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Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents

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... Total phenolic content (TPC) was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu method identified by Singleton and Rossi (1965) [11]. The TPC values were expressed as mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry matter. ...
... Total phenolic content (TPC) was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu method identified by Singleton and Rossi (1965) [11]. The TPC values were expressed as mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry matter. ...
... The flow behavior index (n) values varied from 0.14 to 0.19 were lower than 1 for all the ice cream mixes, indicating a non-Newtonian shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior ( Table 2). The shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior demonstrates the high stability of the system properties under reduced shear rate processing settings, as well as the easy pumping of mix and the required texture and mouthfeel of the end product [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22]. The consistency coefficient (K) values were 9.05-17.69 ...
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This study aimed to investigate the potential use of cold-pressed coconut oil by-products (COB) as a low-cost alternative source for plant-based drink and ice cream production. Firstly, a plant-based drink was produced from cold-pressed coconut oil by-products (COB drink) and compared with a commercial coconut drink. The fat, protein, and zeta potential values of coconut drink obtained from COB were higher than those of the commercial samples. In addition, the particle size value of the drink obtained from COB was found to be lower than that of the commercial drink. In the second stage, full-fat and low-fat plant-based ice cream samples using COB drink were produced and compared to control ice cream samples (produced by the commercial coconut drink) in terms of rheological, sensorial, and thermal properties. Rheological analysis showed that all plant-based ice cream samples indicated pseudoplastic, solid-like, and recoverable characteristics. Low-fat commercial control ice cream samples (C1) indicated the lowest K value (9.05 Pasn), whereas the low-fat plant-based ice cream sample produced by the COB drink (COB-3) exhibited the highest K value (17.69 Pasn). ΔHf values of the plant-based ice cream samples varied from 144.70 J/g to 172.70 J/g. The low-fat COB ice cream stabilized with 3% COB and full-fat COB ice cream samples showed lower ΔHf values than control ice cream samples, indicating that the COB ice cream showed desired thermal properties. The COB drink may be utilized in plant-based ice cream without altering sensory qualities, and low-fat ice cream could be manufactured in the same manner to attain full-fat ice cream quality characteristics. The results of this study demonstrated that COB can be successfully used as an inexpensive raw material source in the production of full-fat and reduced-fat vegetable-based ice cream.
... It was kept in air tight container with liquid Nitrogen (-196°C) until used for further procedure. Kernel powder was used for phenol content estimation following the procedure suggested by Singleton et al. (1965). The data were analysed following standard statistical procedures (Panse and Sukatme 1967). ...
... Dried grains collected at different growth and maturity of spike were used for the estimation of total phenol (Singleton et al. 1965). ...
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For a long time, phenol colour reaction on grains has piqued researchers' curiosity all around the world. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=6x=42) and macaroni (T. turgidum subpp. durum [Desf.] Husn., 2n=4x=28) wheat products include colour as an important quality feature. Browning caused by polyphenol oxidase activity must be reduced or eliminated if wheat quality is to be improved. A study was, therefore, undertaken to identify different cultivated varieties with low phenol coloration and subsequently low phenol content at various stages of growth and maturity since its induction after flowering. A few wild species having diverse genomes were also studied to identify the potential donor for phenolic activity in grains. Results indicated that phenol colour was induced post-fertilization and phenol content increased with intensity of coloration. Generally, wild species showed higher phenolic activity than that in cultivated varieties. The information accrued may be useful in breeding low phenol content in wheat. How to cite this article: Mathur P., Chakrabarty S.K., Kumar S., Murukan N, Tomar S.M.S. 2022. Variation in phenol content in grains of wheat (Triticum spp.) in relation to phenol colour reaction. Indian J. Genet. Plant Breed., 82(4): 403-410.
... Total phenolics determination: Phenolic compounds concentration in the wheat was estimated with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent according to the Singleton and Rossi method [24] as described by Woldegiorgis [22]. One milliliter of sample (5000 µg) was mixed with 1 ml of Folin and Ciocalteu's phenol reagent. ...
... The total phenols (TPs) were quantified according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method [32]. The phenolic compounds were removed from 1 mL of wine and a 10% UGE solution with a C18 Sep-pak cartridge (Waters, Milan, Italy) [33]. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of a Sangiovese wine aged in barrique with the addition of an unripe grape extract (UGE) as an alternative to sulfur dioxide. Three samples were considered: control wine (TQ) with free SO2 of approximately 15 mg/L; sample A with chitosan (100 mg/L) and UGE (200 mg/L); and sample B with UGE (400 mg/L). The results achieved in this work demonstrated that the UGE, either alone or in combination with chitosan, was able to maintain the color characteristics of the Sangiovese wine and its sensory quality. Moreover, the addition of UGE contributed to an early and better stabilization of the color through the formation of polymeric pigments. The microbiological stabilization was comparable to SO2 when UGE was used at 200 mg/L in combination with chitosan. The market survey conducted in the present study confirmed how the use of UGE as an alternative to sulfitation was positively accepted by consumers, who are increasingly attentive not only to the quality of the wines they select but also to the sustainability of the production processes from which they derive and to the fact that they are not harmful to human health.
