Article

Theft and Vandalism on Construction Sites

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Abstract

Theft and vandalism on construction sites in the commercial construction industry is a problem that can affect productivity and drain profits. To explore the impact of theft and vandalism in the commercial construction industry, a survey was sent to commercial construction firms to gather information by which the magnitude of the problem of theft and vandalism could be estimated; and to determine what techniques have been successfully used to deter thieves and vandals. The responses were analyzed and several conclusions were developed. Firms engaging in all types of projects are susceptible to theft and vandalism. Theft is more costly to large sized firms ($100 million and over in annual volume of construction work) than smaller firms, but vandalism is more costly for smaller firms. This occurs despite the fact that larger firms use a greater number of measures to combat theft and vandalism on their construction sites. The results should be of particular interest to construction firms that want to reduce the number of theft and vandalism incidents.

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... This paper describes a study that was undertaken to determine the types of experiences that construction contractors have had with theft, together with the counter-measures employed to reduce or eliminate loss, by adopting the work of Berg and Hinze (2005). This is valuable as by sharing those practices that have proven to be successful for some contractors, the construction community might be able to reduce the losses. ...
... In a developing country like Malaysia, there are many large-scale development projects currently underway that take long time to compete, such as Mass Rapid Transit (MRT), high rise building, residential projects and so on. The risk of losing materials in construction will occur in everywhere and at any time, depending on the type of decisions taken and made, which normally serves as a guide for losses (Berg and Hinze, 2005). ...
... These factors are commonly occurring at construction site. Materials and machineries loss due to theft often occurs on construction sites (Berg and Hinze, 2005). The employees can easily retrieve materials from construction sites without being noticed by anyone due to lack of security measures. ...
Article
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Construction industry has a lot of uncertain risks compared to other industries. One of the many problems that occur often in a construction project is loss of construction resources (i.e. materials, machinery) due to many factors, for example thefts, vandalism, negligence etc. There are many guidelines or checklist available focusing on site security to avoid materials and machinery loss but it is believed that the study on the construction resources, particularly materials and machinery loss in Malaysia is still lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted investigate the types of experiences that construction contractors have had with the materials and machinery loss, together with the countermeasures that had been done to reduce or eliminate them. Structured open-ended interviews were done on construction personnel who were directly involved in the construction projects around Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. A total of twelve (12) interviews were conducted among construction practitioners of selected companies. The interview questions also included the types of materials and machinery that frequently being lost on construction site and the way these items were lost. The participants were also asked about their insights and opinions on reducing these loss based on their experiences and propositions. From the interview analysis, the types of materials and machinery that were frequently lost were attained. It is also found that, the contractor often experience materials and machineries loss due to thefts and negligence. Some solutions on preventing these losses were also obtained.
... Other concerns about the involvement of organized crime are that it increases the potential for theft of property, equipment, or information from the site and the introduction of contraband materials onto the site. (Berg and Hinze 2005;Kelly 1999;Gill 2007;Goldman 1988;Pro-Vigil 2007;National Legal and Policy Center 2003;Thomas 1977.) The complexity and challenges of construction management have received greater attention in the literature recently, in part due to the emergence of more sophisticated management tools and greater attention to whole system design and sustainability (Bohra and Sharma 2006;Hendrickson and Au 2008;Muir 2005). ...
... They noted that historically, construction sites have been subject to a high incidence of theft and vandalism, much of which is attributed to persons authorized to be on the job site (estimates range from 30 to 85 percent). This has led experts on construction security to recommend both physical and personnel security measures that include extensive background checks and regular drug abuse checks for all personnel for a broad range of construction projects (Gill 2007;Pro-Vigil 2007;Berg and Hinze 2005). ...
... Abderrahim et al. 2004;Berg and Hinze 2005;DeVan 2003;Fournier 2006; Gill 2007; Khalafallah and El Rayes 2008; Kosnick 2005;Sowman 2005). Others discuss the causes of safety issues at construction sites, (primarily language issues, drug and alcohol use, and the nature of the construction activities) and protective measures to improve safety at construction projects(Business Insurance 2007; Chapman 2001; Construction Safety and Drug Abuse Executive Roundtable 2006; Contractors Association of West Virginia 2008; Haslam et al. 2005; Minchin et al. 2006; O'Malley 2001; Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation 2006; State of Ohio Legislature 2004; Thompson 2003; DoL) ...
Article
A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.
... Although previous regulations and research studies addressed security needs and considerations during the construction phase, they all focused on the implementation of physical security measures without considering the mutual impacts between construction site layout and the performance of site security system. Construction site layout affects spatial aspects of the site security system that significantly impacts the performance of implemented countermeasures [1,2]. This crucial fact is supported by Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) theory, which incorporates effective design and use of the built environment into the deterrence of criminal acts [6,7]. ...
... A multi-objective Genetic Algorithm (GA) is incorporated into the present framework to enable optimal tradeoff analysis between these two critical optimization objectives. The present framework is formulated and devised to enable: (1) modeling the construction site as a dynamic security system that includes security targets, boundaries, countermeasures, and potential attackers as well as modeling the dynamic construction site space availability and needs that change over time; (2) modeling and optimizing the use of security lighting systems on construction sites; (3) quantifying the impact of the implemented security and site layout measures on the performance of the security system using newly developed metrics and methodologies; and (4) generating optimal tradeoffs between the optimization objectives of minimizing security risks and minimizing overall site cost. The present framework is developed in four main phases: (1) risk identification and system modeling phase to identify the components of construction site security system and the site layout planning; (2) security lighting optimization phase to optimize the design of lighting systems on construction sites for critical infrastructure projects; (3) security-cost optimization phase to generate optimal site security systems that provide optimal tradeoffs between minimizing the security risks and minimizing the overall site cost; and (4) performance evaluation phase to test and analyze the performance of the proposed framework. ...
