ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

This paper presents a case study on a building, which was designed in the influence of the New Brutalism in the 1970s. At first the origin, the concept and the values of the building are revealed, then several experts' opinion are summarized about its problems emphasizing the necessity of the frontal modernization. From the description of the designed modernization it is visible how the house will be able to fulfill the recent functional and energetic requirements.
Content may be subject to copyright.
POLLACK PERIODICA
An International Journal for Engineering and Information Sciences
DOI: 10.1556/Pollack.4.2009.3.6
Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 67–78 (2009)
www.akademiai.com
HU ISSN 1788–1994 © 2009 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest
MODERNIZATION OF MODERN BUILDINGS –
CASE STUDY ON THE MAIN BUILDING
OF SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY IN GYŐR
Tamás HORVÁTH
Interdisciplinary Doctoral School of Engineering, Széchenyi István University
Egyetem tér 1, H-9026 Győr, Hungary, e-mail: htms@sze.hu
Received 13 May 2009; accepted 4 September 2009
Abstract: This paper presents a case study on a building, which was designed in the influence
of the New Brutalism in the 1970s. At first the origin, the concept and the values of the building
are revealed, then several experts’ opinion are summarized about its problems emphasizing the
necessity of the frontal modernization. From the description of the designed modernization it is
visible how the house will be able to fulfill the recent functional and energetic requirements.
Keywords: Façade modernization, Building analysis, New Brutalism
1. Old and new tasks for tomorrow
In the twentieth century a lot of trends of modernism emerged. After the turn of the
century a completely new direction seems to advance on non-aesthetic basis, which is
called as sustainable design. In the last decades the world’s attitude greatly changed
about the energy efficiency of buildings causing this new approach of design.
Sustainability is a very complex concept, which came from economics, but nowadays it
has got also a social and environmental meaning. According to the usual definition
sustainability aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these
needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future, too [1].
In the architectural practice new houses are usually built based on much stricter
energy aware aspect having a high level of comfort and low maintenance costs. These
features are also welcomed at older buildings. Because of these strong requirements
building modernization is getting to be more and more important and frequent task
today. In order to increase the energy efficiency of existing buildings difficult
68 T. HORVÁTH
Pollack Periodica 4, 2009, 3
conversions are needed with a lot of trouble. Such problems can be solved only by
means of good architectural and structural designing. The physical survival of the
buildings can be ensured with their precise renovations besides the spiritual worth,
hidden and coded in materials, in spaces, in masses, in forms [2]. This is especially true
in the cases of great existing buildings, because the strong architectural works do not
allow to be modified them. The main question of modernization is: How is it possible to
save the spirit of a great building after conversion [3]?
In the field of sustainable architecture there are two types of works: new design or
redesign of existing buildings. Designing a new building architects have to satisfy
indispensable strict demands according to the actual standards. Usually an existing
building cannot fulfill these actual standards so the designers also have the task to
determine which features of the building should be improved in which rate. In this view
the protected old, historical monuments have moderated demands also in laws and in
standards. For modernizing a not protected building the requirements of energy and cost
efficiency are quite as strong as at a new building.
There are a lot of great masterpieces among the not protected buildings waiting for
modernization. The products of modernism are in a special situation. They were made
in an architectural age in which structural knowledge increased as never before. The
static exploitation of bearing structures reached the extremity. Bearing and dividing
structures started to be separated. More and more layers were built in structures having
different functions. These changes caused that some modern buildings don’t have so
good energy efficiency than the former built ones. The modernization of these buildings
will be a very important and interesting object for the architects.
2. Subject of this case study
The examined building is the former Technical College for Communications and
Telecommunications, which was designed in 1969-74 and built in 1971-77. In 2001 the
college became the Széchenyi István University in the same building (Fig. 1).