... Proteins were analysed by the colorimetric Coomassie Brilliant Blue assay [45], bovine serum albumin (BSA) fraction V was used to perform the calibration curve, and the results were expressed as mg BSA g −1 of cell wall. The determination of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was performed by the colorimetric Folin-Ciocâlteau reagent test [46]. The calibration curve was carried out using a solution of gallic acid and the results were expressed as mg gallic acid g −1 cell wall. ...
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The structural composition of the cell wall of grape skins is related to the cell wall integrity and subsequent extraction of the different compounds that are contained inside vacuoles and also the cell wall breakdown products. Different reports have established that methyl jasmonate (MeJ) produces changes in the composition of the grape skin cell wall. The use of elicitors to promote the production of secondary metabolites in grapes has been studied in several reports; however, its study linked to nanotechnology is less developed. These facts led us to study the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and nanoparticles doped with MeJ (nano-MeJ) on the cell walls of Monastrell grapes during three seasons. Both treatments tended to increase cell wall material (CWM) and caused changes in different components of the skin cell walls. In 2019 and 2021, proteins were enlarged in both MeJ and nano-MeJ-treated grapes. A general decrease in total phenolic compounds was detected with both treatments, in addition to an increment in uronic acids when the grapes were well ripened. MeJ and nano-MeJ produced a diminution in the amount of cellulose in contrast to an increase in hemicellulose. It should be noted that the effects with nano-MeJ treatment occurred at a dose 10 times lower than with MeJ treatment.
... The total phenolic content was determined by spectrophotometry using Folin Ciocalteu's reagent (Singleton & Rossi, 1965;Genovese et al., 2008). For such, 0.25 mL of the extracts were transferred to test tubes wrapped with aluminum foil. ...
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There is an underutilization of bioactive compounds, given the losses and daily waste of vegetables throughout the entire production chain. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to quantify the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in different parts of vegetables. Analyzes were performed on five vegetables (zucchini, eggplant, broccoli, green cabbage and green beans) from conventional cultivation. The levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity were obtained by spectrophotometric methods. Except broccoli, the analyzed by-products had levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity equal to or greater than the traditional parts of vegetable. Broccoli florets stood out with the highest levels of total phenolics (141.22 mg GAE/100 g), total flavonoids (137.38 mg CE/100 g) and antioxidant capacity (588.3 µmol TEAC/100 g). In contrast, the lowest levels were observed in zucchini pulp (25.44 mg GAE/100 g; 13.03 mg CE/100 g; 69.78 µmol TEAC/100 g). Therefore, the importance of full consumption of vegetables is reiterated. By-products can also be used to enrich preparations. Keywords: vegetables; food waste; bioactive compounds
... Phenolic extractions for the antioxidant assays were conducted according to the method described by Singleton & Rossi [20] with a few modifications. In brief, 0.5g of freeze-dried vegetable powder was dissolved in 5.0 mL of 80% (v/v) methanol (1:10 sample to solvent ratio) and kept at 25 o C for 15 hours using an orbital shaker. ...
... −1 ), and l is the cell path length (1 cm), and m is the freeze-dried sample weight (g). The total polyphenol content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method [56]. In this method, 100 ml of diluted pomegranate juice (25:100) with methanol: water (6: 4) was mixed with 100 ml of folin and 1.58 ml of distilled water. ...
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Pomegranate has been considered a medicinal plant due to its rich nutrients and bioactive compounds. Since environmental conditions affect the amount and composition of metabolites, selecting suitable locations for cultivation would be vital to achieve optimal production. In this study, data on the diversity of targeted metabolites and morphological traits of 152 Iranian pomegranate genotypes were collected and combined in order to establish the first core collection. The multivariate analyses were conducted including principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis. In addition, the current and future geographical distribution of pomegranate in Iran was predicted to identify suitable locations using the MaxEnt model. The results showed high diversity in the studied morphological and metabolic traits. The PCA results indicated that FFS, NFT, JA, and AA are the most important traits in discriminating the studied genotypes. A constructed core collection using maximization strategy consisted of 20 genotypes and accounted for 13.16% of the entire collection. Shannon-Weaver diversity index of a core collection was similar or greater than the entire collection. Evaluation of the core collection using four parameters of MD, VD, CR, and VR also indicated the maintenance of the genetic diversity of the original set. According to the MaxEnt model, altitude, average temperature of coldest quarter, and isothertmality were the key factors for the distribution of pomegranate. The most suitable areas for pomegranate cultivation were also determined which were located in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. The geographic distribution of pomegranate in the future showed that the main provinces of pomegranate cultivation would be less affected by climatic conditions by the middle of the century. The results of this study provide valuable information for selection of elite genotypes to develop the breeding programs to obtain the cultivars with the highest levels of metabolic compounds for pharmaceutical purposes, as well as identification of the most suitable agro-ecological zones for orchard establishment.
