Article

Resources and waste management in Turin (Italy): The role of recycled aggregates in the sustainable supply mix

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Abstract

The ever increasing quantity of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) in Italy is presently challenging public administrators, which strive to ensure that collection and recycling are sustainably managed and need to understand whether and to what extent recycled aggregates can complement natural aggregates in a sustainable supply mix (SSM) for the construction industry. The paper presents a research aimed at analysing energy and environmental implications of the C&DW recycling chain in the administrative territory of Provincia di Torino in Northern Italy, with 2.25 million inhabitants and yearly generation of 1.8 million tons of C&DW. A combined Geographical Information System (GIS) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model was developed using site-specific data and paying particular attention to land use, transportation and avoided landfill: crucial issues for sustainable planning and management. A GIS was used to handle data and information about 89 recycling plants, including technological features, output and physical–mechanical characteristics of recycled aggregate. The LCA methodology was used to identify and quantify energy and environmental loads, under different assumptions relevant to delivery distances, quality of recycled aggregates, local availability of natural aggregates and geographical coverage of market demand. The C&DW recycling chain was proved to be eco-efficient, as avoided impacts were found to be higher than the induced impacts for 13 out of 14 environmental indicators. It was also estimated that the transportation distance of recycled aggregate should increase 2–3 times before the induced impacts outweigh the avoided impacts.

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... Hence, LCA is a vital tool for decision making, especially; LCA gives results specific to geographical location where best CDWM alternative is to be found [60]. On the basis of scenario-analysis, various studies have been carried out to find better CDWM approach by analysing the system parameters like collection, transportation, processing and disposal [11,[19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. Economic and environmental dimensions are taken into consideration in some studies, for measuring sustainability and for assisting in decision making by aligning LCA and Life cycle costing (LCC) [19,20,39,51]. ...
... In many countries, waste materials like metal, wood, plastics and glass are segregated and sent for reuse or processing, but C&D waste with concrete-blocks, brick, stones and tiles are disposed at landfill area. Recycling has been strongly recommended in most of the LCA studies [11,[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. Rosado et al., 2019 examined the environmental performance of CDWM, their results showed the significance of the impacts prevented from recovered materials, predominantly because of steel, glasses and plastic recycling. ...
... It was found that negative impacts avoided because of raw material substitution in construction product industries are ten times more than the impacts generated in terms of CO 2 equivalent emissions, and eight times in case of primary energy consumption [26]. Studies also show that of building mobile material recovery facilities (MRF) or mobile recycling facilities have considerable benefits [19,27,50]. After recycling, incineration is a good choice to be used as secondary processing technique that has positive environmental footprint savings with respect to water and energy footprint categories [46,59]. ...
Article
The management of Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste remains an incessant problem. Traditional ways to minimize C&D wastes lacks flexibility and long-term reliability. There is increasing focus on sustainable waste management; so there is need of innovative and sophisticated waste management approaches that focus on processes and embodies adaptability. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a globally standardized methodology for environmental assessment for any product or system and also helps in process of planning and decision making. With regards to sustainable management; LCA is one of the best tools. This study reviews the prior published literatures to reveal the state-of-the-art of LCA approaches employed in C&D waste management (CDWM), especially, literatures evaluating different scenarios. This study also discusses the LCA history, concepts and methodology. A content-based analysis of literatures published in the past two decades is done. It is found that almost 70% of LCA studies were done in European countries; this shows the deficiencies in research in this area in other countries, especially in developing countries like India. Limitations, recommendations and future scope with respect to LCA on various aspects of CDWM like collection, transportation, recycling and landfilling are enumerated. This consolidated study will be beneficial for researchers and practitioners as it provides insights into employment of LCA on CDWM and to develop well-balanced CDWM model.
... The sunk cost fallacy [39], i.e., basing decisions on previous investments instead of future consequences, should be avoided by excluding embodied impacts not affected by the decision. Landfilling can contribute significantly to the LCIA results [10,16,[40][41][42] and is a potential significant issue for LCAs on mineral waste management [10,41]. The choice to include or exclude avoided landfilling in/from the system boundaries should be based on the systems investigated and how they differ from one another. ...
... This is a potential cause of uncertainty when assessing the environmental feasibility of recycling options. Consequently, transport was identified as a significant issue by one third of studies under review, as well as by many studies that focus on waste consuming systems such as concrete production or road construction (not within the scope if this review), e.g., [40,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]. For example, Anastasiou et al. [45], Mladenovič et al. [51], and Turk et al. [47] found in multiple sensitivity analyses that the environmental feasibility of substituting natural aggregate with steel slag is dependent on transport distances, as steel slag aggregate has a higher density than natural aggregate and transport distances depend on local availability of both materials. ...
... Turk et al. [47] determine that replacing natural aggregate with recycled aggregate is feasible with an additional transport distance of up to 100 km with respect to climate change, and likewise find a strong variation for other impact categories. Blengini and Garbarino [40] conclude that additional transport requirements outweigh the benefits of recycling if the transport distance of recycled aggregate exceeds that of natural aggregate by a factor of two to three. They further note that delivery distances for recycled aggregate depend on several factors, i.e., size of the recycling plant, plant location in mountains, or plain areas and the regional road network [40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bulk mineral waste materials are one of the largest waste streams worldwide and their management systems can differ greatly depending on regional conditions. Due to this variation, the decision-making context is of particular importance when studying environmental impacts of mineral waste management systems with life cycle assessment (LCA). We follow the premise that LCA results—if applied in practice—are always used in an improvement (i.e., decision-making) context. But how suitable are existing LCA studies on bulk mineral waste management for decision support? To answer this question, we quantitatively and qualitatively assess 57 peer-reviewed bulk mineral waste management LCA studies against 47 criteria. The results show inadequacies regarding decision support along all LCA phases. Common shortcomings are insufficient attention to the specific decision-making context, lack of a consequential perspective, liberal use of allocation and limited justification thereof, missing justifications for excluded impact categories, inadequately discussed limitations, and incomplete documentation. We identified the following significant issues for bulk mineral waste management systems: transportation, the potential leaching of heavy metals, second-order substitution effects, and the choice to include or exclude avoided landfilling and embodied impacts. When applicable, we provide recommendations for improvement and point to best practice examples.
... Specifically, in the Region Campania, focus of the present study, about 2.9 Mt are generated annually representing ca 40% of the total generated waste in the Region. In the past, landfilling was a usual practice when dealing with inert waste (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010), but recently, alternative options have been explored to valorise this stream. Notably, CDW can be turned into secondary raw materials known as Recycled Aggregates (RAs) following appropriate recycling processes (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010;Badino et al., 2007;Borghi et al., 2018;Silvaet al., 2014). ...
... In the past, landfilling was a usual practice when dealing with inert waste (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010), but recently, alternative options have been explored to valorise this stream. Notably, CDW can be turned into secondary raw materials known as Recycled Aggregates (RAs) following appropriate recycling processes (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010;Badino et al., 2007;Borghi et al., 2018;Silvaet al., 2014). To this aim, they need to follow construction product standards (such as EN 12,620 Aggregates for concrete or EN 13,242 -Aggregates for unbound and hydraulically bound materials for use in civil engineering work and road) and some specific requirements (e.g. ...
... 5205/2005). According to Blengini and Garbarino (2010) and Borghi et al. (2018), and greatly in line with the abovementioned Communication, the following main categories of RAs have been identified: i) type A: considered as a high-quality material, with structural properties able for concrete production and road foundations; ii) type B: a medium quality material used for road, airport and harbour construction as well as unbound material in the embankment body, in sub-base layers and in layers with anti-freezing, anti-capillary and drainage properties; iii) type C: a lower quality material, used for environmental fillings and rehabilitation of depleted quarries and landfill sites. ...
Article
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Construction and Demolition Waste represents a priority stream for the European Union and has a large potential for closing the material circulation loop in line with the Circular Economy principles. The present study focuses on the socio-economic and environmental implications of the management of such waste in the Campania Region (Italy), with the aim of documenting the benefits of recycling actions and landfill avoidance. By using local primary data, and complementing them with data from literature and datasets, three scenarios have been investigated: i) Status Quo, i.e., a baseline scenario presenting the current management of Construction and Demolition Waste in the Region; ii) a Linear Economy scenario, considering the total flow disposed of in landfill and iii) a Best Practice scenario based on the implementation of selective demolition practices and increased recycling for the production of high-quality recycled aggregates. Special attention has been paid to the land use and socio-economic implications linked to the management of this flow, which are rarely considered. We quantify that, with the implementation of best practices, ca. 18 Mkg CO2 -eq. can be saved annually relative to the Status Quo alongside creating additional 1,000 jobs-eq. and incurring important benefits on land use. The results stress that the potential environmental and social benefits of selective demolition and best practices are significant, but the incurred economic costs may hinder their application and the resulting development of more circular economy actions in the construction sector, highlighting the need for incentives and tools to facilitate this transition.
... In this explorative study we mainly evaluate the potential energy savings coming from the recycling of the current annual flows of C&DW available in the Metropolitan City of Naples (Southern Italy). As found by previous literature, the reintroduction of secondary materials from C&DW streams in a new production cycle generates energy savings from avoided landfill disposal as well as limited extraction of raw materials [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. The extent of the life cycle energy savings depends on the recycling potential of the secondary raw materials to substitute the virgin materials of the new products [31]. ...
... So far LCA as a method has been extensively used to analyse the environmental impacts and benefits (including the energy benefits) deriving from the adoption of the CE framework in the C&D sector [5,18,20,23,[35][36][37]. Entire C&DW management systems located in different geographical areas (Italy, Finland) have been investigated by means of LCA [24] or in combination with other tools such as GIS as in [30] or methods such as Life Cycle Costing and Material Flow Accounting [38]. Further analytical frameworks have been also proposed to study C&DW management systems in a more comprehensive sustainability perspective such as by [39], integrating environmental and resource-related impacts, and social and economic impacts. ...
... The results agree with previous LCA studies that have analysed the environmental and energy impacts of entire C&DWM systems (national, regional or provincial) such as [24,30]. However, in [24], the avoided energy and environmental impacts of the recycling of C&DW are higher than the energy and environmental impacts of landfilling (for almost all impact categories), only in the best-case scenario. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, our aim was to explore the potential energy savings obtainable from the recycling of 1 tonne of Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) generated in the Metropolitan City of Naples. The main fraction composing the functional unit are mixed C&DW, soil and stones, concrete, iron, steel and aluminium. The results evidence that the recycling option for the C&DW is better than landfilling as well as that the production of recycled aggregates is environmentally sustainable since the induced energy and environmental impacts are lower than the avoided energy and environmental impacts in the life cycle of recycled aggregates. This LCA study shows that the transition to the Circular Economy offers many opportunities for improving the energy and environmental performances of the construction sector in the life cycle of construction materials by means of internal recycling strategies (recycling C&DW into recycled aggregates, recycled steel, iron and aluminum) as well as external recycling by using input of other sectors (agri-food by-products) for the manufacturing of construction materials. In this way, the C&D sector also contributes to realizing the energy and bioeconomy transition by disentangling itself from fossil fuel dependence.
... For instance, Ghanbari et al. (2018) compared the energy consumption and the level of CO 2 emissions for natural aggregate (NA) and RA production, concluding that CDW-RA is the best solution with 60 and 72% of energy saving and CO 2 emissions respectively. Other studies have demonstrated the environmental benefits of CDW recycling with respect to NA quarrying (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010;Blengini et al., 2012;Faleschini et al., 2016;Borghi et al., 2018). However, in these studies the LCA was limited to the production stage boundaries, i.e., the cradle-to-gate approach, without exploring the implications of using RA instead of NA in the construction and in the service life of a road pavement. ...