This building complex was the biggest educational investment of the decade in the
country. In 1968 the Hungarian socialist government decided to establish a new college
in Győr to centralize the education of communications. The appointed large and empty
site beside the river Mosoni-Danube, near to the downtown had exceptionally good
features for this complex. One of the major Hungarian architectural and engineering
consulting companies, KÖZTI (Public Building Designer Company) was commissioned
to design this project (leading architect: Miklós Hofer, co-architect: Ildikó Halmányi,
structural engineer: Kálmán Z. Horváth, mechanical engineers: Antal Solymosi, András
Hámori, Jánosné Pénz, Tibor Frőhlich, Csaba Lehoczky). The complex was built in a
six-year long project by GYÁÉV, the regional state building company [4].
The building has a very strong concept and order expressing strictly the spirit of the
architectural and historical age in which it was made. It was designed originally for 4
faculties, for about 1800 students and for about 280 instructors. Miklós Hofer preparing
the design process made a scholarly program analysis in which he considered the
communications and telecommunications as the most intensive developing technical
sciences. Therefore the possibility of the expansion and the flexibility became his main
MODERNIZATION OF MODERN BUILDINGS 69
Pollack Periodica 4, 2009, 3
goals, as he considered the college as a permanently developing and changing
organization where buildings were the spatial frames of the changing function [5]. In
addition to this elevated aim the designs had to fit the building-trade of the socialist
period, which preferred prefabricated large-sized elements in construction.
Fig. 1. South view of the educational building of Széchenyi István University in Győr
According to these principles Miklós Hofer created a functional and
(mega)structural composition in which high dual towers were made for non variable,
vertical functions and 18 m spread slabs were made as bridges between the towers for
variable spaces: seminar rooms and offices. The house was formed with four similar
units, because it was originally made for four faculties. In each unit the different
functions are separated into different levels resulting a terraced cross-section where
auditoriums are on the first floor, seminar rooms are on the second and third floors and
offices on the other ones.
The construction of this composition was easy using a three dimensional modular
system in which the floor plan modules, the width of a vertical block (6.00 m) and the
width of a floor-panel (2.40 m), were complemented with a vertical module, the height
of a step (0.17 m). This system was also favorable for the application of prefabricated
concrete panels, modular steel windows and aluminum curtain walls. Structures are
strongly emphasized in the visual image of the house. Movements of masses and
structural units give a deep plasticity of the façades on which the concrete elements
appeared with several different surfaces: plain, demolished-ribbed and graveled
concrete surfaces can be also found [4].
Understanding the principles of the building composition it is acceptable that this
building is important in the Hungarian architecture history. It is classifiable as a
masterpiece of the movement of New Brutalism. This style emerged mainly based on Le
Corbusier’s life-work in England in the years of 1950s and 1960s. He liked using
crudely shuttered, monolithic concrete structures outside of his buildings. Sometimes he
used this material as a sculptor created interesting forms as he did in Chandigarh or on
70 T. HORVÁTH
Pollack Periodica 4, 2009, 3
the terrace floor of the Unité d’Habitation in Marseille. Later Le Corbusier’s principles
returned in England, where Alison and Peter Smithson became the leading advocates of
the new movement [6]. In 1966 the architectural critic Reyner Banham described the
purposes of the new style as follows [7]:
the building was a unified, clear and memorable visual image;
the building exhibited its structures clearly;
raw, untreated materials got high valuation at the design.
Other architects can also be associated with Brutalism as Ernő Goldfinger, Denys
Lasdun, Louis Kahn, John Andrews, Ralph Rapson and Paul Rudolph. The last one
designed the Yale University Art and Architecture Building in 1958, which was a
pioneer work of a special branch of Brutalism called Campus Brutalism (Fig. 2). In the
late 1960s many architect designed university buildings in this style in the world,
especially in North America [8]. The campus of the Széchenyi István Univesity is one
of these interesting works.