... Phlorotannins (oligomers of phloroglucinol) were measured through a spectrophotometric method as performed by Koivikko et al. (2005). It is based on the Folin-Ciocalteu method (Singleton and Rossi 1965) with slight modifications. Firstly, a standard curve was set using 0.030 to 0.005 g L −1 of phloroglucinol. ...
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Seaweed derived biostimulants are gaining attention as an important tool in sustainable agriculture. This offers a unique opportunity to alleviate the environmental impact of Sargassum muticum (Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae) as an invasive species by finding new applications for its biomass. In this sense, incorporating green extraction technologies is fundamental to ensure environmental-friendly goals. This research was initiated in an attempt to contribute to an integral valorization system of S. muticum biomass, exploring the biostimulant potential of the solubles obtained from pressed solids, through an autohydrolysis treatment. In addition, we compared the effect of three different liquid phase drying techniques (spray-drying, freeze-drying and convective air-drying). Low stress drying techniques as spray-drying showed better conservation of bioactive compounds and biostimulant potential. A bioassay with Nastrium officinale showed no phytotoxic effects despite high electric conductivity in most of the extracts and concentrations. Dried extracts showed mainly an amorphous structure but occasional crystal formation when spray-dried at low temperatures (Tout = 50 ºC) and after convective air drying (T = 40 ºC). Significant increases in root development were achieved at a concentration of 5 mg L⁻¹ of spray-dried extracts and 50 mg L⁻¹ in case of freeze-dried extracts. Munoo-Liisa vitality index showed best results with 50 mg L⁻¹ of freeze-dried extracts. This study provides important information about the influence of different drying techniques on the physicochemical properties and biostimulant potential of S. muticum aqueous extracts and contributes to the integral valorization of its biomass.
... TPC was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay [33]. Absorbance was measured at 725 nm on a Jenway 6900 UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Colmworth, UK). ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic content, composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of four grape seed extracts (Cabernet Sauvignon, Marselan, Pinot Noir, and Tamyanka). The total phenolic content (TPC) and flavonoid, anthocyanin, procyanidin, ascorbic acid, DPPH, and ABTS antioxidant capacities of the grape seed extracts (GSEs) were determined. The extracts showed high TPC values (79.06-111.22 mg GAE/g). The individual components in the GSEs were determined using HPLC. High contents of catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B1 were found in the extracts. The antimicrobial activity of the obtained GSEs against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli was evaluated using the agar diffusion test and a test to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). According to the effect on the growth of pathogens, the extracts were ranked in the following order: Pinot Noir > Marselan > Cabernet Sauvignon > Tamyanka. The tested bacteria showed high sensitivity to the extracts (MIC = 0.12-0.50 mg/mL). According to the MIC values, the bacteria were in the following order: S. aureus > B. cereus > E. coli. A correlation was found between the phenolic content of the GSEs and their antibacterial potential. The obtained results show that the studied GSEs have good potential as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.
... Physiological Indexes. The content of proline was determined by the method of acid ninhydrin [5]; The total phenolic content (TPC) was measured using a slightly modified Folin-Ciocalteu method [6]; The total flavonoid content (TFC) was measured using a slightly modified method of Jia et al [7]; The total flavanol content (TFAC) was determined using the p-DMACA method [8]; DPPH• free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH), ABTS •+ free radical scavenging capacity (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant (FRAP) were measured by Du [9]; Determination of the ascorbic acid content (AsA) refered to Ma et al [10]. The above indicators w ere set three times repeats, and calculated the average. ...
... AsA content determination method adopts Ma et al [12] . TPC content determination method adopts Folin-Ciocalteu method [13] . TFC content determination method adopts Jia et al [14] . ...
... Finally, the residues were collected and used for the experiments. Total phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu method (Singleton and Rossi, 1965) Parsley roots fermented juice Parsley roots were cut into pieces and chopped in a laboratory blender with distilled water. After mechanical filtration, the fresh juice was sterilized for 15 min at 121ºC. ...
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Plant extracts rich in phenolics and vegetal fermented juices rich in nitrite may be used as preservatives in the meat industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn berry phenolics and nitrite from parsley roots fermented juice, on unsmoked frankfurters. Seven lots of frankfurters were prepared. Two lots were prepared using ascorbate and parsley juice nitrite (each preservative 50 ppm, L1; each preservative 25 ppm, L4), two lots were prepared using hawthorn berry phenolics and parsley juice nitrite (each preservative 50 ppm, L2; each preservative 25 ppm, L5), two lots were prepared only with parsley juice nitrite (50 ppm, L3; 25 ppm, L6), while L7, control lot, was prepared with 50 ppm ascorbate and 50 ppm synthetic nitrite. pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, cure efficiency, residual nitrite, total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae and coliform bacteria were determined at 3-day intervals for 15 days. During storage, comparatively with control, the best physico-chemical parameters were found for L4 and L5 of frankfurters, while the best microbiological parameters were found for frankfurters treated with ascorbate and parsley juice nitrite (L1 and L4). The addition of natural antioxidants and nitrite was able to improve unsmoked frankfurters’ shelf-life.
