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Systems thinking and green chemistry in the textile industry: Concepts, technologies and benefits

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Abstract

The textile industry led the world into the industrial revolution and is leading the movement towards global manufacturing. During the period of 1980–1995, the textile industry in the United States was flourishing. It was during these times, that increased regulatory pressures initiated aquatic toxicity testing of wastewater discharges from publicly owned treatment works. Resolution of problems identified by these tests required the development of new toxicity assessment tools, and the use of systems thinking and community/industry/regulator dialogues. The case for the beneficial use of these tools is presented as an example of how to increase productivity through greener (environmentally conservative) production induced by cooperative stakeholder actions.

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... Para el teñido se necesita una preparación previa, para la eliminación de impurezas, este proceso puede realizarse por medio de limpieza con sustancias alcalinas acuosas y Johanna Patricia Orellana Iñiguez 38 detergentes o mediante la aplicación de enzimas. El blanqueamiento de las telas se produce con peróxido de hidrógeno o compuestos clorados para suprimir su color natural (Drumond Chequer et al., 2013;Moore & Ausley, 2004). ...
... El tejido retiene la mayor parte de los químicos mientras que el enjuague elimina la mayoría de las sustancias de preparación. Cada vez que pasa un tejido a través de una solución, se debe utilizar una cantidad de agua equivalente al peso del tejido (Drumond Chequer et al., 2013;Moore & Ausley, 2004). ...
... En el procesamiento por lotes, a veces llamado tintura por agotamiento, debido a que el tinte se transfiere gradualmente desde el baño de tinte al material que está siento teñido durante un período de tiempo relativamente largo, la tintura se produce en presencia de productos químicos diluidos en un equipo cerrado. En comparación del proceso continuo, en lugar de pasar a través de varios baños en una serie de secciones de equipos, en el procesamiento por lotes, la tela permanece en una sola pieza de equipo, que se lleva de forma alternativa de agua y luego se elimina por medio de drenaje, en cada parte del proceso, cada vez que la tela se expone a un baño separado, usa de cinco a diez veces su propio peso en agua (Moore & Ausley, 2004). ...
... With the strengthening of the regulations for environmental pollutant emission for various industries in many countries, interest in eco-friendly production and processes is also increasing in the textile industry [1][2][3]. Supercritical fluid application technology, which does not use water, has attracted considerable attention as an eco-friendly process, which can replace the existing water-based processes that generate a large amount of wastewater and waste energy [4][5][6]. Supercritical CO 2 (SC− CO 2 ) has a higher dissolving capability than gas, faster diffusion rate than liquids, and polymer swelling property because it can penetrate into the polymer while dissolving it [7]. ...
... This is also confirmed by a decrease in the enthalpy of melting with an increase in DOPO concentration (Table 1). This is because the regular arrangement of phenyl cyclic plates is disturbed due to the penetration of DOPO into the amorphous region of the PET fibers, and the intermolecular force with the adjacent chains decreases [2]. In other words, although DOPO does not significantly affect the PET fibers, it acts as a plasticizer. ...
Article
An eco-friendly flame-retardant process was employed to impart flame-retardant characteristics to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers by treating these with a phosphorus-based flame retardant, 910-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO), using supercritical CO2 as a solvent. DOPO was applied to the PET fibers without any other additives. The concentration of DOPO was changed from 1% o.w.f. to 9% o.w.f., and it was applied for 60 min at 120 °C and 25 MPa. As the DOPO concentration increased, many particles attached to the surface, creating a non-smooth surface. The phosphorous component increased with an increase in the amount of DOPO applied to the PET fiber, without the deterioration of physical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break. When the sample was treated with 5% o.w.f DOPO, the char length decreased significantly, and the after-flame time was not observed. The limiting oxygen index (LOI) of ≥29 indicated excellent flame-retardant performance. Washing up to 50 times did not deteriorate the flame-retardant performance, as indicated by the retention of the LOI value of ≥29. Therefore, the PET fibers treated with DOPO using supercritical CO2 showed excellent washing durability and flame retardancy.
... Thus, it gets loaded with auxiliary chemicals and unfixed dyes as wastewater wastes [5]. Similarly, a number of chemicals used as washing and finishing agents pollute the water used during wet processing operations [6,7]. This wastewater contaminates the ecosystem if discharged untreated [8,9]. ...
... After pre-impregnation process, the poly(lactic acid) fabrics was radiated in Ultraviolet/O3 chamber. 7 A bleach solution was prepared by dissolving certain amounts of concentrated H2O2 35%(4 mL) in water (1 L). After pre-impregnation process, the poly(lactic acid) fabrics was radiated in Ultraviolet/O3 chamber. ...
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Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the finishing processes of textiles (fibers, yarns, fabrics, and nonwovens) using eco-friendly technology. The ecological technology have a wide range of functional properties and environmental benefits. This study is related to a modern eco-friendly bleaching technology that relies on Ultraviolet/O3 radiation of poly(lactic acid) fabric through a simple technique. Bleaching process of the poly(lactic acid) fabrics was carried out via Ultraviolet/O3 radiation for 80 minutes on the poly(lactic acid) knitted fabrics in 5 various settings. The colorimetric assays showed that the Ultraviolet/O3 bleaching routes were screened to obtain desired whiteness index(WI), tint factor(Tw), lightness/darkness(L*), redness/greenness(a*), yellowness/blueness(b*), chroma(c*) and hue(h˚) of the bleached poly(lactic acid) fabrics. The best colorimetric properties of the bleached fabrics were WI: 87.7, T_W: -0.1, L*:94.227, a*:-0.106, b*:0.294, c*:0.2512, h˚: 98.6551. These characteristics could be obtained at Ultraviolet/O3 irradiation on the fabrics which was padded (two dips, two nips) to 70% wet pick-up, 2 m/min speed and 1.1 bar pressure with a liquor containing 4ml/l hydrogen peroxide (35%) solution (Ultraviolet/O3/H2O2 bleaching system). The SEM images presented that after the Ultraviolet/O3/H2O2 bleaching process, some nano-size fractures (about 130 nm) are clearly observed on the poly(lactic acid) fabrics. The ATR-IR spectrum of Ultraviolet/O3/H2O2 bleached poly(lactic acid) fibers displays more intense C–C–O absorption bands (1161 cm―1).
... Develop an effective strategy and a broad collection of analytical skills [87,88] Green management mechanism innovation ability (C32) ...
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Currently, enterprises are paying more and more attention to green innovation in order to reduce the negative impact on the environment and achieve sustainable development. Different from evaluating the green innovation ability of enterprises, how to evaluate a person’s green innovation ability from the perspective of open innovation is a new direction. This study aims at proposing a novel framework to evaluate college students’ green innovation ability. First, a set of criteria to evaluate college students’ green innovation ability is determined by experts using the panel consensus approach. Second, the best worst method (BWM) is used to calculate the weights of criteria. Lastly, modified fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution technique (TOPSIS) technique is adopted to rank college students’ green innovation ability. Moreover, a case study is presented to verify the validity of the proposed method. The results provide implications for academic, industry, and policymakers. Specifically, through the evaluation of college students’ green innovation ability, universities can find the inadequacies in culturing students’ green innovation ability and strengthen education in the aspects corresponding to the criteria with high global weights. Companies can select the talented internship students with green innovation ability as employees and should realize that it is good for them to cultivate college students with universities. Policymakers of the education department can trace the quality of education in college senior students’ green innovation ability every year. In addition, they should pay more attention to establish policies regarding those criteria with high global weights.