... The system boundaries included all relevant activities required for the six LCA scenarios, consistent with the adopted functional unit and considering the three sub-systems shown in Fig. 2. First, the production of primary (NA, cement, bitumen) or recycled (CDW-RA) materials was considered. Exploitation of non-renewable primary resources, quarrying operations with resource consumption, land use, emission levels, and the re-cultivation of the depleted quarry were included in the LCA model for the NA production (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010). In the case of CDW-RA, (i) the transport of waste from the construction/demolition site to the stationary recycling plant, (ii) treatment operations, and (iii) the avoidance of landfill operations for CDW were considered (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010). ...
... Exploitation of non-renewable primary resources, quarrying operations with resource consumption, land use, emission levels, and the re-cultivation of the depleted quarry were included in the LCA model for the NA production (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010). In the case of CDW-RA, (i) the transport of waste from the construction/demolition site to the stationary recycling plant, (ii) treatment operations, and (iii) the avoidance of landfill operations for CDW were considered (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010). Moreover, a system expansion was introduced to consider the reduction in the production of primary steel due to the recovery of steel scraps in CDW (Borghi et al., 2018). ...
Article
A more extensive use of recycled aggregate in road construction is key to meeting the ambitious targets of the EU circular economy action plan. However, scepticism among designers, contractors and road agencies remains a bottleneck. This integrated structural-environmental study demonstrates the advantages of using recycled construction and demolition waste aggregate (CDW-RA) in substitution of primary natural aggregate (NA) for the formation of subbase layers in both flexible and semi-rigid road pavements. The structural responses of different pavements with a 0.30 m subbase layer made up of four materials, i.e., two unbound and two cement-stabilized obtained including NA and CDW-RA, were compared. The environmental-related impacts were also assessed by means of a life cycle assessment (LCA). Laboratory tests and structural design led to pavement structures with the same thickness for the upper hot-mix asphalt layers, i.e., 0.26 and 0.28 m for the two unbound and the two cement-stabilized subbase materials respectively. The pavement with unbound CDW-RA subbase showed the best LCA outcomes because of the more favourable environmental performance of CDW-RA compared to NA. Although the stabilization of NA and CDW-RA reduces the thickness of the top hot-mix asphalt layers by 0.02 m, the environmental benefits are outweighed by the impact associated with the usage of cement. This study encourages the use of CDW-RA in road subbase layers with similar characteristics to those investigated here. The LCA results also support the use of alternative and more environmentally friendly binders that can enhance the environmental sustainability of stabilized materials in road construction.
... The available literature evaluated the environmental and socioeconomic benefits and costs of the C&DW management systems at the national scale in Finland (Dahlbo et al., 2015) and in some Italian regions: Lombardy in Northern Italy (Borghi et al., 2018) and Iodice et al. (2021) in Campania Region (Sourthern Italy). Moreover, Blengini and Garbarino (2010) considered the provincial scale (Torino in Northern Italy) as well as Ghisellini et al. (2021a) investigated the C&DW management system of the Metropolitan City of Naples. These two provinces shared similar C&DW composition compared to the Lombardy region where a high fraction (80%) of the total amount of C&DW generated consisted of mixed C&DW . ...
... These two provinces shared similar C&DW composition compared to the Lombardy region where a high fraction (80%) of the total amount of C&DW generated consisted of mixed C&DW . Blengini and Garbarino (2010) showed that avoided landfilling and avoided Natural Aggregates (NA) transportation are two relevant factors in determining the environmental sustainability of Recycle Aggregates from C&DW compared to NA. Ghisellini et al. (2021a) also show that the avoidance of landfilling and the avoided production of primary materials (steel, concrete, gravel, aluminum, other virgin materials) due to the recycling of 1 ton of C&DW have the potential of generating energetic and environmental benefits while reducing the dependence on fossil energy and the contribution to all the considered environmental impact categories (e.g., Global Warming, Ozone formation, Terrestrial Acidification, Land use, etcetera). The potential environmental benefits resulted higher than the environmental impacts of the recycling of C&DW and the highest contribution to the environmentally avoided characterized impacts resulted from steel recycling as the latter avoids the production of primary steel and the associated release of GHG emissions (145.29 kg CO2 equiv./ton of C&DW). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates the perspectives of urban mining in the framework of the circular economy (CE) and starts with a brief analysis of the size of global and urban metabolism and the role that plays materials and waste streams such as construction and demolition waste (C&DW) and waste from electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE). These can be considered as temporary stocks or deposits to be mined in the future, thus shedding light on the concept of recycling potential, end-of-life functional recycling, and material concentration. The recycling potential could be very variable as in the case of metals. The average concentration of some metals (e.g., gold) in WEEE shows that it is higher per ton of electronic product compared to the amount in mining ores. This explains the importance of the concept of urban mining in the circular economy (CE) transition, given that the CE concept was born to address the challenges of high resources consumption rates and worsening environmental problems. The urban mining phenomenon becomes timely and extremely important for cities as they are relevant hubs of materials and energy consumption and source of environmental and social impacts in external areas due to mining and extraction activities. This study points to the need for creating and establishing strong synergies between the concept of CE and urban mining and the role of cities as innovators in finding circular solutions by incorporating more socially just urban mining activities to improve urban resource management, land use, and local and global wellbeing.
... ▪ To express the environmental benefits achieved with the recycling of separated waste fractions (Grant and James, 2005;DECCW, 2010) and with that of mixed waste (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010;Mercante et al., 2012). ...
... An RB is proposed, since the location of the buildings plays a crucial role in the LCA results, mainly due to waste transportation and the distances between the working site and the waste management facilities (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010;Mercante et al., 2012;Bizcocho and Llatas, 2019;Pantini and Rigamonti, 2020). The RB is defined as "a theoretical building, located in the geometric centre of an Integrated Urban System of Buildings, whose types and amounts of CW generated and prevented are representative of these building systems". ...
Article
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Waste generated by the Construction Sector represents an environmental problem in many countries. To achieve increasingly eco-efficient waste management, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides an objective method for the quantification of the potential impact that waste management exerts on the environment. Traditionally, LCA has focused on the evaluation of non-prevention scenarios once the waste is generated, mainly by showing the benefits of recycling vs. disposal. Consequently, the literature has hardly addressed the positive environmental impacts caused by waste prevention, that is, the reduction at source, which constitutes the preferred option of any waste management hierarchy. Therefore, this study proposes a model to simulate the environmental performance of the prevention vs. the non-prevention of construction waste production. The model is applied to an urban system of residential buildings in Spain. The results provide evidence of the environmental benefits achieved with the prevention scenario. The prevention scenario reduces the construction waste generated in the non-prevention scenarios by up to 57%. Furthermore, it allows a potential reduction of up to 4.6 and 171.1 times the impact caused by the disposal scenario; and up to 1.7 and 8.3 times those of the recycling scenario. The model can be implemented in other contexts with other reference buildings, and enables the environmental benefits of reduction strategies to be studied, thereby providing a tool to guide and support decision-making during the building design stage. Moreover, the results obtained can help professionals and policymakers to incorporate effective construction waste prevention measures in waste prevention plans and programs.
... The benefits of using recycled aggregates are significant when considering th e c ons equ ential im pac ts o f reduced land use (via avoided landfill and reduced quarrying) (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010) and potentially reduced transport emissions. Another important aspect is that, e spec ia lly in d eveloped a reas , re cycled aggregates tend to be available in the local environments where construction activities are taking pla ce and may even be reincorporated into the same project where demolition activity precedes new construction on the same site. ...
... In cases where recycled aggregates are available, but requ ire lon ger tra ns port d ista nc es th an na tural aggregates, there is a trade-off in environmental impacts. Blengini and Garbarino (2010) estimated th at th e use of recycled aggregates (when compared to natural aggregates) can remain environmentally beneficial up until the point when the transport distance for recycled aggregates be comes 2-3 times lon ger th an for natural aggregates. ...
Technical Report
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Final Technical Report Criteria and supporting rationale
... An increasing shift towards reduction of landfills due to recent regulations encourages its usage and underlines its environmental and technical requirement in a sustainable resource economy across Europe (European Commission, 2008, 2008Krook et al., 2011). Former research has derived legal implications of using and managing excavated material from subsurface tunnelling projects (Haas et al., 2020b), as well as indicated that the use of excavated rock and soil are efficiently reducing climate impact, transportation, the amount of landfilled material and the need of quarry material (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010;CL:AIRE, 2013;Magnusson et al., 2015;Simion et al., 2013;Zuo et al., 2013). The transition of waste to a resource is the premise to reduce environmental impacts in closest vicinity to the construction site and increase sustainability on both regional and national scales. ...
... These analyses characterise the material for engineering purposes into subsequent application classes. Reconciliation of these analyses with national and European legislation classify excavated material as waste if they leave the construction site, requiring technical procedures such as processing (washing, crushing, sieving) and treating (chemically and/or physio-mechanically) conducive to removal of waste status in favour of environmental sustainability (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010;Dahlbo et al., 2015). The definition of excavated material as waste per se does not hamper its potential applications but rather leads to rigorous engineering procedures and laboratory analyses aiming for compliance with legal thresholds and regulations upon removal of polluting substances (Rios, 2018;Ritter et al., 2013;Ritzén and Sandström, 2017;Rodríguez et al., 2007). ...
Article
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is a world-wide leading organisation in the field of particle physics and operation of high-class particle accelerators. Since 2013, CERN has undertaken feasibility investigations for a particle accelerator, named Future Circular Collider (FCC) to be installed within a 90–100 km subsurface infrastructure likely to enter construction phase after 2030. An important aspect of its construction is the management of an estimated volume of 9.1 million m³ of excavated rock and soil. The aim of this paper is to thoroughly review the usage and application of excavated material across European subsurface construction projects from a technical point of view and set them into context with studies currently ongoing for FCC. We propose a conceptual flow for rock characterisation with respect to both applicability of excavated material and tunnelling excavation techniques for future international subsurface construction projects. The review has revealed a vast and encouraging potential across different European construction sites efficiently using excavated rock and soil over the past decade ranging from concrete production, geopolymer production, embankment and landfilling. While an extensive set of analyses is currently performed in the FCC study, examples of several subsurface tunnelling projects are likely to be applied for FCC including concrete production, clay-sealing for embankments, geopolymer face stabilization, re-cultivation or agricultural usage as mixed soil material or sustainable waste disposal.
... References [56,145] quantified environmental impacts within an LCA for buildings in which life cycle stages were adjusted to several waste/material management options. Overall analysis, such as the one proposed by [141], consisted of analyzing the energy and environmental implications of the C&DW recycling chain in a particular region of Italy. It included land use, transportation, and avoiding landfills. ...
... LCA and GIS (geographical information systems) provide beneficial results to analyze EOL scenarios by considering the number, size, type, and location of recycling plants [141]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is considered an innovative tool to analyze environmental impacts to make decisions aimed at improving the environmental performance of building materials and construction processes throughout different life cycle stages, including design, construction, use, operation, and end-of-life (EOL). Therefore, during the last two decades, interest in applying this tool in the construction field has increased, and the number of articles and studies has risen exponentially. However, there is a lack of consolidated studies that provide insights into the implementation of LCA on construction and demolition waste (C&DW). To fill this research gap, this study presents a literature review analysis to consolidate the most relevant topics and issues in the research field of C&DW materials and how LCA has been implemented during the last two decades. A systematic literature search was performed following the PRISMA method: analysis of selected works is based on bibliometric and content-based approaches. As a result, the study characterized 150 selected works in terms of the evolution of articles per year, geographical distribution, most relevant research centers, and featured sources. In addition, this study highlights research gaps in terms of methodological and design tools to improve LCA analysis, indicators, and connection to new trending concepts, such as circular economy and industry 4.0.
