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Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents

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... To determine the total phenolic content, TPC, the following materials, equipment, reagents, and solvents were used: The determination of the TPC was carried out using the Folin-Ciocalteu method adapted from [23]. Gallic acid was used as a standard to obtain calibration curves. ...
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Essential oils, EOs, are concentrated liquids with complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds that can be extracted from different plant materials. EOs have been used by humans throughout history due to their natural properties: from pleasant fragrances, to anti-bacterial/fungal activities. This work presents the impact of pulsed electric fields, PEF, application as a pre-treatment for the extraction of EOs from eucalyptus, rosemary, and thyme leaves. The initial PEF pre-treatment was first applied to eucalyptus and rosemary leaves two weeks after harvesting, with a 2 kV/cm electric field and a specific energy of approximately 10 kJ/kg, followed by EO extraction by hydrodistillation, HD, with distillation times of 30 and 60 min. The best results were obtained for PEF pre-treated samples and 30 min HD, exhibiting an increasing trend in the average extraction yield of approximately 17% and 11% for eucalyptus and rosemary, respectively, in comparison with no PEF applied. The composition of the EOs extracted from eucalyptus was analyzed for their total phenolic content, TPC, where PEF pre-treated samples showed a higher polyphenol extraction, reaching 30% for 30 min HD. Finally, the optimization of the PEF pre-treatment was also studied, for maximizing the quantity of EO extracted from dry thyme leaves, while aiming for a minimization of energy consumption, for different distillation times. For this study it was observed that, for this plant material, an electric field of 1 kV/cm with 0.4 kJ/kg and an HD time of 30 min, after PEF application, was able to achieve an extraction yield up to 40% higher than the conventional method.
... The Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method at 765 nm was used to quantify the total phenolic content of the oil (Singleton and Rossi 1965). The results were expressed in milligrams of gallic acid per kilogram of oil. ...
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Phenolics, in addition to color, flavor, nutritional value, and organoleptic properties, are mainly responsible for the oxidative stability of olive oil and change according to the degree of maturity and processes. In this study, it was aimed to optimize the malaxation process using the response surface method in terms of oil yield and bioactive constituents, including total phenolic content, ortho-diphenol, and free radical scavenging activity of olive oils at three maturity stages. At all maturity stages, malaxation temperature and time were effective on the considered responses. The total phenolic content, ortho-diphenols, and free radical scavenging activity of the oil samples varied in a range of 86.11–338.94 (milligram gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg), 66.74–154.88 (mg GAE/kg), and 42.49–90.10%, respectively, depending on the malaxation conditions. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and luteolin were the individual phenolics determined chromatographically in the olive oil samples, and their amounts varied to different extents depending on the malaxation conditions and maturity stages. The models show high predictive performance to explain the variation in the study. The optimum conditions for malaxation temperature and time for oil extraction from spotted, purple, and black fruits were 35 °C/45 min, 33 °C/44 min, and 35 °C/24 min, respectively.
... The total phenolic content was determined using the spectrophotometric method 79 . A methanolic solution of the extract at a concentration of 1 mg/mL was used in the analysis. ...
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In the present study, the dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, ether extract, and energy, macro- (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P), micro- (Zn, Cu, Fe) minerals, heavy metals (Pb, Cd), vitamin C, A, carotene, and phenolic content were determined in chosen raw and fermented vegetables. The dietary intake of several macro- and microconstituents per one serving (100 g or humans and animals: ducks and pigs) was calculated. The fermentation process was found to reduce water and increase fat content in the vegetables. Lower levels of vitamin C and phenols were also found in the fermented vegetables. The vitamin A and carotene content in the fermented carrots and peppers were increased in comparison with the raw vegetables. The fermentation process decreased the concentration of some basic nutrients, mineral content, vitamins C and A, and phenols. Broccoli, peppers, and red beet had the highest levels of the analyzed nutrients and bioconstituents. The fermentation process is regarded by nutritionists as beneficial to human health. The addition of fermented plants is recommended in animal nutrition as well. This process modifies the chemical composition of preserved vegetables, e.g. it reduces the concentration of dietary fiber, and brings favorable effects in poultry and pig nutrition.
... The mixture was centrifuged at 3000× g for 10 min, and the supernatant was used for further TPC and AOC analyzes. TPC was determined according to the method of Singleton and Rossi [42], and AOC (DPPH scavenging activity) according to the method of Brand-Williams et al. [43]. Calibration curves were prepared with Trolox reagent (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), and results were expressed as Trolox equivalent (mmol TE/100 g). ...
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Short-dough cookies are one of the most popular cereal-based products in the world, but usually they are considered as foods with a low nutritional value. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of replacing part of the wheat flour (WF) with hulless barley flour (HLBF), in order to improve the functional properties and nutritional value of the cookies. Cookies were prepared from composite flours in the ratios HLBF:WF 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0. The results show that as the HLBF content in the composite flour increases, the viscosity of the corresponding HLBF:WF slurries also increases, due to the high dietary fiber content (especially the high �-glucan content), which is significantly higher when HLBF is included in the formulation. The addition of HLBF decreases the spread factor of the cookies, and increases their softness compared to the control cookies (100% WF), but these changes are not statistically significant up to 50% HLBF addition. The color of the HLBF:WF cookies is not significantly affected. A significant increase in total phenolic content (TPC) and increased antioxidant capacity (AOC) are observed in the HLBF:WF cookies. In addition, sensory evaluation confirms that WF can be replaced by up to 50% with HLBF without significant deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the cookies. It can be concluded that hulless barley serves as a promising raw material if the nutritional and functional properties of cereal-based products are to be improved.
... It was kept in air tight container with liquid Nitrogen (-196˚c) until used for further procedure. Kernel/husk powder was used for phenol content estimation following the procedure suggested by Singleton et al. (1965). ...
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It explains about the variation within plant and between plant of same phenol colour group varieties
... Association of Official Analytical Chemist, 1990). Total polyphenol content was evaluated with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method with a gallic acid standard (Singleton and Rossi, 1965). ...