Article
Full-text available
Planning the site layout of construction projects is a crucial task that has a significant impact on construction cost, productivity, and safety. It involves the positioning and dynamic relocation of temporary facilities that are needed to support various construction activities on site such as offices, storage areas, workshops, and parking areas. Due to the complexity of the site layout planning problem, construction managers often perform this task using previous experience, ad-hoc rules, and first-come-first-serve approach which leads to ambiguity and even to inefficiency. Accordingly, a number of site layout planning models have been developed over the past three decades to support this important planning task. Despite the contributions of existing site layout planning models, they have a number of limitations that require additional research in five main areas in order to: (1) ensure global optimization of dynamic site layout planning; (2) integrate material procurement and site layout planning in a construction logistics planning model; (3) enhance the utilization of interior building spaces for material storage areas on congested construction sites; (4) enable automated retrieval and integration of all necessary data of construction logistics and site layout planning from available design and planning documents; and (5) consider security needs and constraints during the construction of critical infrastructure projects. Accordingly, the main objectives of this study are to: (1) formulate novel models of dynamic site layout planning (DSLP) that are capable of generating global optimal solutions of DSLP problems by considering the effects of first stage layout decisions on the layouts of subsequent stages; (2) develop an innovative optimization model for construction logistics planning (CLP) that is capable of integrating and optimizing the critical planning decisions of material procurement and material storage on construction sites; (3) formulate a new multi-objective optimization model for Congested Construction Logistics Planning that is capable of modeling and utilizing interior and exterior spaces in order to generate optimal logistics plans for congested construction sites; (4) develop a multi-objective automated system for construction logistics optimization that enables seamless retrieval and integration of project spatial, temporal, and logistics data as well as generating and reporting optimal plans of material procurement and site layouts; and (5) formulate a multi-objective optimization framework for planning construction site layouts and site security systems of critical infrastructure projects. First, two novel optimization models are developed that are capable of generating global optimal solutions of dynamic site layout planning in order to minimize resources travel and facilities relocation costs while complying with various site geometric constraints. The first model, DSLP-GA, is implemented using Genetic Algorithms while the second model, DSLP-ADP, is formulated using Approximate Dynamic Programming. These two models are designed to optimize facilities locations and orientations over construction stages to minimize total layout costs, which include the travel cost of construction resources and the cost of relocating temporary facilities between construction stages. Furthermore, the developed models consider four types of geometric constraints (boundary, overlap, distance, and zone constraints), which can be used to represent site space availability as well as construction operational and/or safety requirements. The performance of these two models is evaluated using two examples to illustrate their capabilities in generating global optimal plans solutions for dynamic site layout planning problems. Second, a novel model of construction logistics planning (CLP) is developed to enable the integration and simultaneous optimization of critical planning decisions of material procurement and material storage on construction sites. Procurement decision variables are designed to identify the fixed-ordering-periods of each material in every construction stage, while dynamic layout decision variables are designed to identify the locations and orientations of material storage areas and other temporary facilities in each construction stage. The model utilizes Genetic Algorithms to generate optimal material procurement and layout decisions in order to minimize four types of construction logistics costs: material ordering, financing, stock-out, and layout costs. The performance of the developed CLP model is evaluated using an application example that illustrates the model capabilities in: (1) generating optimal procurement decisions that minimize ordering, financing, and stock-out costs while considering site space availability; and (2) generating optimal layout decisions that minimize layout costs while complying with material storage space needs as well as imposed operational and safety geometric constraints. Third, an innovative multi-objective optimization model for congested construction logistics planning (C2LP) is developed to help planners in utilizing interior building spaces and generating optimal logistics plans that minimize total logistics cost while minimizing the adverse impacts of interior material storage on project schedule. Interior building space is represented as a set of non-identical rooms that can be defined based on project architectural drawings, while exterior space is modeled as a grid of locations with planner-specified fixed spacing. The model utilizes multi-objective Genetic Algorithms to formulate and optimize four categories of decision variables: (1) material procurement that includes fixed-ordering-periods of every material in each stage; (2) material storage plan that includes material storage type, exterior grid location, exterior orientation angle, and/or interior storage location for every material in each stage; (3) temporary facilities site layout that identifies exterior grid location and orientation angle for every temporary facility in each stage; and (4) schedule of noncritical activities that identifies the number of minimum-shifting-days within the total float of each non-critical activity. Interior material storage plans are generated using novel computational algorithms that consider four main types of interior storage constraints: room space capacities, room creation times, room partitioning times, and permissible material interior storage periods. Furthermore, new algorithms are developed to calculate interior and exterior material handling costs as well as shifting of noncritical activities. C2LP model utilizes Genetic Algorithms to generate optimal solutions that represent optimal tradeoffs between the two conflicting objectives of minimizing total logistics costs and project schedule criticality. Fourth, a prototype automated multi-objective optimization system for construction logistics planning is implemented to support construction planners in generating optimal plans of material logistics and site layout. The system is developed in four main modules: (1) site spatial data retrieval module; (2) schedule data retrieval module; (3) relational database module; and (4) graphical user interface module. The site spatial data retrieval module is designed to facilitate the automated retrieval of site exterior dimensions and building geometric attributes (building footprint, floors, and rooms) from existing IFC-Based Building Information Models of the project. The schedule data retrieval module is designed to obtain the list of construction activities, their relationships, construction materials, and activities material demand from schedule database files that are exported from Microsoft Project. The relational database module is designed to store and integrate project spatial, temporal, and logistics input data considering their interdependencies in order to eliminate data inconsistencies. The user interface module is designed to facilitate data input and reporting of generated optimal material logistics plans. Fifth, a multi-objective optimization framework is developed to enable construction planners of critical infrastructure projects to plan and optimize the implementation of site physical security systems and layout planning in order to minimize construction security risks and overall site costs. The framework is developed in four main phases: (1) risk identification and system modeling phase to identify security threats, attackers, and targets as well as site and security system geometric representation; (2) security lighting optimization phase to generate optimal tradeoff designs of fence and area lighting systems that consider the conflicting objectives of maximizing lighting performance while minimizing its system cost; (3) security-cost optimization phase to generate optimal site security systems that quantifies and simultaneously minimizes construction security risks and overall site cost; and (4) performance evaluation phase to test and analyze the performance of the proposed framework. The aforementioned developments of this research study contribute to enhancing the current practices of site layout and material logistics planning and can lead to: (1) increasing the efficiency and global optimality of construction site layout planning; (2) improving construction productivity that can be realized as a result of the early coordination between material procurement and site space planning; (3) enhancing the utilization of interior building spaces for material storage areas while minimizing its possible negative impacts on construction operations and schedules; (4) increasing the security level on the construction sites of critical infrastructure projects; and (5) minimizing contractors site costs that cover the travel cost of resources on construction sites, material logistics, and site security systems.