... The amount of total phenolics in S. ochocoa extracts was determined with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent according to the method of Singleton and Rossi [8] with slight modification using gallic acid as a standard. Briefly, in 200 µl of extract (2 µg/ml) was added 500 µl of 1/10 diluted Folin reagent and 20% Na 2 CO 3 . ...
... Total soluble solids ( 0 Brix) were determined by using digital refractometer (ATAGO PR-1, Japan) according to AOAC methods (1995). The Titrable acidity and non-enzymatic browning of the samples were analyzed by using the method developed by Ranganna (1986) and Berwal et al., (2004);Vitamin C content by Ranganna, (1986); Total phenol content by Singleton and Rossi, (1965).The yeast and mold count of the fruit was determined by pour plate method using potato dextrose agar (PDA) as a media as described by Aneja (2001). ...
Article
A multi-target (combination preservation) technique has been extensively applied to develop minimally processed and completely stabilized shelf stable food produces. A combination of irradiation and osmotic dehydration decrease the need for thermal treatments for enhancing the shelf life and microbial safety of cut fruits and vegetables. The present study aims at identifying combined effect of ã-irradiation pre-treatment and osmotic dehydration treatment on guava. The guavas packed in LDPE pouches were irradiated at 0.25 kGy, and 1.0 kGy dosages at the dose rate of 2.75 kGy/hr. The guava slices with and without irradiation were infused for osmotic dehydration process. Optimization of the process time (3,6 and 9 hr) was also investigated. Further, stored guava slices were analyzed for their physico – chemical, antioxidant and microbial analysis. Mass transfer kinetics of guava slices osmotically dehydrated in sucrose solutions were significantly affected by irradiation dosage and sucrose concentration and treatment duration. The evaluation of hurdle approach on guava slices showed that, combination treated slices were significantly less susceptible to nutrient and colour changes during storage. The synergy between the irradiation and dehydration also resulted in adequate microbiological stability of the slices.
... Total polyphenol content (TPC) in the standards and the extracts was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay [21]. To 1 ml of extracts, 9 ml distilled water was added followed by 1 ml of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. ...
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Objectives: The objective of the study was to estimate the seasonal variations in the antioxidant capacities, total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and tannin content (TC) of tea leaf extracts from two different plantation sites. Methods: Samples were collected from two tea gardens in Tuli and Ungma situated at N 26°39’19.3 E 094°39’22.7 and N 26°17’30.6 E 094°28’29.2, respectively, under the Mokokchung district of Nagaland, India. TPC, TFC, and TC from sample extracts were determined using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent, aluminum chloride colorimetric, and Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Apart from these, antioxidant capacities were analyzed using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: The concentrations of total polyphenol, flavonoid, and tannin varied from 552.029±8.079 to 305.647±1.744 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, 238.770±0.508–148.457±1.653 mg catechin equivalent/g, and 26.453±0.485–20.173±0.173 mg tannic acid equivalent/g, respectively. FRAP and DPPH assay displayed value ranging from 2.564±0.023 to 1.074±0.023 mmol Fe(II) equivalent/g and 3.612±0.053–2.076±0.028 mmol Trolox equivalent/g. Significant seasonal variations in concentrations of these compounds were observed and a positive correlation between antioxidant capacities and phenolics of tea leaf extracts was established. Conclusion: Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) has been regarded as a plant of immense medicinal and therapeutic value since time immemorial. The tea leaf extracts analyzed in this study gave high TPC, TFC, and TC, as well as high antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH and FRAP value. Studying such properties in tea leaves contributes more to our understandings of health benefit potentials in tea leaves and the quality of tea leaves on the basis of seasons and sites where they are planted.
... The content of total phenolic (TP) compounds was expressed as µg/g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of fresh weight. Determination of total phenolic content Standard Curve of Gallic Acid -Total Phenol Assay.The total phenolics content of the extracts were determined colorimetrically, using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, as described by Singleton and Rossi[9], using gallic acid as a standard. Different aliquots of sample solution were made up to 1ml each with distilled water and added 1.5 ml of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (previously diluted 10 folds with distilled water), kept at room temperature for 5 min and added 4 ml of 20% sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), and kept at room temperature for 30 min. ...
... The iron reduction power (FRAP) method was determined according to Benzie and Strain (1996), and the antioxidant potential of the extracts was determined in triplicate based on the calibration curve drawn using ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4 ) (2 mmol L -1 ), expressed in μM FeSO 4 mg -1 sample. The content of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) spectrophotometric method, according to Singleton and Rossi (1965), expressed in mg gallic acid 100 g -1 of sample, using the standard curve of gallic acid. ...