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To ensure food security given the current scenario of climate change and the accompanying ecological repercussions, it is essential to search for new technologies and tools for agricultural production. Microorganism-based biostimulants are recognized as sustainable alternatives to traditional agrochemicals to enhance and protect agricultural production. Marine actinobacteria are a well-known source of novel compounds for biotechnological uses. In addition, former studies have suggested that coral symbiont actinobacteria may support co-symbiotic photosynthetic growth and tolerance and increase the probability of corals surviving abiotic stress. We have previously shown that this activity may also hold in terrestrial plants, at least for the actinobacteria Salinispora arenicola during induced heterologous symbiosis with a wild Solanaceae plant Nicotiana attenuata under in vitro conditions. Here, we further explore the heterologous symbiotic association, germination, growth promotion, and stress relieving activity of S. arenicola in tomato plants under agricultural conditions and dig into the possible associated mechanisms. Tomato plants were grown under normal and saline conditions, and germination, bacteria-root system interactions, plant growth, photosynthetic performance, and the expression of salt stress response genes were analyzed. We found an endophytic interaction between S. arenicola and tomato plants, which promotes germination and shoot and root growth under saline or non-saline conditions. Accordingly, photosynthetic and respective photoprotective performance was enhanced in line with the induced increase in photosynthetic pigments. This was further supported by the overexpression of thermal energy dissipation, which fine-tunes energy use efficiency and may prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species in the chloroplast. Furthermore, gene expression analyses suggested that a selective transport channel gene, SlHKT1,2 , induced by S. arenicola may assist in relieving salt stress in tomato plants. The fine regulation of photosynthetic and photoprotective responses, as well as the inhibition of the formation of ROS molecules, seems to be related to the induced down-regulation of other salt stress response genes, such as SlDR1A -related genes or SlAOX1b. Our results demonstrate that the marine microbial symbiont S. arenicola establishes heterologous symbiosis in crop plants, promotes growth, and confers saline stress tolerance. Thus, these results open opportunities to further explore the vast array of marine microbes to enhance crop tolerance and food production under the current climate change scenario.
... Qualitative analysis of methanolic extract was extract carried out to determine the presence of various bioactive compounds using the standard qualitative procedures [13][14][15] . Quantitative analysis of Phytochemicals ...
... The Folin-Ciocalteu technique was used to quantify the content of TPC in plant extracts with minor modifications [19,20] . In a test tube, pour 20 l of methanolic extract (1 mg/ml) and 1.58 ml of distilled water, then add 7% of 100 l of Folin-reagent. ...
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Methanolic extracts of three medicinal plant species, namely Hyptis suaveolens, Tridax procumbens, and Azadirachta indica, were screened for phytochemicals and antioxidant potential. DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl 2, picrylhydrazyl) radical, hydroxyl (OH.) radical, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical, and superoxide (O2.) radical scavenging experiments were used to study antioxidant properties. Total phenolic content I (TPC) was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and total flavonoid content was measured using the aluminium chloride method (TFC). The methanolic extracts of A. indica had the highest radical scavenging ability, with an IC50 value of 11.71 2.01 g/ml in the DPPH experiment.
... The acquired data was evaluated by comparing with different standards (glucose and xylose (5-10 mM), and furfural, HMF, and acetate (1-10 mM)). The total phenolic contents were estimated using the Folin Ciocalteau reagent as described by Singleton and Rossi (Singleton & Rossi, 1965). ...
Article
Sphingobium yanoikuyae BBL01 can produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The effect of side products (furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, and acetate) produced during pretreatment of biomass was evaluated on S. yanoikuyae BBL01. It was observed that a certain concentration range (0.01-0.03%) of these compounds can improve growth, EPS production, and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation. The addition of HMF increases glucose and xylose utilization while other side products have a negative effect. The C/N of 5 favors EPS production (3.24±0.05 g/L), while a higher C/N ratio of 30 promotes PHB accumulation (38.7±0.08% w/w) when commercial sugar is used as a carbon source. Pine biomass-derived biochar was able to remove 40±2.1% of total phenolic. Various biomass hydrolysates were evaluated and the use of detoxified pine biomass hydrolysate (DPH) as a carbon source resulted in the higher coproduction of EPS (2.83±0.03 g/L) and PHB (40.8±2.4% w/w).
... Total phenolic content was calculated according to Singleton and Rossi (1965), the absorbance was recorded at 765 nm, and its content was calculated by gallic acid as a standard. ...
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This study assessed a culture system using a static magnetic field (SMF) for improving biomass and astaxanthin production in Haematococcus lacustris. Different intensities of SMF (0, 2, 4, and 8 mT) were applied to H. lacustris cell suspension culture at the beginning of the logarithmic phase, and then cell growth, antioxidant compounds, and oxidative damage were analyzed after 12 days. SMF at 8 mT caused a significant increase in cell growth, chlorophyll (a and b) concentration, total carbohydrate and protein contents, and antioxidant enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase. Maximum astaxanthin accumulation (21.05 mg g⁻¹, 4.9 mg L⁻¹ dry weight) was identified at 4 mT, which was 1.58 times compared to control. SMF increased significantly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) level and decreased malondialdehyde content, especially at 4 mT. Electrophoretic patterns displayed Mn-SOD, and CAT1 isoforms were the main isoforms to scavenge the ROS in H. lacustris cells. Moreover, SMF significantly enhanced total phenol, flavonoid, and DPPH scavenging activity. SMF-treated H. lacustris extracts showed an antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus. These results provided an efficient method for improving growth and astaxanthin production and displayed the biochemical mechanism underlying secondary metabolite production in H. lacustris.
... We measured the concentrations of starch at λ = 450 nm following the reaction with dianisidine. We measured the TPh content (λ = 660 nm) with Folin and Ciocalteu's Phenol Reagent (SIGMA F-9252) using the methodology of Johnson and Schaal [34] with the modification of Singleton and Rossi [35]. The results we obtained were expressed in units of µM of a chlorogenic acid g −1 dry mass. ...
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(1) The focus on floral functional traits and their variability has been significantly lower than when compared to other plant organs. Here, we focused on the variability of four novel floral chemical traits. We aimed to assess the level of interspecific variability of total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) and total phenolic compounds (TPh) in the flowers of woody species. (2) We collected data on 70 species of temperate trees and shrubs. We also assessed the intraspecific level of variability by collecting flowers from the high-light and low-light parts of the crown. (3) We found a phylogenetic signal in the variability of starch and TPh. We did not observe statistically significant differences or biologically significant trends between the high-light and low-light parts of the crown. We detected a low impact of light availability on the intraspecimen variability of the TNC and TPh contents. (4) Low intraspecimen variability allows for a more reliable extrapolation of measurements in cases of interspecific comparisons and can be used to better describe the reproductive strategies of different woody species.
... The total antioxidant capacity of T. indica different methanolic extracts were measured by the phosphomolybdenum method according to the procedure established by Prieto with some modifications (Singleton and Rossi, 1965). At first, 0.5 mL of plant extract or standard was taken to all test tubes. ...