... Theft and vandalism are common actions occurred in a construction project. The loss due to the theft of materials, tools, and equipment at the project site in the United States (US) could be as high as four million dollars [9,10]. The number might be an underestimate due to the lack of theft is reported to the police and insurance companies [9]. ...
... Construction site layout and security method and planning are essential to any construction project, and still widely unexplored [11]. Reference [10] suggest that region, project type, and project size are factors influencing a project's susceptibility to theft, extortion, and vandalism. It appears that there has been lacking research in Indonesia that examines the impact of security on project costs and schedule. ...
... Although previous regulations and research studies addressed security needs and considerations during the construction phase, they all focused on the implementation of physical security measures without considering the mutual impacts between construction site layout and the performance of site security system. Construction site layout affects spatial aspects of the site security system that significantly impacts the performance of implemented countermeasures [1,2]. This crucial fact is supported by Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) theory, which incorporates effective design and use of the built environment into the deterrence of criminal acts [6,7]. ...
... A multi-objective Genetic Algorithm (GA) is incorporated into the present framework to enable optimal tradeoff analysis between these two critical optimization objectives. The present framework is formulated and devised to enable: (1) modeling the construction site as a dynamic security system that includes security targets, boundaries, countermeasures, and potential attackers as well as modeling the dynamic construction site space availability and needs that change over time; (2) modeling and optimizing the use of security lighting systems on construction sites; (3) quantifying the impact of the implemented security and site layout measures on the performance of the security system using newly developed metrics and methodologies; and (4) generating optimal tradeoffs between the optimization objectives of minimizing security risks and minimizing overall site cost. The present framework is developed in four main phases: (1) risk identification and system modeling phase to identify the components of construction site security system and the site layout planning; (2) security lighting optimization phase to optimize the design of lighting systems on construction sites for critical infrastructure projects; (3) security-cost optimization phase to generate optimal site security systems that provide optimal tradeoffs between minimizing the security risks and minimizing the overall site cost; and (4) performance evaluation phase to test and analyze the performance of the proposed framework. ...
Article
Construction decisions can have a significant impact on the security level of critical infrastructures over their entire life cycle. Federal regulations require construction managers and security officers to consider all possible physical security measures to protect critical assets and classified information that reside onsite during the construction phase of critical infrastructure projects. This paper presents the development of an automated multi-objective optimization framework for the planning of construction site layout and security systems of critical infrastructure projects that provides the capability of minimizing overall security risks and minimizing overall site costs. The framework is developed in four main phases: (1) risk identification and system modeling, (2) security lighting optimization, (3) security-cost optimization, and (4) performance evaluation. The automated framework utilizes newly developed metrics for quantifying the security system performance and the impact of site layout planning on the effectiveness of the security system. The performance of the present framework is analyzed using an application example that demonstrates its capabilities in planning construction site security systems and generating optimal tradeoffs between minimizing security risks and minimizing overall site costs.
... As they must absorb the increased risks during the construction phase, the EPCs usually add more contingencies and profits so as to compensate. In practice, to mitigate the risks related to labor, material, and equipment, they can, and often do, buy builders' risk insurance (Deutsch and Kaskell, 1989;Al-Bahar and Crandall, 1990;Borg, 1999;Berg and Hinze, 2005). However, this insurance does not cover extra costs incurred due to delayed completion of the project, regardless of the reason for delay. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the construction of an infrastructure project, completion delay is one of the major risks to the financial outlook of an infrastructure project under construction. During the construction phase, if the project is delayed, project managers can take specific actions to shorten the duration of certain activities on the critical path in order to restore the project to its original schedule. However, not all management actions to shorten the duration of activities are cost-effective: the cost of reducing some activities’ duration may exceed the savings. Risk that project managers cannot economically reduce through management feedback reactions should instead be transferred to third parties such as insurance companies that have risk pooling capacity. In this paper, we present a novel way of managing completion delay risk through “dynamic risk insurance” by combining a technique known as the envelope method with a stochastic-based Monte Carlo method. Two important features of this implementation of dynamic completion risk insurance are (1) a stochastic risk premium between the contractor and the surety over the course of construction and (2) evolution of the risk premium as a function of management feedback reaction. Finally, two illustrative examples, a BOT road and a commercial building, demonstrate how the proposed model may be applied in practice. The new model of dynamic risk insurance presented in this paper may improve risk management practice in large-scale construction projects that are loaded with uncertainty.
... Despite the significant contributions of these models, they were all designed for general construction projects and they focused only on minimizing the travel cost of resources on site. There is little or no reported research studies that considered airport security as an important and independent optimization objective during the planning of airport construction site layouts despite its importance to both aviation and construction industries (Berg and Hinze 2005). To overcome this limitation, this paper presents the development of a multi-objective optimization model that can be used to consider and comply with relevant FAA security guidelines during site layout planning of airport expansion projects, as shown in Figure 1. ...
