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E-governance for development: Lessons learned and strategic principles for designing an operational roadmap

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The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relationship between Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) and governance. The paper discusses its implications for developing and emerging countries, in particular in the Mediterranean region. In defining the organisational and institutional dimensions underpinning ICT-enabled governance, the paper positions e-government activities within the broader framework of e-governance, as a learning type of dynamics. Finally, the paper presents selected results from field cases of the application of the e-government for Mediterranean Countries (MCs) (eG4M) methodology. The results are used as the main tools for defining issues to be considered for developing e-governance guidelines.

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... The interpretative framework for ICT-enabled governance proposed in this paper resulted from exploratory research conducted by the Information Society Unit of the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, on emerging ICT-enabled governance models in EU cities (EXPGOV) (Misuraca 2010a). ...
... In this research governance is defined as the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented, monitored and evaluated. These changes in decision-making are strongly conditioned by historical transformations in society's underlying values and organisational models and can be analysed from several research perspectives (Misuraca 2010b). In particular, ICTs are important tools to support the transformation of governance processes through eGovernance, where eGovernance is defined by Misuraca as the field of activity where policy design, decision-making, coordination , arbitration, networking and regulation, with ICTs, but also of ICTs, take place (Misuraca 2010b). ...
... These changes in decision-making are strongly conditioned by historical transformations in society's underlying values and organisational models and can be analysed from several research perspectives (Misuraca 2010b). In particular, ICTs are important tools to support the transformation of governance processes through eGovernance, where eGovernance is defined by Misuraca as the field of activity where policy design, decision-making, coordination , arbitration, networking and regulation, with ICTs, but also of ICTs, take place (Misuraca 2010b). eGovernance can therefore be considered as a broad framework to capture the co-evolution of ICTs' various stakeholders with the political institutions, at local, national and global level. ...
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This paper proposes an interpretative framework which aims to provide a systemic perspective and an instrument to elicit the links between Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and governance, outlining the various challenges that this poses. In particular, it discusses the multiple dimensions of governance and identifies the public value drivers underpinning the conceptual and measurement framework proposed. In doing so the paper focuses on the 'openness' of governance mechanisms through its interoperability dimension. It considers state-of-the-art contributions at both academic and practitioner level and it also looks at how the proposed framework can be applied to the evaluation of two case studies at cross-border, and national-city level in Europe. Interoperability in fact is predominantly seen as an instrument for enabling cross-border collaboration between public administrations within and between different Member States. Many initiatives and projects have been promoted and carried out during the last decade resulting in a growing number of potentially reusable best practices and benchmarks. Nevertheless, the complexity and volume of resulting project outcomes represent a challenge for effective exploitation of the results in other initiatives and intervention contexts. Moreover, despite the recognition of interoperability as a multi-faceted concept (i.e. technological, organizational, and semantic), it seems to be mainly the technological aspects of interoperability that emerge from the available project results. The paper concludes outlining indications for future research and in particular on interoperability as a key driver for ICT-enabled governance. Interoperability is found to play a strategic role in the delivery of e-Government services to local and national communities within the EU. Moreover, its significance is expected to increase over the next few years, especially in terms of how it supports emerging city governance models and acts as the backbone of communications at a pan-European, national and local level.
... Such transformative effects of ICTs on governance, commonly referred to as e-governance, changes the model of service delivery by making it more tailored and proactive (from a 'pull' approach where citizens seek out government services towards a 'push' approach where the government can target citizens with tailored services and programs) (Linders et al., 2018). remains to be further explored theoretically in the literature on e-governance for development (Adler, 2010;Backus, 2001b;Gianluca Misuraca, 2010;Heeks, 2001;Madon, 2009b). ...
... The proposed framework contributes a theoretical explanation of how digital identity might enable inclusion in a developing country context through 4 main inclusion affordances that connect e-governance and human development processes. By combining insights and theoretical perspectives from e-governance and human development, the framework enriches the literature on e-governance for development (Adler, 2010;Backus, 2001b;Gianluca Misuraca, 2010;Heeks, 2001;Madon, 2009b) by showing how digital identity might enable inclusion as both an objective and subjective condition of human development. More specifically, our framework answers an important call on "the need to unpack the theoretical link between digital identity and development, visualising the routes through which different elements of development may be entailed" (Masiero & Bailur, 2021, p. 3). ...
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The literature on e-governance has highlighted the potential of ICTs to enable good governance and socioeconomic development by leveraging stakeholders and resources within and outside the government to address specific challenges. A significant challenge in many developing countries is the inability of large segments of the population-notably, the vulnerable poor-to receive and benefit from services or public provisions because they lack a means of formal identification. Various digital identity projects worldwide have attempted to address the problem through an umbrella approach dubbed identification for development (ID4D). However, little is known about how digital identity advances e-governance by enabling socioeconomic development through inclusion. This study examines the inclusion and developmental significance of digital identity by drawing on thematic analysis of secondary data from 40 published studies based on the empirical context of India's Aadhaar-the world's largest digital identity scheme which enables service delivery to over 1.2 billion people. From our analysis, we identify themes of digital identity and socioeconomic inclusion and develop a theoretical account of their relationship. The resulting framework contributes towards advancing e-governance for development by showing how digital identity might enable inclusion.
... Within this context, evidence from research and fieldwork suggests that there is a need to overcome cultural and institutional barriers, and to mediate between the vertical bureaucratic governance models existing in many countries and the horizontal and cross-organisational collaborations associated with introducing ICTs. However, these changes often provoke fear and resistance [4], [38], [51]. ...
... Furthermore, we provide for each driver a set of governance dimensions and quality dimensions, which are suitable to enable a better interpretation of the type of contribution offered by ICT-enabled initiatives (see Table 4). The relevance of a systemic perspective on quality assessment supporting strategic planning of e-Government initiatives is inspired on the framework proposed and discussed in [51] and applied for e-Governance initiatives [38]. ...
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In the European academic and institutional debate, interoperability is predominantly seen as a means to enable public administrations to collaborate within Members State and across borders. The article presents a conceptual framework for ICT-enabled governance and analyses the role of interoperability in this regard. The article makes a specific reference to the exploratory research project carried out by the Information Society Unit of the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre on emerging ICT-enabled governance models in EU cities (EXPGOV). The aim of this project is to study the interplay between ICTs and governance processes at city level and formulate an interdisciplinary framework to assess the various dynamics emerging from the application of ICT-enabled service innovations in European cities. In this regard, the conceptual framework proposed in this article results from an action research perspective and investigation of e-governance experiences carried out in Europe. It aims to elicit the main value drivers that should orient how interoperable systems are implemented, considering the reciprocal influences that occur between these systems and different governance models in their specific context.
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E-Governance and Its Implementation
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