... In many worldwide cases, industrial effluents containing colored organic molecules are released in rivers without preliminary treatment despite their toxic and hazardous character for human being health and ecosystem balance (Gleick 2000;Moore and Ausley 2004). Facing this threat, several treatment techniques were developed, not only to preserve the environment but also to produce good water quality for future reuse . ...
Article
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Clays are often envisaged as an alternative to activated carbon for wastewater pollutant adsorption. However, conclusive results have only been obtained for clays heavily chemically modified. In this study, a greener approach is proposed to improve the retention capacity of clays. It consists in mixing clay (C) with eggshell (ES) and calcine, and then exposing to gliding arc plasma (ESC-800/PL). The resulting materials were characterized by nitrogen physisorption, FTIR, XRD, TGA/ DTG, and point of zero charge analyses. The preparation gives porous platelet agglomerates resulting from the kaolinite-metakaolinite transition, thereby increasing their internal specific surface area and capacity to retain pollutants. This granular distribution is kept stable by partial pozzolanic reactions avoiding deagglomeration. The specific surface area and total pore volume increased respectively from 14 m 2 g −1 and 0.049 cm 3 g −1 to 89 m 2 g −1 and 0.061 cm 3 g −1 leading to an enhanced removal efficiency of Fast Green and Orange G dyes from polluted water. The maximum adsorption capacity occurred at 298 K attaining values of 32.34 and 14.78 mg g −1 for OG and FG, respectively. The pH plays a crucial role in the maximum sorption of dyes, and the experimental data were successfully adjusted to pseudo-first-order kinetic and Liu isotherm model.
... Moreover, numerous Green Chemistry topics have been employed in order to foster integration of systems thinking and green chemistry in chemistry education by adhering to either the "essential" or the "synergistic" connection between the two perspectives have been employed. These include the following: renewable energy (synergistic: Blatti et al., 2019), renewable natural resources (essential: , climate change (synergistic: Blatti et al., 2019;essential: Holme, 2019;Li et al., 2018), forest management (essential: Li et al., 2018), ocean acidification (synergistic: Blatti et al., 2019), sustainable agriculture and engineering (synergistic: Blatti et al., 2019), biopolymers (synergistic: Blatti et al., 2019;Ginzburg et al., 2019), nanotechnology (synergistic: Blatti et al., 2019;essential: Sharma et al., 2019), food systems (synergistic: Lu and Halog, 2020;Mackenzie et al., 2019), sustainable materials (synergistic: Blatti et al., 2019), aquatic toxicity (essential: Moore and Ausley, 2004), and catalysis (essential: Sharma et al., 2019). Addressing System Thinking in Green Chemistry topics allows students to think beyond Chemistry and explore societal and ethical matters. ...
Article
This study presents a systematic scoping review of the literature focusing on the connections between systems thinking and green chemistry in the context of green chemistry education. The review maps extant research and, through a process of thematic synthesis, it investigates the role of systems thinking in supporting green chemistry education. The methodological search resulted in the identification of a total of 44 studies (published between 2004 and 2020) which were subsequently analyzed to establish the characteristics of existing evidence and provide answers to the research questions of the study. Specific connections between green chemistry and systems thinking were identified, together with a set of learning objectives which may been used for promoting their integration. The existence of several educational contexts and topics that take advantage of the two interrelated perspectives shows the large potential of the research field which however is still in its infancy.
... The amount of resources consumed depends on the type of fiber used in the textile manufacturing process as well as the technology used (Brik et al. 2006). As a result, the textile sector faces major pollution and waste creation issues throughout the manufacturing process (Moore & Ausley 2004). As a result, it is critical to examine waste generation to develop a waste management strategy for businesses (Zaman 2013). ...
Article
The main goal of the study was to look at the properties of waste, treatment options, and disposal techniques. Furthermore, waste circulation variables in the textile and apparel sectors in Sri Lanka’s Biyagama Industrial Processing Zone were calculated. The types, volumes, and per capita waste generation of ten industries were analyzed, as well as waste management activities such as trash minimization, handling, storing, recirculation, and disposal. The information was gathered using questionnaires, interviews, and field observations. According to the findings, the total industrial waste generation rate was 13792.5 tonnes per year, with 5926 tonnes per year designated as hazardous waste materials (42.9%). Furthermore, the waste generation rate per capita was 0.93 kg. The waste circulation factor was 0.38, according to the findings. The findings of the study highlight the necessity for integrated waste management methods in the textile and apparel industries.
... So, it can be concluded that the industrialization of societies will inadvertently give products to society that polluted water is industrial wastewater. (Moore and Ausley 2004, Anjaneyulu et al., 2005, Hanchang 2009, Guittonny-Philippe et al., 2014. Most dyes are toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic, so it is important to remove the dye from wastewater (Gičević et al., 2019, Kaur and Singh). ...
Article
Full-text available
Bismuth vanadate in combination with titanium dioxide were synthesized by hydrothermal method and its photocatalytic activity was investigated under visible light irradiation for acid orange 10 (AO10) dye removal. The 10% BiVO4/TiO2 showed the highest catalytic activity in comparison with 20, 30, 40 and 50% BiVO4/TiO2 ratios. The removal of AO10 azo dye in aqueous solutions was studied in laboratory-scale experiments using 25 removal processes and their removal efficiencieswere evaluated, separately. The results showed that the amount of de-colorization for each oxidation process is completely different. The order of the investigated processes in removing the dye after 90 min is as follows: LED < TiO2 < BiVO4 < 10% BT/without LED < BiVO4/ LED < 50% BT < 40% BT < 30% BT < 20% BT < UV/H2O2 < 10% BT < 5a-10%BT < 5F-10%BT < 10a-10%BT < 50F-10%BT < 20a-10%BT < 10F-10%BT < 20F-10%BT < 20H-10%BT < 40H-10%BT < 50H-10%BT < 20a-20F-10%BT < 20a-20F-50H-10%BT. Among the above processes, 20a-20F-50H-10%BT had the best removal performance and can be suggested for using in real conditions. Coagulation/precipitation process was done using 5 mg/L of FeCl3 as post-treatment reaching efficiency of 100% in the studied system.
... Processing a ton of textiles is estimated to consume about 80-100 m 3 of water that is subsequently released into the environment [1][2][3]. Textile processes such as sizing and desizing consume considerable amounts of water, energy and chemicals and are mostly responsible for the toxic effluents released into the environment from textile plants [4][5]. Several reports have highlighted the problems and concerns on processing textiles and their effects on the environment [1]. ...