Article
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Airport expansion projects often require the presence of construction personnel, material, and equipment near airport secure areas/facilities, leading to an increase in the level of risk to airport security. Construction planners and airport operators need to carefully study this challenge and implement active measures in order to minimize construction-related security breaches and comply with all relevant Federal Aviation Administration guidelines. This paper presents the development of an advanced multiobjective optimization model for planning airport construction site layouts that is capable of minimizing construction-related security breaches while simultaneously minimizing site layout costs. The model incorporates newly developed criteria and performance metrics that enable evaluating and maximizing the construction-related security level in operating airports. The model is developed using a multiobjective genetic algorithm, and an application example is analyzed to demonstrate the use of the model and its unique capability of generating a wide spectrum of optimal trade-offs between construction-related airport security and site layout costs.
... The issues of construction site security and construction site theft in general have been well documented in the literature. For instance, see Knights et al. (2002); Clarke and Goldstein (2003); Boyd et al. (2004); and Berg and Hinz (2005). Plant and equipment theft in particular, has more recently become a recognised ''sub-section'' of that overall ''problem'' (Carmichael et al., 2007;Home Office, 2007), but a dearth of academic literature in this specific domain, underlines the newness of the subject to the broader field. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Plant and equipment theft (PET) is inherent throughout the construction sector. Its effect places direct financial burden on those who have invested in such assets, but additionally, induces “indirect” costs for many other stakeholders including project owners, plant hirers and construction managers. The paper's objective is to take and discuss a snapshot of PET, the overriding aim being to aid greater understanding of it and in particular, the application of (post-theft) recovery technologies. Design/methodology/approach – Descriptive case study data are considered along with informal, anecdotal evidence provided by practitioners. These data are qualitatively considered; observations are discussed; a model representation of PET and recovery is developed; and conclusions are drawn. Findings – Plant and equipment thieves are shown to be audacious and determined, but it is identified that in addressing these characteristics, recent advances in plant security and recovery technologies (PSRT) have been significant. Arguably, PSRT are not being adopted as broadly as they should be to offset the PET problem. Research limitations/implications – The formal model of PET might help inform future academic endeavour in the subject of plant and equipment management generally and PET specifically. Practical implications – The model suggests that more widespread use of PSRT may not only help defeat plant thieves, but additionally help recover stolen assets and identify organised criminal networks. Originality/value – The work is novel in setting and will be of interest to both academics and practitioners in the field.
... Security on construction sites especially in the commercial construction industry are a big problem. The achievement of the project objectives can be jeopardized by thieves and vandals which can directly impact the success of a project with job delays, downtime for operators, higher insurance premiums, possible cancellation of an insurance policy, and diminished profitability of the project being constructed [1]. The construction industry in the United States lost nearly $1 billion in 2001 because of the theft of equipment and tools, according to the National Insurance Crime Bureau [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces an on-going research effort at the Peter Kiewit Institute (PKI) at Omaha, Nebraska for developing sensor-aided intelligent mobile robots that provide high-level navigation functions for indoor construction site security and safety using wireless sensor networking (WSN) technology. The ultimate goal of the research is the complete integration of the sensor-equipped robots into the WSN system to visualize sensed data information into 3D graphical control interface for advanced planning and execution against any anomalies that have been detected in warehouses, office buildings, manufacturing facilities, and various construction sites -everywhere there's a need for advanced frontline security.
... For large scale sites, access routes may change and entrapments spots could be created (Cohen and Felson, 1979). Theft and vandalism are particular problems for construction sites (Berg and Hinze, 2005). ...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate “image management” as an important element within the concept to the Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Globally, guidance tends to focus on promoting surveillance and few studies have explored how vacant poorly maintained housing might affect perceptions of crime and CPTED. Design/methodology/approach – This paper contrasts the perceptions of 168 members of the public and 12 built environment professionals with regards to a detached property in Perth, Western Australia. Using two photographs to elicit responses (one poorly maintained and one well-maintained) respondents were asked about their perceptions of crime, and the extent to which CPTED features were perceived to be present. These results are contrasted with a site audit of the CPTED qualities visible in both images. Findings – The CPTED audit recorded significantly higher scores for the well-maintained property than for the poorly maintained dwelling. Most respondents indicated they felt less safe, perceived more crime and lower levels of CPTED in relation to the poorly maintained house. The findings provide support that there is a link between poorly maintained housing and the perceptions of CPTED, crime and the fear of crime. Originality/value – This innovative study utilised two photographic images of the same property to probe “image management”, perceptions of crime and CPTED qualities. It highlights the need to consider these issues throughout the different stages of the development process and presents idea of the “cradle to the grave” life-cycle of criminal opportunities.
... Pipeline collapse, broken windows, robbery etc. can cause significant losses to the project. According to Berg and Hinze (2005), theft and vandalism can be major cost components of a construction project because of their effects and associated problems. Theft and vandalism may lead to waste whereby part of materials like cement is stolen by partially opening the sack and was hidden for a period of time until the cement caked or about to be removed from store, being oblivious it was opened, and the content get spilled away leading to waste. ...