... Mobile plants are becoming increasingly common in the context of CDW recycling (Galán et al., 2019). However, for this application, mobile plants are often diesel-driven and usually have a low production capacity (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010;Li et al., 2020;Martinez-Arguelles et al., 2019), being commonly deployed in demolition worksites. Alternatively, mobile plants may be located in suitable areas that allow for the combined production of MA and RA, receiving material from both CDW landfilling sites and quarries (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010; Martinez-Arguelles et al., 2019). ...
... Alternatively, mobile plants may be located in suitable areas that allow for the combined production of MA and RA, receiving material from both CDW landfilling sites and quarries (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010; Martinez-Arguelles et al., 2019). Some of these hybrid plants have formerly been exhausted quarries that were converted into recycling plants, as reported in Turin, Italy (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010). Electricity-driven IPCC can be adapted as a mobile plant solution for large-scale quarries, as addressed in this study. ...
Article
Sustainability in mining must be envisioned from a more comprehensive perspective that involves the management of primary and secondary resources and that prioritizes the adoption of innovation beyond a techno-economic mindset. The holistic Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is useful to diagnose the environmental profile of mining operations seeking a greater contribution to sustainability. This work proposes an enhanced life cycle-based approach for the minerals industry, which is supported by mine-to-product process simulation, scenario analysis, and a comprehensive and context-specific data collection involving the life cycles of the product and the mining project. The convenience of this approach in terms of reducing epistemic uncertainty is demonstrated with a Brazilian case study of a large-scale granitic quarry operation. It is shown that mining can contribute to sustainability by adopting sustainability-driven innovation and circularity principles. The proposed methodology can be applied to other mineral commodities and geographic contexts.
... The importance and frequency of these variables affect the generation of construction waste [64]. Authors [66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76] have determined support ICT tools for the quantifying of CDW. The most important approach is building information modelling (BIM), which allows for the extraction of information regarding waste management [68], estimation of the recoverability and recyclability of CDW [69], and algorithms from CDW management [70]. ...
... The most important approach is building information modelling (BIM), which allows for the extraction of information regarding waste management [68], estimation of the recoverability and recyclability of CDW [69], and algorithms from CDW management [70]. The geographic information system (GIS) is another ICT tool that enables the integration of CDW quantification into a life cycle assessment [71,72]. The GIS enables determination of the location of waste, which is important from the point of view of the supply chain [73,74]. ...
Article
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The Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industries are the producers of the most significant waste stream in the European Union. Known EU initiatives propose to deal with the issue of construction and demolition waste (CDW) according to the principles of a circular economy: the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). CDW is generated during the whole life cycle of construction. The lack of information about the quantity of CDW during the design phase of building needed for sustainable design of construction was identified as a research gap. The aim of our research is to quantify construction and demolition waste during the construction design phase in a circular economy. The proposed method is based on the generation rate calculation method. This paper describes the proposed methodology for quantifying selected types of construction waste: excavated soil, concrete, and masonry. This information is essential from the point of view of a sustainable circular economy. The main contributions of the paper were identified during the decision-making process of sustainable building design, during the audit of CDW management, and during building information modelling as a support tool for CDW management. As early as the construction design phase, there is the possibility of choosing technologies, construction processes, and materials that have a higher degree of circularity in the economy.
... Therefore, transporting trench cuttings (TCs) to the waste management/storage center as well as the transportation of mortar from concrete plants to construction sites can be considered a highly non-ecofriendly solution along with being costly and time consuming. To reduce the climate impacts induced by construction, it is necessary to increase resource efficiency by reusing waste material or excavated material [5]. Excavated soil management is becoming a critical issue around the world, particularly in urban and industrial areas where construction development and the needs of optic fibers and cable connection all compete for the sustainable use of soil and aggregates resources. ...
Article
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Digging trenches on roads, sidewalks, or banks to accommodate public demands is required for the installation of water pipelines, natural gas lines, electric cables, and optical fibers. The soils extracted from these trenches always have substantial environmental and economic consequences, as these soils are frequently regarded as waste due to their poor engineering properties. As a result, a suitable location and method for disposing these excavated soils must be found, and this procedure is exceedingly costly, time consuming, and environmentally unfriendly. It is far more efficient to reuse these excavated soils for refilling the same trenches. This study is a part of a French national project. The national project aims to dig 5 to 25 cm wide trenches to install public utilities and to refill them using the same excavated material in the form of self-compacting mortar. The goal of this research is to determine the best ecofriendly binder for the soil excavated from various sites by conducting laboratory-scale physio-chemical and mechanical testing. This study examined the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) assessed by both destructive and non-destructive (ultrasonic) testing methods. By utilizing low CO2-emitting ecofriendly binders incorporating industrial byproducts (fly ash and GGBS), this work has broadened the possibility of reusing trench cuttings to refill the same trenches.
... However, recognizing it as a potential source of raw material for the industry would enhance the resource efficiency, because following such a strategy could establish a CE system, by which the materials loops will be closed. Thus, minimizing natural resources depletion, reducing carbon footprint, and eliminating wastes [6,[34][35][36]. In the initial phase, the RC's ingredients are manufactured after supplying the factories with the recommended raw materials, and waste by-products such as GGBFS, FA, and SF to partially replace the OPC and to avoid their disposal into landfills. ...
Article
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A primary concern of conventional Portland cement concrete (PCC) is associated with the massive amount of global cement and natural coarse aggregates (NCA) consumption, which causes depletion of natural resources on the one hand and ecological problems on the other. As a result, the concept of green concrete (GC), by replacing cement with supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), and metakaolin (MK), or replacing NCA with recycled coarse aggregates, can play an essential role in addressing the environmental threat of PCC. Currently, there is a growing body of literature that emphasizes the importance of implementing GC in concrete applications. Therefore, this paper has conducted a systematic literature review through the peer-reviewed literature database Scopus. A total of 114 papers were reviewed that cover the following areas: (1) sustainability benefits of GC, (2) mechanical behavior of GC in terms of compressive strength, (3) durability properties of GC under several environmental exposures, (4) structural performance of GC in large-scale reinforced beams under shear and flexure, and (5) analytical investigation that compares the GC shear capacities of previously tested beams with major design codes and proposed models. Based on this review , the reader will be able to select the optimum replacement level of cement with one of the SCMs to achieve a certain concrete strength range that would suit a certain concrete application. Also, the analysis of durability performance revealed that the addition of SCMs is not recommended in concrete exposed to a higher temperature than 400 °C. Moreover, combining GGBFS with FA in a concrete mix was noticed to be superior to PCC in terms of long-term resistance to sulfate attack. The single most striking observation to emerge from the data comparison of the experimentally tested beams with the available concrete shear design equations is that the beams having up to 70% of FA as a replacement to OPC or up to 100% of RCA as a replacement to NCA were conservatively.
... Gallardo et al. (2014) used GIS to obtain city maps for municipal solid waste generation areas. Blengini (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010) and Mastrucci (Mastrucci et al., 2017) combined GIS-based material stock characterization with LCA as an aid to construction and demolition waste (CDW) management in an urban scale. CDW management through a GIS platform with the aim of facilitating recycling of the mineral fraction of the waste was also studied by Wu et (Wu et al., 2016). ...
Article
As the construction sector is shifting towards circular economy models, the role of mineral construction materials as main waste fraction in terms of volumes is crucial. A characterization of this mineral stock, as well as the waste derived from it is decisive in ensuring the application of the best practices of circular economy. This paper describes a methodology for assessing the mineral building stock through a combination of geospatial and image analysis. By analysing old topographic maps, buildings are grouped according to their building age into different typologies and based on these maps the construction and demolition activity is evaluated. The mineral stock is assessed and estimations of the mineral construction and demolition waste (CDW) is generated for different stochastic scenarios. This methodology is applied exemplarily on the country of Luxembourg. It was found that the total mineral construction stock for Luxembourg is 276.75 Mt and has been growing at a rate of 20.81%–24.39% in the last 30 years. Furthermore, the study identified a mean age of the urban building stock of about 60 years and a typical maximum building lifetime of 122 years. Based on the stochastic projections the mineral CDW generated from the existing building stock is expected to be up to 226.9 Mt by 2100, while if future building scenarios are considered, it can be as high as 885.3 Mt. The annual CDW production is expected to be sufficient for a viable concrete recycling activity if regulations on the waste volume flows are made available.
... LC studies of new dwellings generally address alternative construction components or compared thermally improved dwellings with legal standard or existing alternatives [38][39][40][41]. Most studies identified the thermal properties of the building envelope as determinant since they directly influence the operational energy demand for heating and cooling [31,34,42], which is especially relevant in cold climates. ...
Article
The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology has been extensively used to assess the environmental influence of alternative building construction; however, the influence of building design has seldom been assessed for Mediterranean climate. This article aims to evaluate the influence of three, often neglected, design options on the life cycle (LC) energy and environmental impacts of a south European single-family house: solar orientation, window sizing, and building shape. Using a parametric attributional LCA, the house’s materials, construction, maintenance, and operation (heating and cooling) are analysed for different design scenarios. Annual operational energy, LC non-renewable primary energy (NRPE) and environmental LC impact assessment (LCIA) results are presented and discussed. Results show that embodied energy generally surpasses operational energy. Building orientation has less influence on LCIA results than on operational energy, particularly for compact shapes. Scenarios with bigger Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR) have higher embodied impacts, being more sensitive to orientation due to solar gains. Lower WWR (5%) can be used to reduce the overall LC impacts, especially in houses with lower operational patterns. A compact shape building was shown to reduce heating impact, while a terraced and less compact shape reduces cooling impact. Compared with literature, this study reveals that, from a LC perspective, design options are as significant as construction options. Finally, design recommendations should be based on LCA and not only on operational results; nevertheless, a LCA single indicator (NRPE or Global Warming Potential) can be used to support decisions for alternative house designs with similar construction.
... The importance of performing the LCA studies has currently increased, probably as a result of the latest European Directives on the construction of buildings (Directive 2010/31/EC, Directive 2008/98/CE). The LCA application is based on a general evaluation of the environmental waste management system; however, many studies are particularly devoted to investigating the Construction and Demolition of the Waste environmental performance [38][39][40]. ...
Article
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In this work, two types of wastes were introduced, namely, glass from municipal waste and Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW). The latter, which was obtained from rubble generated by the seismic events occurred in Central Italy in 2016, was introduced in two configurations, the single-layer and the double-layer of the cement-based Terrazzo tiles. A maximum of 77% of waste introduction was proven to be possible, therefore creating the possibility of obtaining construction products including high quantities of secondary raw materials, coupled with a valuable aesthetic aspect. The tiles represent a novel CDW upcycling application and follow the EU recommendations to improve the circular economy in the building sector. In particular, the products obtained showed dimensional conformity in the specifications and mechanical performance in the case of double-layer tiles as
... This stage requires the use of a mathematical model to convert values for all types of emissions, energy, heat dissipation, noise, etc., into impact categories to provide essential information for a decision-making process. IMPACT 2002+, the methodology used for this study [36], is a recognized tool previously used in other studies [37,38]. It transposes the LCI results into 15 midpoint categories; after this it is possible, by reducing the complexity and at same time losing scientific information, to transform the data in four damage categories more suitable for a non-scientific public. ...