Article
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Sizing is an essential step for warp yarn preparation in the weaving process of textile supply chain. It is carried out to impart additional protection to warp yarns in order to withstand the abrasive forces during weaving. Although sizing is an inevitable process and offers substantial benefits during weaving, there are several problems associated with sizing. Cost is always a prime management concern and this paper approaches to explore more efficient sizing recipes in terms of selecting size chemicals compared to the traditional recipe.
... Current treatments include waterproofing, dyeing, softening and conferring antimicrobial properties, as well as imparting soil and flame resistance. 2 The majority of textile dyes originate from petroleum sources; it is estimated that globally, more than 700 000 tons of synthetic dyes are produced each year, and up to 100 000 different types of dyes and pigments are used in the textile market. 59,60 The classification of textile dyes used in finishing treatments is based on either the chemical structure or the method of application to different substrates. ...
Article
Multiple studies on textiles have shown that significant numbers of microparticulate fibres are released daily during washing and are discharged to sewer and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These fibres can...
... With the relocation of textile production to developing countries at the end of the 20th century, overall production costs decreased because of lower environmental standards and labour costs [55]. This resulted in bad working conditions, missing workplace safety, child labour and modern slavery [56,57]. ...
Article
The finite material basis for human activities on Earth is under growing pressure. The unsustainable outcomes of the textile sector include resource overuse, accumulation of waste, largely uncontrolled emissions release into the natural system, and labour rights violations. There is broad consensus in academia and the industry itself regarding need to transform the textile system. Circular Economy (CE) has recently been the most prominent strategy to target resource scarcity and environmental problems at the same time. CE is at the core of the Textiles Strategy within the EU’s Green Deal Circular Economy Action Plan. It focusses on energy efficiency, reusability, recyclability and repairability of textile products. Despite its popularity and increasing implementation in the textile sector, CE is criticised as perpetuating the unsustainable status quo by fueling the narrative of ecological modernisation. This research therefore investigates the contribution of CE re-use and recycling interventions to reduced material flows and overall sustainability in the textile sector from a comprehensive sustainability perspective by using systems thinking. In a first step, the systems-oriented concept map extension (SOCME) tool is used to explore and illustrate sustainability challenges in the multiscalar and deeply interconnected textile system. In a second step, recycling and re-use are critically assessed in terms of their potential contribution to 1) limited overall material throughput and 2) environmental, social and economic sustainability in the case of textiles. Our findings show that recycling and re-use as CE interventions are suited only to a limited extent to achieve the goal of reduced material flows if operating within traditional market dynamics and growth paradigms. Therefore, CE's most prominent interventions in the textile sector are not able, per se, to lead to a more sustainable textile sector. We offer four recommendations for practioners, policy-makers and scholars to re-direct CE towards sustainability and invite for discussion: 1) re-introduce waste hierarchies with a clear prioritisation on overall reduction of all sources and forms of waste 2) reduce material and products’ complexity, 3) reframe a CE narrative for the textile sector, and 4) apply a systems perspective to CE.
... The reasons are multidimensional, to use the term of Brunel and Levinson (2016), but the main environmental factors behind the exodus are also behind the decline of American textile production (Leiter, Schulman, & Zingraff, 1991;Minchin, 2012;Moore & Ausley, 2004). They are increasing stringency with the passing and augmenting of the Clean Water Act (Houck, 2002; US EPA, 2019), regulating on the volume of effluents (Karr & Yoder, 2004;Wenig, 1998) rather than their content, and most importantly, lack of purification options (Kant, 2012). ...
... Thus, it gets loaded with auxiliary chemicals and unfixed dyes as wastewater wastes [5]. Similarly, a number of chemicals used as washing and finishing agents pollute the water used during wet processing operations [6,7]. This wastewater contaminates the ecosystem if discharged untreated [8,9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the finishing processes of textiles (fibers, yarns, fabrics, and nonwovens) using eco-friendly technology. The ecological technology have a wide range of functional properties and environmental benefits. This study is related to a modern eco-friendly bleaching technology that relies on Ultraviolet/O3 radiation of poly(lactic acid) fabric through a simple technique. Bleaching process of the poly(lactic acid) fabrics was carried out via Ultraviolet/O3 radiation for 80 minutes on the poly(lactic acid) knitted fabrics in 5 various settings. The colorimetric assays showed that the Ultraviolet/O3 bleaching routes were screened to obtain desired whiteness index(WI), tint factor(Tw), lightness/darkness(L*), redness/greenness(a*), yellowness/blueness(b*), chroma(c*) and hue(h˚) of the bleached poly(lactic acid) fabrics. The best colorimetric properties of the bleached fabrics were WI: 87.7, T_W: -0.1, L*:94.227, a*:-0.106, b*:0.294, c*:0.2512, h˚: 98.6551. These characteristics could be obtained at Ultraviolet/O3 irradiation on the fabrics which was padded (two dips, two nips) to 70% wet pick-up, 2 m/min speed and 1.1 bar pressure with a liquor containing 4ml/l hydrogen peroxide (35%) solution (Ultraviolet/O3/H2O2 bleaching system). The SEM images presented that after the Ultraviolet/O3/H2O2 bleaching process, some nano-size fractures (about 130 nm) are clearly observed on the poly(lactic acid) fabrics. The ATR-IR spectrum of Ultraviolet/O3/H2O2 bleached poly(lactic acid) fibers displays more intense C–C–O absorption bands (1161 cm―1).
... Only a handful of publications 3,10−14 and a current project 15 of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) have directly pointed to the need to apply ST broadly across chemistry or examined how to characterize and evaluate ST capacities acquired within science education including traditional chemistry courses. Adoption of green and sustainable chemistry principles and practice involves the application of systems processes and tools, 13,16,17 and a recent supplement to the ACS Guidelines and Evaluation Procedures for Bachelor's Degree Programs addresses how educators may integrate green and sustainable chemistry concepts into the chemistry curriculum. 18 ...
Article
To remain relevant, chemists need to be able to understand their work in terms of systems. Since systems thinking is a framework to understand and manage systems, the introduction of systems thinking in chemistry education would assist learners to navigate complex, inter-related concepts typical of systems. At the same time, the adoption of systems thinking in chemistry education will require a major reorientation in how chemistry is taught. We consider several characteristics of system complexity that are key to systems thinking in chemistry–including purpose, scale, boundaries, hierarchies, constraints, loop concepts and emergence–and discuss their introduction in education and the benefits this will bring.
... [1,2] In turn, this had a negative impact on water quality due to the discharge of wastewater from various industries such as textile, dyeing, paper, processing, food, etc. in river streams without prior treatment, which makes it toxic to plants and aquatic life. [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19] Textile dyes and other types of industrial dyes are considered as one of the main pollutants of freshwater resources. [20] The reactive dye e.g., methylene blue is an azo-based chromophore and the mechanism of attachment to the textile fiber is through covalent bonds. ...