Technical Report
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Construction waste constitutes a major source of solid waste. Proper management is very much needed to reduce its negative impacts towards the environment. Common causes of construction waste generation are off cuts from cutting materials to desired length, improper handling, stacking and storage, end of life cycles, spillage and leftover materials. Material waste has been recognized as a major problem in the construction industry that has important implications both for the efficiency industry and for the environmental impact of construction projects. As pointed out by previous research, residual waste such as material off-cuts was identified as the highest contributor to construction waste. In the present study, data on material wastage level, waste index, as well as the construction waste conversion factors (density) and its standard measurement method was collected and compiled. The collected/compiled data functions as an input to the Standard Code of Practice for Construction Solid Waste Management, which is under developed by the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) and other related industry players, with the aim to provide appropriate guidance to relevant stakeholders, including waste generators of small to large scale, collectors, transporters, recycling and disposal facilities, as well as those who are involved in construction works. To realize the objectives of the study, various mythologies were applied: (i) structured questionnaire survey, (ii) literature search, and (iii) case study. The quantitative research method in the form of questionnaire survey was employed to obtain the wastage level. With a sample size of 75, responses on the material wastage from the professional quantity surveyors (QS), project managers (PM), and site engineer (SE) were surveyed, by asking their perception on the percentage of wastage from a list of building materials. Besides, the respondents were also asked to rate nine identified factors that contribute to material wastage on site. Info with regard to waste index and conversion factor was collected through the conduction of detailed desk top assessment on past literature. In order to derive a list of volume-to-weight conversion factors for individual waste products, a case study was conducted. The study site took place at Pantai Bintang, Bangsar, where the demolition works was undertaken. Pieces of waste product such as bricks, steel, plastics, tiles etc. were transported back to the Construction Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM) for determining the weight and volume. The study successfully determined the wastage level for different materials commonly used in the construction site. Furthermore, the study revealed that off-cuts from cutting materials to length and packaging is the major contributor of waste generation, followed by the damage due to weather, and mishandling of materials, lack of site materials control. By conducting Kruskal-Wallis and the respective post-hoc test, opinion given by PM and SE on the level of material wastage are very much similar as compared to QS. This is the result of the extent to which one person involves in the project. While the QS does make allowances for waste when assessing the price of a material, most of the time, he/she is just based on his/her own estimation from the desktop assessment or experiences from the past project. Since the activities on a construction site change as the project progresses, the quantity of the associated waste may also change. PM and SE, on the other hand, share the high similarity because they are fully involved during the construction stage and to keep record of the waste disposal. This is especially true for the SE as he/she is the person that makes visual assessment of the main materials in each waste stream, as well as confirming that waste associated with all the main materials being used on-site is represented in the waste stream identified. Through literature search, the study found that that the availability of data on waste index with regard to the Malaysian building industry was relatively scarce. A list of waste index compiled from the local studies for both commercial and residential building was presented in this study. However, these figures cannot be considered representative of the sector, not only because of the relatively small samples, but also because the relative importance of each material waste is likely to vary according to the building type (for example, residential, commercial, industrial, and so on) and technologies involved. Such list of waste index is better to be viewed as a reference to guide readers in making estimation on waste generated. Finally, a list of volume-to-weight conversion factors for individual waste products was produced by using sample wastes from a demolition site. The list covers a range of common material wastes found in the construction site: concrete, concrete with rebar, brick, electrical conduit, coaxial cable, wooden door frame, wooden joist, wall/floor tile, road pavement tile, high tensile bar (25mm), round bar (8mm), aluminum, and plastic. For reference purpose, the volume-to-weight conversion factors for C&D waste published by other organizations were also presented in this study, with the aim to provide useful information to the readers. It is hoped that the findings of the present study will function as an input to the Standard Code of Practice for Construction Solid Waste Management, which is under developed by the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB), thereby contributing to the improvement of C&D waste estimation, as well as enhancing knowledge-based decision-making in developing appropriate strategy for construction waste management.
... Risks of burglary and associated offences are likely to differ across space and time. As dwellings are under construction, there will be opportunities for theft from building sites (Berg and Hinze 2005;Boba and Santos 2006;Sakurai et al. 2008). Once completed, but prior to occupancy, new homes will also be vulnerable to burglary and theft, with the installation of whitegoods generally preceding residents. ...
Article
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Drawing on a case study of a growth centre on the fringe of Australia’s most populous city, Sydney, this article considers some of the potential crime generating consequences of urban sprawl and the associated challenges of planning for crime prevention. Significant population growth residing in predominantly detached houses on the urban fringe will potentially increase opportunities for crime. Empty completed dwellings prior to occupation; lengthy commuting to employment for new residents; financial pressures associated with ‘mortgage stress’; and growing numbers of young people are some of the potential crime generators in the area. Through this case study, we illustrate some of the complexities of large-scale, peri-urban, residential development and the challenges of embedding crime prevention during this period of rapid and sustained population growth.
... Pipeline collapse, broken windows, robbery etc. can cause significant losses to the project. According toBerg and Hinze (2005), theft and vandalism can be major cost components of a construction project because of their effects and associated problems. Theft and vandalism may lead to waste whereby part of materials like cement is stolen by partially opening the sack and was hidden for a period of time until the cement caked or about to be removed from store, being oblivious it was opened, and the content get spilled away leading to waste. ...
Article
Full-text available
Material wastage has been recognized as a common cause of construction waste generation. Ineffective planning and control of materials on sites could lead to poor performance and undesirable project outcomes. In response to the Construction Industry Development Board's (CIDB) effort in developing the Standard Code of Practice for Construction Solid Waste Management, the present study attempts to establish a list of percentage wastage level for commonly used building materials in the Malaysian construction industry. Such list will act as a reference to facilitate industry stakeholders in construction waste estimation. By conducting questionnaire survey, responses on material wastage level from the professional quantity surveyors (QS), project managers (PM), and site engineer (SE) were obtained. Perceptions on the major causes of construction waste generation were then studied, and any significant differences found among the responses due mainly to the different professions were examined. The study successfully determined the level of material wastage through median test, and further revealed that off-cuts from cutting materials to length and packaging are the major contributor of waste generation. By conducting Kruskal-Wallis and the respective post-hoc test, opinion given by PM and SE on the level of material wastage were found to be very much similar as compared to QS. This indicates that the extent to which one person involves in the project has significant influence on the perceived material wastage level as well as the causes of construction waste generation.
... Risks of burglary and associated offences are likely to differ across space and time. As dwellings are under construction, there will be opportunities for theft from building sites (Berg and Hinze 2005;Boba and Santos 2006;Sakurai et al. 2008). Once completed, but prior to occupancy, new homes will also be vulnerable to burglary and theft, with the installation of whitegoods generally preceding residents. ...
... Security on construction sites especially in the commercial construction industry are a big problem. The achievement of the project objectives can be jeopardized by thieves and vandals which can directly impact the success of a project with job delays, downtime for operators, higher insurance premiums, possible cancellation of an insurance policy, and diminished profitability of the project being constructed [1]. The construction industry in the United States lost nearly $1 billion in 2001 because of the theft of equipment and tools, according to the National Insurance Crime Bureau [7]. ...