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Muntingia calabura fruits are rich in bioactive compounds such as antioxidants, and the consumption of these compounds is associated with cancer prevention and aging. In this study, mathematical models were used to fit the experimental data of the Muntingia calabura peel drying kinetics, and the effective diffusion coefficient, activation energy and thermodynamic properties of the process were determined. Then, the effect of the drying temperature on the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of fruit peels was examined using conventional extraction and ultrasonication. Among the analyzed models, the logarithmic model was selected to represent the drying phenomenon of the calabura peel kinetics. The effective diffusion coefficient decreased by 74% as the temperature increased from 40 to 60°C, and the activation energy for liquid diffusion during drying was 23.96 kJ mol-1. The enthalpy and entropy decreased with increasing temperature, while the Gibbs free energy increased by 5% for each 10°C increase in temperature. Regarding the content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of the calabura peel, it was observed that an increase in the drying temperature had a positive effect on the conservation of the bioactive compounds, making it possible to conclude that drying at 60°C and ultrasound extraction are the most suitable approach to conduct the process.
... The total phenolic compounds (TPC) of all flour samples were determined through the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (Singleton and Rossi, 1965), as described by (Woldegiorgis et al., 2014). The results of TPC were expressed as (mg Gallic acid equivalent/100g dry sample). ...
... Briefy, grapes samples were manually pressed and the obtained must was centrifugated (9302 rfc, 5 min, 18°C), fltered with syringe flters (0.22 μm pore size, 33 mm diameter, Sigma-Aldrich, Italy), and used for the following analyses: pH, using a pH meter (GLP21, Crison Instruments S.L.U., Spain); total soluble solids (TSSs), employing an optical refractometer and expressed in g/L of sugars; titratable acidity (TA), by titrating 7.5 mL of fltered must with 0.1 N sodium hydroxide, expressed in g/L tartaric acid equivalent. Total polyphenol content (TPC) was measured using the Folin Ciocalteau method [24]. Polyphenol content have been determined by interpolating the obtained data with those obtained from the calibration curve (prepared with gallic acid solutions at concentrations 10-800 mg/L in methanol). ...
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Consumers are more and more oriented towards the purchase of safer food and beverages, which is pushing the wine sector to find alternatives to the use of sulfur dioxide. Ozone (O3) is already applied in the wine industry to produce sulfur dioxide-free wines through the patented method Purovino®. The aim of this two-year study was that of evaluating whether the postharvest treatment of grapes with ozone affects volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polyphenol profile in berries, and in turn, wine composition. Grape bunches (Vitis vinifera L.) of cv Sangiovese were fumigated overnight with gaseous ozone (max 20 g·h−1 with 6% w.w−1 of ozone) in a cold room at 4°C (±0.5). After treatment, grapes were processed into wine. In grapes, ozone treatments increased total polyphenol and flavonoid content and upregulated specific genes (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, VvPAL, flavanol synthase 1, and VvFLS1) involved in polyphenol biosynthesis. Wine obtained from ozone-treated grapes had higher flavanol content than the control. Fumigation only slightly affected the different VOC classes of grapes and wine, including aroma compounds derived from the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway. Although a season-dependent effect was observed, results showed that postharvest ozone treatments applied to avoid the use of sulfur dioxide introduced limited but, in general, positive modifications to grape and wine composition. This information provides assurance to winemakers that the maintenance of wine quality and typicity will be guaranteed when using ozone treatments.
... Absorbance was thereafter, read at 730 nm. The polyphenol was quantified based a calibration curve developed under the same operating conditions with tannic acid as standard, prepared at concentrations ranging from 25 to 125 µg/mL [28]. ...
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Erectile dysfunction has become for two decades, a real public health problem. Its prevalence is estimated at 322 million in 2025. Its management is based on the administration of phosphodiesterase inhibitors alone or in combination. Infections have been rarely mentioned although E coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Serratia marcescens are recognized as factors of erectile dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical profile of the aqueous (AE) and hydroethanolic (HE) extracts of the fresh leaves of Gardenia aqualla and to determine their antibacterial potential on bacteria involved in male accessory gland infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate phytochemical profile of aqueous (AE) and hydroethanolic (HE) extracts of fresh leaves of Gardenia aqualla and to determine their antibacterial potential on bacteria involved in male accessory gland infections. Phytochemical profile highlighted the presence of alkaloids, polyphenols with concentrations of 434.5 ± 14.5 mgEq Tannic acid/g of dried extract greater than 249.5±18.3 mgEq Tannic acid/g of dried extract found in AE including flavonoids whose concentrations is 184.9 ± 6.3 µgEqRutin/g of dry extract in HE against 183.0±9.1 µgEqRutin/g of dried extract in AE. Antibacterial tests showed equivalence of activity on E coli and S aureus strains with MICs of 100 mg/mL and 50mg/mL respectively and only HE showed activity on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens which had the lowest MIC 6.25 mg/mL.
... Total polyphenol content was measured using Folin-Ciocâlteu-reagent in accordance with Singleton and Rossi [21]. A 0.1 mL sample was mixed with 0.1 mL of the Folin-Ciocâlteu-reagent, 1 mL of 20% (w/v) sodium carbonate, and 8.8 mL of distilled water, and left in darkness for 30 min. ...