Article
The development of nontoxic bio-waste based catalyst for efficient recycling of textile dye wastewater to potable water is paramount to support a sustainable environment. This research work investigated a crystallographic evolution of CaO from the chicken eggshell wastes via a simple calcination process for the photocatalytic degradation of the methylene blue dye. The physicochemical properties of the activated CaO catalyst were studied using characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The crystallite size was estimated as ∼55 nm for the prepared CaO. The sharp bands at 358 cm⁻¹ and the broad band at 675 cm⁻¹ in the Raman spectroscopic analysis have revealed a function attributed to the Ca–O bonds. The energy band gap of prepared CaO was calculated by the Tauc equation using the UV-visible reflectance spectrum. The estimated energy band gap has a maximum value of 5.54 eV. However, a lower bandgap 2.27 eV was also estimated. SEM micrograph revealed the multi-arm/angular and rod-shaped microstructure with a width of 1–2 µm of the arm. The ring-shaped appearance encouraged the porous behavior of the prepared CaO. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared CaO was performed for the degradation of the methylene blue dye in distilled water under natural sunlight in the ambient environment. The maximum photocatalytic degradation efficiency was observed as ∼ 98% in 180 min. The research work incites the possible realistic application of bio-waste based inexpensive photocatalysts for textile/industrial wastewater remediation.
... Other shapes are beginning to emerge for a variety of reasons-performance, comfort, pilling propensity bulkiness, tenacity, processing etc. (Morris, 1989;Okamoto & Kajiwara, 1995;Wada, 1992). (Kim et al., 2019) Dyeing can be carried out as a continuous or batch process (Moore & Ausley, 2004). The most appropriate process to use depends on several factors, such as type of material (fiber, yarn, fabric, fabric construction, and garment), generic type of fiber, size of dye batch and quality requirements for the dyed fabric, but batch processes are more commonly used to dye textile materials. ...
Article
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The effects of fiber morphology such as fiber fineness and cross-sectional shape on the dyeing mechanism of polyester filaments were analyzed. Round shaped 50d (1.38 denier per filament or dpf) polyester filament yarn, scalloped oval shaped 75d (2.5 dpf) polyester filament yarn and cruciform shaped 100d (4.7 dpf) polyester filament yarn was studied for this research. The color difference, darkness-lightness variation, color fastness to wash and visual assessment of residual dye bath liquor were investigated. The difference in cross-sectional shape and fiber fineness caused the difference in color and shade, darkness-lightness variation, difference in color fastness to wash as well as residual dye bath concentration. The results showed that 50d filament yarn having round shape showed higher dye uptake (hence lower dye bath residual), lower color difference from the standard and more similarity to standard's shade in comparison with polyester filament yarns made of 75d (scalloped oval shape cross-section) and 100d (with cruciform shape cross-section).
... Finishing-Treatments with chemical compounds aimed at improving the quality of the fabric. Permanent press treatments, water proofing, softening, antistatic protection, soil resistance, stain release, and microbial/fungal protection are all examples of fabric treatments applied in the finishing process (Moore & Ausley, 2004). ...
Article
Environmental degradation is considered one of the biggest issues facing humankind. The problem is deep and global with fast fashion playing a significant, yet underrealized role. Scholars have established that developing the sustainable behaviors necessary to mitigate the effects of environmental degradation is a complex process, that knowledge of environmental degradation alone is insufficient to develop sustainable behaviors, and that both attitudinal and behavioral transformations are necessary for global environmental action and stewardship. As a result, researchers have called for new approaches to environmental education to promote transformative learning. Art experiences can function as a powerful tool in learning and transformation, but art exhibition experiences are underutilized in environmental education. This quasi-experimental study was designed to determine whether an ecological art exhibition, Canary Concepts and the Hidden Danger of Ubiquitous Things, could be associated with internal factors related to sustainable behaviors in fast fashion consumption—specifically an environmental attitude consisting of knowledge, values, and intended sustainable behaviors. This repeated measures study compared pre-exhibition and post-exhibition knowledge, values, and intended sustainable behaviors test scores of 163 University of Nebraska-Lincoln student participants. They consisted of 148 females and 15 males ranging between 18 and 34 years-of-age. Two-tailed t-tests were used to determine whether there was a statistically significant increase in knowledge, values, and intended sustainable behaviors associated with the exhibition-intervention. Results indicated a statistically significant increase in knowledge, values, and intended sustainable behaviors supporting the primary hypothesis that an ecological art exhibition experience can be an effective educational intervention and transformative experience. Results also demonstrated the importance of the holistic nature of the exhibition experience, as the majority of participants attributed changes in knowledge, values, and intended sustainable behaviors to the exhibition-as-a whole rather than individual labels or installations. Relationships between participants’ characteristics and changes in knowledge, values, and intended sustainable behaviors were also explored. Advisor: Mary Alice Casto
... For example, the ultra-low liquor ratio and fluid-treated dyeing machines are developed (Ahmed & El-Shishtawy, 2010;Banchero, 2013;Mathur et al., 2004). Moreover, some emerging technologies are gaining increasing attention of researchers for ecological and economical efficient results (Bhatti et al., 2016;Guesmi et al., 2013;Gulzar et al., 2015;Moore & Ausley, 2004;Ratnapandian et al., 2011;Vankar et al., 2008). ...
Article
The eco-sustainable natural dyes and their application are increasing due to the control of pollution, biological protection and easy application. In this study, Marigold natural dye was extracted from the flowers of the indigenous crop and applied onto cotton fabric by ultrasound-assisted dyeing method. In the first stage, the extraction of natural dye was optimized. Afterward, mercerized cotton fabric was dyed with the extracted Marigold dye. The dyed fabrics produced yellow shades onto cotton substrate. Higher colored yields of the dyed fabrics up to the value of 25 and acceptable colorfastness were achieved at optimized conditions. However, dyeing by pre-mordanting method, washing fastness was marginally improved. Comparing conventional and ultrasound dyeing methods, savings in amount of water (around 16%), thermal energy (for lesser dyeing temperature) and salt concentration (around 14%) required for ultrasound dyeing were notable. Also, representative wastewaters showed around 30% reduction in the total dissolved solids contents. Additionally, tensile strength, stiffness and surface morphology of the dyed fabrics were also assessed and found acceptable.
... The NH 4 þ concentration selected was at the upper end of the range of concentrations (0.07e0.27 mg L À1 ) measured in blackwater systems in the coastal plain of Georgia, USA [44,45]. Treatment additions occurred only at the beginning of the experiment to simulate a single pulsed discharge of nutrients and chemicals, such as following a rain event or scheduled release of textile plant wastewater [5,46]. The mesocosms were established in a 9000 m 2 blackwater pond with an average depth of 1.2 m located in the floodplain of the Ogeechee River in Bulloch County, Georgia, USA (32.7011, ...
Article
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Mixtures of chemicals from human sources are pervasive in aquatic systems, yet their effects on aquatic communities are relatively understudied. Emerging contaminants such as organophosphorus flame-retardants (e.g. tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (THPC)), are toxic to planktonic species at environmentally relevant concentrations. Additionally, inorganic ammonium from agriculture and industry is likely to enter surface waters simultaneously with flame retardant chemicals. While effects of ammonium on plankton are known, its presence has the potential to influence the toxicity of other contaminants. To study mixture effects on plankton communities, floating mesocosms were dosed with THPC (0.08 or 0.8 mg L-1) with or without ammonium (0.3 mg L-1). Weekly measurements of zooplankton community composition and phytoplankton abundance (as chlorophyll a) were performed. Each factor alone had no effect on zooplankton abundance or species composition. However, the mixture decreased the proportion of calanoid copepods and increased rotifers during weeks 1-3. Chlorophyll a was unaffected by treatments, but concentrations were highly variable for the duration of the experiment. The interaction between THPC and ammonium suggests that the contaminants together reduce abundance of large zooplankton, releasing smaller zooplankton from predation and competitive pressure while potentially limiting food availability to planktivorous fish.