... As a result, site storage and handling of equipment and materials are considered as high risk aspects of projects [19]. Estimates from the United States alone indicate that between 1 and 4 billion dollars' worth of materials, tools, as well as large and small equipment are stolen every year from construction sites [20,21]. With such high figures, it is therefore understandable why securing projects against theft and vandalism is not taken lightly. ...
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This chapter presents an overview of the practices that construction managers consider when identifying a constructed wetland project as a successful one. The chapter considers the key performance indicators of construction processes and the functions that products of construction (wetlands) are supposed to undertake. The chapter does not focus specifically on the construction processes (e.g., techniques of excavation), but the ideas that a construction manager should focus on when approaching projects in order to be successful. Some of the topics presented in this section include the clear deliverables that are used in constructed wetland projects and the considerations made with regard to environmental impact of the projects. The security of construction projects in relation to theft and vandalism of machines and building materials are also discussed, as well as the health and safety of the construction workers during the construction phase. Finally, the critical points that are considered in successful constructed wetland projects will be presented and discussed in the light of the practical experiences within existing constructed wetlands facilities, such as the Nimr Water Treatment Plant in Oman.
... Construction materials are stolen due to the lack of proper security. Theft and vandalism considered as the sources of waste [24,36]. ...
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The construction sector is responsible for providing fundamental physical structure required for living and survival of human life. Increased development works have led in resulting the massive amount of waste generation in developing countries. Due to poor management system on sites, it has become more crucial and exerts several negative impacts on society and the environment. This Unused waste material has a negative impact on the ecosystem and needs a considerable amount of money for recycling, reusing and disposal of the waste. Like other developing countries Pakistan is spending a significant portion of its GDP on handling construction waste. Among the several other factors, the key contributes are highlighted in this study. This study is exploratory work investigating the types of construction waste generated on site and their relative impact of the project cost in construction projects of Pakistan. Through questionnaire the opinion of clients, consultant and constructor have been taken to identify the major types of waste having more impacts on cost and time. Through Average index, severity index and importance index, the probability of occurrence of waste through different materials, severity level of waste production by these materials, and the overall effect of all waste generating materials have been found respectively. Among the materials sand, concrete, tile is the most common materials, which are responsible for a waste generation while time and cost are the two most common non-physical waste generating factors.
... Specifically, the use of GPS [36], and RFID technologies [37], for tracking construction machinery have been consistently cited in construction research. Moreover, advanced tracking of on-site construction machinery could facilitate: an improvement in the safety performance [36], job site layout and prevent theft [38], and also optimize the utilization of construction equipment. Based on their extensive practical experiences on petrochemical plant sites, the industry practitioners also mentioned the need for the development of a fuel top-up schedule for all construction machinery. ...
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This paper describes the development of a method to assess the level of implementation of best productivity practices in the petrochemical industry. The proposed methodology focuses on construction, maintenance activities, shutdowns, and turnarounds. Its novelty and importance are emphasized by the lack of productivity studies that target these types of projects. This article reports the research methodology steps including tool development and detailed case study assessments of projects in Singapore. The approach involved the verification of best productivity practices and the development of an assessment method designed to fit the characteristics of petrochemical projects. The assessment points out productivity practices with low implementation levels and provides recommendations to increase their usage. The results showed that the level of implementation of productivity practices in the petrochemical projects investigated was 68.42%, out of a maximum score of 100%. Practices related to Material Management and Equipment Logistics received the lowest scores and recommendations on how to bridge this productivity practice implementation gap were provided. The adoption of the Best Productivity Practices Implementation Index (BPPII) as a Productivity management tool will help the petrochemical plants to improve productivity in their projects and to be resilient during the pre-planning phase. This should also allow the petrochemical industry to attract more investments and remain competitive in order to be sustainable. The identification and analysis of practices related to maintenance activities, shutdowns, and turnarounds of petrochemical plants will significantly contribute to the body of knowledge on best productivity practice.
... 8 industry is a problem that can affect productivity and drain profits. One of the techniques used to prevent crime at the construction site is by installing security cameras [19]. Besides, construction machinery should be parked in the designated parking area at the site to prevent crime. ...
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Highways greatly contribute to a country’s economic development and growth. Therefore, it is vital for highway construction projects to complete on time and budget. However, when a project starts construction prematurely, projects frequently experience interruption that eventually resulted in delays, causing a multitude of adverse effects on all project stakeholders. In other words, premature starts are one of the factors of construction delays. However, prior studies have little understanding of information that can help practitioners determine whether a highway project is premature or ready for construction. This study aims to identify the parameters used in practice to differentiate whether a highway construction project is ready or not to begin construction. To achieve this objective, interviews with sixteen industry practitioners working on highway construction projects are being conducted and analyzed. The significant findings include: (1) construction readiness can be assessed even as early as during the project start-up phase; and (2) not fulfilling the construction readiness parameters may cause a work stoppage, inefficient work, rework, and shortages in labor, equipment or materials. This study contributes to the current body of knowledge by identifying the parameters that indicate whether a highway project is construction-ready or construction-not-ready. The lessons from this study could help the industry to avoid premature starts in highway construction projects.
... An overcrowded construction site may lead to double handling of materials, again, reducing productivity and increasing damage to materials (Horman and Thomas, 2005) along with increased health and safety concerns (Huang and Hinze, 2003). Inadequate management of materials through over allocation also has been identified as impeding progress, workflow and overall productivity, due to overcrowding the limited work space available (Horman and Thomas, 2005) while also exasperating the issue of security of materials (Berg and Hinze, 2005). Planning is essential to overcome this issue and management of the critical space. ...