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This research investigated the cardioprotective effects of Tamarindus indica extracts (TIEx) in doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiotoxicity model. TIEx was tested for phytochemical and antioxidative status followed by a ran-domized controlled intervention in Swiss albino models. The results were verified by in silico interactions of GC-MS characterized phytocompounds against AT1 (angiotensin II type 1) receptor antagonist complexed with PPARγ agonist. TIEx showed an excellent antioxidative effect and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in C-reactive protein (CRP), Serum troponin I (STI), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creat-inine kinase-MB (CKMB), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in treatment groups in comparison with standard drug valsartan. The selected bioactive compounds especially Thymine, 4H-Pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-showed the highest binding affinity with the human AT1 receptor antagonist complexed with PPARγ agonist. Results demonstrate that Tamarindus indica parts could be a food supplement for cardiac toxicity.
... Total phenolic acid content was evaluated following a method proposed by Singleton and Rossi [34]. To begin, test tubes were filled with 0.5 mL of extracts and 4.5 mL of distilled water. ...
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Bougainvillea, popularly known as ‘Bunga kertas’ in Malaysia, is thoroughly explored for nutritional and medicinal purposes. Bougainvillea has been shown to possess alkaloids and flavonoids which are widely used in folk medicine to treat different illnesses such as inflammatory, diarrheal, ulcer, and diabetic. Despite its major conventional therapeutic importance, only limited attempts have been made to investigate this species’ chemical and pharmacological properties in relation to its medicinal uses. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of in vitro-induced callus under different light conditions and plant growth regulators on phytochemical and antioxidant activities using different extraction solvents. Based on the results, the maximum days (17.67) to callus initiation were recorded when nodal was cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 7.5 µM 2,4-D + 0.5 µM BAP under light condition. On the contrary, the minimum days (7) to callus initiation were obtained when nodal was treated with 2.5 and 5 µM 2,4-D + 1 and 1.5 µM BAP under dark conditions. However, higher fresh and dry weight of callus was obtained when nodal was cultured on woody plant medium fortified with 7.5 µM 2,4-D + 1.5 µM BAP under dark and light conditions. In the analysis of the phenolics content and antioxidant activities, aqueous extract of conventionally propagated nodal part exhibited the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activities. However, the highest iron (II) chelating activity was produced from the aqueous extract of the calli induced under a dark condition. Hence, it can be concluded that the callus culture of Bougainvillea produced plant secondary metabolites and antioxidant activities comparable to the mother plants.
... This assay was based on the reaction of phenolic compounds with Folin Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) only in an alkaline medium (Singleton and Rossi 1965). FC reagent is not only specific to phenolic compounds but also can oxidize many non-phenolic compounds. ...
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The scope of the study is optimizing pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions by evaluating linden’s antioxidant capacity as µmol Trolox equivalent per g by using CUPRAC assay and correlating the total antioxidant capacity with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results. Solvent type, solvent ratio, solid-to-liquid ratio, sonication time, sonication clearance time, and extraction time were studied as extraction parameters. Particularly pulse durations as sonication “on” and “off” time have been firstly investigated in this study. The optimal parameters were as follows: 0.5 g 20 mL⁻¹, 60% methanol, 2 s on/2 s off sonication, and 40-min extraction time. Different extraction methods such as pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction using a water bath, and infusion-assisted extraction were compared by applying the CUPRAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays for total antioxidant capacity and Folin assay for total phenolic content. The most effective extraction technique was found as pulsed ultrasound-assisted extraction according to the results of the spectrophotometric assays. The individual polyphenolic components of linden extract were determined and quantified by HPLC on a C18 column using a gradient elution of mobile phase including 3% acetic acid (A)–methanol (B) performed with photodiode array detection at 270 nm and 1 mL min⁻¹ flow rate. Fifteen polyphenolics were identified in linden extract by using HPLC–PDA analyses. It will provide the determination of individual polyphenols at a single chromatographic run as well as the evaluation of the contribution of polyphenols to spectrophotometric TAC values of linden extract with the combined HPLC-CUPRAC method.
... The method described by Singleton et al. [19] was used to determine the total polyphenol content. The results were calculated from a calibration curve using gallic acid (0-500 mg/L, y = 0.0012x + 0.0076, R 2 = 0.9985) and expressed in equivalents of gallic acid per 100 g of dried weight (DW) of aronia extract (mg GAE/100 g DW). ...
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The article examines the opportunity to use extracts and Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot fruit powders in the production of sugar confectionery for the substitution of synthetic dyes. In the technology of manufacturing confectionery masses, synthetic dyes are used that can cause various allergic reactions, as well as hyperactivity syndrome and lack of concentration in children. The composition of hydroalcoholic extracts was analyzed, and the metabolites of polyphenols, individual anthocyanins and organic acids were quantified. Antioxidant capacity and CIELab chromatic parameters were tested. The technology for manufacturing confectionary masses with extract and powder of aronia was developed. The sensory profile, physicochemical and microbiological quality parameters, antioxidant activity and color characteristics of the confectionary masses with the extract and powder of aronia addition were determined on the 1st and 50th day from the production date. The evolution of DPPH antioxidant activity of confectionery masses during storage was measured in vitro, in the conditions of gastric digestion. The results showed that Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot extract is rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, the main organic acids being represented by malic, citric, acetic and ascorbic acid. During the 50th storage day, the antioxidant activity was higher in confectionery masses containing aronia compared to the control. The sensory and microbiological testing of confectionary masses demonstrated that the combination of extract and aronia powder ensures the optimal shelf life and organoleptic scores. It was demonstrated that during the storage of confectionery masses with aronia, the physicochemical indicators of quality were in accordance with the regulated admissible values. Positive effects of aronia were observed on confectionery masses’ color saturation. These results underline the opportunity to use aronia extract and/or powder in confectionery industry to replace synthetic dyes and obtain products with enhanced functionality.
... Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the modified colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method (Singleton and Rossi, 1965) with slight modification. A mixture of berry peel and flesh (5 g) was extracted with a mixture of 30 ml formic acid, 600 ml methanol, and 370 ml water and kept in a refrigerator overnight at 4°C. ...
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In commercial fruit production, synchronized ripening and stable shelf life are important properties. The loosely clustered or non-bunching muscadine grape has unrealized potential as a disease-resistant cash crop, but requires repeated hand harvesting due to its unsynchronized or long or heterogeneous maturation period. Genomic research can be used to identify the developmental and environmental factors that control fruit ripening and postharvest quality. This study coupled the morphological, biochemical, and genetic variations between “Carlos” and “Noble” muscadine grape cultivars with RNA-sequencing analysis during berry maturation. The levels of antioxidants, anthocyanins, and titratable acids varied between the two cultivars during the ripening process. We also identified new genes, pathways, and regulatory networks that modulated berry ripening in muscadine grape. These findings may help develop a large-scale database of the genetic factors of muscadine grape ripening and postharvest profiles and allow the discovery of the factors underlying the ripeness heterogeneity at harvest. These genetic resources may allow us to combine applied and basic research methods in breeding to improve table and wine grape ripening uniformity, quality, stress tolerance, and postharvest handling and storage.