... Del acto de la compra, se derivan actos aspectos específicos como la responsabilidad social empresarial, además de su relación con el contexto socioeconómico y cultural. Así, se abre un espacio de posibilidades ilimitadas, tanto técnicas como productivas, asentadas en nuevos paradigmas como son: el respeto y promoción del medio ambiente (Moore & Ausley, 2004) y etiquetados verdes (Nimon & Beghin, 2017). Se desarrollan nuevos componentes menos contaminantes, junto a procedimientos empresariales menos agresivos, con menores emisiones de CO2, menor consumo de agua y mayor reciclaje (Kant, 2012). ...
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El objetivo de esta investigación, es analizar los elementos que facilitan y contribuyen al desarrollo del sector textil transnacional teniendo en cuenta factores exógenos, así como su relación con la responsabilidad social empresarial (RSE), a través de un análisis Delphi. Se han utilizado dos paneles de cincuenta y cinco expertos, relacionados con las temáticas objeto de estudio, los cuales respondieron a las hipótesis planteadas, con la finalidad de clasificar y analizar los resultados obtenidos, identificándolos según su influencia económica, tecnológica, social, política y legal, dando como resultado la existencia de un nuevo paradigma de posibilidades en el sector textil, circunstancias que contribuyen a mejorar la producción de una manera más ética y sostenible.
... It is widely acknowledged that TNCs use the processes of CSR as a mere business strategy (García-Rodríguez, García-Rodríguez, Castilla-Gutiérrez, & Major, 2013). Meanwhile, they fail to practice due diligence in the establishment of effective environmental protection commensurate with the footprint such enterprises leave on the natural environment (Moore & Ausley, 2004). As stated by the Society is faced with the concept of corporate social irresponsibility, despite the general cultural trend toward being more responsible. ...
Article
Transnational textile companies claim to have put in a place processes of corporate social responsibility to promote ethical behaviour in regard to the economy, environment, and populations within which they operate. However, their true conduct, behind the mask of marketing campaigns, may be better defined as corporate social irresponsibility. The objective of this study was to analyze and explore the processes of CSiR within the textile sector as being the rule and not the exception. A broad review of the available literature was carried out, both as a literal and conceptual analysis, covering 133 approaches to the hitherto undefined concept of CSiR. In addition, a Google frequency count was performed, with a saturated categorization using the five dimensions into which the CSiR processes are concentrated: ethical, legal, social, economic, and environmental. The methodology used was based on a higher order association of these hierarchies, for which a triad model was established, allowing the most representative combinations to be identified. This methodology demonstrated that the environmental dimension is of residual character, while allowing the definitions of greater weight and scope to be extracted. From these, it was inferred that the current concept of CSiR is best defined in a three‐fold legal‐social‐ethical category, based on its frequency of use in Google, its effective application, and scope. The definition provided by this study may contribute to the improvement of the ethical processes of entrepreneurship and CSR by highlighting their taxonomy of inconsistencies, rather than focusing on the preconceived benefits of their actions.
... Reducing water use provides environmental benefits as well as cost savings. Application of ultrasonic waves, microwave dyeing, plasma technology, supercritical carbon dioxide, and electrochemical dyeing of textiles are some of the revolutionary ways to advance the textile wet processing [6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. Supercritical carbon dioxide assisted dyeing system is one such advanced technique which offers a waterfree solution. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The textile industry is among the industries with the highest water consumption; water is being utilized at all stages during the chemical wet processing of textiles. The water effluent contains dyes as well as dispersing agent and various chemicals. The treatment of these effluents leads to an increase in the ultimate cost. Since costs for water and wastewater are continually rising, and the legislator lays down increasingly stringent limits for the pollution of wastewater, textile dyeing and finishing methods have to be used in future which will use no or very little water. Various new techniques, such as plasma dyeing, e-control method, a solvent-induced dyeing method, have been developed to overcome the present deficiency in the conventional dyeing system. One such method is the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) instead of water for the dyeing of textiles, particularly made from synthetic fibers (polyester, acetate, nylon). Carbon dioxide is available in abundance, ecologically harmless, non -toxic and non-explosive. When placed above the critical point (31.1°C and 73 atmospheres), CO2 becomes a remarkable solvent for many natural and synthetic dyes, which are utilized for the coloration of cotton and various synthetic fibers. The dye solution in the supercritical CO2 is carried to the fiber to be dyed. Under certain conditions, the gas-like diffusion of supercritical CO2 disperses the dye evenly into the small pores and crevices of the fiber. In the dyeing process, the dyestuff powder is fed into the autoclave. The dyeing equipment is flushed with liquid CO2 and preheated liquidified CO2 picks up the dye and performs dyeing of the package as in solvent dyeing. This dye gets absorbed onto the fiber. When the pressure is released CO2 becomes gaseous and loses its dissolving ability and the dye residues are separated after liquidification. Carbon dioxide, free from dye, goes back into the collecting tank after completion of the dyeing process. The circulation of CO2 is stopped, dyeing autoclave is depressurized and the unused dye powder gets deposited at the bottom of the machine. Thus, super-critical dyeing does not produce any drainage and may be considered as an eco-friendly dyeing approach.
Article
In this study, the effect of ionic liquids on the dyeing of cotton fabrics with reactive dyestuffs was investigated. For this purpose, 100% cotton fabrics were treated with imidazolium (1-ethyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ethyl sulfate- E) and ammonium (methyl-tri-n-butylammonium methyl sulfate- B) based ionic liquids with three different concentrations. To assess the effect of the treatments, the cotton fabrics were characterized by FT-IR, SEM and DSC. After this treatment, the cotton fibers were dyed with 1.0% o.w.f reactive dye. The K/S values were determined to evaluate the effect of ionic liquids on the dyeability of cotton fabrics and fastness analyses to washing, water and rubbing were conducted to examine the end-use properties of dyed fabrics. The results revealed that ionic liquids settled on the fabric surface and after each ionic liquid modification, the increasing intensity was observed with increasing ionic liquid concentrations at broad bands according to the FT-IR analysis. It was determined that the K/S value of the modified cotton fabric increased with increment in the concentration of ionic liquid E, especially. Considering the overall results, it is possible to state that ionic liquids which are implemented in this study are efficient in enhancing the dyeability of the cotton fabrics.