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The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant activity (DPPH and phosphomolyb-denum method), polyphenols content (total polyphenols, flavonoids, and phenolic acids), mineral compounds composition (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb and Cd) and antimicrobial activity (with disc diffusion method) of medicinal herbs traditionally used in the Slovak republic. The tested plants belonged to the Primulaceae, Urticaceae, Grossulariaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Equisetaceae, Tropaeolaceae, and Plantaginaceae families. The highest antioxidant activities were found in samples of Rosa canina L. (DPPH-29.43 ± 0.11 mg TE/g; TE-Trolox equivalent) and Fragaria vesca L. (phosphomolybdenum method-679.56 ± 3.06 mg TE/g), both from the Rosaceae family. Total polyphenols (determined using the Folin-Ciocâlteu-reagent) were most abundant in a sample of Fragaria vesca L.-124.51 ± 5.05 mg GAE/g (GAE-gallic acid equivalent), total flavonoids (determined using the aluminum chloride method)-in a sample of Primula veris L.-48.35 ± 3.77 mg QE/g (QE-quercetin equivalent), and total phenolic acids (determined using Arnova reagent)-in a sample of Thymus serpyllum L.-102.31 ± 2.89 mg CAE/g (CAE-caffeic acid equivalent). Regarding mineral compounds composition, samples of Fragaria vesca L. and Thymus serpyllum L. showed the highest levels of iron. In samples of Calendula officinalis L. and Trapaeolum majus L., the highest amounts of zinc were determined, while copper was the most abundant in samples of Urtica dioica L. and Melissa officinalis L. The amounts of heavy metals were within legally acceptable limits. The extract of Equisetum arvense L. showed the strongest inhibitory activity towards Clostridium perfrin-gens CCM 4991 (6 mm), while the one from Mentha piperita L.-towards Candida glabrata CCM 8270 (4.83 mm) and Candida tropicalis CCM 8223 (4.33 mm).
... Each honey sample (5 g) was mixed with 10 mL of distilled water at room temperature and transferred to a 50 mL volumetric flask and filled to the mark with ultrapure water. The total phenolic content was spectrophotometrically determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method with some modifications [41]. Briefly, 0.3 mL of the sample solution and 6 mL of deionized water were mixed with 0.5 mL of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and incubated for 6 min at room temperature. ...
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Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite responsible for the loss of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies. This study aimed to find a promising marker in honey for the bee colony infestation level using fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical analyses. We examined whether the parameters of the honey samples’ fluorescence spectra and biochemical parameters, both related to proteins and phenolics, may be connected with the level of honey bee colonies’ infestation. The infestation level was highly positively correlated with the catalase activity in honey (r = 0.936). Additionally, the infestation level was positively correlated with the phenolic spectral component (r = 0.656), which was tentatively related to the phenolics in honey. No correlation was found between the diastase activity in honey and the colonies’ infestation level. The results indicate that the catalase activity in honey and the PFC1 spectral component may be reliable markers for the V. destructor infestation level of the colonies. The obtained data may be related to the honey yield obtained from the apiaries.
... Total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (Singleton and Rossi, 1965). Gallic acid was used as a standard. ...
... The final volume is completed to 25 ml with 80% methanol. The total amounts of phenolic compounds in the leaf samples extracted with methanol were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method as described by Singleton and Rossi (1965). The total amount of phenolic compounds was determined as mg g -1 wet weight in terms of gallic acid by making measurements at a wavelength of 765 nm in the spectrophotometer and using the curves prepared with standard gallic acid solution. ...
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The research was carried out to determine the salt stress tolerance status of some almond genotypes considered as rootstock candidates under in vitro conditions. The genotypes were cultured in the MS nutrient medium containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl. Apart from NaCl, 1.0 mg/l BAP, 0.01 mg/l IBA, 30 g/l sucrose and 7 g/l agar were added to the nutrients and the pH was adjusted to 5.7. In vitro shoots were incubated for 4 weeks in a climate room with 16‑h light and 24 °C temperature, and then the number of shoots per explant, the proline, chlorophyll, total phenolics, total flavonoids and total protein contents, superoxide dismutase, CAT and APX enzyme activities were evaluated. In parallel with the increase in salt stress level, it was determined that the number of shoots and chlorophyll contents decreased significantly in all genotypes as compared to the control treatment. The proline, total phenolic, total flavonoid and total protein contents and enzyme activities increased significantly with the increase in the salt level. In the study, no significant difference was observed regarding the tolerance status of the genotypes in the MS medium containing 50 mM NaCl. Considering the 100 and 150 mM NaCl applications, it was determined that the genotypes numbered 9, 29, 54, 120, 134, 183, 185, 196 and 241 showed better development and therefore they stood out in terms of salt tolerance as compared to the other genotypes.
... After standing in a water bath, rapid cooling was done under running water and again centrifuged at 3000 g for 15 minutes. After centrifugation, emulsion stability (ES) was calculated using the second equation from the remaining emulsion layer (mL) and total volume ( The total phenolic content of the samples was determined according to the methods of Singleton and Rossi [13]. For this purpose, 200 µL of extract was mixed with 1800 µL of distilled water and then 1 mL of Folin Ciocalteu (diluted 1/10 with water) reagent was added into the samples. ...
