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The use of geographical information systems (GISs) in studies of regional integration of renewable energies provides advantages such as speed, amount of information, analysis capacity and others. However, these characteristics make it difficult to link the results to the initial variables, and therefore to validate the GIS. This makes it hard to ascertain the reliability of both the results and their subsequent analysis. To solve these problems, a GIS-based method is proposed with renewable energies for rural electrification structured in three stages, with the aim of finding out the influence of the initial variables on the result. In the first stage, a classic sensitivity analysis of the equivalent electrification cost (LEC) is performed; the second stage involves a spatial sensitivity analysis and the third determines the stability of the results. This methodology has been verified in the application of a GIS in Lorca (Spain).

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... Amador & Dom ı nguez [37] and Amador & Dom ı nguez [38] improved on the methodology of SOLARGIS and demonstrated the improvements in the municipality of Lorca (Murcia, Spain). Specifically, Amador & Dom ı nguez [37] improved on the study by Ariza-Lopez et al [27] by using vector maps of medium voltage lines and housing as well as raster maps of solar and wind resources. ...
... The study makes improvements in the computation of the levelized cost for each electrification option. Amador & Dom ı nguez [38] augmented the approach by carrying out a spatial sensitivity analysis to determine the parameters that have a great influence on the results. ...
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This study carries out an overview of GIS-based rural electrification planning models. The study focuses on web-based and desktop-based models that have been developed and used extensively in rural electrification planning in recent years. Specifically, four of such models are considered: SOLARGIS, Network Planner, the Reference Electrification Model (REM), and OpeN Source Spatial Electrification Tool (OnSSET). We compare the performance of these models and conclude that OnSSET, has better capabilities than the other models. Specifically, we find OnSSET very useful because it is open source. We demonstrate the application of OnSSET in a state in Nigeria, i.e. Kaduna State. The State is selected because of data availability. The result of the study shows that mini-grid solar PV is the cost-effective technology option for most unelectrified communities, followed by Standalone PV. Further, the cost of achieving universal electricity access in the state by 2030 is estimated at US$505.08million while an additional generation capacity of 252MW will be required to achieve universal electricity coverage in 2030. The study concludes that that financial requirement seems to be beyond the capacity of Kaduna State given prevailing economic realities in Nigeria and recommends that pro-poor public-private partnership strategies be considered for electrification projects in the country.
... Umso überraschender ist es, dass im Rahmen GIS-gestützter, die Projektentwicklung begleitenden Potenzialanalysen dieses unterkomplexe Analysieren das standardisierte Verfahren darstellt -vgl. Voivontas et al. (1998), Sørensen & Meibom (1999), Pokharel (2000), Amador & Domínguez (2006), Quinonez-Varela et al. (2007), Sunak et al. (2015) sowie Höfer et al. (2016). Zwar unternehmen die Studien den Versuch, die soziale Kompatibilität der Energiewende zu verbessern, jedoch kommen sie über simple Restriktionsanalysen sowie Abstandsberechnungen nicht hinaus. ...
Conference Paper
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GIS-gestützte Ansätze zum Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien zeichnen sich durch eine starke Dominanz ingenieurwissenschaftlicher Perspektiven aus. Zwar ist mittlerweile anerkannt, dass es der Akzeptanz zuträglich sein kann, den technoökonomisch orientierten Standortanalysen auch soziale Perspektiven zur Seite zu stellen. Jedoch gelingt dies nur oberflächlich, da wesentliche theoretische Erkenntnisse aus den Sozial-und Wirtschaftswissenschaften übergangen und die Integration sozialer Parameter zu trivialen Annäherungsversuchen abgewertet werden. Diese Kritik an einer sozial unausgewogenen Energie-Planung mittels GIS wird im Rahmen der Studie detailliert ausgeführt. Darauf aufbauend werden komplexere Ansätze zur Integration sozialer Perspektiven in GIS-Planungstools erläutert.