Fig. 2. Paul Rudolph: Yale Art and
Architecture Building, New Haven,
Connecticut, USA (1958-63) [9]
Fig. 3. Ernő Goldfinger: Trellick Tower,
a 31-storey block of flats, London,
England (1966-72) [10]
Miklós Hofer could get first hand experiences about the principles of New Brutalism
in 1962-63 working in London in the architect studio of Ernő Goldfinger who was an
important creator of the movement as mentioned before (Fig. 3) [11]. Hofer formed the
college buildings with this kind of thinking. His most important architectural design
intent for the educational building was to introduce the enormous structure openly,
almost brutally [4]. The intent became truth and the concrete structures expressed this
brutal aesthetics well. Therefore people usually find the university buildings unfriendly
but the profession acknowledged the worth of this design and Miklós Hofer was
awarded with the most significant Hungarian architectural tribute, Ybl Prize
in 1978 [12].
MODERNIZATION OF MODERN BUILDINGS 71
Pollack Periodica 4, 2009, 3
3. Necessity of modernization
The possibility of the expansion and the flexibility were the main elements of the
concept from the beginning so changing of the building was an accepted necessity by
designers. They thought about the college building as a complex of structures ordered in
a hierarchy, which had three levels according to the moral lifetime of elements. The
bearing structures give the primer level. They should work all over the whole lifetime.
The separation walls, windows and doors, some mechanical systems belong to the
second category. Their estimated lifetime is about 40 or 50 years. Some other elements
like coverings, mechanical equipments and furniture are ranged in the third category,
because their lifetime is often only about 10 or 20 years [13].
By now the university building is almost 40 years old so the revision of the
structures and the modernization is surely needed at least related to the secondary and
the tertiary categories. Seeing this situation the Management of the University decided
to take the preliminary steps to modernization.
Management commissioned a preparing study, which examined the condition of the
building and its service systems. The team including some members of many consulting
companies not only evaluated the building and suggested some way of the conversation,
which can improve the cost efficiency of the building [14]. According to the study the
service systems are considerably outdated and they are not able to satisfy the changed
demands properly. Therefore the study suggested changing almost all service networks,
planting a gas engine to generate heat and electricity and an oil engine as an emergency
energy source. But to reduce the maintenance cost the modernization of mechanical
equipments is not enough, the energy wasting structures of the house should be also
converted because the way of energy saving is dual: the new service systems will use
less primary energy with better efficiency and the produced fewer secondary energy will
be saved by the improved thermal shell of the building. This also means that building
conversion should be performed before the modernization of the services.
Based on the recommendations of the comprehensive study including chapters about
functionality, building constructions [15], [16], [17], mechanical and electrical
engineering [14] and fire protection [18] University Management ordered the
architectural plans of frontal modernization. This design process is in the phase of
permission at the writing of this article.
4. Practical aspects of modernization
In the near future architectural design should react to several different practical
problems caused by the radically changed requirements and degradation. The designed
solutions of the building structures are equal to the standard of the 1970s and the quality
of the execution was almost average. These circumstances and the destructive impact of
decades resulted to the actual problematic condition of the building [15]. The following
description shortly summarizes all the most important aspects revealed by the preparing
studies of needed modernization of the whole educational building.
72 T. HORVÁTH
Pollack Periodica 4, 2009, 3
Frontal concrete structures: By now several damages of the uncovered concrete
structures are noticeable on the façades. Usually these have two kinds of origin. First
one is a structural feature: cracks are occurred between the panels due to the diverse
movements of the long-span floor panels. The other one is an executing feature, because
of some reasons, for example the poor quality of concrete, the thin concrete cover on
steels or the planned demolition of the ribbed concrete surfaces, the reinforcements
could start corroding and threw the concrete cover helping further rusting and so
endangering the load-bearing structures. Therefore it would be important to make a
revision of concrete panels and their joints to prepare the resurface [15].
Flat roofs waterproofing: Originally the flat roofs were waterproofed with
bituminous felts; the terrace roofs were designed with artificial stone covering. The
latter one has been never carried out in such a way, so the terrace roofs are not
walkable, even until now. Because of the unprofessional execution of waterproofing the
flat roofs often leaked therefore some roofs had to be renewed. That time PVC felts
were used. The concerning study reported several problems about roofs: some
membranes were hurt, some drain-traps were narrow, some of them were plugged up,
some roofs had only one drain-trap, some conduit-pipes were leaded outside of the
façade, at the terraces the doorsills were low, evidences of leaks were visible in several
places in the building [15].