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In this study, technofunctional and bioactive properties of protein concentrates from different common bean genotypes were investigated. Protein extraction conditions depending on pH and salt level were optimized by response surface methodology. The highest protein content for the concentrates (77.7%) was determined for pH 11 and 0.4% of salt. The protein content of the common bean flour and their protein concentrates were in the range of 22-26.96% and 72.97–77.99%, respectively. For bioactive properties, total phenolic content ranged between 578.9-1355.9 and 313.6-1219.1 mg GAE/kg, for flours and concentrates respectively. Two genotypes (G7 and G8) were the samples showing the superior biofunctional properties. Principal component analysis showed that G2 had different characteristics in terms of technofunctional parameters while G7 and G8 were differed from the other genotypes in terms of bioactivity. The results revealed that the proteins of common beans could be evaluated as good source for the enrichment of food formulations.
... Total soluble phenolics (TSP). The Folin-Ciocalteu method (Singleton and Rossi, 1965) was used according what was describing by Galicia-Flores et al. (2008). A standard curve of gallic acid (20 to 100 ppm) was drawn up, and the results were expressed as mg equivalent of gallic acid per 100 g of dry sample (mg GAE 100 g -1 DW). ...
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Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant from tropical climates, which produces, among other products, deep red calyces used to prepare refreshing drinks. The high humidity (85-87%) of the calyces at the time of harvest must be reduced to about 12% for handling and storage. The aim of the work was to evaluate the effect of the dehydration method of the calyces (sun drying, SD; air-drying, AD, at three temperatures: 50, 60 and 70 ºC) of three varieties of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on the quality of their aqueous extracts. The quality was measured as a function of color), and chemical variables (titratable acidity, TA, total soluble phenols, TSP; total anthocyanins content TAC, and organic acids). The varieties used were Negra Quiviquinta (NQ) with dark red calyces, UAN-9 with light red calyces, and UAN-16, with white calyces. The dehydration method affected the quality of the extracts. The SD was the one that most affected the color and chemical variables. The color of the extracts was darker than that of the control while titratable acidity (TA) was reduced on average 40.6%. No effect of AD treatments was observed on these variables. On chemical composition, SD reduced TSP on average 15.3%, the most affected variety was UAN-16. In the varieties with red calyces, the average TAC reduction was 36.9%. Of the organic acids, the most affected were malic and succinic. As observed in physical variables, AD treatments showed little influence on chemical composition of calyces. Of the dehydration methods evaluated, the AD70°C rendered the best quality aqueous extract, in base of the variables evaluated.
... Total phenolics determination Total phenolic contents were assessed according to Singleton and Rossi (1965). Folin-Ciocalteau reagent method was used. ...
... Chemical methods: Total phenolics (TP) content was assayed by Folin -Ciocalteu reagent at 765 nm with tannic acid as a standard (Singleton et al., 1965) . using UV-Vis. ...
... Determination of moisture, total solids (TS), total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars , sucrose, reducing sugars , non-sugar substances (NSS), purity, starch, protein, fat, ash, minerals (Fe, K and Ca) and pH values were determined according to methods cited in the AOAC (2010). Titratable acidity was determined according to Chen & Picou (1972) and reported as ml 0.1 N NaOH /100 g of sample and calculated by (mg/m Eq as citric acid) according to Collins et al. (1977).The total phenolics content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteau (FC) according to Singleton et al. (1965).Antioxidant activity (DPPH) was determined according to the method described by Awika et al. (2003).Tannins content was determined according to the method described by Waniska et al (1992). Determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content in syrup samples was by using HPLC according to Jafarnia et al. (2016). ...
... Semakin pekat warna biru yang terbentuk, maka semakin banyak juga kompleks fosfotungstat-fosfomolibdat yang tereduksi. Dari hasil pengukuran total fenolik, diperoleh warna biru pekat pada fraksi air dan fraksi n-heksana tanaman patah tulang (Singleton dan Rossi, 1965 Gambar 5. Grafik Hubungan Antara Konsentrasi dan persen (%) aktivitas penangkal radikal bebas Koefisien y pada persamaan regresi ini adalah sebagai IC 50 , sedangkan koefisien x pada persamaan ini adalah konsentrasi dari ekstrak yang akan dicari nilainya, dimana nilai dari x yang didapat merupakan besarnya konsentrasi yang diperlukan untuk merendam 50% aktivitas radikal DPPH. Dari persamaan juga dapat diketahui nilai R 2 yang menunjukkan korelasi antara persen (%) aktivitas penangkal radikal bebas dengan konsentrasi ekstrak dan hasil fraksinasi. ...