... Total phenolic content was estimated according to the method of Singleton and Rossi (1965) with slight modification. 200 µl of extract sample (1mg/ml) was taken in a test tube and volume was made up to 2 ml by adding distil water. ...
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Considering scanty literature available on the use of custard apple (Annona squamosa) for preservation of meat and meat products, present study was undertaken to evaluate effect of custard apple peel extract on shelf life of chicken breast fillets as evidenced by the sensory attributes. The chicken breast fillets of uniform size and shape were dipped in 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% aqueous solutions of hydro-ethanolic (50%) extract of custard apple peel (CPeE), 100 ppm solution of BHT (positive control) and distilled water (negative control) for 10 min and stored aerobically in LDPE bags under refrigeration (4±1 °C). Sensory evaluation of the meat samples was carried out on day 0, 3, 6 and 9 of the storage. Results of sensory analysis revealed that the chicken breast fillets treated with 0.3 and 0.5% aqueous solution of CPeE were acceptable respectively up to sixth and ninth day of storage as against third day of storage with 0.1% CPeE, positive and negative control.
... The reducing capacity of Folin-Ciocalteu (Singleton & Rossi, 1965) was quantified using 0.10 mL of extract, 7.90 mL of ultrapure water and 0.50 mL of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The absorbance at 765 nm was read (Spectrophotometer UV-2000A, Instrutherm, Brazil). ...
Article
Pink pepper-PP (Schinus terebinthifolius R.) has been used as a flavoring agent, an antioxidant, and a natural preservative. Studies have focused on obtaining essential oils and antioxidants from the whole fruit. Few studies have evaluated the quantification of phenolics and bioaccessibility of the fruit parts. The quantification of bioactive compounds from PP oil obtained by cold pressing are also scarce. In this work, 21 phenolics (HPLC-DAD) and antioxidant capacity (AOX) were quantified in peel, seed and cold-pressed oil of PP, in two harvests. The bioactive and antioxidant potential of the fractions studied in PP were peel> oil> seed. The peel possessed the richest fraction; in particular, gallic acid (2819-3129 mg/kg), procyanidin B2 (720-760 mg/kg), catechin (528-594 mg/kg), kampferol-3-glucoside (166-184 mg/kg) peonidin-3-O-glucoside (55.3-58.5 mg/kg) and pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside (17.8-20.2 mg/kg), and high AOX. Oil was the second richest fraction with highlight gallic acid (735 mg/kg), catechin (103-105 mg/kg), procyanidin A2 (19 mg/kg) and chlorogenic acid (5 mg/kg). PP peels were submitted to in vitro digestion model with intestinal barrier simulation, where hesperidin (23352%), naringenin (273%) and catechin (84%) were the most bioaccessible phenolics. The present study shows that the PP peel has the greatest bioactive potential. Furthermore, obtaining the oil by cold pressing fruit is an alternative to be explored.
... Total phenolic contents were quantified with the well described protocol using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (Singleton and Rossi, 1965). Briefly, phenolics were quantified by mixing 0.6 mL of methanol-soluble extract samples with 1.9 mL of distillated-water, 0.36 mL Folin & Ciocalteu reagent (5%) and 0.71 mL sodium carbonate solution (20%). ...
Thesis
Les contaminations entrainent des dégradations générant des dysfonctionnements des sols et des atteintes à leurs fonctions écologiques. Le phytomanagement, qui utilise des espèces végétales pour extraire, contenir ou dégrader des polluants, apparaît comme une solution adaptée pour produire de la biomasse végétale tout en favorisant la réhabilitation de ces sols délaissés. Les approches récentes s’accordent sur l'importance des associations végétales dans l’optimisation de ces dispositifs. Ce projet de thèse s’articule autour d’un dispositif agroforestier novateur, associant la grande ortie (Urtica dioica L.) à une plante modèle dans le domaine, le peuplier. Dans des plantations de peuplier, l’ortie offre de nouvelles perspectives liées à son aptitude à se développer spontanément sur des sites contaminés et à la qualité de sa fibre végétale, utilisables pour la fabrication de biomatériaux.A partir de deux sites ateliers contaminés par les éléments trace métalliques (ETM) et différentes approches disciplinaires, ces travaux ont permis i) de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement de cedispositif peuplier-ortie à l’interface rhizosphérique et sa réponse aux ETM via des approches de barcoding environnemental et de métabolomique ciblée ii) d’appréhender le rôle des plantes modèles dans la restauration écologique de ces sites au travers d’études phytosociologique et entomologique et évaluer l’implication des communautés associées dans les flux d’ETM par uneapproche écotoxicologique, et finalement iii) de caractériser et optimiser le potentiel économique de ce dispositif selon une approche agroécologique. Enfin, cette thèse ambitionne d’être un travail de référence pour les futurs projets de phytomanagement basés sur des associations arbres – orties.
... To determine the phenol content of the seeds, samples (n = 10) of all the legumes were milled and sieved to produce 0.5 g flour. Total phenolic content from ten different legumes was estimated following Folin-Ciocalteu method as described by Singleton and Rossi (1965) and expressed in mg/g of flour sample. To determine the protein content of legumes, salt/alkaline extraction was performed as described by Maehre et al. (2016) and protein (%) was measured according to the method described by Lowry et al. (1951). ...
... Total phenols (TP) were determined spectrophotometrically using the method by Singelton and Rossi [36] based on the color reaction of the phenolic compounds with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The average of three measurements was used as the final absorbance value. ...