Fig. 4. Thermographic photos of the educational building [16]
Heat insulation: According to the thermo-graphic examination the temperature of
the external surfaces are high [16] and the whole façade shows almost homogeneously,
significant heat losing [15] (Fig. 4). This observation is easily understandable, because
the monolith concrete walls, the prefabricated parapet panels and the flat roofs have
only 3-5 cm polystyrene foam heat insulation. Moreover the heat insulation of the walls
is in the internal side of the structures because of the high valuation of clearly visible
materials on the fronts. Naturally the internal heat insulation can’t create a continuous
thermal shell, so the building structures have strong thermal bridges. If the buildings
bounding structures were insulated in compliance with the current standard,
approximately the 40% of the actual heat using would be saved [14]. Therefore the
complete external heat insulation of the building is strongly recommended. This means
MODERNIZATION OF MODERN BUILDINGS 73
Pollack Periodica 4, 2009, 3
a consequent packing of the whole building, when the original concrete surfaces should
be unfortunately covered. The very articulated façades have a lot of problematic details,
where the covering won’t be easy. Such critic places are the attics, the slots between the
building units, the arched artificial stone footing panels and the window mountings.
Fig. 5. Four possibilities of window replacement
Windows and doors: The brutal aesthetic of this building is based on the harmony of
the concrete, steel and glass, so glassing is an important architectural instrument of the
house. The 53% part of the whole frontal surfaces is glassed [17]. On the fronts of the
building there are four types of window. The assembly hall has glass walls with extreme
big glassing. The elevator halls have aluminum curtain walls. The staircases and the
toilets in the vertical blocks have profile glass walls in steel frames. The seminar rooms
and the offices have steel framed windows. The heat insulation of these window
structures is poor, as proved by the thermo-graphic photos [16], because their framing is
not insulated. Due to some errors in the gaskets the double glassing often lost the gas
load so vapor and dirt could get between the glasses resulting opacification of the
windows. The steel windows cannot be closed well, because they have not sealing
between the window frame and the casement. In order to reduce the so occurred
filtrating heat loss a part of the windows were fixed. Unfortunately other maintenance
tasks, for example repainting and ordinary cleaning were not performed so the steel
frames started corroding and the sloped glass surfaces got to be dirty. The windows of
the seminar rooms and offices are designed with a special vertical section. The
vertically pivoted windows above the parapet panels are continued with sloped glass
roofs, which are criticized a lot. The always dirty and often leaking glass roofs have
only aesthetical function - they give plasticity to the façade. Moreover by the mounting
of the window structures thermal bridges are produced. Two different studies examined
the possibilities of frontal modernization. The first one was made in 2002 by Attila
Somfai and Gergely Molnárka [17]. They suggested only the replacement of windows
in the original form without eliminating the thermal bridges and not heat insulating the
concrete structures (Fig. 5a). The later study, made in 2008 by Oszkár Zádor thought in
a complex façade modernization described two possible solutions [15]. The first one
suggested supplying the concrete panels with heat insulation and insertion new flat
windows in the newly generated surfaces (Fig. 5b). The other solution can be the
74 T. HORVÁTH
Pollack Periodica 4, 2009, 3
installation of a curtain wall in front of the existing fronts (Fig. 5c). But both study
agreed in the following: the windows should have steel or aluminum structure, tilt and
turn windows are welcome, it isn’t necessary to may open all windows, but the glasses
should be able to be cleaned easily, southern windows should be shaded outside,
designed solution should consider acoustic and fire-protecting aspects as well.
Shading: The main façade of the educational building faces exactly to south, this
orientation occurs significant heat load in the rooms behind these fronts in the months
of the summer. Currently the rooms can be shaded by using curtains and internal blinds
and some offices are equipped with individual air-conditioning devices. The internal
shading is not efficient and it makes darkness so the lights should be turned on for
working. Air-conditioning and lighting increase the energy consumption of the house.