Article
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This study aims to provide a mitigation strategy for reducing the economic and environmental impacts of carbon fiber wastes deriving from automotive industry. Recycling and reuse in the construction industry is proposed, according to an industrial symbiosis within a circular economy perspective. Specifically, the process consists of repurposing carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) scraps/waste into new cement-matrix composites, for which the resulting benefits, in terms of mechanical and environmental performance, are herein described. An experimental campaign, starting with a specific heat treatment of CFRP sheets and an accurate dimensional distribution analysis of the short carbon fibers, is presented. The influence of the fiber content and length on both the workability and the mechanical performance of cement-based carbon fiber reinforced mortars is also evaluated. A reduced amount of either sand or cement (up to 8% and 12.8% in volume, respectively) is also considered in the mix design of the fiber reinforced mortars and derives from the substitution of the sand or binder with an equivalent volume of CFRP fibers. The results show a satisfactory increase in compressive and flexural strength in the range 10–18% for the samples characterized by a volume fraction of fibers of approximately 4% and having a 2–5 mm length. Finally, a life cycle assessment (LCA, 14040/14044) was carried out to quantify the environmental burden reductions associated with the implementation of the proposed symbiotic scheme.
... CDW is a significant contributor to the total waste produced in developing and developed countries (Jayasuriya et al., 2020), (Kim et al., 2018). Such waste consists of bricks, concrete, metals, wood, plastic, gypsum, solvents, and asbestos derived from demolishing buildings, roads, and civil infrastructure (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010). These materials are passed through crushing and selection plants for the technical requirement of reuse. ...
Article
The built environment defines humankind’s daily lives, sophistication, efficiency, and effectiveness. Despite this, its primary industry, construction—which transforms the built environment into a reality and an operation—remains in need of more efficient, innovative, and sustainable strategies, technologies, and instruments. The incorporation of digital fabrication into 3D printing (3DP) technology offers an entirely different and expanded freedom of geometry, functionality, materials, savings, efficiency, and effectiveness. For the inherent potential of 3DP technology, its sustainability assessment and potential contributions should be explored systematically to shed light on future applications and further innovations. This study presents a systematic review of the sustainability potential, assessments, and challenges of 3DP concrete for built environment applications. A comprehensive and comparative review of related literature is performed to identify the current trends and research gaps and recommend reducing or eliminating the energy and environmental footprints and the socio-economic impact. The study concludes that, in terms of documented global warming potential (GWP) values, 3DP technology appears to be a promising alternative to conventional construction and concrete use. A life cycle analysis (LCA) is recorded that is meant to be widely used as an assessment tool for environmental and energy assessment in digital fabrication technology, leaving an integrated review, including social and economic aspects, understudied. The 3DP concrete technology has unlimited potential in terms of material flexibility, savings, labour’s cost, design flexibility, and operation agility. Besides, researchers intend on introducing unconventional and locally available materials to increase the sustainability of 3DP technology in construction.
... Hiện nay, tái chế CTRXD góp phần phát triển ngành kỹ thuật xây dựng và đóng một vai trò quan trọng trong việc tái tạo môi trường, như một cách mới để bảo vệ tài nguyên thiên nhiên và giảm lượng vật liệu thải ra bãi chôn lấp [3,4]. Tại Việt Nam, theo số liệu thống kê năm 2009 thì lượng CTRXD phát sinh từ các thành phố lớn là khoảng 1,46 -1,92 triệu tấn/năm, tuy nhiên tỷ lệ tái chế rất thấp chỉ từ 1 -2% [5]. ...
Article
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Ở các thành phố lớn như Hà Nội, Hồ Chí Minh phát sinh một lượng lớn chất thải rắn xây dựng (CTRXD) từ việc phá dỡ các công trình cũ, cũng như xây dựng các công trình mới. Chính phủ đã có những quy định về thu gom và tái chế CTRXD để tái sử dụng nhằm bảo vệ môi trường qua thông tư 08/2017/TT-BXD, mới nhất là chỉ thị 41/CT-TTg về một số giải pháp cấp bách tăng cường quản lý chất thải rắn. Nghiên cứu này trình bày các kết quả thực nghiệm thu được trên các mẫu bê tông sử dụng cốt liệu lớn tái chế (CLLTC) từ CTRXD với các tỷ lệ sử dụng lần lượt là 0%, 50% và 100% thay thế cho cốt liệu lớn tự nhiên (CLLTN). Những kết quả chỉ ra rằng cường độ nén ở 28 ngày tuổi của bê tông tái chế bị giảm từ 9,5 – 16,0%, trong khi đó mô đun đàn hồi bị giảm từ 12,8 – 24,2% khi so sánh với bê tông cốt liệu tự nhiên. Ảnh hưởng của hàm lượng CLLTC đối với cường độ nén ít hơn đối với mô đun đàn hồi. Mô đun đàn hồi của bê tông tái chế giảm tuyến tính khi tăng tỷ lệ sử dụng CLLTC. Từ khóa: bê tông tái chế; cường độ nén; mô đun đàn hồi; cốt liệu lớn tái chế; chất thải rắn xây dựng.
... Impact 2002 + v.2.15, as described in [35], has been used to evaluate the environmental impacts related to LCA. Past studies also suggested the use of Impact 2002 + v.2.15 in the absence of local data [2,3,[36][37][38][39]. Due to the lack of CDW data for LCIA in Saudi Arabia, different waste management scenarios (described in the following section) were compared and analyzed using midpoint and endpoints categories. ...
Article
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Extensive construction augmenting the infrastructure and real estate projects underpin Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 of sustainable cities. A part of this struggle involves the transformation of the existing infrastructure together with new construction, which generates a large amount of construction and demolition waste (CDW). In the absence of a structured life cycle assessment (LCA) framework, the waste management companies are planning future scenarios (phased expansions of material recovery facilities to improve the recycling rate) primarily on economic grounds. This study assesses the environmental impacts of the existing and planned CDW management practices of the Saudi Investment Recycling Company in Riyadh City by dint of LCA. Impact 2002+ performs life cycle impact assessment of the base case (45% recycling), four treatments (61, 76, 88, and 100% recycling), and zero waste scenarios. The study demonstrates the benefits of current CDW (mixed soil, concrete blocks, clay bricks, glazed tiles, and asphalt) recycling in terms of avoided impacts of non-renewable energy, global warming, carcinogens, non-carcinogens, and respiratory inorganics potentially generated by landfilling. For the treatment scenario of 100% recycling, CDW conversion into a wide range of aggregates (0–50 mm) can replace 10–100% virgin aggregates in backfilling, precast concrete manufacturing, encasements and beddings of water mains and sewers, manholes construction, non-load bearing walls, and farm-to-market roads. To achieve long-term economic and environmental sustainability, municipalities need to improve source segregation, handling, and storage practices to enhance the existing (45%) recycling rate to 100% in the next five years and approach the zero-waste scenario by 2030. The findings of the present study motivate the generators for source reduction as well as encourage the recycling companies and concerned organizations in the continuous performance improvement of the CDW management systems across Saudi Arabia on environmental grounds, as an addition to the perceived economic benefits.
... Therefore, a handsome amount of money and time is needed to dispose of them without affecting nature too much. To reduce the climate impacts of the construction work, it is necessary to increase the resource efficiency by reusing waste material [2]. Valorization of dredged sediments by utilizing industrial by-products is regarded as a highly eco-friendly and economic approach. ...
Article
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The objective of this research is to investigate the possible reuse of dredged sediments from the port of Cherbourg, France, as an alternative material in road engineering and as a backfill material. These dredged sediments contain high percentages of organic matter (OM), and the presence of OM in the sediment, even in small amounts, can affect the engineering properties of sediments. This research was carried out in two series: the sediment was treated with traditional hydraulic binders (ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium sulfo-aluminate (CSA) cement, quarry sand (QS), lime, and a combination of them) in the first series, and with pozzolanic binders in the second series (ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and fly ash (FA)), along with the introduction of an activator. According to French legislation, these two pozzolanic binders (GGBS and FA) have no carbon footprint as they are industrial by-products, and therefore, the second series of this research is considered to be highly eco-friendly and economical. Sediment treated with hydraulic binders yielded a maximum value of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of 1 MPa at 28 days. Out of eight formulations made using traditional binders, only one formulation barely met the French criteria to be used in the sub-base layer of roads. The development of geopolymer using alkali-activated GGBS and then the incorporation of 30% sediments yielded a UCS value above 2 MPa at 28, 60, 90, and 180 days. Furthermore, the addition of 5% lime and 3% granular calcium carbonate in the same mixture (geopolymer + 30% sediments) increased the UCS by up to 60% and 90%, respectively.
... Li et al. (2005) integrated Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographacial Information System (GIS) technology for reducing construction waste and improving construction efficiency. Similarly, a combined GIS and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) model was developed for construction resource and waste management using site-specific data (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010). Moreover, the advent of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the construction industry has provided more opportunities to reduce C&D waste. ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this research was to investigate the literature review to explore the history of Tripod Incident Analysis, components of the Tripod Incident Analysis method, accident analysis, and human error that includes a discussion on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS).
... In the final scenario, recycling at facility, Magnusson et al. [39] looked in to the effect of excavated soil and rock that is classified as a waste being transported to a recycling facility, treated and prepared, then reused in other construction projects. Based on the work by Blengini and Garbarino [47], a conclusion was drawn that around 14 kg CO 2 equivalents per ton could be saved when excavated soil and rock was used compared to virgin materials. ...
Article
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The construction and demolition of infrastructure can produce a surplus of excavated soils that ends up at landfills. This practice is not sustainable, and approaches are needed to reduce soil waste and minimize environmental and human health hazards. The “Reuse of urban soils and sites” Working Group in the European Large Geotechnical Institute Platform (ELGIP) works towards a safe and resource efficient use of excavated soils for construction. By considering relevant literature and practicals based on experience in the participating ELGIP countries (France, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden), this study presents current practice related to the reuse of excavated soils, and the main barriers regulatory, organizational, logistical and material quality) to effectively reuse them. Results show that there is no consensus on the best strategies to manage excavated soils in urban areas. This paper provides suggestions of ways in which stakeholders can increase reuse of excavated soils.
... First, GIS provide a comprehensive foundation for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Blengini and Garbarino (2010) applied a GIS model combined with LCA to analyse land use, transportation and landfill related to the CDW recycling chain. Another study evaluated the environmental impact of CDW and the potential for improvement of CDW management by combining a bottom-up material stock model based on GIS and a spatial-temporal database with LCA (Mastrucci et al., 2017). ...
Article
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The construction industry plays a critical role in Circular Economy (CE) transition because of its significant resource intensity. However, construction CE is limited due to its unique industrial characteristics and the complex nature of CE. To tackle wicked CE challenges, Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) are recognised as promising solutions since they provide potential support to CE-oriented decision-making. However, the effectiveness and challenges of applying ICT to a broader decision-making context to implement CE in the built environment remain unexplored. Thus, this study provides a comprehensive overview of ICT-based decision support tools applied to implement construction CE. Through a systematic literature review, 62 papers published during 2010-2021 are selected, categorised, and analysed. First, the state-of-the-art of these tools is described. Then, a theoretical framework is proposed to articulate the mechanism of how ICT-based tools support construction/demolition practices throughout the building life-cycle. The research and development of ICT-based decision support tools are vital to successful construction CE implementation. However, scant attention has been devoted to integrating relevant technologies in a comprehensive information system by considering the complex landscape of CE. Based on critical literature analysis, challenges of applying ICT to support CE were identified from technology, business, and societal perspectives. Furthermore, recommendations for future research directions are provided including a conceptual reference architecture of a Circularity Information Platform that demonstrates the desirable technology integration. We encourage more interdisciplinary research to contribute to the development of a new research paradigm: Smart Circular Construction Ecosystems.
... It has been reported that the distance of recycling aggregates transportation from the MRF to recycling should increase by a factor of 2 or 3 compared to the transportation of virgin materials for do not obtain positive environmental effects thanks to waste recovery (Blengini and Garbarino, 2010). In particular, the environmental impacts due to recycling gradually decreased as the avoided transport increased, thanks to the avoidance of virgin materials transportation. ...