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The aim of this paper is to identify the various managerial issues encountered by UK/Irish contractors in the management of materials in confined urban construction sites. Through extensive literature review, detailed interviews, case studies, cognitive mapping, causal loop diagrams, questionnaire survey and documenting severity indices, a comprehensive insight into the materials management concerns within a confined construction site environment is envisaged and portrayed. The leading issues highlighted are: that contractors’ material spatial requirements exceed available space, it is difficult to coordinate the storage of materials in line with the programme, location of the site entrance makes delivery of materials particularly difficult, it is difficult to store materials on-site due to the lack of space, and difficult to coordinate the storage requirements of the various sub-contractors. With the continued development of confined urban centres and the increasing high cost of materials, any marginal savings made on-site would translate into significant monetary savings at project completion. Such savings would give developers a distinct competitive advantage in this challenging economic climate. As on-site management professionals successfully identify, acknowledge and counteract the numerous issues illustrated, the successful management of materials on a confined urban construction site becomes attainable.
Conference Paper
Concrete elements can be divided into many different types (e.g. facade elements, pillars and hollow slabs) which all have their own characteristics. We have completed two pilots to collect experience of embedding RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags into concrete elements, its effects to the different phases of a building project and processes related to them. The requirements of identification may vary for each type of these elements. The tagging process and the needs may also be divergent. Our experience clearly shows that identification of elements using RFID in larger scale requires remarkable engagement from the parties involved in the supply chain. The assurement of the readability of RFID tags in a completed building requires elaboration and clearly defined processes already during the modeling of a building. In this research we have focused on the information related to the elements and identification at defined action points to provide useful status data. This status and information is produced through all the manufacturing chain from production post-control.
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This study proposes to exploit multipath signals by repositioning a robot relay node within a quarter to one wavelength from its current position to improve signal quality. By mobilizing the communication node we offer a complementary solution to antenna diversity in environments where antenna diversity cannot be employed. The signal strength characterization is performed over a small area to study the impact of relocation of the node by a quarter to one wavelength. A new conjugate gradient search algorithm for exploiting combined multipath fading is proposed to improve signal quality between a mobile station and a set of other stations – mobile or fixed.
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The United States and other countries around the world, such as Canada, Australia, England, and Japan, have begun to address single-family home construction site crime through a variety of crime prevention methods. This article presents the results of a practical problem-oriented policing effort to reduce single-family home construction site theft in a suburban city in Florida. The Port St. Lucie, FL Police Department utilized a variety of data sources to understand the problem and tailored crime prevention responses to achieve a successful reduction in construction site theft over a 2-year period. Consequently, this article details the background of the project, the analysis, the crime prevention strategies implemented, and the impact results of the strategies.
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Construction site theft is recognized as a concern by the United States as well as many other countries around the world. Estimates from the United States indicate that between one and four billion dollars worth of materials, tools, as well as large and small equipment are stolen every year. This article – on theft from individual house construction sites, subdivisions of homes, larger multifamily sites, and commercial sites – provides a synthesis of the research, known crime prevention practices, the evaluation results of techniques used to prevent construction site theft and the implications for security. Unfortunately, a predominant theme of this comprehensive review is that there is limited research on the nature of construction site theft and there are only a handful of evaluations specifically addressing crime prevention techniques used to impact construction site theft. Particular gaps in the literature are identified throughout the article to advance research on this crime.
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According to the results of our experimental study, the accuracy of the UWB position system depends upon several factors, including precise knowledge of all receiver and reference tag locations. Absolute tag position accuracy of better than 19 cm has been demonstrated in an open space and 48 cm for a closed space. It is recommended that the receiver be located as high as possible to cover a larger area. Also, it is important to strategically select the direction of the receiver and have a minimum of one set of line of sight between a receiver and a tag in any location, which can significantly affect a tag’s position accuracy. This chapter also presented a methodology for autonomous end-to-end navigation of mobile wireless robots for automated construction applications when the working environment is known a priori. As an on-going research effort, this study investigates methods to determine
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The construction of large infrastructures (e.g., railways, gas pipelines or power grids) is increasingly facing widespread and violent opposition of radical environmentalist and ideological groups. Therefore, it is necessary to consider also the risk related to violent opposition actions when selecting construction sites. However, the classical paradigm of risk considering probability and impact hardly applies in this context, especially because of the difficulty of assessing probabilities, due to the lack of historical and/or reliable data. This paper develops a novel framework to support the selection of construction sites for infrastructure development, considering the risk of attacks by radical or ideologically motivated groups. The main originality is that the risk of attacks is evaluated considering the attractiveness of the different locations for the attackers, based on several criteria. Specifically, a novel multi-criteria decision model is introduced, which involves fourteen criteria related to the effort required to the opponents for performing the attack and to the expected outcomes of the attack in terms of potential damage to the targeted infrastructures and visibility of the action; moreover, the lifespan of the construction site and its influence on the possibility of an attack are taken into account. The criteria have been selected by a pool of forty-four Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), i.e., security managers and experts from the academia, industry and law enforcement. With such criteria, it is possible to construct a holistic index of attractiveness and quantify it by the Sparse Analytic Hierarchy Process (SAHP), based on the evaluations of the criteria provided by the pool of SMEs. The proposed methodology is applied to support the localization of the construction sites for the cross-border section of the Turin-Lyon High Speed and High Capacity Railway, including a new base-tunnel. Indeed, such an 8.6 billion Euro project has experienced strong opposition in Italy and, hence, security has become one of the main issues to be considered. The proposed model constitutes a decision aid tool to support the selection of construction plans, considering attractiveness and impact of attack.
Article
The theft of construction equipments and materials at construction sites is one of the risk factors that may affect to the productivity as well as the progress of the project. However, managers of the construction site have paid little attention to the security measure, therefore the theft loss at construction sites has been occurred repeatedly every year. In this study the situation analysis has been carried out for the present condition of theft loss of construction equipments and materials as well as its prevention measure based on the questionnaire survey targeting field managers, experienced theft loss at the site, as a part of base study to set up a security measure of construction sites. The main content of this study is analyzing characteristics of theft loss and the degree of impact and risk by it at construction sites, then reviewing the direction of the prevention plan establishment for the future through the analysis of the importance and utilization level of prevention measures. The result of this study would give an opportunity to create an awareness against the theft loss at construction sites as well as can be utilized as a basic survey for the systematic development of concerned prevention measures.