Considering these aspects the southern windows should be designed with external
shadowing [17].
Fig. 6. Modeled lights and shadows on the southern façade in three different days of the year
and the most favorable fronts for energy producing, signed in the photo
Energy producing façade: First time Attila Somfai and Gergely Molnárka
recommended installing equipments on the southern front to collect the energy of the
sun. According to their paper photovoltaic panels can be used also to shade the windows
fixed up above them nearly horizontally [17]. In this position solar cells are optimized
to generate electricity in summer, when the energy using of the educational building
isn’t intensive. Moreover the quasi-horizontal panels would be completely new and
strong elements on the front. If vertical panels were used for example installed on the
south front of the vertical blocks they would be optimized to the months of winter and
would be fit in the facades (Fig. 6). Although the efficiency of the solar collectors is
usually better then that of solar cells, using of this kind of equipments is not advisable,
because the educational building isn’t a significant heat water user [14]. Unfortunately
the suggestion for the frontal energy producing hasn’t been welcome by the University
Management yet because the returns of this investment are quite unsure.
Acoustics: The building has acoustic problems making difficult the study in the
seminar rooms and the work in the offices. Internal noises can be heard trough the walls
because the separation walls are not able to insulate sounds enough good and the long-
MODERNIZATION OF MODERN BUILDINGS 75
Pollack Periodica 4, 2009, 3
span floor panels even worsen this condition leading the voices over the walls.
Nowadays external noises mean seasonal problems for example at the time of open-air
programs, but in the front of the university a new road is planed, which will increase
constantly the level of noise in the future. So the design of the frontal modernization
should select such window structures, which have good acoustic parameters especially
on the southern fronts, and can joint to the separation walls ensuring the sound proofing
of the rooms.
Fire protection: The building is a busy, middle high public building suitable for
staying a mass of people. In case of this kind of buildings the fire protecting
requirements were always strict, but they became even stricter from the time of the
building design so the existing building is not able to totally fulfill them without
modernization. The needed arrangements, which can be listed into four categories
described in details by an expert [18].
Building structures should be made of fire-resistant materials. In this view
partition walls, internal coverings, frontal structures including heat insulations,
façade coverings and curtain walls as well and the installations of the building
engineering are in the most critic position;
The building has to be divided into four fire-sections. On the border of them the
propagation of the fire should be inhibited with special structural design;
The conditions of the safe escape at an emergency should be improved by
installing alarm systems, transforming the exits and rebuilding the staircases to
be smokeless;
Operation area and emergency windows should be specified for fire-fighting
and life-saving.
5. Architectural aspects of frontal modernization
The recently completed architectural design job focused on the frontal
modernization of the educational building reacting all aforementioned practical aspects
which were related to this part of the conversion (leading architect: Attila Bodrossy,
Tamás Czigány, co-architect: Tamás Horváth, structural engineer: Péter Szabó,
mechanical engineers: István Kovács, Attila Galambos, Pál Hornung). Architectural
design had to find out solutions of the existing problems so that the architectural quality
of the building would not be changed significantly. Therefore the main goal of the
architectural redesign was to save the spirit of the building, which was possible if the
way of the conversion had emphasized the original concept of the house. Keeping the
following conceptual elements was the most important objects to reach this goal in the
case of this building:
to keep the contrast between vertical and horizontal functions, which appeared
in the building as double towers and floors between them;
to keep the visibility of the heaviness of elements, which are originally made of
concrete, but they will be covered with the needed external heat insulation;
76 T. HORVÁTH
Pollack Periodica 4, 2009, 3
to keep the character of a building made of prefabricated panels having gaps
between the elements;
to keep the deep plasticity of the façade, which is given from the movements of
masses, from the formation of the towers and from the double breaking of the
windows vertical section.
