BDNF (anti-apoptotic factors) in comparison with STD- and HFD-H mice, providing evidence for honey neuroprotective effects. PCR-array analysis showed that long-term honey intake increased the expression of genes involved in insulin sensitivity and decreased genes involved in neuroinflammation or lipogenesis, suggesting improvement of central insulin resistance. The expressions of p-AKT and p-GSK3 in HFD-H mice, which were decreased and increased, respectively, in HFD mouse brain, index of central insulin resistance, were similar to STD animals supporting the ability of regular honey intake to protect brain neurons from insulin resistance. In conclusion, the present results provide evidence for the beneficial preventative impact of regular honey ingestion on neuronal damage caused by HFD.
Article
Background According to the World Health Organization, two billion people will attain the age of 60 years or more by 2050. Ageing is a major risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative disorders, which currently possess challenge to the global health status, carrying economic and social consequences. Therefore, attention has been dedicated towards the development of neuroprotective agents derived from natural sources. Honeybee products, such as honey, bee pollen, propolis, royal jelly, beeswax, and bee venom have been used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times in Egypt, Greece, and China. Despite the emergence of modern medicine, bee products remain clinically relevant owing to their potential as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and neuroprotective agents. Scope and approach This review demonstrates the potential of bee products against neurological disorders in the light of the current literature. Key findings and conclusions Bee products and individual isolated components have enormous therapeutic potential for multiple neurological disorders. The different studies show overall neuroprotective and nerve-tonic characteristics of bee products, mainly due to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic features. However, some limitations such as allergic reactions and the cytotoxic effect of some bee products warrant a special care in its development as drug leads in future studies.
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Penyakit Alzheimer adalah penyakit yang disebabkan degeneratif sel otak dan merupakan penyebab nyanyuk (dementia) paling lazim. Simptom dementia lazimnya dikaitkan dengan kesukaran mengingat, berkomunikasi, menyelesaikan masalah dan aktiviti kognitif lain yang mempengaruhi keupayaan seseorang untuk melakukan aktiviti seharian. Kesukaran ini berlaku akibat kerosakan dan kemusnahan sel saraf (neuron) di bahagian otak yang terlibat dalam fungsi kognitif. Pesakit Alzheimer di tahap akhir lazimnya kerap tidur dan memerlukan penjagaan sepanjang masa. Madu, yang lazimnya dirujuk sebagai makanan suplemen dan komplementari, diyakini mempunyai khasiat tertentu dalam merawat dan mengurangkan simptom negatif suatu penyakit. Hal berkaitan madu ditemui dalam tulisan-tulisan cuneiform dari Sumeria dan Babylon dari awal 2100 SM, dan dipercayai digunakan untuk merawat amnesia dalam sejarah Sumeria (3100 SM) dan Akkadian (2400 SM). Madu juga disebut di dalam Al-Quran dan hadith sebagai penawar penyakit. Perbincangan ini melibatkan hal berkaitan madu dari perspektif al-Quran dan dapatan-dapatan kajian saintifik berkaitan fungsi madu dalam merawat simptom penyakit berkaitan dementia.
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Honey and propolis are the honey bee-derived products with a long history of consumption by humans for health purposes. Both of these substances consist of a wide spectrum of vital compounds especially phenolics and flavonoids that are capable of exerting beneficial clinical effects on health. The antimicrobial, anti-metastatic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-proliferative activities of honey ingredients and antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial, anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-protozoal, anticancer, antihepatotoxic, antihypertensive, and cytotoxic properties of propolis make these substances potential candidates for therapeutics. Honey has been found effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, respiratory ailments, neurological abnormalities, gastrointestinal defects, skin ulcerations, ophthalmic defects, wounds, peptic ulcers, and different types of carcinomas. Likewise, propolis also exhibits potential role in the management of chronic kidney disease, neurological disorders, tumors, ulcers, chronic periodontitis, atherosclerosis, gastrointestinal defects, and wounds. Evidences suggest honey and propolis as potential phyto-derived clinico-pharmacological agents for effective treatment of different diseases.
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Honey has been used as food and medicine by humans since the beginning of civilizations. It has been used to treat a multitude of ailments due to its numerous biological activities like anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant. More recent reports have shown that honey possess neuroprotective potential as well. Several pre-clinical reports have demonstrated that honey is able to modulate the neurobehavioral outcomes and improve learning and memory in mice models by regulating the anti-oxidant mechanisms, neurotrophic factors, and cholinergic system. Honey is a rich source of pharmacologically potent natural compounds like polyphenols that have been demonstrated to attenuate microglia-induced inflammation and improve memory deficits in different neurotoxicity models. In this chapter, I will be summarizing the neuroprotective potential of honey in various paradigms of neurological ailments and discuss its mechanism of action with possible therapeutic applications.
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Honey has been trusted in traditional healing and wellness in most of the civilizations. Modern medicine has accepted wound healing properties of honey in burns and ulcers. There is tremendous evidence regarding antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties of honey. There are some experimental—in vitro and in vivo data and a little clinical data demonstrating role of honey in reversing the effects of neurodegenerative disorders and cognitive amelioration. Despite all the proven and assumed goodness, honey has not been able to establish to its full potential as a brain tonic under modern science. A casual search on PubMed and Cochrane databases reveals that there is not enough research on the neuroprotective aspects of honey. However, dissection of key components of the composition of honey has deciphered many compounds which are individually appreciated for their role in improvement of cognition and neurodegenerative disorders. The recent acceptance of gut–brain axis and role of microbiome in the development and modulation of neuronal functions has led to new insights; growing data recognizes honey as a prebiotic. It may be concluded that improvement in cognitive functions is a cumulative effect of the unique chemical composition of honey and it may not be identical for all types of honey. More longitudinal research is required to establish honey as a brain tonic.
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