Article
Environmentally benign dyes are used in the textile industry to reduce pollution. An attempt was been made to produce dyed silk cocoons. This was achieved by feeding modified mulberry leaf food containing dye spray solution to the silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori. This method greatly reduced the need to deal with dyes used in conventional dyeing. Seven different commonly used azo dyes had been reviewed for dyeing to make colored cocoon silk. The dyes used had similar chemical structures, but the distribution coefficients were changing systematically. The physical properties of those related azo dyes indicate that a balance between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity is needed to enable the dye to diffuse from the digestive tract of silkworm larvae to the lymph, and then to the silk glands. Preferred association of the dye with the sericin or silk protein in the silkworm glands and finally in the cocoons are determined by distribution coefficient of the dye. These findings are extremely important for the development of new dye molecules that can successfully feed silkworm larvae.
Chapter
Full-text available
Over the last few years, many scientists and engineers have formed an interest in sonochemistry associated with production and processes for the application of power ultrasound. Literature with remarkable outcomes using sonochemistry are enormous but rarely accepted within the scientific community due to two factors, namely specific resistance toward ideas producing sound energy that is used as a driving force for chemical modifications and insufficient equipment for scaling-up activities. The energy provided through ultrasound is known to considerably enhance the production and quality of product facilitating purification and recovery processes for varied industrial items. There are varied fields where there will be high progress in sonochemistry in near future but more of them would be in smaller scale. Outstanding laboratory results are continuously thriving for scaling up of the existing systems. Higher collaboration and cooperation amongst interested scientific fields for effective application of cavitation principle due to ultrasonication are needed now.
Chapter
Sustainability is, nowadays, a full demand of global community due to the widespread information about hazardous effects of man‐made products, their effluents load eluted after their synthesis and application. Now, the people are looking everywhere to find the green products in all walks of life, such as pharmaceuticals, textiles, flavors, fashions, electronics, etc., due to their excellent ayurvedic and biological nature. Among these products, antiviral, antioxidant and antifungal‐based plant‐derived biocolorants are gaining their revival in such applied fields, particularly in textiles and pharmaceuticals. Of these natural colors, flavonoid‐based natural colorants cover the full spectrum of colors with their beautiful look. In this chapter, various types of flavonoids have been discussed, where their sources have been narrated from isolation to applications. This chapter will provide a brief overview for those who want to use flavonoid‐based colorants in all walks of life.
Chapter
Growing awareness about the environmental issues caused by synthetic colorants in all applied fields has affected the global mental approach about charming colors. Now, people are shifting toward eco‐safe, greener, sustainable labeled products, which have not only excellent antiviral, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal but also have wonderful medicinal characteristics with soothing colors. The textile sector, on account of these characteristics, is moving toward such green products, particularly natural dyes. Their isolation methods, mode of application have some difficulties, which the researchers are improving day by day with conventional methods. Still, these methods need a lot of chemicals, labour, power, and economy. Now there is a ray of using modern tools, such as radiation methods, like ultraviolet, ultrasonic, microwave, gamma, and plasma radiation. This chapter will contain information about the exploration of new dye‐yielding plants by employing these cost, time, energy effective isolation tools, and will give a short view on the introduction of plant‐based anchors (bio‐mordants) in comparison with chemical anchors (chemical mordants) for improving fastness ratings with new shades. Hopefully, the natural dye artisans, traders, industrialists, and academician will get new ways to explore new dye yielding plants for coloration of natural fabrics.
Chapter
Unlike nonrenewable, nonsustainable, petroleum‐based conventional materials and chemical processes, green chemicals, materials, and reactions are sustainable, highly energy‐efficient, less waste, and environmentally friendly. Recently, various initiatives have made textile materials and textile wet processing stages more environmentally friendly. These include increasing use of natural green fibers, green fiber production methods, use of natural and green dyes and auxiliaries, solvents, optimized and energy‐efficient processing with recycling of water and chemicals, bioprocessing, the elimination of hazardous substances and the recycling of textile materials toward achieving circular economy and zero waste concepts. This chapter focuses on the progress in innovative and green processes adopted for practicing green chemistry approaches and methodologies toward targeting the establishments of a circular economy in textile sector.
Article
Rapid expansion of digitalization and in the volume of data available constitutes a major driver toward circular economy. In the textile industry, with its vast quantities of waste and huge environmental impact, transformation toward such circularity is necessary but challenging. To explore how the use of data could support building sustainability-aligned pathways to circular economy of textiles, a study employing a two-round disaggregative Delphi approach (engaging 33 experts in the first round, in May 2021, and 26 in the second, in June 2021) articulated alternative images of the future. The three images, dubbed Transparency, Conflicting Interests, and Sustainable Textiles, imply that the role for data is intertwined with sustainability aspirations. The results highlight that exploiting data in pursuit of circular economy is a collaborative effort involving business value networks that include consumers and regulators. Availability and sharing of accountability-affording, meaningful data on textiles' life cycle and value network function as a key enabler. By working with the images developed, actors can better assess their circular-economy commitments, planned actions, and the consequences of these. Furthermore, the images provide a tool for mutual discussion of the development desired and of related responsibilities and uncertainties.
Chapter
Conventional textile dyeing technologies are based on wet processes that use a vast amount of water and energy and generate massive amounts of wastewater during textile wet processing, such as dyeing, printing, and finishing. Since wastewater carries pollutants, such as dyes, salts, alkalis, surfactants, and finishing agents, it requires to be specially treated before discharging to diminish the amount of contaminants beforehand, which requires large capital expenditure and water treatment cost. It is essential to know that some of the toxic and harmful chemicals also cannot be completely treated and pose a huge health risk to human health. In this context, we describe the textile dyeing processes, dyeing of synthetic and natural fibers, the environmental impact, and recent advances in textile dyeing technologies and effluent treatments.
Chapter
Textile industry is one of the primarily concerned industries in the world generating huge revenues where both the skilled and unskilled labours are employed. Raw materials are mainly synthetic chemicals rather than the natural one. Several bleaching agents, additives are also used to get sufficiently high and uniform degree of whiteness in the textile materials. Environmental contamination is also common by the textile effluents. All these substances are mutagenic and carcinogenic, and cause enormous health hazards to humans, animals, and aquatic lives. Infertility, implantation failure, and miscarriage due to exposure to dyes, dye intermediates, and other raw materials are major concern worldwide as integrity of both the male and female gametes are massively affected by them. However, little or no attention has been paid in real life scenario, mainly in the developing and under developed countries including adaptation of successful and advanced mitigation strategies. Therefore, the chapter highlights the common issues and possible remedial measures of the textile industry exposure with respect to fertility potential and pregnancy outcome.