This redesign of the house planed an exterior continuous thermal shell around the
building. Different materials are used to insulate the structures considering the actual
requirements of the situations. So the fronts are insulated with 10 cm mineral wool,
because a fireproof material should be used there. On the terrace roofs 10 cm
polyisocyanurate foam is used, because its thermal conductivity is better than that of the
conventional heat insulating materials so it has the same heat insulation capacity with a
less structural thickness. And the non-utilized flat roofs are insulated with 20 cm
polystyrene foam. The bounding structures of the house are redesigned to fulfill the
current requirements of the Hungarian decree with a big allowance. The over-fulfillment
is about 120-140%. The heat insulation is uniform on each structure, so thermal bridges
are eliminated.
Naturally the external heat insulation has to be covered. On the flat roofs this
covering is given only by the new polyvinylchloride waterproofing, which has to be
changed as complete system on all roofs, but the terrace roofs are also covered with
concrete tiles to realize the original architectural intention: the walkable terrace.
Unfortunately the task doesn't allow preserving the concrete of the frontal structures
as visible material so such covering should be selected which can give a similar
impression as the fair-face concrete. The manufacture of new prefabricated concrete
covering would be an ideal, but very expensive, solution of this problem so designers
have to select a kind of light, thin frontal panel system. In the concerning expert’s
opinion [15] two systems are suggested. In the first one the panels are made of resin
bonded wood fiber-board and in the other one they are made of fiber-cement board. The
latter one is a more brittle material than former one, but it has a better fire-resistance
than the former one, so the application of it seems to be the favorable. According to the
architectural goals of the facelift the panels are used in two different tones of grey to
keep the contrast between the vertical and horizontal functions. The tones can intensify
the visibility of the heaviness of the elements as well. Fiber-cement face work is
mountable with smaller panels, so the gap image of the fronts will be denser than the
original was. Therefore the fronts are designed using two types of gap: a normal thin
gap and a stronger one to sign the levels of the floors (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8).
In the designed frontal modernization the window structures are completely renewed
with aluminum framed windows and curtain wall structures. These up-to-date products
will be able to radically reduce the heat loss of the building. The double breaking
seminar room and office windows are removed in the plans, but to keep the plasticity of
the façade the new window structures are mounted in a deep position over the around
heat insulated parapet panels (Fig. 5d). The building has more fix windows than before
because of some reasons of heat insulation and fire-protection. On the southern fronts
the windows get external blinds as shading devices to protect the rooms from the heat of
the summer sun. The acoustic parameters of the windows have not given yet. The
detailed working out of these problems should be a part of the executing design.
MODERNIZATION OF MODERN BUILDINGS 77
Pollack Periodica 4, 2009, 3
Fig. 7. The designed north elevation
Fig. 8. The designed east elevation
6. Conclusion
The original buildings of the Széchenyi István University are almost 40 years old.
The university is ready to develop: new buildings and the modernization of the existing
buildings are also designed to satisfy the new functional demands. One of the most
important demands is to improve the energy efficiency. Therefore the service systems of
the building have to be quite completely reinstalled. But this step would be void of
sense unless the modernization of the energy prodigal façades and roofs. The main
question of the design of the frontal modernization, which could be based on several
experts’ opinion, was: how it is possible to save the spirit of the building. Designers
hope they could save the original character of the house after the frontal modernization.
As this case study shows nowadays the architects stand before a new and interesting
job in which the buildings of the near past have to be modernized according to the
recent requirements [19]. Some of these houses are obviously valued masterpieces but
some others are criticized a lot. The buildings of the 60s and 70s, even seeing them
ugly, are the cultural-social-technical products of their age, and they hide important
information and lessons for the posterity [20]. Therefore it would be important to
discuss the problems of this kind of modern buildings with wide publicity to find the
right compromises in their modernizations.
78 T. HORVÁTH
Pollack Periodica 4, 2009, 3
Acknowledgements
The Author wants to give thanks to the Interdisciplinary Doctoral School of
Engineering of the Széchenyi István University for supporting this research and to
Anikó Müller for her unselfish assistance in the paper writing.