... [Amador, J., et al., 2005] The objective was to minimise and/or control the uncertainties through the in depth study of the technical and economic parameters involved, focusing on load treatment, results control and interface design. Special mention needs to be paid to the spatial sensitivity analysis implemented to check the stability of the results [Amador, J., et al., 2006]. Nowadays, CIEMAT GIS team keeps on working in the development of SOLARGIS concepts in the framework of INTI-GIS Project. ...
... Sobre este nuevo SIG de electrificación rural con energías renovables se desarrolló una metodología de "análisis de sensibilidad espacial" (ver ANEXO) que permite conocer la influencia de las variables en el resultado de su aplicación (Amador, et al., 2006). Para la verificación de la metodología se tomó como área de estudio el municipio de Lorca (Murcia, España). ...
Conference Paper
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La presente ponencia tiene como principal objetivo destacar la importancia de la aplicación de los Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG) en los estudios de electrificación rural con energías renovables. Para ello, se expone la metodología desarrollada por el Grupo de Tecnologías de la Información Geográfica y Energías Renovables (gTIGER) del CIEMAT. Esta aplicación, a la que hemos denominado IntiGIS para destacar la importancia del Sol como origen de todas las energías renovables y, a la vez, nuestra clara vocación de trabajo en Latinoamérica, está enfocada al análisis de la competitividad territorial de las fuentes renovables frente a opciones de electrificación convencionales. Para ello, en este trabajo se expone en primer lugar la evolución de nuestro modelo, a continuación se analiza en base a dos ejemplos el estado actual de su desarrollo y, finalmente, se plantean las principales perspectivas de nuestro grupo de cara al futuro. Esta presentación tiene el objetivo adicional de ofrecer nuestra colaboración a los diferentes grupos asistentes a esta Conferencia con el ánimo de contribuir entre todos a la consecución de un desarrollo más sostenible basado en el uso de las energías renovables.
... -Realiza una versión en castellano de la metodología original Sobre este nuevo SIG de electrificación rural con energías renovables se desarrolló una metodología de "análisis de sensibilidad espacial" (ver Figura 2) que permite conocer la influencia de las variables en el resultado de su aplicación (Amador, et al., 2006) . Para la verificación de la metodología se tomó como área de estudio el municipio de Lorca (Murcia). ...
Conference Paper
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In the middle nineties, the European Union decided to fund SOLARGIS research project. This project confirmed the added value that spatial perspective gives to renewable energy projects and also the GIS great potential in rural electrifi-cation projects supporting renewable energy integration. GIS and renewable energy integration has been a research area at CIEMAT since then, within which an important ef-fort on redesigning and applying SOLARGIS methodology has been done. This experience has turned our institution into a reference point to many people working on strategies for overcoming renewable energy integration barriers. The contacts made with Latin-America have been very numerous and have led to a significant learning experience and knowledge trans-fer as well as the development of national projects. Nowadays, our team is working in what we call IntiGIS project. The aim of this project is to provide the analysis tools we use with more flexibility and dynamism, broadening its application possibilities based on the huge chances given by Geographical Information Technologies.
... Application of GIS methodology for assessment of rural electrification planning is studied by Dominguez and Amador, who considered only technical aspects and electricity costs of system performance. This type of approach might be convenient for rural areas in developing countries, but it has limited applicability due to lack of reliable data [226,227]. Rural electrification has also been included in applications using complex energy models. For example, Kanagawa and Nakata used an energy model based on partial equilibrium approach in conjunction with regression analysis to assess the impact of electricity-based lighting on literacy rates in low income households of a region in India [228]. ...