Article
Textile knit dyeing industries of Bangladesh are playing a significant role in the country's economy and retain above forty percent of the total annual export performance. Economical use of water in the knit dyeing industries may lead to reduce water consumption significantly, thereby availing environmental sustainability. This study was undertaken to explore the possibility of minimizing water use in the cotton knit dyeing process without hampering the fabric quality and find out the resulting environmental and economic benefits. Currently, there are no published color-wise water consumption data for dyeing one kg of knit fabric available from Bangladesh cotton knit dyeing industries. Therefore, the primary information about water consumption has been generated by site visiting and auditing bulk production of some selected cotton knit dyeing industries. Material balance and right first time (RFT) approaches are exploited for generating stepwise water consumption scenarios. Minimum volume of adequate water required for each reactive dyeing has been estimated. The total volume of water consumed by cotton knit dyeing industries of Bangladesh was about 85.87 million cubic meters in the year 2019–2020. It has been estimated that 1 L less water consumption to produce 1 kg of fabric can save 7.80 percent of chemical cost. These estimates suggest that it is imperative to monitor every dyeing step carefully for reducing water consumption without compromising the quality of dyeing and fabric. The analyses of the collected knit dyeing processing data reveal that water consumption quantity varies with the factors like design of the dyeing machine, efficiency of the machine pump, types of wet processing and fabric, know-how (knowledge) and with adaptation of new technologies or processes. Many new approaches can be brought into practice to minimize water use during cotton knit dyeing processes. Finally, some sustainable alternative technologies, prospective techniques and recommendations are set forth based on the authors' extensive inspection, experience, spill-off knowledge and received information from previous studies to prompt economical use of water, thereby reducing water consumption in cotton knit dyeing industries of Bangladesh. The study concludes that predictive approaches, along with preventive measures for the reduction of water consumption in dyeing processes using sustainable technologies and practices, will make a paradigm shift from the reactive approach for wastewater management to the preservation of natural resources.
Chapter
Sustainability has become the prime focus nowadays for scientific strategies; hence researchers are keen on developing more sustainable materials displaying properties that may be comparable to conventional materials. Owing to their environmental-friendly nature, sustainability and good specific properties natural fibers have succeeded in attracting many researchers and industries to utilize them as reinforcements in the production of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs). However, PMCs reinforced with man-made fibers like carbon, glass, and aramid have exhibited better performance in comparison with PMCs strengthened with cellulosic fibers. One of the reasons for PMCs reinforced with natural fibers displaying lower mechanical properties is the inadequate interfacial adhesion between a hydrophobic matrix and hydrophilic natural fibers. Hence in order to achieve good interfacial bonding among fiber and matrix, a lot of research has been taking place in the direction of achieving hierarchical nature into the composites by incorporating nanomaterials in any of the constituents. In the view of maintaining sustainability, this book chapter emphasizes the detailed description of various natural fibers and green nano reinforcements. A detailed description of inducing hierarchical nature into the biocomposites via incorporating reinforcements at different scales such as Micro Crystalline Cellulose (MCC), Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC), and Bacterial Cellulose (BC) and recent studies in this area has been reported in the latter part of this chapter.
Chapter
In general, the concept of sustainability refers to the long-term conservation of well-being and efficiency, and the responsible management of resources, with its environmental, economic, and social dimensions. Conventional chemical production processes based on fossil fuels such as petroleum and coal are not sustainable due to the limited supply of raw materials and the processes producing waste that has serious negative effects on the environment. Large-scale environmental pollution from the textile industry with a long historical past has been a problem throughout history, but more recently, the intense use of permanent and hazardous chemicals has led to the creation of a greater threat to ecosystems and human health. In terms of both volumetric size and wastewater composition, textile wastewater is considered to be the most polluted waste among all industry sectors. The use of chemicals in textile finishing processes is predominantly during wet processes such as dyeing, washing, printing, and fabric finishing. Compared with the use in all sectors, it is seen that much more water is used in textile dyeing and finishing mills, 200 tons per ton of textile produced. While most of the chemicals used in textile production are nonhazardous, a relatively small proportion of chemicals are potentially dangerous, but it is a fact that a large number of hazardous chemicals are used in textile production. Dyeing, which is the process of dyeing textile materials using dyes or pigments in an aqueous environment, requires the use of a large number of chemicals, including acids or alkalis, and dyeing is usually carried out for a long time and at high temperature. Sustainable textile production should be environmentally friendly and ensure the rational conditions of maintaining social and environmental quality by preventing pollution with greener raw materials and energy inputs or by establishing pollution control technologies. This chapter will address environmentally friendly ways and alternatives to wet processing procedures and operations such as dyeing, washing, printing, and chemical finishing in the textile industry, along with the dyes, solvents, and other auxiliaries used.
Article
The present study aims to evaluate the application of coumarin as a green carrier alternative for dyeing of polyester fabrics, as well as to optimize key dyeing parameters in order to obtain greater color strength (K/S) at lower temperatures than 130°C using single azo class dispersed dye. For this purpose, a full-factorial design was used to study the influence of the single and interactive effects of four factors involved in the dyeing process, namely, pH, temperature, and coumarin and dye concentrations. The chosen technique was a 24-factorial, one-center point, and three replicates at the center point resulting on a response surface, which has shown an increase of the color strength of five times at 90°C, and of three times at 100°C when compared to dyeing at the same temperatures without the use of a carrier. In addition, excellent fastness to washing and to rubbing were obtained.
Article
The effects of atmospheric air plasma treatment based on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technology on the surface alteration of a woven polyester (PET) textile fabric were investigated. Chemical and physical surface modifications were characterized by specific wettability measurements (water contact angle-WCA and % capillarity), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential assessments, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and chemical quantification analysis using ortho-toluidine blue (TBO) dye before and after the DBD processing. A striking enhancement of capillarity percentage from 1.6 % to 108 % was ensured by the plasma treatment suggesting that special chemical elements such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, and carboxyl groups were embedded on the polyester surface, thereby offering it a new hydrophilic behavior. The morphological analysis revealed that plasma treatment is a suitable mechanism to enhance the roughness of treated samples improving furthermore the water retention of the fabric and making the structure more adapted to further chemicals applications. The zeta potential and chemical quantification analysis were also of great interest since they reveal overall the same trend as do the wettability measurements and confirms that the extent of surface modification is in big dependency to the selected plasma parameters. Dyeability of untreated and plasma treated samples was also investigated in terms of color strength, in addition to wash and rub fastness. Sufficiently, higher dyeing performances were noted for plasma treated polyester when compared to the untreated fabric. Atmospheric air plasma treatment was found to be an effective approach to boost the technical reactivity of PET fabrics opening up new opportunities for surface modification under the growing environmental and energy-saving concerns.
Conference Paper
Plasma technology applied to biopolymers industries is a dry and environment-friendly process for achieving surface alteration without altering its bulk properties. Two kinds of plasma are primarily used; thermal (hot) and non-thermal (cold). Thermal plasma has a temperature of the order of 1000 K on the other hand cold plasma is maintained around room temperature. Non-thermal atmospheric plasmas are ideal for biopolymers materials because they are heat sensitive and are applicable to continuous processes. For achieving desirable changes on the surface topography of biopolymer, correct understanding of chemical and physical nature of plasma is required. Various cellulosic biopolymers like cotton fibre, banana fibre, linen fibre have a wide range of industrial applications. Among overall applications of cellulosic biopolymers, surface modification is of profound importance as it improves various properties such as softness, roughness, crystallinity, lubricity, dye-ability, antimicrobial tendency and wettability.