References
[1] Wikipedia: Sustainable development, http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_development
[2] Winkler G, Fejérdy T. Protection and increase of values in the architecture (in Hungarian).
in Finta József (editor) Épített jövőnk. Magyarország az ezredfordulón. Stratégiai
tanulmányok a Magyar Tudományos Akadémián. No. 15. 2005. pp. 213–255.
[3] Cságoly F. The spiritual determinations of the architectural product (in Hungarian), in Régi-
Új Magyar Építőművészet, Vol. 6, No. 2, February 2006, pp. 722.
[4] Hofer M, Horváth Z. K, Magyar V. Technical College for Communications and
Telecommunications (in Hungarian), in Műszaki Tervezés, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1975, pp. 1623.
[5] Hofer M, Horváth Z. K, Solymosi A. Technical College for Communications and
Telecommunications (in Hun.), in Magyar Építőművészet, Vol. 69, No. 2, 1978, pp. 2027.
[6] Mc Kinstry S. Re-framing a ‘subfusc’ institute: Building on the past for the future at
chartered accountants’ hall, London, 1965–1970, in Critical Perspectives on Accounting,
Vol. 19, No. 8, 2008, pp. 1384–1413.
[7] Banham R. The new brutalism: ethic or aesthetic? Architectural Press: London, 1966.
[8] Wikipedia, Brutalist architecture, http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Brutalist_architecture
[9] Yale AAB, http://static.worldarchitecturenews.com/news_images/1826_1_1000 Yale 4.jpg
[10] Trellick Tower, http://www.flickr.com/photos/beatpiknik/2347264101/
[11] Marosán Á (editor) Szentendrei arcképcsarnok – Kortársaink (Portraits from Szentendre –
Our contemporaries. in Hungarian), Pest Megyei Könyvtár: Szentendre, 2000. p. 227.
[12] Schéry G. (editor) Évek, művek, alkotók. Ybl Miklós-díjasok és műveik. 1953-1994. (Years,
works, creators. Miklós Ybl prized architects and their works. 1953-94. in Hungarian)
Építésügyi Tájékoztató Központ: Budapest, 1995, p. 307.
[13] Hofer M, Horváth Z. K, Solymosi A. Technical College for Communications and
Telecommunications (in Hungarian), in Műszaki Tervezés, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1980, pp. 2128.
[14] Galambos A, Kovács I, Hornung P. Preliminary mechanical engineering expert’s opinion
and energetic conception for modernization of the Széchenyi István University in Győr (in
Hungarian), unpublished expert’s opinion, KondiCAD Mérnökiroda Kft, Győr, 2008.
[15] Zádor O. Preliminary examination of roofs and façades for energetic modernization of the
educational building of the Széchenyi István University in Győr (in Hungarian),
unpublished expert’s opinion, ISO-Média Kft, Győr, 2008.
[16] Pőcze P. Thermographic building examination (in Hungarian), unpublished report,
Villamos Ipari Vállalkozás, Tatabánya, 2008.
[17] Somfai A, Molnárka G. Energy conscious frontal window reconstruction – building
structure study (in Hungarian), Magyar Építőipar, Vol. 51, No. 9-10, 2001, pp. 269277.
[18] Szűcs L. Fire-protection technical description (in Hungarian), unpublished expert’s opinion,
Győr, 2008.
[19] Molnár T. Energy-conscious architecture – A student’s scientific work, in Pollack
Periodica, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2008, pp. 31–44.
[20] Kovács D. Demolish or preserve? (in Hungarian), lecture in the Hungarian Contemporary
Architecture Centre, Sept. 20, 2008, extract: http://muma.freeblog.hu/archives/2008/10/05/
... The built environment offers plenty of evidence that there are links between economy, environment and society, and plenty of opportunity to reinforce the positive links that generate net benefit. And the construction sector has a significant role to play [4], [5], [6]. ...