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The aromatic and sensory profiles of monovarietal sparkling ciders made according to the modified Méthode Ancestrale or Pétillant Naturel (Pét-Nat) method were established. Three Croatian traditional apple varieties (‘Božićnica’, ‘Bobovac’, and ‘Crvenka’) were basic raw materials for Pét-Nat ciders in this study. The basic apple must and cider parameters were determined by applying OIV methods and nitrogenous compounds, total phenols, and color parameters were analyzed by spectrophotometer. Volatile compounds in final Pét-Nat ciders were determined by SPME-Arrow-GC/MS method and Odor Active Values (OAV) were calculated. The results show that variety significantly altered the pH value, color, aromatic and sensory profile of Pét-Nat ciders. The main contributors (OAV > 1) to the aroma of all Pét-Nat ciders were 1-hexanol, 1-propanol, (6Z)-nonen-1-ol, 1-dodecanol, hexanoic, octanoic and isovaleric acid, citronellol, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl-9-decenoate and isoamyl acetate, eugenol and methionol. ‘Božićnica’ Pét-Nat was differentiated by a high concentration of 1-decanol and 4-ethylphenol, ‘Bobovac’ by 4-vinyl guaiacol and ‘Crvenka’ by 4-ethyl guaiacol. Sensory analysis showed that the highest rated overall quality was attributed to ‘Crvenka’ Pét-Nat cider, with the high-quality color, fruity odor (‘apple’,’apple juice/compote’, ‘pineapple’, and ‘buttery’) and well-balanced taste. This research demonstrates the possibilities in the production of natural sparkling cider from traditional Croatian apple varieties by analyzing the composition and quality of the final product for the first time.
... The total phenolic content (TPC) was evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay [25]. Briefly, 20µL of the sample was mixed with 140 µL of 0.2 M Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and, after 1 min, 140 µL of 6% sodium carbonate was added. ...
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Shallots are a perennial plant from the Alliaceae family, classified with the common onion under the name of the Allium cepa Aggregatum group. The term shallot is also used for diploid and triploid viviparous onions, known as Allium × proliferum (Moench) Schrad and Allium × cornutum Clementi ex Vis., respectively. In this study, we compared the dry matter, pyruvic acid content, sugar content, flavonoid content, antioxidant capacity and mineral composition of 34 shallot accessions falling into three shallot species (Allium × cornutum, Allium × proliferum and A. cepa Aggregatum). Shallot accessions belonging to the A.× cornutum and A. × proliferum groups are characterized by high dry matter content (around 25%), of which a little less than 50% is formed of inulin-type sugars, polysaccharides, considered an excellent prebiotic with beneficial effects on human health. On the other hand, accessions belonging to the A. cepa Aggregatum group have lower dry matter content and, as a result, lower pungency (measured as pyruvic acid content), making them more suitable for fresh consumption by a broader range of consumers, but, at the same time, abundant in phenolic compounds, especially quercetin and isorhamnetin glycosides. We also observed a greater biodiversity among accessions within the A. cepa Aggregatum group in all the analyzed physico-chemical parameters compared to the other shallot groups. The investigated shallot accessions have an excellent in vitro antioxidant capacity, as well as excellent nutritional properties.
... The main WW characteristics are shown in Table 1. Total polyphenols were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, adapted by Singleton and Rossi [33]; chemical oxygen demand (COD) analysis was carried out in a COD reactor from Macherey-Nagel (Düren, Germany) and a HACH DR 2400 spectrophotometer (Loveland, CO, USA) was used for colorimetric measurements. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) was determined using a respirometric OxiTop ® IS 12 system (WTW, Yellow Springs, OH, USA), total nitrogen (TN) and DOC samples were analyzed by direct injection of the filtered samples into a Shimadzu TOC-L CSH analyzer (Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan), equipped with an ASI-L autosampler, provided with an NDIR detector and calibrated with standard solutions of potassium phthalate. ...
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The removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total polyphenols (TPh) from agro-industrial wastewater was evaluated via the application of coagulation–flocculation–decantation (CFD) and Fenton-based processes. For the CFD process, an organic coagulant based on Acacia dealbata Link. leaf powder (LP) was applied. The results showed that the application of the LP at pH 3.0, with an LP:DOC ratio of 0.5:1 (w/w), achieved a high removal of turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), and volatile suspended solids (VSS) of 84.7, 79.1, and 76.6%, respectively. The CFD sludge was recycled as fertilizer in plant culture (germination index ≥ 80%). Afterwards, the direct application of Fenton-based processes to raw WW was assessed. The Fenton-based processes (UV/Fenton, UV/Fenton-like, and heterogeneous UV/Fenton) showed high energy efficiency and a cost of 1.29, 1.31 and 1.82 €/g/L DOC removal, respectively. The combination of both processes showed the near complete removal of TPh and DOC after 240 min of reaction time, with high energy efficiency. In accordance with the results obtained, the combination of CFD with Fenton-based processes achieves the legal limits for the disposal of water into the environment, thus allowing the water to be recycled for irrigation.
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Objective: In this study, the effects of different leaf removal and topping at different stages on the grape berry phytochemical properties on ten year old Michele Palieri/110R grafting combination grapevines were researched. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted in the village of Karaevli in Tekirdağ, Thrace Region in 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 vegetation periods. There were three different application stages [Berry Set (BS), Bunch Closure (BC), Veraison (V)] and three different applications [Control (C), Topping (T), Leaf Removal (LR), Leaf Removal-Topping (LR-T)] in the research. Phytochemical properties; total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), pH, total anthocyanin, total polyphenol index (TPI), total tannins, and total phenolic compounds were determined. The research was established in the Randomized Blocks Trial Design, and the results were evaluating with MSTAT-C and JUMP statistical package programs. Statistical differences between applications and stages were performed by LSD test. Results: Grape juice phytochemical properties desired to be high. In this research it was determined that the TSS, total anthocyanins, total tannins, TPI, and total phenolic compounds was increased in T application. On the other hand, it was determined that V and BC stages had high values in terms of TA, pH, total anthocyanin, total tannin, TPI, total phenolic compounds, and yield. Conclusion: As a result in order to high quality table grape in Michele Palieri as Topping (T) application in Veraison or Bunch Closer period can be proposed in Tekirdag condition.
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Food industry generates devastating amount of waste, and it is not easy to handle such huge quantities. Tomato industry also generates tons of waste materials and drying is commonly used for waste tomatoes. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of drying methods on drying kinetics, energy aspects, rehydration, shrinkage, and chromatic parameters of waste tomato samples. The β-caroten, lycopene, antioxidant, antiradical activity, total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, fatty acid, and mineral contents of dried samples were also evaluated. Jena&Das model best estimated the drying process of tomato. The greatest color change values were obtained from air-convective (28.40) drying and the lowest from hybrid (16.03) drying. The highest rehydration capacity was determined in greenhouse (4.06) drying. Microwave drying was identified as the most efficient system in terms of energy (8.67%) and thermal efficiency (7.49%). Effective moisture diffusivity values ranged from 5.54×10–11 to 1.30×10–8 m²s–1. The highest total phenolics and ascorbic acid values were obtained from greenhouse drying. The greatest β-carotene and fatty acid contents were recorded in air convective drying. Microwave drying had the highest FRAP and flavonoid content.