Article
Construction and demolition waste (CDW) management in developing countries is a global concern. The analysis of scenarios and the implementation of life cycle assessment (LCA) support decision-makers in introducing integrated CDW management systems. This paper introduces the application of an LCA in La Paz (Bolivia), where CDW is mainly dumped in open areas. The aim of the research is to evaluate the benefits of inert CDW recycling in function of the selective collection rate, defined as the amount of waste (%wt.) sorted at the source in relation to the total waste amount produced, and the distances from the CDW generation to the material recycling facility. The outcomes of the research suggest that increasing the selective collection rates (5% to 99%) spread the importance of transportation distances planning since it affects the magnitude of the environmental impacts (1.05 tCO2-eq to 20.7 tCO2-eq per km traveled). Transportation limits have been found to be lower than about 40 km in order to make recycling beneficial for all environmental impacts and for all selective collection rate, with the eutrophication potential as the limiting indicator. The theoretical analysis suggests implementing LCA with primary data and involving statistics related to the transportation of virgin materials avoided thanks to recycling. The outcomes of the research support the implementation of CDW recycling in developing countries since it has been found that material recovery is always beneficial.
... A similar approach is taken with recycled aggregates in Blengini and Garbarino (2010) and Borghi et al. (2018) who classify aggregates according to different quality levels, based on technical characteristics and requirements specified in EN or national construction product standards for specific constructive uses. Rigamonti et al. (2020) look at quality from the perspective of the technical substitutability of secondary materials relative to primary ones for use in waste LCA studies, using a set of case studies. ...
Article
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Quality of recycling is a concept used by many authors in the scientific literature and the EU legislator. However, a clear definition of what is intended for quality of recycling and a framework for operationalising it is lacking. Most studies, while proposing indicators reflecting quality, leave the concept of quality largely undefined. Such lack of clarity is an obstacle to the conception of robust policies addressing recycling and circular economy. In this article, we review the available studies investigating on recycling quality, synthetize the approaches available and conclude suggesting a way forward for research to operationalise the definition to support circular economy policy measures and monitoring. Essentially, quality is not an on/off criterion. The definition of quality of recycling should consider that quality depends on technical characteristics of the recyclate, which determine if it is adequate (thus functional) for a certain end application or not. Furthermore, it should consider that the recyclate can be used in different end applications over different markets and that can be adequate for substitution of primary resources in certain applications, but less or not in others. At system-wide level, this results in a certain degree of virgin resource substitution. To this end, preserving functionality, i.e. minimising the recyclate loss of functions via functional recycling, is key. Drawing upon studies on waste management, life cycle assessment and resource dissipation, we link the concept of functionality to substitutability of virgin resources and broader suitability in the circular economy, striving to show the linkages between different perspectives.
... In addition to the proven feasibility of using CDW aggregate in substituting NA for road pavements, its implementation needs to recognize potential environmental benefits [44]. Some studies have demonstrated that recycling of CDW may: (i) reduce emissions of environmentally harmful substances, (ii) reduce the use of natural resources, and (iii) decrease the consumption of energy in comparison with the production of virgin NA [49][50][51][52]. Potential advantages from landfilling avoidance have been reported [32,[53][54][55]. ...
Article
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The use of recycled materials in roadway construction and rehabilitation can achieve significant benefits in saving natural resources, reducing energy, greenhouse gas emissions and costs. Construction and demolition waste (CDW) recycled aggregate as an alternative to natural one can enhance sustainability benefits in roadway infrastructure. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the life cycle economic and environmental benefits when alternative stabilized-CDW aggregates are used in pavement construction. Comparative analysis was conducted on a pavement project representative of typical construction practices in northern Italy so as to quantify such benefits. The proposed alternative sustainable construction strategies considered CDW aggregates stabilized with both cement and cement kiln dust (CKD) for the base layer of the roadway. The life cycle assessment results indicate that using CDW aggregate stabilized with CKD results in considerable cost savings and environmental benefits due to (i) lower energy consumption and emissions generation during material processing and (ii) reduction in landfill disposal. The benefits illustrated in this analysis should encourage the wider adoption of stabilized CDW aggregate in roadway construction and rehabilitation. In terms of transferability, the analysis approach suggested in this study can be used to assess the economic and environmental benefits of these and other recycled materials in roadway infrastructure elsewhere.
... Blengini and Garbarino conducted a study aiming to analyze the energy and environmental impacts of the construction and demolition waste recycling chain in the state of Turin, which has an annual production of 1.8 million tons of construction and demolition waste (143). LCA was conducted using data from 89 recycling facilities to identify and quantify energy and environmental loads under different assumptions in relation to the delivery distances, quality, and local availability of NAs, and the geographical extent of market demand of aggregates. ...
Article
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In this paper, a comprehensive literature review was conducted on the utilization of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), which is the dominant construction and demolition waste material, in base and subbase layers and its comparison with natural aggregate (NA). The effects of crushing on the particles as a result of the compaction on the resilient modulus, permanent deformation, and California Bearing Ratio are analyzed. The paper also contains the NA consumption and waste disposal policies of different countries, RCA standards, and the environmental-economic reasons for its use. This literature review mainly focuses on pavement layers as this is the main application of RCA in the use of recycled materials. Developing integrated construction and demolition waste management will help achieve the primary goal of preventing and reducing the generation of these wastes, both locally and globally. In this way, not only is the main purpose of preventing the increase in the production of construction and demolition waste achieved, but also the reuse and recycling of the waste materials produced are encouraged. Results show that RCA has equivalent or better performance than virgin aggregate for almost any application with proper care and process control, and can be used in unbound pavement layers or other applications requiring compaction. But it is always recommended that its mechanical properties and durability performance be evaluated with full-scale tests before use. The information provided will be useful for contractors and engineers to evaluate alternative solutions and to explore the rational use of such sustainable materials in applications.
... As such, the integrated BIM-GIS system is beneficial for Smart City applications and urban representation where data of the building facilities and urban environment is required [10] [12]. It was found that the integration of BIM and GIS on urban districts and cities has been applied mainly in activities including urban data management [13] [14]; urban representation, 3D city models and urban visualization [14], 3D cadaster [15] [16]; waste management [17]; energy efficiency and management [18] [19]; urban facility management [20] [21], traffic planning [22] [23]; safety and disaster management and prevention [24] [25]. ...
... The literature that has attempted to solve the issue of the generation of large volumes of construction and demolition waste focuses typically on material recycling [7]. Material recycling can be an advantageous strategy, but in the case of construction materials, the preferred solution is introducing these as replacement feedstock to remanufacture components, a practice referred to as downcycling [8][9][10]. To prevent the environmental effects of landfills and downcycling, scholars and practitioners should consider end-of-life constructions as valuable resources rather than waste, as suggested by the circular economy approach [10][11][12]. ...
Article
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This study investigates the interconnection methods used to create a circular economy building featuring modularity and designed for disassembly and relocation. Designing modular buildings for disassembly and reuse can decrease waste production and material depletion, in line with the circular economy framework. Disassemblable buildings require connections to be easily accessible. Visible connections may be unpopular features; however, concealing these, yet leaving these accessible, presents a substantial design challenge. This study demonstrates solutions to this challenge by analyzing a purposely designed case study: the Legacy Living Lab. The challenges of disguising and sealing, such as by waterproofing, two types of connections are analysed: structural and non-structural. This study details the materials and connections used across the two analyzed connection types and compares the weights and reusability of components. Thus, a necessary case study is provided for practitioners to advance circular economy theory in the building industry. Notably, all connections in the Legacy Living Lab can be easily accessed with standard building tools, facilitating its disassembly and fostering component reusability.
... S1c, d) (e.g. Blengini & Garbarino, 2010;Vitale et al., 2017). Commonly, inert ceramic-like CDW (hereafter only CDW) are collected separately from asphalt, wood, plastics, metals, and textiles waste, and/or routinely separated from them (Martín-Morales et al., 2011;Di Maria et al., 2013;Ulsen et al., 2013;Bonifazi et al., 2017a;Neto et al., 2017;Ambros et al., 2019) (Fig. S1d). ...
Article
The density, colour and texture, plus mineral and chemical features of 18 ceramic-like CDW samples from the Abruzzo region (Central Italy) were characterised. The concretes, natural stones, tiles, roof-tiles, bricks and perforated bricks are either aphanitic to porphyric. Concretes and natural stones are grey to white and tend to be > 2.0 g/cm³; the masonries are brown to reddish and close to < 2.0 g/cm³. Concrete and natural stone are rich or even exclusively made up of calcite, with high amounts of CaO (>40 wt%) and LOI (volatiles, CO2 + H2O). The masonries are instead calcite-, CaO- (<25 wt%) and LOI-poor (<8 wt%) but enriched in SiO2 (45 to 70 wt%) stabilised as quartz and/or cristobalite, with significant amount of Al2O3 (12 to 20 wt%). S and Cl contents are similar among concrete, bricks and perforated bricks. The petrography of CDW concretes is similar among geographical areas with abundance of limestones used as aggregates. However, in limestone-poor areas CDW are SiO2- and Al2O3-rich, reflecting the prevalent use of masonry and/or silicate-rich construction materials, implying that each geographical area is characterised by peculiar CDW composition. Therefore, the knowledge of mesoscopic, physical and petrographic aspects has to be known for planning adequate sorting methods, promoting upcycling reusing applications. Some of the studied CDW samples are susceptible to release relative high Cr and As content.
... GIS is used to acquire the distance between the upstream and downstream industrial chain of the waste recycling for construction and demolition (Jingru Li et al., 2020). Blengini and Garbarino (2010) compared the environmental impact caused by the natural and recycled aggregates and found that the distance does not influence the environmental advantage of recycled aggregates. Göswein et al. (2018) also came to a similar conclusion. ...
Article
Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a methodological tool that estimates the environmental footprint from a cradle-to-grave perspective. With the increased need for the geographically explicit assessment, the geographic information system (GIS) is integrating into LCA as a frontier methodology to spatialize the environmental footprint. This paper reviews a total of 105 publications about GIS-LCA, including 50 methodological studies that are analyzed following the four phases of LCA and 55 applied studies that are classified into different domains. The review shows that although GIS-LCA methodology has certain explorations and practices and a large number of cases are carried out in the energy industry, agricultural sector, urban facility, and waste management, the current knowledge system faces several challenges in spatializing environmental footprint. In this case, a universal methodology framework of GIS-LCA and specific schemes are proposed to address the following issues: (1) how to set up a geographically referenced system in the goal and scope definition phase; (2) how to spatialize life-cycle data and integrate and compute foreground and background data in the inventory analysis phase; (3) how to develop spatialized characterization factors with different requirements on resolution and data availability in the impact assessment phase; and (4) how to uniform the contribution analysis of different zones, unit processes, and elementary flows to visualize spatialized environmental footprint in the interpretation phase. The framework we developed provides preliminary practices and recommendations for spatializing environmental footprint, which lays a foundation to support future work.
... A standardized and well-established methodology that can support the decisionmaking processes and assessment of the environmental viability of virgin and/or recycled aggregates for this sector is the life cycle assessment (LCA) [7,11,[16][17][18]. There are already existing records of the application of LCA methodology within the international literature when it comes to the environmental impact assessment of the construction and demolition waste management chain [19][20][21]. There are studies that utilize the LCA methodology and framework in order to analyze alternative end of life strategies and/or scenarios of the buildings [18]. ...