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Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengetahui senyawa fitokimia dan aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak etanol tanaman patah tulang (Euphorbia tirucalli L.) menggunakan metode 1,1-difenil-2-pikrilhidrazil (DPPH). Ekstrak etanol diperoleh dengan metode maserasi kemudian diuji fitokimia untuk dilihat kandungan senyawa metabolit sekunder diantaranya alkaloid, fenolik, flavonoid, tanin, saponin, triterpenoid/steroid. Senyawa fenolik sangat berpotensi sebagai antioksidan karenanya dilakukan uji kandungan total fenolik menggunakan metode spektrofotometri dengan pereaksi Folin-Ciocalteu. Uji aktivitas antioksidan dilakukan menggunakan metode DPPH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol mengandung senyawa metabolit sekunder yaitu fenolik ditunjukkan dengan terbentuknya warna hijau kehitaman, senyawa saponin dengan terbentuknya busa stabil, dan senyawa tanin dengan terbentuknya warna hijau kehitaman. Hasil pengujian kandungan total fenolik ekstrak etanol memiliki nilai sebesar 60,270 mg GAE/g. Kekuatan antioksidan ditentukan oleh nilai IC50 yang didasarkan pada persen perendaman radikal bebas oleh sampel uji. Untuk ekstrak etanol memiliki IC50 sebesar 82,152 µg/mL. Berdasarkan hasil yang diperoleh ekstrak etanol tanaman patah tulang memiliki potensi yang kuat sebagai antioksidan.This research was conducted to determine the phytochemical compound and antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of Patah Tulang (Euphorbia tirucalli L.) plant using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The ethanol extract was obtained by maceration and then was analysed for phytochemical compound to see the secondary metabolite contents including alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, triterpenoids / steroids. The phenolic compounds have high potential as antioxidant, therefore the total fenolic content was tested using spectrophotometric method with Folin-Ciocalteu reagents. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method. he results showed that the ethanol extract contain secondary metabolite compounds. Penolic compounds weredetected by the formation of blackish green color, saponin compounds showed stable foam formation, and tannin compounds with a blackish green formation. Total phenolic content of the extract was60,270 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activity was determined by IC50 value based on the percentage of free radicals taken by the sample. And ethanol extract had IC50 value of 82.152 µg /mL. Based on the results obtained, ethanol extract of Patah Tulang plants had a strong potential as an antioxidant.
... The total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau (F-C) method proposed by Singleton and Rossi (1965). For the extraction of phenolic compounds, see section 3.2.4 and 3.2.5.6. ...
... Folin-Ciocalteu [26] Senyawa fenol akan diubah menjadi ion fenolat melalui disosiasi proton dalam suasana basa yang selanjutnya akan mereduksi asam fosfomolibdat-fosfotungstat dalam reagen FC menjadi senyawa kompleks molybdenum-tungsten berwarna biru [27] akibat reduksi ion molybdenum (Mo 6+ ) menjadi Mo 5+ [28] yang digunakan sebagai indikator adanya senyawa fenol dalam sampel. ...
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This research was aimed to know the degree of Fenol compound, total acid and the activity of liquid smoke of Rubber (Hevea brassiliensis) Seed Shell also the application in obstructing the rancidity of beef. The Fenol compound was determined by using Reagen Follon-Ciocalteu. The total acid was determined by using the method of titrated acids.The ability as the antioxidant was tested by DPPH method and the ability of obstructing the rancidity of beef was done by measuring the alteration of TBA value in beef as long as saved. The result was shown the fenol compound in liquid smoke of Rubber Seed Shell as much as 0,84 % and the acetic acid content was 4.725%. The antioxidant test was produced IC50 value as much as 101.27 ppm. According to the IC50 value which got from the test that the liquid smoke of Rubber Seed Shell were included in moderate category. The increment of the liquid smoke of Rubber Seed Shell were able to suppress the rancidity of beef during the storage time. It was marked by the decreasing of TBA value in beef as given in treatment A1 (liquid smoke 4% ) and A2 liquid smoke 6%. The treatment without the liquid smoke (A0) increased the TBA value from 0.05 mgMDA/Kg on day (0) to 0.615 mgMDA/Kg on day 6. The treatment of concentration liquid smoke 4% (A1) increased from 0.039 mgMDA/Kg on day (0) to 0.395 mgMDA/Kg on day 6. The treatment of concentration liquid smoke 6% (A2) increased from 0.031 mgMDA/Kg on day 0 to 0.209 mgMDA/Kg on day 6.
... The determination of total phenols was carried out using the Folin-Ciocalteu method as described by Singleton and Rossi (1965). The assay was performed using a Genesys 10 UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, UK). ...
... This was done in line with the protocol outlined by Singleton and Rossi (1965). One milliliter of Folin C reagent was added to one milliliter of material. ...
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The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of solid state fermented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) using Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. Solid state fermentation was carried out for 72 hours at room temperature under acidic and basic conditions. Total phenolic content were significantly (p<0.05) higher for peeled and unpeeled cassava when compared to fermented forms at pH 7 and 5, respectively. Similarly, the total flavonoid contents of peeled and unpeeled cassava at pH 4 and 7 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in fermented cassava. The Allium cepa assay was used to assess the antigenotoxic effects of unfermented and fermented peeled and unpeeled cassava. The fermented extracts did not induce chromosomal type aberrations in the treated cells. The present study thus showed that R. oligosporus has the ability to breakdown cassava and considerably increase the antioxidant properties in fermented cassava peeled and unpeeled, which may serve as natural antioxidants in industrial broiler chickens.
... The total phenolics content was measured according to the method described by Singleton and Rossi (1965). ...
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