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The joint problem of dynamic construction site layout and security planning is fundamental to any construction project. However, it is still largely unexplored. Few research studies investigated the implementation of security measures during the construction phase. This paper proposes a bilevel multi-objective model for the dynamic construction site layout and security planning problem. Specifically, the upper-level programming denotes that the project manager must first choose the construction site layout and security strategies to minimize the layout costs and consequences of a potential attack. The lower-level programming denotes that the attacker will destroy a subset of the facilities to inflict the maximum economic consequence on the construction facilities system. Thereafter, a bilevel multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (MOBLPSO) is designed to solve this model. Finally, the approach is carried out in the Xiajiang hydropower large-scale construction project to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider the significance of the sources of cost of construction plant theft identified in previous studies and derive rates which can enhance proper estimation of the cost of plant theft to the construction industry. The direct and indirect costs of plant theft include replacement cost (new‐for‐old/depreciated), emergency cost, hire replacement cost, productivity loss, increased labour cost, loss of goodwill, administration cost, increased insurance premium and social cost. Design/methodology/approach – The cost‐contribution of these various sources was studied, using a structured questionnaire which was administered to building contractors in the UK construction industry, to measure their opinions of the frequency and severity of the contribution of the sources to the cost of construction plant theft. The questionnaires were administered to 220 companies and 51 of them were fully completed, representing 23.1 per cent of the original sample. The responses were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics to derive the probabilities of sources contributing to the cost of plant theft. Findings – The results of the analysis show that the rates of contribution to the cost of plant theft varies significantly between the sources, with “loss of output” and “increased insurance premium” ranking as the top‐two costs of plant theft in the UK construction industry. The rates derived in this study can be used by contractors to reasonably estimate the cost of plant theft, especially when there is need to justify the adoption of measures that can mitigate plant theft. Originality/value – This study generated rates of contribution by factors which contribute to the overall cost of theft of construction plant in the UK. These rates can provide a more reliable estimate of the cost of plant theft than current estimations which vary significantly.
Chapter
Highways contribute greatly to the economy and growth of a country. For highway building projects to complete on time and on budget, it is therefore necessary. However, when the project begins prematurely, interruption often occurs, resulting in delays, which have had numerous negative results on all project shareholders. Previous origins are one of the causes of construction hold up. Before studying the information, however, there is little understanding of whether a highway is premature or ready to build. The purpose of this research is to find out the criteria consumed in action to determine whether a road construction project is prepared or not. To this end, interviews are conducted and analyzed with sixteen practitioners working on road construction projects. Important attached (1) building readiness can be evaluate even during the launch phase; and (2) failure to comply with construction preparation requirements can lead to job delay, wasteful operation, reworking, and labour, equipment or material deficiencies. The study provides to the current knowledge by defining criteria which point out whether a road project is ready to be built or not. Learnings from this study will prevent premature initiation of road construction projects by industry.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the factors surrounding the built environment (place), including identifying places to steal metal, casing, and planning, and finds that thieves tend to steal from places with low guardianship, with significant amounts of high-quality metal, and in locations they are familiar with. Thefts occur during all hours of the day and usually when the thief has financial needs. Thieves often return to the same place for repeat thefts and may impersonate or use a ruse as a legitimate employee to gain access to metals without suspicion. Almost no scrap yards were aware of the thieves’ actions, and most thieves take surreptitious steps to obscure their activities, including damaging metal, changing jurisdictions, or using a fence. Some scrap yards have unwittingly trusted thieves due to their employment status (e.g., plumbers).
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Green construction is a concept in construction to minimize environmental impact so that balancing the environmental capabilities with human life needs for the present and future generations. This concept in line with sustainable construction and lean construction concept. In the Project Life Cycle (PLC), green construction is related to the construction phase. However, accomplishment in this stage cannot be separated with previous stages that are planning and design phases. Therefore, an integrated green concept is needed to assemble the continuity of each stage in PLC thus reducing the fragmented nature of the construction industry. Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) concern to sustainable practices along the supply chain. Management of materials and information flow, in addition energy consumed and waste generated reduction in every stage makes GSCM worth to considered as a concept to integrated all stages in PLC into a green spirit. This study aims to identify the indicators of green construction concept as part of GSCM. The result of this study is a framework for implementing green construction that consists of four dimensions, 25 elements, and 42 indicators.
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Construction sites are easy target for crime activities, which have brutally affected the performance and the potential profitability of the project under construction. The effects of theft and vandalism on construction jobsite are probably not predictable as they are somewhat random occurrences. The focus of this study is to examine the incidence of theft and vandalism on construction jobsite and to know the effectiveness of partnering with security outfits. Structured questionnaires were administered to construction professionals (Architects, Builders, Quantity surveyors, Engineers, Suppliers, Project managers, Estate managers) in small, medium and large construction firms, and security outfits and literatures were reviewed, certain hypothesis concerning incidence of theft and vandalism and partnership with security agencies influence on building sites crime prevention were postulated. The study shows that incidence of theft is high than vandalism on building sites. The study reveals that the average theft experience for companies that are not in partnership is higher than those in partnership and also shows the effectiveness of preventive measures against theft and vandalism to be less for companies that are not in partnership to those that are in partnership with security outfits. Construction companies/ contractors should pay special attention to the security of construction materials, plants and equipment on site. Assume the primary responsibility and commitment to reduce building crime as an addition to their primary role. The study also encourages greater reporting of incidents of theft or vandalism to local law enforcement and partnering with security outfits.
Security in construction and beyond; protecting your site, even during build-up Virgo Publishing
  • T Gardner
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Equipment theft; Finding the solutions to a billion dollar problem
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