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The aim of this research is to study the possibility of increasing the quality of red wins made with the Monastrell grape variety. A methodology was established to improve the concentration levels of polyphenol and aroma in these wines. Among flavonoids, the copigmenting effect of rutin stands out, and was tested in both winery and field applications. Buckwheat extract (Fagopyrum esculentum), in which rutin is the main flavonoid, may be of interest for viticulture given its biological activity. This paper focuses on researching the effect of applying the prefermentative vegetable extract of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) on the concentration of polyphenols and aroma compounds in vineyards. Simultaneously, a study was carried out to compare the effect of pure copigment (rutin) when applied in vineyards and cellars. Traditional vinification was done, plus prefermentative cold maceration. The application of buckwheat extract, and rutin extract to a lesser extent, to Monastrell grapes increased the concentration of malvidin and other anthocyanins, and total anthocyanins. After 12-month storage, no differences were observed in the percentage of copigmented, polymerised and free anthocyanin, the total polyphenol concentration, and the tannin quality parameters like DMACH (aldehyde p-dimethylaminoacimaldehyde) and the Gelatin Index. The concentrations of diethyl succinate, 2 phenylethyl acetate, vanillin and ethyl octanoate increased, while other compounds decreased when the copigment was added. The maceration technique followed during the vinification process had very little effect on polyphenolic compounds. The prefermentative maceration slightly increasing the concentration of total polyphenols, but had no effect on the parameters related to colour, anthocyanin concentration, nature of anthocyanins, their binding state or tannin quality parameters. The results showed that cold prefermentation maceration increased the concentration of some volatile compounds, including alcohols and esters, which should be considered important contributors to Monastrell wine aroma. The combination of the applying buckwheat extract and pure rutin together, and prefermentative cold maceration, positively affects the polyphenolic concentration and increases the concentration of quality volatile compounds.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Matcha green tea (Camellia sinensis) based-supplements have been widely used since they present a greater content of phenolic compounds than traditional green tea, which is popularly used in the treatment of diabetes. However, there are few studies on the effectiveness and safety of matcha supplements. Aim of the study This work aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this supplement in endothelial cells (EA.hy926) in the hyperglycemic model and in vivo Artemia salina. Materials and methods To assess the effect of Matcha herbal supplement (MHS), EA. hy926 endothelial cells were treated with 20 μg/mL of MHS for 24 h, in a hyperglycemic medium with 35 mM glucose. After treatment, cells were trypsinized and centrifuged at 4 °C and 47×g for 5 min. The pellet was used to determine the reaction products to thiobarbituric acid and the levels of nitric oxide. Electron transport chain activity and ATP levels were also evaluated. Intracellular pH, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane depolarization were evaluated by flow cytometry. MHS chemical characterization was performed by HPLC-UV and total phenolic content analysis. The evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of MHS was performed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenger assay. To determine the in vivo acute toxicity of MHS, an A. salina assay was conducted, using 0,2 mL of different concentrations of MHS (10, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 μg/mL). The LD50 values were obtained by interpolation of 50% (y = 50) of the dead individuals in the trend curves. Results Our data showed that MHS was able to avoid oxidative and nitrosative stress induced by hyperglycemia, demonstrating important antioxidant activity. However, it was observed that MHS reduced up to 90% the activity of the four-electron transport complexes, reducing the ATP production of the endothelial cells. In the toxicity assay performed in Artemia salina, MHS showed mild toxicity (LD50 = 0,4 mg/mL). The major compounds found in MHS were epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin, rutin, kaempferol, and quercetin. Conclusions This data draws attention to the fact that supplements with high content of phenolic compounds, capable of avoiding oxidative and nitrosative stress can have a dual effect and, simultaneously to antioxidant activity, can induce toxicity in different cell types.
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Background Hypertension is a major cardiovascular risk factor that affects most countries including those of Africa. Although Carissa edulis Vahl, Diodia scandens Sw. and Cleome gynandra L. are traditionally used in Benin as antihypertensive treatments with some efficacy mentioned by the local population, their biological activity on the cardiovascular system remains poorly studied. Aim The study investigated the vasoreactivity of the plants and assessed the underlying mechanisms using isolated arteries. Study design Aqueous-ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of C. edulis, D. scandens and C. gynandra were prepared by maceration before being subjected to multi-step liquid-liquid fractionation with solvents of increasing polarity. The vasoreactivity of the extracts and fractions were assessed on isolated porcine coronary artery and rat aorta using organ chambers, the role of nitric oxide (NO) using NG-nitro-L-arginine (NO synthase inhibitor), prostanoids using indomethacin (cyclooxygenases inhibitor) and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization using TRAM-34 plus UCL 1684 (inhibitors of calcium-dependent K⁺ channels), and the vascular uptake of polyphenols using Neu reagent. Results The aqueous-ethanolic crude extract of C. edulis (CECE) induced potent relaxations that were exclusively endothelium-dependent and more pronounced than those to D. scandens and C. gynandra. The n-butanolic fraction of C. edulis (CEBF) was more active than the cyclohexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate fractions. The relaxation induced by CECE and CEBF were inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine and affected neither by TRAM-34 plus UCL 1684 nor by indomethacin. CEBF induced sustained endothelium-dependent relaxations for at least 60 min, and inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, contractions to KCl, CaCl2, U46619 and serotonin in rings with endothelium. Analysis of CEBF by LC-HRMS indicated the presence of polyphenols, terpenes, and alkaloids. Exposure of coronary artery and aorta rings to CEBF caused the accumulation of polyphenols predominantly in the endothelium. Conclusion C. edulis leaf extract induced pronounced endothelium-dependent relaxations and inhibited contractile responses by stimulating the endothelial formation of NO. LC-HRMS analysis of the most active fraction, the butanolic fraction, revealed the presence of numerous compounds including polyphenols, terpenes, and alkaloids. The polyphenols of CEBF accumulated preferentially in the endothelium of the arterial wall. Thus, these observations support the folkloric use of C. edulis in hypertension.