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Rising concern about the effect of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on climate change is pushing national governments and the international community to achieve sustainable development in an economy that is less dependent on carbon emitting activities – a vision that is usually termed a “low-carbon society” (LCS). Since the utilization of energy resources is the main source of GHG emissions, restructuring current energy systems in order to incorporate low-carbon energy technologies is essential for the realization of the LCS vision. Energy policies promoting the penetration of these technologies must view the role of energy in society as a system, composed of several energy resources, conversion technologies and energy demand sectors. The feasibility of the LCS in the future can be better understood by means of energy models. Energy models are valuable mathematical tools based on the systems approach. They have been applied to aid decision-making in energy planning, to analyze energy policies and to analyze the implications arising from the introduction of technologies. The design of the LCS requires innovative energy systems considering a trans-disciplinary approach that integrates multi-dimensional elements, related to social, economic, and environmental aspects. This paper reviews the application of energy models considering scenarios towards an LCS under the energy systems approach. The models reviewed consider the utilization of waste for energy, the penetration of clean coal technologies, transportation sector models as a sample of sectoral approaches, and models related to energy-for-development issues in rural areas of developing countries.
... Special mention needs to be paid to the spatial sensitivity analysis (SSA) implemented within this version of SOLARGIS methodology [11]. The SSA, used to check the stability of the results, was based on three stages. ...
Conference Paper
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Renewable energy sources are increasingly being considered as feasible and competitive alternatives in the provision of electricity to isolated rural communities. Electrification planning process must consider the geographical characteristics of the renewable energy sources as well as the social and economical particularities of the target communities, contributing to the long and stable operation of the chosen technologies. GIS are able to manage all the data needed in the decision making process, providing means to compare costs of alternative technologies, based on renewable and non-renewable energy sources. This paper discusses the methodology used by the GIS group for regional integration of renewable energies and rural electrification (gTIGER). This method, named IntiGIS, aims to provide the analysis tools we use with more flexibility and dynamism, broadening its application possibilities based on the huge chances given by geographical information technologies. In this paper, an example of GIS to rural electrification carried out in Latin American countries is presented.
... In this sense, a spatial sensitivity analysis methodology has been developed. This methodology includes three stages: sensitivity analysis of the LEC, spatial sensitivity analysis, and results stability (Amador & Domínguez, 2006). ...
This article presents a synthetic vision of geographical information systems (GIS) applications that are state of the art in the renewable energy field. The objective is to analyze the main qualities and problems of these applications, focusing on specific samples, and to carry out a methodological proposal in this genre.From this point of view, the study synthesizes the analyzed applications in three big groups: Decisions Support Systems (DSS) based on GIS; renewable energy and distributed generation of electricity; and decentralized generation for the rural electrification. In addition, a synthetic table and bibliographical references is provided for each group.Finally, several conclusions and a methodological outline are contributed for GIS application in the rural electrification with renewable energy.
... Applications of GISeRES planning include wind farm siting, photovoltaic electrification, biomass evaluation, visual impact assessment of wind parks, etc. (Amador and Dominguez, 2006;Gadsden et al., 2003;Ma et al., 2005;Masera et al., 2006;Miranda, 2006;Ramachandra and Shruthi, 2007). ...
This paper develops an integrated framework to evaluate land suitability for wind farm siting that combines multi-criteria analysis (MCA) with geographical information systems (GIS); an application of the proposed framework for the island of Lesvos, Greece, is further illustrated. A set of environmental, economic, social, and technical constraints, based on recent Greek legislation, identifies the potential sites for wind power installation. Furthermore, the area under consideration is evaluated by a variety of criteria, such as wind power potential, land cover type, electricity demand, visual impact, land value, and distance from the electricity grid. The pair-wise comparison method in the context of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is applied to estimate the criteria weights in order to establish their relative importance in site evaluation. The overall suitability of the study region for wind farm siting is appraised through the weighted summation rule. Results showed that only a very small percentage of the total area of Lesvos could be suitable for wind farm installation, although favourable wind potential exists in many more areas of the island.