Article
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The demolition of buildings, apart from being energy intensive and disruptive, inevitably produces construction and demolition waste (C&Dw). Unfortunately, even today, the majority of this waste ends up underexploited and not considered as valuable resources to be re-circulated into a closed/open loop process under the umbrella of circular economy (CE). Considering the amount of virgin aggregates needed in civil engineering applications, C&Dw can act as sustainable catalyst towards the preservation of natural resources and the shift towards a CE. This study completes current research by presenting a life cycle inventory compilation and life cycle assessment case study of two buildings in France. The quantification of the end-of-life environmental impacts of the two buildings and subsequently the environmental impacts of recycled aggregates production from C&Dw was realized using the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA). The results indicate that the transport of waste, its treatment, and especially asbestos' treatment are the most impactful phases. For example, in the case study of the first building, transport and treatment of waste reached 35% of the total impact for global warming. Careful, proactive, and strategic treatment, geolocation, and transport planning is recommended for the involved stakeholders and decision makers in order to ensure minimal sustainability implications during the implementation of CE approaches for C&Dw.
Article
Purpose Public-private partnership (PPP) projects for construction waste recycling have become the main approach to construction waste treatment in China. Risk sharing and income distribution of PPP projects play a vital role in achieving project success. This paper is aimed at building a practical and effective risk sharing and income distribution model to achieve win–win situation among different stakeholders, thereby providing a systematic framework for governments to promote construction waste recycling. Design/methodology/approach Stakeholders of construction waste recycling PPP projects were reclassified according to the stakeholder theory. Best-worst multi–criteria decision-making method and comprehensive fuzzy evaluation method (BWM–FCE) risk assessment model was constructed to optimize the risk assessment of core stakeholders in construction waste recycling PPP projects. Based on the proposed risk evaluation model for construction waste recycling PPP projects, the Shapley value income distribution model was modified in combination with capital investment, contribution and project participation to obtain a more equitable and reasonable income distribution system. Findings The income distribution model showed that PPP Project Companies gained more transaction benefits, which proved that PPP Project Companies played an important role in the actual operation of PPP projects. The policy change risk, investment and financing risk and income risk were the most important risks and key factors for project success. Therefore, it is of great significance to strengthen the management of PPP Project Companies, and in the process of PPP implementation, the government should focus on preventing the risk of policy changes, investment and financing risks and income risks. Practical implications The findings from this study have advanced the application methods of risk sharing and income distribution for PPP projects and further improved PPP project-related theories. It helps to promote and rationalize fairness in construction waste recycling PPP projects and to achieve mutual benefits and win–win situation in risk sharing. It has also provided a reference for resource management of construction waste and laid a solid foundation for long-term development of construction waste resources. Originality/value PPP mode is an effective tool for construction waste recycling. How to allocate risks and distribute benefits has become the most important issue of waste recycling PPP projects, and also the key to project success. The originality of this study resides in its provision of a holistic approach of risk allocation and benefit distribution on construction waste PPP projects in China as a developing country. Accordingly, this study adds its value by promoting resource development of construction waste, extending an innovative risk allocation and benefit distribution method in PPP projects, and providing a valuable reference for policymakers and private investors who are planning to invest in PPP projects in China.
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Construction waste recycling is to turn construction waste materials into new resources for use. It is often considered in waste management plans, in which a central dilemma is to ponder the on-site and off-site options. Both recycling options have their respective strengths and weaknesses in dealing with internal and external factors related to site, time, cost, market, and government. However, no previous study has consciously considered the two options by putting them together with the factors in a structured model to support managers in devising their waste management plans. This study aims to develop a decision-support framework to help plan on-site and off-site construction waste recycling. It does so by adopting the qualitative research methods of case study, site visits and semi-structured interviews in Shenzhen, China. Two generic factors, namely (a) project characteristics (e.g., site constraints, time allowed, and project scale), and (b) industrial and governmental supports (e.g., transportation, recycling technology, the material market, regulations, and government subsidies), are found to determine the technical and economic viability of a particular recycling option. The two factors interact with each other and evolve over time and context to effect. This paper further articulated and organized their dynamics in a construction waste recycling decision-support framework. The research can help maximize the practicality of waste management plans. It is also of value to enhance construction waste management in the long run.
Chapter
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Chapter
The construction industry exerts tremendous impacts on the environment, particularly C&D waste has become one of the major pollutants generated by the construction industry. The recycling of C&D waste could generate various benefits from environmental, economic and social aspects. To improve the effects of recycling measures and inform the planning of recycling facilities, the paper develops the concept of “socio-ecological-economic vulnerability” and aims to propose a framework to understand the vulnerability of the regional C&D waste recycling network. The ecological vulnerability aspect includes factors such as energy, water, emission, biodiversity, etc. The social vulnerability aspect includes factors such as occupational health and safety, social acceptance, employment, etc. The economic vulnerability aspect includes factors such as supply fluctuations, demand fluctuations, operation risks, etc. These factors then develop to the ecological vulnerability index, social vulnerability index, and economic vulnerability index. Finally, all the index aggregates to the social-ecological-economic vulnerability for C&D waste recycling networks. By using the vulnerability assessment, relevant decision makers could identify the weakest parts of the regional recycling network in various dimensions, and any endeavors to improve the performance of these parts is an optimization of the whole regional recycling network.
Chapter
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Book
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From this e-book, it can be concluded that even though a wide variety of novel and innovative building materials using C&DW has been developed worldwide, more incentives are required (e.g.through public policies) to really convert the local and national construction sectors in sustainable businesses which appropriate the circular economy as production and consumption systems that promote, at least, the efficiency in the use of materials, water and energy. This has not only the potential to develop new sustainable business models based on research, this also might transform existing companies into more sustainable businesses, which results very important for the current economy post-pandemic scenario.
Chapter
The environmental impacts of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) has become a serious problem all over the world. As a result, researches related with the environmental impacts of C&D waste have been significant increased during the past decades. However, a systematic review on the research trend of environmental impacts in the domain of C&D waste is lacking. Based on a selection of 111 articles related to the environmental impacts of C&D waste, this review-based study adopted scientific mapping methods to evaluating the recent decade’s C&D waste environmental impacts research. Through a three-step workflow of bibliometric literature search, scientometric analysis and qualitative discussion, this review identified the most influential journals, authors, articles, and countries in C&D waste environmental impacts studies from 2010 to 2019. Keywords analysis revealed the most concerned research topics of existing scholars, e.g. LCA, recycled aggregates, recycling. This paper provides the overall situation of C&D waste environmental impacts research in 2010–2019, and provides multi-disciplinary guidance for practitioners and researchers to link current research fields with future trends.
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The use of construction and demolition (C&D) waste in road construction has been an important and challenging issue in recent years. In this research, geotechnical characteristics of recycled combined construction and demolition waste (RCCDW) at Fooladshahr (located in the Isfahan province, Iran) are studied to determine whether they are an appropriate candidate in road base and subbase. Laboratory tests including sieving, soundness, Los-Angeles (LA) abrasion test, compaction, and California bearing ratio (CBR) are among the tests performed on these materials. The tests were carried out on two types of samples, namely, RCCDW and natural standard aggregates for road base and subbase layers. In Iran, often, no separation is made on C&D wastes such as concrete crumbs and brick lumps. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the majority of the previous studies have been conducted on different percentages of concrete crumb and brick crumb or a combination of both. In comparison, the present study examines almost all types of construction and demolition wastes in place. The obtained results show that after initial recycling and resizing, residues have several remarkable characteristics for use in the base and subbase layers. Although their compressive properties and CBR number were less than the standard limits, they were improved by cement stabilization and became suitable for these road layers. The results show that the maximum dry density of without-cement wastes after stabilization with 12 percent cement (by weight), increased from 1.83 to 2.10 g/cm3, and their CBR value increased from 65.8% to 88.6%.
Article
This paper studies the influence of different water-cement ratio configuration of recycled aggregate planted concrete on performance, the permeable property and drying shrinkage and the influence of different gelled material against compressive strength. At last, the plant growth performance of the planted concrete is analyzed through the whole process of screening, seeding and long-potential recording of the plants. It is found that the compressive strength of CA-R (recycled aggregate aluminate cement concrete) and L•SAC-R (recycled aggregate have low alkalinity) is higher, which is 7.6 MPa and 7.4MPa, respectively. Compared with the natural aggregate, the against compressive strength of the recycled aggregate is much smaller, and the difference of the experiment blocks with different age conditions is not large; It is better to set the porosity of the planted concrete between 22% and 35%: On the one hand, the total porosity of the recycled aggregate planted concrete is always slightly higher than that of the natural aggregate planted concrete, which is basically maintained at 31.7% and slightly higher than the design value; On the other hand, the total porosity of CA-R is larger than that of L•SAC-R and P•O-R (recycled aggregate ordinary Portland cement concrete), and compared with the total porosity, the variation of connected porosity is not obvious. In addition, the water permeation coefficient of 20-40mm single-stage concrete is between 15-19mm/s; And the dry shrinkage of aluminate recycled aggregate planted concrete is larger, there are different degrees of cracks on the surface and aggregate bonding. Among the three plants selected during the experiment, Festuca arundinacea and Alfalfa had good adaptability, but Bermuda grass had low adaptability.
Article
A large amount of excavated soil is generated due to rapid urban infrastructure development, resulting in serious safety and environmental threats. From the perspective of resource recycling, this paper conducted a laboratory characterization and environmental impact assessment of the utilization of recycled crushed aggregates (RCAs) arising from excavated soil in cement-treated base materials (CTBM). SEM-EDS was employed to test the chemical elements and surface properties, and it reflected larger pores and cracks compared to diabase and limestone aggregates. A series of experimental tests were carried out to investigate the mechanical behaviors of CTBM with varying cement content incorporating RCAs. The laboratory test results revealed that the UCS, IDT strength, FTS and CRM increased with increasing cement content. Moreover, an environmental impact assessment of the recycling of RCAs to produce CTBM was preliminarily analyzed compared to the traditional CTBM with natural stone aggregates (NSAs). The results showed that the attenuation in different environmental impact categories was more than 26% when recycling RCAs from excavated soil to replace NSAs. It was clear that the utilization of 1 t RCAs could result in a reduction of approximately 75 MJ in energy and 5.17 kg CO2-eq in emissions just in terms of reducing transportation and landfill. Thus, a total reduction of 3.15 billion MJ energy and 21.72 million t CO2-eq emissions could be realized if all the excavated soil generated in Shenzhen annually was recycled. Furthermore, possible policies and further prospects were suggested based on the research for more sustainable management of construction and demolition waste (CDW) containing excavated soil.
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The accelerated carbonation technology has been utilized in order to enhance the properties of the recycled concrete aggregates (RCAs) and efficient sequestration of carbon dioxide. Numerous studies have been conducted on this developing technology, while there are few systematic reviews on this method. In the present paper, the reaction processes, influencing factors and mechanisms of the accelerated carbonation to treat RCAs are summarized. The quality of carbonated RCAs and the properties of concrete incorporating carbonated RCAs are evaluated. Moreover, the environmental impacts and economic feasibility of this technique are analyzed. Results showed that carbon dioxide could react with calcium hydroxide, calcium silicate hydrates and other calcium substances in RCAs leading to the precipitation of calcium carbonate. The carbonation processes were mainly determined by carbonation conditions and RCAs characteristics. Carbonated RCAs exhibited lower water absorption, lower crush value and higher apparent density than the non-carbonated ones. The mechanical properties and durability of the concrete containing carbonated RCAs were also improved significantly. This technology has been also confirmed an environmentally friendly and economically feasible method. Finally, some research perspectives on this technology are presented.