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Banana has a short storage life and is classified under climacteric fruit that produces enough ethylene in changing physico-chemical characteristics, including colour, texture, aroma, chemical composition, respiration rate and senescence. Besides that, the presence of microbes also contributes to the postharvest losses which can be reduced by implementing various postharvest management practices that are currently in practice all over the world. Research has been done in delaying ripening and maintaining the quality of banana such as hot water treatment, controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere packaging and postharvest chemical treatments such as methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid or oxalic acid. However, not many focus on non-chemical method such as UV-C radiation. In line with that, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of UV-C radiation in delaying ripening and maintaining the postharvest quality of Berangan banana. Five treatments of UV-C radiation were used viz. 0.000 kJ/m², 0.004 kJ/m², 0.008 kJ/m², 0.012 kJ/m² and 0.016 kJ/m² with three replications. Postharvest parameters evaluated were percentage of weight loss (%), skin colour, starch pattern index (SPI), fruit firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolic content (TPC). The application of UV-C radiation did not significantly affect all postharvest parameters of treated Berangan bananas. However, UV-C radiation at 0.008 kJ/m2 tended to show the lower percentage weight loss and SPI score. In conclusion, 0.008 kJ/m² of UV-C radiation could be applied to delay ripening and maintaining other quality attributes of Berangan bananas. In addition, 0.008 kJ/m² UV-C also able to prolong the shelf life of Berangan bananas stored at 26±2°C/75% relative humidity up to nine days.
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The aim of the present work was to evaluate the performance of pilot-scale nanofiltration vibratory shear enhanced processing (NF-VSEP) coupled to an enzymatic/flocculating system to recover, separate, and concentrate biotechnological compounds of interest contained in nejayote, such as arabinoxylans (AXs), hydroxycinnamic acids and reducing sugars (RS). Enzymatic starch granules hydrolysis, flocculation of remaining suspended particles and microfiltration pretreatments resulted in a robust, reproducible, and efficient technologies to completely remove total suspended solids (TSS) from nejayote. The free-TSS nejayote was submitted to the first NF-VSEP module (annular flat sheet polyethersulfone membranes, 1,000 Da MWCO) to separate and concentrate long-chain AXs. At the end of the process, a volume reduction factor (VRF) of 7.4 was achieved, increasing the AXs concentration in the retentate stream by 3.4-fold (37.67 g/L) The permeate stream resulting from this first operation was subjected to a second NF-VSEP module (annular flat sheet composite polyamide membranes, 150 Da MWCO) to concentrate hydroxycinnamic acids, AX oligomers and RS. The permeate flux and retentate conductivity increased almost linearly as the VRF increased (1-5.5). At the end of the process (VRF 5.5), the concentrations of AX oligomers, hydroxycinnamic acids and RS in the retentate stream were greater than 3-fold than those in the initial feed. The resulting permeate stream was water with a minimal organic material content that can be reused in the process or disposed of in an environmentally friendly manner. The performance of the integrated pilot-scale NF-VSEP reveals a robust, efficient, and improved system to recover, separate and concentrate high biotechnology interest compounds from nejayote, overcoming serious limitations (fouling and fast permeate flux decline) present in static systems. The experimental data presented here set the standard for further industrial scaling to expand the value chain and guarantee the circular economy and global sustainability of the tortilla industry.
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Range of edible legumes suffer huge post-harvest deterioration due to infestation by Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Among the bruchid species, despite wider distribution in India and its destructive potential, Callosobruchus analis (F.) has been largely overlooked. Hence, we report comparative bionomics of C. analis, influence of seed traits and seed losses in ten commonly cultivated food legumes namely, mungbean, urdbean, chickpea-desi, chickpea-kabuli, cowpea, field pea, pigeonpea, rajmash, moth bean and lentil. Oviposition behaviour, developmental rate of insect and seed losses varied significantly under the influence of seed physico-chemical traits under free-choice and no-choice conditions. Cowpea, pigeonpea and rajmash harboured higher number of eggs when choice for legume was offered, however, none of the tested legume was completely avoided for egg laying. The survivability was found negligible on rajmash and field pea. Developmental time was 1.3–1.5 times longer on urdbean (45.97 days) in comparison to other legumes, indicating the role of antibiosis factors. More progenies were produced on pigeonpea, cowpea, moth bean, chickpea-desi and mungbean leading to high seed losses. Seed properties namely, seed surface area, hardness, seed coat thickness, 100-seed weight, seed moisture and phenol contents significantly influenced oviposition behaviour and growth of the insects. Further studies are needed to elucidate exact mode of action of seed traits and their interaction on the insect bionomics. The legumes those suffered considerable seed losses by C. analis warrant adequate preventative measures to avoid cross-infestation under common storage conditions and reduce post-harvest deterioration.
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Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) berries are well known for their biological activities and health-promoting antioxidant properties. Environmental and climatic factors can greatly affect accumulation of secondary metabolites, carotenoids and other antioxidants in plants. We determined the content and composition of main functional constituents of goji berries produced in central Italy in relation to the time of harvesting during two ripening seasons by analyzing the main environmental variables involved. The highest flavonoids content (0,19 ± 0,006 mg QE/g) and antioxidant power (0,03 ± 0,001 mmol Fe²⁺eq/g) were found at the beginning of the fruiting season. In September, berries show the highest total polyphenols (3,22 ± 0,09 mg GAE/g) and zeaxanthin contents (339,79 ± 14,12 μg/g). Our study focused on some important aspects related to the production of goji fruits with high nutraceutical characteristics in a non-experimental cultivation. Our results could provide reliable information on Goji performance in the European climate to be used for the exploitation of the species suggesting the best harvesting timing in terms of antioxidant power and nutraceutical features of berries. This information could be particularly useful for farmers eager to improve the quality of their products.
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The blackberry fruit is rich in anthocyanins, but the stability of these compounds can be decreased depending on the processing conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of anthocyanins from blackberry pomace microcapsules and yogurt supplemented with blackberry pomace microcapsules after in vitro digestion. The stability of blackberry pomace microcapsules in the absence and presence of light was also evaluated. Three microencapsulation methods were applied (spray-drying, freeze-drying, and ionic gelation), and all methods presented satisfactory yield (>53%) and encapsulation efficiency (>95%). The spray-drying and ionic gelation processes produced microcapsules with higher stability in both absence and presence of light than the freeze-drying process. Yogurt formulations with the addition of spray-dried microcapsules presented cyanidin-3-glucoside bioavailability greater than with the addition of microcapsules from freeze-drying and ionic gelation methods. Yogurt formulations presented greater post-gastrointestinal digestion bioavailability than the pristine microcapsules, so the use of blackberry microcapsules is feasible for the food industry to produce high-added-value products.