Las industrias azucareras modernas presentan un alto consumo energético, pero la posibilidad de utilización de bagazo y residuos agrícolas de la cosecha de la caña de azúcar como combustibles para generar energía útil proporciona cambios conceptuales considerables mediante la oportunidad de venta de electricidad excedente proveniente de una fuente renovable. Esta realidad conduce a inversiones en eficiencia energética y a nuevas formas de operación de las instalaciones eléctricas, con el objetivo de obtener mayores beneficios. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es efectuar un análisis técnico-económico de la operación de los procesos de una instalación de gasificación de lecho fijo burbujeante, permitiendo la propuesta de modelos que contribuyan al mejor desarrollo de esta actividad, teniendo en cuenta la mejor utilización de los componentes de estos sistemas, y la interacción con las redes eléctricas. Se intenta de esta forma establecer una referencia de gestión en la operación de las plantas sucroenergéticas, con el objeto de mejorar la rentabilidad en el manejo de los recursos disponibles de la caña de azúcar, como también en la producción óptima de azúcar, bioetanol, biogás y energía de cogeneración. Se han utilizado herramientas matemáticas para la formulación de un problema de optimización no lineal correspondiente al modelo de obtención de la composición del gas de síntesis en una instalación de gasificación. Se ha comprobado la utilidad del modelo matemático propuesto mediante su aplicación en diferentes análisis y escenarios de mercado en una planta de gasificación tipo, modelada en detalle con datos industriales de la planta de gasificación GUASCOR, ubicada en Vitoria. Los resultados muestran la posibilidad de aprovechamiento simultáneo del bagazo de caña y los residuos agrícolas de la cosecha de la caña para producir electricidad para exportar a la red, ambos determinantes en la maximización del beneficio económico. Entre las conclusiones más destacadas se encuentran: la utilidad del modelo de gestión óptima propuesto; la exportación de electricidad como un factor de equilibrio a la viabilidad económica industrial; y la contribución a revalorizar un material combustible que, en mucho de los casos, termina siendo desaprovechado sin utilizad industrial ninguna. ---- The modern sugar industries have a high energy consumption, but the possibility of using sugar cane bagasse and trash as fuel to generate useful energy provides significant conceptual changes through the opportunity to sell surplus electricity from a source renewable. This reality leads to investments in energy efficiency and new forms of operation of electrical installations, in order to make more profits. The main objective of this work is to carry out a technical and economic analysis of the operation processes of an bubbling fluidized bed gasification plant, allowing the proposal of models that will contribute to development of this activity, taking into account the best use of components of these systems, and interaction with electrical networks. Thereby attempting to establish a reference in the operation management of sugarcane energy plants in order to improve profitability in the management of the available resources of sugar cane, as well as in the optimum production of sugar, ethanol, biogas energy and cogeneration. Mathematical tools have been used for the formulation of a nonlinear optimization problem corresponding to the model of obtaining the final composition of the syngas in a gasification plant. It has been proven the usefulness of the proposed mathematical model through its application in different analyzes and market scenarios in a gasification plant type, modeled in detail with industrial data GUASCOR gasification plant, located in Vitoria. The results obtained show the possibility of simultaneous use of sugar cane bagasse and trash to produce electricity for export to the electrical network, both determinants on maximizing profit. Among the most prominent conclusions are: the usefulness of the optimal management model proposed, the export of electricity as a balancing factor to industrial economic viability, and the contribution to revalue a combustible material, in many cases, ends up being wasted without any industrial use.