Article
Green buildings are more comfortable than conventional buildings; thereby making them more satisfying and productive workplaces, there is little empirical evidence to support this belief. The aim of the case study was to test the hypotheses that indoor parameters in green buildings in dependence on building materials and structures are more suitable than in buildings with conventional materials and structures. These hypotheses will be test for comparing the green buildings and conventional buildings in term of the comfort and satisfaction of the occupants.
Article
The study which follows traces the circumstances surrounding the rebuilding of Chartered Accountants’ Hall, London, from ca. 1965 to 1970, in order to show how the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales consciously utilised the architecture of its remodelled headquarters for status-building purposes and for adjusting public perceptions of its role in society. It proceeds by outlining the Hall's prehistory, dealing with the earlier use of architectural effect by the Institute to build its status when Chartered Accountants’ Hall was first built in 1893. Setting the Hall's extension in the context of post-World War II Britain and a rapidly expanding Institute, it details the practicalities associated with the rebuilding; it also outlines the architectural climate of the times and reveals the architect's design ideas and use of architectural metaphors and iconography for status building and related purposes. The study makes clear the role of key individuals within the Institute in forwarding the project, as well as emphasising the unique, creative contribution of the architect. It also offers some refinements to the findings of Macdonald (1989) and McKinstry (1997) concerning the role and use of professional headquarters as status symbols.
Article
What motivates a student to start a scientific work under his university years? Can this be only personal inspiration? Are the studies before the University determinative? The completed scientific paper reviews the elements of the building energy-balance. Also it shows the practical shaping of a building. These solutions are not only advantageous because of the energy consumption but also make the space around the inhabitants more comfortable with passive, hybrid and active solar means.
Évek, művek, alkotók. Ybl Miklós-díjasok és műveik. 1953-1994. (Years, works, creators. Miklós Ybl prized architects and their works. 1953-94
  • G Schéry
Schéry G. (editor) Évek, művek, alkotók. Ybl Miklós-díjasok és műveik. 1953-1994. (Years, works, creators. Miklós Ybl prized architects and their works. 1953-94. in Hungarian) Építésügyi Tájékoztató Központ: Budapest, 1995, p. 307.
Thermographic building examination (in Hungarian), unpublished report, Villamos Ipari Vállalkozás
  • P Pőcze
Pőcze P. Thermographic building examination (in Hungarian), unpublished report, Villamos Ipari Vállalkozás, Tatabánya, 2008.
Protection and increase of values in the architecture (in Hungarian). in Finta József (editor) Épített jövőnk. Magyarország az ezredfordulón. Stratégiai tanulmányok a Magyar Tudományos Akadémián
  • G Winkler
  • T Fejérdy
Winkler G, Fejérdy T. Protection and increase of values in the architecture (in Hungarian). in Finta József (editor) Épített jövőnk. Magyarország az ezredfordulón. Stratégiai tanulmányok a Magyar Tudományos Akadémián. No. 15. 2005. pp. 213-255.
Preliminary mechanical engineering expert’s opinion and energetic conception for modernization of the Széchenyi István University in Győr (in Hungarian), unpublished expert’s opinion
  • A Galambos
  • I Kovács
  • P Hornung
Galambos A, Kovács I, Hornung P. Preliminary mechanical engineering expert's opinion and energetic conception for modernization of the Széchenyi István University in Győr (in Hungarian), unpublished expert's opinion, KondiCAD Mérnökiroda Kft, Győr, 2008.
Demolish or preserve? (in Hungarian), lecture in the Hungarian Contemporary Architecture Centre
  • D Kovács
Kovács D. Demolish or preserve? (in Hungarian), lecture in the Hungarian Contemporary Architecture Centre, Sept. 20, 2008, extract: http://muma.freeblog.hu/archives/2008/10/05/
Fire-protection technical description (in Hungarian), unpublished expert’s opinion
  • L Szűcs
Szűcs L. Fire-protection technical description (in Hungarian), unpublished expert's opinion, Győr, 2008.
Sustainable development
  • Wikipedia
Wikipedia: Sustainable development, http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_development