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Fresh-cut pineapple has experienced an increase in demand due to its great health benefits and is rich in vitamins A, B and C. Moreover, pineapple is known as a source of the enzyme bromelain, which has therapeutic applications, such as reducing inflammation, improving digestion and treating osteoarthritis. However, bromelain generally affects the pineapple’s flavour and is less preferred by consumers due to the uncomfortable prickling and tingling sensations it brings. In the present study, two types of gases and their combination, nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2), were used to evaluate their impacts on reducing the tingling and prickling sensations, as well as maintaining the postharvest qualities of fresh-cut pineapple stored at 5°C for 12 days. The parameters being evaluated were the bromelain enzyme activity, flesh colour, ascorbic acid concentration, flesh firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and sensory evaluation. No significant differences were recorded for all parameters tested. Based on the sensory evaluations, all the attributes, such as colour, aroma, texture, sweetness, sourness, tingling and prickling sensations, and overall acceptance were not affected by the different gases application. Even though no apparent effect was observed, the 30 panellists preferred the aforementioned attributes, except sourness. In conclusion, the fumigation treatments with N2 and CO2 gases were not effective in reducing the tingling and prickling sensations of pineapples cv. Morris.
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The current work investigated the chemical profile, antimalarial potential and capacity of hydroethanolic Senna alata extract (SAE) to reverse hematological and biochemical pertubation in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Results of the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, steroids and cardiac glycosides. Total phe-nolic and flavonoid content was estimated to be 45.29 ± 2.34 mg GAE/g and 25.22 ± 2.26 mg QE/g respectively. In vitro analysis of the extract also confirmed its antioxidant property. Results of the test for prophylaxis of P. berghei indicated that SAE suppressed parasitemia significantly in treated groups in a dose dependent manner when compared with negative control group. Similarly, SAE improved the mean survival time (MST) and packed cell volume (PCV) of infected mice. The test for curative effect showed that SAE significantly suppressed parasitemia to 4.50 ± 1.05% compared to untreated group 29.83 ± 3.49%. Results of liver and kidney functions indices of treated animals indicated that whereas infection with P. berghei caused increase in the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, urea and creatinine, treatment with SAE significantly reversed the perturbation. Similarly, infected mice were dyslipi-demic with concomitant increased activity of HMG CoA reductase and decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes with increase in lipid peroxides levels. However, these alterations were significantly reversed by administration of SAE. Results of this study shows that Senna alata possess antimalarial activity and therefore justify the traditional use of plant for the treatment of malaria.
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O araçá-boi (Eugenia stipitata) é um fruto nativo da Amazônia Ocidental com agradáveis sabor e aroma, que o tornam de interessante para elaboração de bebidas lácteas. As bebidas podem ser obtidas através da combinação com soro de leite e mel de abelha que conferem ao produto excelente características nutricionais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade físico-química da bebida láctea de araçá-boi com diferentes concentrações de mel de abelha. Para realização do trabalho foram utilizados leite UHT, soro de leite, açúcar, frutos de araçá-boi, mel de abelha sem ferrão oriundo da tribo Sateré-Mawé, estado do Amazonas, Brasil, e cultura láctea simbiótica comercial composta de Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. O experimento foi dividido em dois tratamentos e três repetições, onde foram testadas diferentes proporções de açúcar e mel (75:25 e 85,5:12,5) como edulcorantes e a avaliação do pH e acidez em função do tempo de armazenamento (0, 15 e 30 dias de armazenamento). O processo fermentativo foi conduzido a 42°C e a cada 30 minutos foram monitorados o pH e acidez. A polpa do fruto, o mel e as bebidas lácteas foram avaliados quanto à umidade, pH, acidez, açúcares redutores, açúcares totais, compostos fenólicos e flavonoides. As bebidas lácteas fermentadas sabores de araçá-boi com mel de abelha sem ferrão da Amazônia apresentaram propriedades funcionais oriundas do mel, como teor de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, além de apresentar perfil físico-químico dentro dos padrões legais do MAPA. Portanto, uma excelente alternativa para aproveitamento dessas matérias-primas em um produto funcional.
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The present study evaluated the potential of nanochitosan coating enriched with ethanol-water extract of the walnut green husk (WGHE) on spoilage and rancidity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during six-day refrigerated storage. Hence, we have considered fresh trout fillets without any treatment as control (C), immersed in 2% solution of chitosan nanoparticles (CN), combination with 1.5% and 3% WGHE with nanochitosan coating (CN + WGHE 1.5 and CN + WGHE3), for physicochemical, microbial and sensorial assays. The highest levels and total volatile nitrogen were observed after day 6 in C, while the lowest was found in CN + WGHE3 groups. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and peroxide value of untreated fillets on day 6 of the study were significantly higher than NC + WGHE3 with 0.08 mg/g and 3.27 mEq/kg, respectively. The total microbial population was: C ˃ CN ˃ CN + WGHE 1.5 > CN + WGHE3, which expresses the effect of the extract on the total microbial population. Overall, the combination of WGHE with CN increased the extract's efficiency in reducing peroxide value, TBARS, and total volatile nitrogen and delayed the pH increase, improving the overall acceptability of rainbow trout fillets stored in refrigerated conditions.
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The aim of this study is to examine the effects of commercial rhizobacteria inoculant on eggplant plants grown under drought stress conditions. Commercial inoculant containing Azotobacter chroococum and Azotobacter vinelandii rhizobacteria species was applied to eggplant plants by root inoculation and the plants were exposed to different levels of drought stress (moderate drought stress-MS and severe drought stress-SS). To determine the growth-promoting ability of inoculation with rhizobacteria, changes in plant morphology (shoot-root fresh and dry weights, shoot length and diameter) and physiology (relative water content-RWC, stomatal conductivity-gs, K, Ca, Mg and Na accumulations in shoot and root, photosynthetic pigment contents) were investigated. To determine the impacts of the inoculant on the potential of increasing the drought tolerance of eggplant, besides the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR), non-enzymatic antioxidant activities such as antochiyanin, total phenolic substance, proline were investigated. In addition, H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were analyzed to resolve whether drought stress causes oxidative damage in eggplant. The increase in the severity of drought caused a decrease in plant growth and shoot-root fresh and dry weights. Nevertheless, these adverse effects of drought stress were alleviated by inoculation. Decreased RWC, gs values of plants under drought stress, and especially K, Ca and Mg accumulations and protein contents in the root increased significantly with inoculation. On the other hand, Chlorophyll (Chl) (Chl a, Chl b, Chl a + b) and carotenoid contents were significantly increased in leaves under uninoculated MS and SS. Inoculation with rhizobacteria reduced the increase in photosynthetic pigment contents. Depending on the severity of stress, higher levels of total phenolic compounds and proline were accumulated in inoculated plants compared to uninoculated plants. However, higher SOD, CAT, and GR enzymatic activities were observed in inoculated stressed plants, and membrane lipid peroxidation was reduced. These results were found to be important in that the commercial bacterial inoculant has the potential to diminish the negative effects of drought stress in eggplant and supports the stress tolerance of the plant by mitigating the drought-related oxidative damage.
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