Technical Report
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The objective of this project is to redefine the algorithm of wind-diesel hybrid system implemented in © IntiGIS. This methodology was developed by CIEMAT for the evaluation of rural electrification projects, comparing different renewable and conventional technologies based on their LEC or equivalent electrification cost. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the study area. The core of the new model is the definition of renewable fraction in the wind-diesel hybrid system. To this end, it was assumed that the fraction of renewables will depend, first of all, of the wind speed. In this case, the objectives were to find a relationship between the renewable fraction and wind speed, expressed as a function, and also trying to demonstrate the influence of other parameters such as fuel price and consumption. The methodology used to achieve these objectives was to use ©HOMER to simulate technology and size of system components in order to obtain the optimal fraction renewable scenarios. Next, we examined how it varied with wind speed; we assessed the influence of other parameters and, finally, it is represented as a function of wind speed. After the redefinition of the algorithm, the changes were planned for inclusion in ©IntiGIS and tests were performed to validate the new model. El objetivo de este proyecto es la redefinición del algoritmo del sistema híbrido eólico-diesel implementado en © IntiGIS. Esta metodología fue desarrollada por el CIEMAT para la evaluación de proyectos de electrificación rural, comparando diferentes tecnologías renovables y convencionales basadas en su LEC o coste de electrificación equivalente. El análisis realizado considera las particularidades sociales y geográficas del área de estudio. El núcleo del nuevo modelo es la definición de la fracción renovable para el sistema híbrido eólico-diesel. Para ello, se suponía que la fracción de renovables dependerá, en primera instancia, de la velocidad del viento. En este caso, los objetivos fueron: encontrar una relación entre la fracción de renovables y la velocidad del viento, expresándola como una función, y tratando además de demostrar la influencia de otros parámetros como el precio del combustible y el consumo en el comportamiento de la misma. La metodología seguida para alcanzar estos objetivos fue el uso de © HOMER para simular las tecnologías y el tamaño de los componentes del sistema, con el fin de obtener la fracción óptima renovable en diferentes escenarios. A continuación, se analizó cómo ésta variaba con la velocidad del viento, se evaluó la influencia de otros parámetros en su comportamiento y, finalmente, se representó como función de la velocidad del viento. Después de la redefinición del algoritmo, los cambios fueron programados para su incorporación a © IntiGIS y se realizaron pruebas para la validación del nuevo modelo.
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The main objective of this project is to realize an integration plan for various renewable-energy systems in remote areas using a geographical-information system (GIS) in order to determine the optimal management and use of energy in these locations. The area studied is Corsica, an island located in the south-east of France. For the remote site considered, four systems supplying electricity are compared: a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)/batteries system, a hybrid PV/batteries/back-up generator system, an engine generator and an extension of the existing electrical network. The most economic configuration was chosen as the best solution to electrify the remote site. Physical and technical-economical processes are integrated in the GIS. This GIS is used to determine the profitability boundaries for PV systems compared to a grid extension and under four different load profiles, and has led to the elaboration of an integration plan of renewable energies in south Corsica. The study has shown that for 60–90% of remote sites, a PV decentralized electricity system is the most economical means of electrification.
Conference Paper
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This paper presents a methodology developed within the SOLARGIS project-a Joule project-aiming at evaluating the potential of integrating renewable forms of energy into dispersed electricity production. With this project, the authors also wanted to demonstrate the efficiency of GIS-geographical information systems-as a tool to analyse the integration of renewable forms of energy. In this paper, the authors present the methodologies developed to identify renewable resources in a given geographic region, to detect high potential areas for wind farm siting and to evaluate the efficiency and market of isolated systems to be used for dispersed rural electrification. In this last methodology, the authors used fuzzy models to describe the uncertainties in demand and cost values
Stand alone photovoltaic power systems (SAPPS) are a natural option for application in the electrification of remote areas which are outside the grid-connected electricity supply system (GCESS). The proposed method is based on three ambits: photovoltaic and grid sizing, economic analysis, and the integration of information and development of models within geographical information systems (GIS). The results of a case study carried out in the south of Spain (province of Córdoba) show that for a domestic electricity consumption (5 kW h/day) SAPPS are economically more competitive in 69% of the total area of this region.
This paper approaches one of the main problems of rural electrification: the choice of the most appropriate technology for each case. The main objective of this project is to apply Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to divide the research zone into areas in that are more appropriate for either conventional or renewable technologies. The approaches for choosing among the different technologies are usually technical and economic; these may be jointly considered by the leveling electric cost (LEC). Determination of the LEC is a complex task that requires knowledge of the capacity factor. This paper shows the conclusions of the technical and economic parameter analysis involved in the determination of the LEC for each technology. This analysis has allowed us to carry out proposals of improvement in the methodology of the GIS of rural electrification. The resulting GIS has been verified in the municipality of Lorca (Murcia, Spain).
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