Article
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Construction and demolition waste (CDW) management is essential for the sustainable development of a country. Recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) manufactured from CDW can replace a significant portion of natural aggregates in concrete as per various research studies conducted. Nowadays, various alternate waste materials are being utilised to minimise the environmental footprint of concrete. The manufactured sand (MS) is also one of the alternate materials being used in concrete production. There are significant studies available world-wide, which estimated associated environmental impacts of RCA; however, author could not find comparative study on environmental impact of RCA and manufactured sand (MS) production using optimization techniques in Indian perspective. Therefore, this study assessed the environmental impacts of producing 1-ton RCA from reclaimed concrete and MS from granite stone. Seven mid-point environmental impact (EI) categories of ReCePe method, i.e. global warming potential, human-toxicity potential, particulate matter formation potential, terrestrial acidification potential, freshwater eutrophication potential, photochemical ozone formation potential and resource use-fossil were calculated and interpreted. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) optimization technique was used for calculating the weightage of EI categories. Hotspot and sensitivity analysis were performed to know the relevance and sensitivity of EI categories. As per the observation, CO2 emission and primary energy consumption in 1-ton RCA were 10% and 18.5% less than 1-ton MS. The suspended particulate matter and noise level in RCA were 25% higher and 9% lesser than MS. Transportation and crushing were the main contributors to EIs. This study may help in taking a calculative decision regarding utilization of RCA and MS as river sand replacement in concrete.
Article
The construction industry consumes more raw materials and energy than any other economic activity and generates the largest fraction of waste, known as construction and demolition waste (CDW). This waste has significant environmental implications, most notably in South American countries such as Colombia, where it is handled inappropriately. This study evaluated the management processes currently used for fractions of construction and demolition waste generated in Ibagué (Colombia). The environmental impacts of the management of 1 kg of CDW were also calculated. Other CDW management alternatives were evaluated. The percentage of the fraction of the waste and the treatment or management processes used were modified to determine its environmental and economic viability. The information was obtained through telephone interviews and visits to recycling plants, construction companies, quarries, government entities, and inert landfills. It was completed with secondary sources and the Ecoinvent v.2.2 databases. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and the SimaPro 8 software were used to calculate the environmental impacts. An economic study of each management process and each alternative was also carried out. A comparison of the other options revealed the current choice contributes most to the environmental impacts in all categories. This study indicates that the most beneficial alternative in environmental and economic terms in Ibagué (Colombia) is where 100% of the metals are recovered, 100% of excavated earth is reused, and 100% of the stone waste is recycled (alternative 3). This alternative remained the most favorable when a sensitivity analysis was carried out with different distances (30 km and 50 km).
Chapter
Over the years, construction waste has risen, causing environmental concerns as well as a loss of profit for contractors. This chapter covers the concepts, causes of waste generation, characteristics, waste management methods, waste minimization, disposal, rules, and worker’s efficiency in relation to construction and demolition waste. The waste management hierarchy is also explained in the chapter. The authors looked at the causes of waste generation and disposal, as well as the characteristics and methods of waste management, along with the regulations that apply. This chapter discusses some of the data and applications of Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste management and its disposal in Malaysia, which are also commonly being practiced in other countries.
Article
This study deals with the perspective of circular economy (CE) transition in the Construction and Demolition Waste Management (C&DWM) system of the Metropolitan City of Naples (Italy). It assesses the current building materials stored in the existing buildings and C&DW generation, composition and management, by means of public databases, i-Tree Canopy software and SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats). The final goal is to provide useful feedbacks to the city Administration and stakeholders to increase and improve the management of existing C&DW flows. The statistical database and the use of i-Tree Canopy for geographical assessment point out a large amount of building materials stocked in the existing buildings and potentially available, while results of the SWOT analysis, combined with TOWS matrix, show that the transition to CE in the C&DW management systems in the Metropolitan City of Naples still is at an early stage due to several weaknesses. The latter regard the lack of demand for recycled products, the lack of data in the end-of-life stage of recycling, and the presence of a high fraction of mixed C&DW reflecting the low adoption of reduction measures on C&D sites. Solutions are proposed with the purpose of better realigning the C&DWM system according to the CE principles as well as to increased sustainability.
Conference Paper
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The paper deals with aggregate processing, in order to improve their performances, and takes into consideration the crushing methods, as a means to improve the shape features of the aggregate, and the wet separation process (jigging or water flowing film), as a means to remove unwanted materials. Low grade sources, both natural and artificial (rock excavation muck pile, building rubble), whose exploitation is due to become popular in compliance with EU Recommendations, are the main subject of the analyzed processes. End uses are in road-making and in concrete production. The problems posed by the wet processes introduction in small mobile plants, implying the respect of space constraints in the water recycling and sludge disposal systems, are dealt with. An experimental case of recycled aggregate production by dry sifting followed by wet processing to obtain an improved product is analyzed, and the design principles of compact mobile plant performing wet processing are exposed. © © (2007) by the Chamber of Mining Engineers of Turkey All rights reserved.
Article
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Aims and Scope. Land use by agriculture, forestry, mining, house-building or industry leads to substantial impacts, particularly on biodiversity and on soil quality as a supplier of life support functions. Unfortunately there is no widely accepted assessment method so far for land use impacts. This paper presents an attempt, within the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, to provide a framework for the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of land use. Main Features. This framework builds from previous documents, particularly the SETAC book on LCIA (Lindeijer et al. 2002), developing essential issues such as the reference for occupation impacts; the impact pathways to be included in the analysis; the units of measure in the impact mechanism (land use interventions to impacts); the ways to deal with impacts in the future; and bio-geographical differentiation. Results. The paper describes the selected impact pathways, linking the land use elementary flows (occupation; transformation) and parameters (intensity) registered in the inventory (LCI) to the midpoint impact indicators and to the relevant damage categories (natural environment and natural resources). An impact occurs when the land properties are modified (transformation) and also when the current man-made properties are maintained (occupation). Discussion. The size of impact is the difference between the effect on land quality from the studied case of land use and a suitable reference land use on the same area (dynamic reference situation). The impact depends not only on the type of land use (including coverage and intensity) but is also heavily influenced by the bio-geographical conditions of the area. The time lag between the land use intervention and the impact may be large; thus land use impacts should be calculated over a reasonable time period after the actual land use finishes, at least until a new steady state in land quality is reached. Conclusion. Guidance is provided on the definition of the dynamic reference situation and on methods and time frame to assess the impacts occurring after the actual land use. Including the occupation impacts acknowledges that humans are not the sole users of land. Recommendations and Perspectives. The main damages affected by land use that should be considered by any method to assess land use impacts in LCIA are: biodiversity (existence value); biotic production potential (including soil fertility and use value of biodiversity); ecological soil quality (including life support functions of soil other than biotic production potential). Biogeographical differentiation is required for land use impacts, because the same intervention may have different consequences depending on the sensitivity and inherent land quality of the environment where it occurs. For the moment, an indication of how such task could be done and likely bio-geographical parameters to be considered are suggested. The recommendation of indicators for the suggested impact categories is a matter of future research.
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The new IMPACT 2002+ life cycle impact assessment methodology proposes a feasible implementation of a combined midpoint/damage approach, linking all types of life cycle inventory results (elementary flows and other interventions) via 14 midpoint categories to four damage categories. For IMPACT 2002+, new concepts and methods have been developed, especially for the comparative assessment of human toxicity and ecotoxicity. Human Damage Factors are calculated for carcinogens and non-carcinogens, employing intake fractions, best estimates of dose-response slope factors, as well as severities. The transfer of contaminants into the human food is no more based on consumption surveys, but accounts for agricultural and livestock production levels. Indoor and outdoor air emissions can be compared and the intermittent character of rainfall is considered. Both human toxicity and ecotoxicity effect factors are based on mean responses rather than on conservative assumptions. Other midpoint categories are adapted from existing characterizing methods (Eco-indicator 99 and CML 2002). All midpoint scores are expressed in units of a reference substance and related to the four damage categories human health, ecosystem quality, climate change, and resources. Normalization can be performed either at midpoint or at damage level. The IMPACT 2002+ method presently provides characterization factors for almost 1500 different LCI-results, which can be downloaded at http://www.epfl.ch/impact
Article
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Background, aim, and scopeThere is a growing recognition on the part of industry, policymakers, and consumers that sustainable industry practices are needed to maintain environmental and social well being. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an internationally standardized analytical framework that has traditionally focused on evaluation of the environmental impacts of processes or products using a cradle-to-grave approach. Yet, sustainability, defined generally, requires that assessments consider not only environmental but also social and economic impacts—the other two pillars of sustainability. Even though the LCA methodology has the potential to include both social and economic indicators, and SETAC guidelines recommend the inclusion of such impact categories in all detailed LCAs, no established set of metrics exists to describe the relationship between socioeconomic indicators (SEIs) and a specific product or process; nor is there a common understanding on how such metrics might be developed. This article presents the methods for and development of a suite of socioeconomic indicators that complement the LCA methodology and provides a comprehensive approach for assessing the cradle-to-grave sustainability of a product or process. MethodsA combined top-down and bottom-up approach serves as the basis for development of the set of socioeconomic indicators presented here. Generally recognized societal values, industry specific issues, and financial constraints associated with collection of data necessary for measurement of the indicators are all factors considered in this approach. In our categorization, socioeconomic indicators fall into two types: additive indicators and descriptive indicators. ResultsIndicators are categorized based on fundamental methodological differences and then used to describe the socioeconomic impacts associated with salmon production. Additive indicators (e.g., production costs and value added) and descriptive indicators (e.g., fair wage and contribution to personal income) are both discussed. DiscussionThere is a need to further develop and refine methods to assess the results of socioeconomic indicators using a life cycle perspective. It would be most interesting to conduct additional case studies that focus on such methodological development, particularly trade-offs between stakeholder groups and pillars of sustainability. Additional areas of discussion are (1) the need for data to populate socioeconomic indicators and (2) defining system boundaries for socioeconomic indicators. ConclusionsThis article presents a set of socioeconomic indicators designed to serve as a complement for the LCA framework, thus, increasing the framework’s effectiveness as a measure of the overall sustainability of a product or process. Development of socioeconomic indicators as a complement to LCA is still in its early stages, however, and further research is required. Recommendations and perspectivesThe SEIs presented here are discussed theoretically within the context of salmon food production systems, but a test of the practicability and validity of the indicators (i.e., a practical application) is also necessary. The practical application of the topic will be presented in a forthcoming paper.
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In the industrial practice, the choice and evaluation of strategies of recycling and reuse of solid mineral wastes (thermal process residues, mining and quarrying wastes, construction and demolition wastes) could be based on ecological risk assessment (EcoRA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) studies also because of the substantial lack of regulations. Several methods and approaches of EcoRA and LCA have been developed so far and it is not always evident to consider a pertinent method for each application case. Furthermore, it is even less trivial to combine local and global scale results so to identify the best scenario from different alternatives.After a comprehensive review of recycling and reuse routes of mineral waste and relative legislation, this study addresses these issues by providing a detailed analysis and comparison of global and local scale impact assessment methods used in LCA and EcoRA, and finally an inventory of LCA and EcoRA studies already completed, to serve as a basis for further research.
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The VAMP project (VAlorization of building demolition Materials and Products, LIFE 98/ENV/IT/33) aims to build an effective and innovative information system to support decision making in selective demolition activity and to manage the valorization (recovery-reuse-recycling) of waste flows produced by the construction and demolition (C&D) sector. The VAMP information system will be tested it in Italy in some case studies of selective demolition. In this paper the proposed demolition-valorization system will be compared to the traditional one in a life cycle perspective, applying LCA methodology to highlight the advantages of VAMP system from an eco-sustainability point of view. Within the system boundaries demolition processes, transport of demolition wastes and its recovery/treatment or disposal in landfill were included. Processes avoided due to reuse-recycling activities, such as extraction of natural resources and manufacture of building materials and components, were considered to...
Article
In order to meet the specific requirements of the construction industry, an appropriate beneficiation process aimed at enhancing technical characteristics of building aggregates is often required. As it usually occurs, natural raw materials undergo a primary abatement process by means of drilling and blasting or mechanical excavation, followed by one or more size reduction stages and finally wet or dry separation in order to remove unwanted materials. As the beneficiation process is carried on, the technical performances of building aggregates improve, but, on the other hand, production costs and energeticenvironmental burdens increase, as well. The paper will analyse the main economic and energetic-environmental constraints which characterise the building aggregates production streamline, by paying attention to the contribution of the different beneficiation steps and making use of the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology. In the second part, the paper will deal with alternative low grade sources of building materials, namely secondary materials from building demolition and rubble recycling, as well as rock excavation waste, which could partially replace traditional building aggregates. Also in this case, an energetic-environmental profile of recycled aggregates will be outlined. © (2007) by the Chamber of Mining Engineers of Turkey All rights reserved.
Article
The new IMPACT 2002+ life cycle impact assessment methodology proposes a feasible implementation of a combined midpoint/ damage approach, linking all types of life cycle inventory results (elementary flows and other interventions) via 14 midpoint categories to four damage categories. For IMPACT 2002+, new concepts and methods have been developed, especially for the comparative assessment of human toxicity and ecotoxicity. Human Damage Factors are calculated for carcinogens and non-carcinogens, employing intake fractions, best estimates of dose-response slope factors, as well as severities. The transfer of contaminants into the human food is no more based on consumption surveys, but accounts for agricultural and livestock production levels. Indoor and outdoor air emissions can be compared and the intermittent character of rainfall is considered. Both human toxicity and ecotoxicity effect factors are based on mean responses rather than on conservative assumptions. Other midpoint categories are adapted from existing characterizing methods (Eco-indicator 99 and CML 2002). All midpoint scores are expressed in units of a reference substance and related to the four damage categories human health, ecosystem quality, climate change, and resources. Normalization can be performed either at midpoint or at damage level. The IMPACT 2002+ method presently provides characterization factors for almost 1500 different LCI-results, which can be downloaded at http://www.epfl.ch/impact
Article
Goal, Scope and Background. On June 12–13 June 2006 in Guildford (UK) an international workshop was held to address indicators to incorporate land use impacts in LCA. It provided an interdisciplinary forum where soil scientists and biologists met with LCA experts and users to discuss the challenges of including land use impacts in LCA and potential approaches to addressing these challenges. The discussion used as starting point the definitions framed in the past work on land use impacts within the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative (Milà i Canals et al. 2006). However, the presence of soil quality and biodiversity experts allowed for a more in-depth consideration of the nature of land use impacts. Main Features. The discussions were focused on three main themes: general methodological issues to be addressed in including land use impacts in LCA; recommendations for soil quality indicators; and recommendations for biodiversity indicators. Results and Discussion. There is a conflict between the levels of detail at which LCA should assess land use impacts: a coarse assessment may allow the detection of hotspots from a life cycle perspective, whereas a more detailed assessment might allow the distinction between land management modes (e.g. organic vs. conventional agriculture). Different land use processes need to be modelled in consequential and attributional LCA. Land use effects on biodiversity and soil quality are non-linear and also depend on the scale of land use, which is difficult to address in LCA. Soil is multi-functional and many threats affect its quality, which results in a case-specific selection of the most adequate indicator. In the case of biodiversity, two main options for defining indicators were identified at species and ecosystem levels. The main advantage of the former is data availability, but the election of a particular taxon may be arbitrary. Ecosystem level indicators include a higher degree of subjectivity but may be more relevant than species level ones. Conclusions. Land use impacts need to be considered in LCA for all life cycle stages in all types of products. An urgent need for LCA is to incorporate land use impacts particularly in comparisons of systems which differ substantially in terms of land use impacts. The main differences between consequential and attributional LCA are the need for the consideration of off-site effects and marginal vs. average land uses in consequential LCA. In order to define the marginal effects of land use a similar approach to the description of the electricity grid and its marginal technology may be followed. ‘Dose-response’ functions need to be defined for land use interventions and their effects. The main soil degradation processes (considering soil’s vulnerability to different threats) should be captured in a spatial-dependent way in LCA. Criteria and examples to select biodiversity indicators at species and ecosystem levels were proposed in the workshop. Recommendations and Perspectives. The conduction of LCA case studies for relevant systems (especially fossil energy compared to bio-energy systems involving different eco-regions to account for potential international trade) may provide a good platform to further develop the workshop suggestions.
Article
It is common practise in mining Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies to use a predefined set of data to represent mining production systems. Besides this, very little is added to improve data quality, and essential mining process details which affect the ultimate environmental impacts is rarely taken into account. Some significant omissions include exploration and development work, mining method used, production, ore losses, location and the mining/processing method dependent factors that govern the nature of discharges to the environment. The mining system is often represented as a black-box, not lending itself to the interpretation of different processes used in minerals production. The generic data used are often inadequate for a mining LCA, and cannot be used as an accurate account of mining environmental burdens contributing to more complex systems “down-stream”, such as metals, building, chemical or food industries. Therefore, the main objective of the mining LCA model presented in this paper was to develop a tool that is able to represent the mining system in a comprehensive way. To attain this objective, the mining system was studied in more detail, as it is commonly practised during mine feasibility and design stages. It (LICYMIN) was developed as part of an international research project led by Imperial College London. The model integrates the mine production, processing, waste treatment and disposal, rehabilitation and aftercare stages of a mine's life within an LCA framework. The development work was carried out in collaboration with several industrial partners in Europe, including Bakonyi Bauxitbánya Kft. in Hungary. The model structure, database development and examples of field applications from industrial sites are presented.
Purpose – Recycling of non-renewable resources serves both in reducing the consumption of virgin supplies and the discharge of associated residuals back into the natural environment. On the other hand, recycling has been criticized because of its environmental impacts. The aim of the present paper is to identify and quantify the environmental effect of recycling of a glass bottle. Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, the life cycle assessment polygon framework is being used. This framework has been developed for evaluating the results of a life cycle inventory analysis using critical volume aggregation and polygon-based interpretation. Findings – Recycling strategies can, in most cases, reduce the total environmental burden of the glass container examined. However, this reduction may considerably vary in relation to each “ecological parameter” (consumption of energy, consumption of water, air emissions, waterborne waste and solid waste), depending mainly on the “recycling mix” (the percentage of recycled material used in production and the percentage of product waste that goes for recycling). Research limitations/implications – The extent to which these findings could be generalized to other materials and products could be confirmed by more applications of the framework. Practical implications – This paper may help in developing recycling strategies. Originality/value – A conceptual framework for the environmental evaluation of recycling, considering, not only general recycling targets, but also the particular interests or conditions that may exist, is introduced.
Article
Preface. Foreword. Part 1: LCA in Perspective. 1. Why a new Guide to LCA? 2. Main characteristics of LCA. 3. International developments. 4. Guiding principles for the present Guide. 5. Reading guide. Part 2a: Guide. Reading guidance. 1. Management of LCA projects: procedures. 2. Goal and scope definition. 3. Inventory analysis. 4. Impact assessment. 5. Interpretation. Appendix A: Terms, definitions and abbreviations. Part 2b: Operational annex. List of tables. Reading guidance. 1. Management of LCA projects: procedures. 2. Goal and scope definition. 3. Inventory analysis. 4. Impact assessment. 5. Interpretation. 6. References. Part 3: Scientific background. Reading guidance. 1. General introduction. 2. Goal and scope definition. 3. Inventory analysis. 4. Impact assessment. 5. Interpretation. 6. References. Annex A: Contributors. Appendix B: Areas of application of LCA. Appendix C: Partitioning economic inputs and outputs to product systems.
Article
One of the most challenging issues presently facing policymakers and public administrators in Italy concerns what to do with waste materials from building dismantling activities and to understand whether, and to what extent, the ever-increasing quantity of demolition waste can replace virgin materials. The paper presents the results from a research programme that was focused on the life cycle assessment (LCA) of a residential building, located in Turin, which was demolished in 2004 by controlled blasting. A detailed LCA model was set-up, based on field measured data from an urban area under demolition and re-design, paying attention to the end-of-life phase and supplying actual data on demolition and rubble recycling. The results have demonstrated that, while building waste recycling is economically feasible and profitable, it is also sustainable from the energetic and environmental point of view. Compared to the environmental burdens associated with the materials embodied in the building shell, the recycling potential is 29% and 18% in terms of life cycle energy and greenhouse emissions, respectively. The recycling potential of the main building materials was made available in order to address future demolition projects and supply basic knowledge in the design for dismantling field.
Article
Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) developed rapidly during the 1990s and has reached a certain level of harmonisation and standardisation. LCA has mainly been developed for analysing material products, but can also be applied to services, e.g. treatment of a particular amount of solid waste. This paper discusses some methodological issues which come into focus when LCAs are applied to solid waste management systems. The following five issues are discussed. (1) Upstream and downstream system boundaries: where is the ‘cradle’ and where is the ‘grave’ in the analysed system? (2) Open-loop recycling allocation: besides taking care of a certain amount of solid waste, many treatment processes also provide additional functions, e.g. energy or materials which are recycled into other products. Two important questions which arise are if an allocation between the different functions should be made (and if so how), or if system boundaries should be expanded to include several functions. (3) Multi-input allocation: in waste treatment processes, different materials and products are usually mixed. In many applications there is a need to allocate environmental interventions from the treatment processes to the different input materials. The question is how this should be done. (4) Time: emissions from landfills will continue for a long time. An important issue to resolve is the length of time emissions from the landfill should be considered. (5) Life cycle impact assessment: are there any aspects of solid waste systems (e.g. the time horizon) that may require specific attention for the impact assessment element of an LCA? Although the discussion centres around LCA it is expected that many of these issues are also relevant for other types of systems analyses.
Article
The effective management of mine tailings involves the control of several environmental impacts and legal requirements. Six tailings site management and closure scenarios were developed for a copper zinc underground mine located in Quebec (Canada) and compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). Two options are considered for the mine operation: tailings can be sent to the tailings disposal area where they are submerged or they can be partly used for backfilling. For each of these two operation options, three alternatives are presented for mine closure: (a) submerged tailings, (b) partial desulphurization with a cover of desulphurized material and (c) a cover with capillary barrier effects (CCBE) made of natural soils followed by revegetation. The goals of the study were to draw the inventory of these management scenarios from the development to the post-closure phase, to assess and compare their environmental impacts and to determine the importance of the land-use impact category. The potential impacts for each scenario were evaluated using the IMPACT 2002+ LCIA method. The results of the performed LCA indicate that for mine development and operation, scenarios where tailings are partly used as backfill for underground stopes appear to lead to larger impacts in 11 of the 14 midpoint categories since the backfill plant operation consumes a greater amount of material and energy. For a site closure period of 2 years, the CCBE option creates the greatest impacts, since it requires much more effort than the other techniques. The results for the post-closure phase have been analysed separately since they have a larger uncertainty. They appear to modify the comparative assessment results. The various results presented in the paper show the importance of taking land-use impacts into account.
Article
In assessments of the environmental impacts of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system. This is important, since the indirect environmental impacts caused by surrounding systems, such as energy and material production, often override the direct impacts of the waste management system itself. However, the applicability of LCA for waste management planning and policy-making is restricted by certain limitations, some of which are characteristics inherent to LCA methodology as such, and some of which are relevant specifically in the context of waste management. Several of them are relevant also for other types of systems analysis. We have identified and discussed such characteristics with regard to how they may restrict the applicability of LCA in the context of waste management. Efforts to improve LCA with regard to these aspects are also described. We also identify what other tools are available for investigating issues that cannot be adequately dealt with by traditional LCA models, and discuss whether LCA methodology should be expanded rather than complemented by other tools to increase its scope and applicability.
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