Article
Solvent assisted dyeing of silk fabric was studied with the aim to increase color strength of silk fabric with the help of green, eco-friendly deep eutectic solvent (DES), which act as a swelling agent. The use of a DES in solvent assisted silk dyeing showed favorable results. Silk yarns showed better swelling properties in the DES than water. Process parameters such as temperature, time, and concentration of DES were optimized with the help of a design expert software. Lack of fit F-value and P-value of the ANOVA shows that the model is significant. Optimized solvent assisted silk dyeing was carried out with acid dye and found to be better than that of conventional dyeing in aqueous medium. DES assisted dyed silk fabric showed desired color strength at 60 °C for 37 min, which is 10 °C and 5–10 min lesser than the conventional dyeing of silk fabric. The percentage exhaustion of DES assisted dye bath was calculated and found to be good. DES assisted dyed silk fabric showed wash, light, and rubbing fastness properties comparable to conventional aqueous dyed silk fabric.
Chapter
Textile industry is one of the primarily concerned industries in the world generating huge revenues where both the skilled and unskilled labours are employed. Raw materials are mainly synthetic chemicals rather than the natural one. Several bleaching agents, additives are also used to get sufficiently high and uniform degree of whiteness in the textile materials. Environmental contamination is also common by the textile effluents. All these substances are mutagenic and carcinogenic, and cause enormous health hazards to humans, animals, and aquatic lives. Infertility, implantation failure, and miscarriage due to exposure to dyes, dye intermediates, and other raw materials are major concern worldwide as integrity of both the male and female gametes are massively affected by them. However, little or no attention has been paid in real life scenario, mainly in the developing and under developed countries including adaptation of successful and advanced mitigation strategies. Therefore, the chapter highlights the common issues and possible remedial measures of the textile industry exposure with respect to fertility potential and pregnancy outcome.
Article
Purpose Dyeing of silk fabric was studied to increase dye uptake using eco-friendly glycerine based eutectic solvent (GES), which acts as a swelling agent. Design/methodology/approach The swelling behaviour of silk fabric in GES was analyzed using three-dimensional laser scanning microscope. Dyeing parameters such as time, temperature and GES concentration were optimized using design of experiments. Findings In total, 5.34 F-value and 0.0014 p-value of ANOVA represent that the model is significant. An optimized GES assisted dyeing was carried out with two different classes of dyes such as Acid Blue 281 and Acid Red 151 and further compared with that of conventional aqueous dyeing method. Originality/value At 70°C, silk fabric achieves desired colour strength after 35 min of dyeing (10 min lesser than conventional) using GES assisted dyeing method. % Dye exhaustion of GES assisted dye bath was carried out and found to be very good. Fastness properties such as washing, light and rubbing fastness of conventional and GES assisted dyed silk fabric showed comparable results.
Chapter
Textile finishing consists different steps, needs several chemicals and water to give desired features to the textile materials. It is a magical step that makes textile materials usable. However, serious water and chemical consumption is a major problem in textile finishing. Although there are different approaches to minimize this problem, the adaptation of technologies and methods that minimize water and chemical consumption is also an important alternative. Here in this chapter ozone gas application to the textile materials was summarized in terms of the usages in textile finishing processes. The strong oxidative feature of ozone can be defined as the main reason of using it in textile finishing processes. In these respect; main properties of ozone gas was defined and then the usages and studies about the application of it in different textile finishing processes was summarized in this chapter.
Chapter
This chapter aims to portray the concepts of green chemistry (GC) and sustainable chemistry (SC) with regard to the textile sector and in response to the increasing challenges of the sector in terms of sustainability. It highlights potentials and pitfalls and offers concrete examples and practices of SC relevant for the textile industry. The textile sector is one of the most polluting industries in the world, contributing 20% to total industrial pollution of the water resources. In total, 5 billion kg of dyes, pigments and finishing chemicals are currently in use in the textile industry, adding up to more than 8000 different chemicals utilized for garment production. Moreover, extensive resource use (e.g., fossil fuels, processing chemicals, water etc.) in combination with unhealthy, exploitative working conditions pose a myriad of challenges involving all dimensions of sustainability. Once introduced into a process or product, chemicals and their products of unwanted side reactions and of incomplete mineralization in effluent treatment, so-called transformation products (TPs), are likely to remain a concern throughout the product’s lifecycle and even beyond. For example, textiles at their life’s end, so-called post-consumer textiles, still contain up to 90% of the chemicals that were initially introduced during manufacturing or finishing. This high amount of chemical residues on textiles (only partly washed out during laundry) is not only problematic in terms of resource use, but it is also an environmental threat. Residues are continuously released due to limitations in conventional wastewater treatment and form waste and dump sites affecting human health and well-being. The aforementioned sustainability issues arising during textile production, distribution, use and disposal are inextricably linked to societal and cultural systems. The complex, dynamic and highly intertwined nature of these sustainability challenges in the textile sector calls for both a focus on input prevention of chemicals and a strong normative premise of intentionally beneficial design of chemicals that are not harmful to the environment and human health. Sustainable chemistry has become an emerging concept in response to various sustainability challenges associated with the production, distribution, use and discharge of chemicals and products. It has been acknowledged by UNEP as an important cornerstone in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and servers as a core concept within the Global Chemical Outlook II. Whilst green chemistry mainly addresses the synthesis of chemicals and some of their properties, SC reaches beyond the disciplinary boundaries of chemicals and their usage by a systems thinking approach. Being both a path and a goal, SC can act a beneficial umbrella concept for addressing the highly complex sustainability challenges regarding chemicals in the textile sector. Its specific potentials for the textile sector have not been studied hitherto and lie in its focus on input prevention, which influences not only production or wet processing of textiles, but the entire supply chain—including up- and downstream users—even beyond the product’s end of life. Practiced of SC within the textile industry addresses spatial as well as temporal scales, flows and dynamics of chemicals, materials and products and hence addresses drivers of highly complex and currently unsustainable practices. Specific examples and practices of SC within the textile sector will be described in-depth such as new business models (e.g. chemical leasing).
Article
Prior studies in sustainable development have been conducted since its introduction, however, there is evidence in the literature that sustainable supply chain finance is still lacking, in particular, in relation to developing measurements to analyze the benefit and cost attributes. Furthermore, these studies did not also identify an ideal hierarchical structure, which is key for accuracy of decisions making. Hence, this paper contributes to the literature by constructing a set of measurements and analyzing the benefits and costs in the textile industry. In this paper, a fuzzy interpretive structural model was developed to build a hierarchical model, and a fuzzy TODIM was applied to determine the linguistic preferences and identify the benefits and costs. The results obtained show that sustainable supply chain finance improves firms' competitive advantages through multiple attributes, which imply that collaboration value innovation, strategic competitive advantage and financial attributes are the most important aspects for improving firm's performance. The results also indicate that to build a successful sustainable supply chain finance, firms should upgrade the synchronization of financial-related decisions, obtain price and cost information, focus on product and service quality, and ensure the dispersion of dependent and interdepartmental interactions.
Article
Full-text available
Since fibers are strongly bonded in bamboo, extraction of fibers in their natural form is very difficult. This difficulty has allowed the leading production of fibers from bamboo to become viscose processing. This study reveals routes to produce spinnable natural bamboo fibers through eco-friendly processes retaining antibacterial and other innate properties. It was found that natural bamboo fibers showed better antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus than the raw red margin bamboo plant (Phyllostachys rubromarginata). It seems that bamboo has both bacterium/microbe attracting and resisting compounds. If bacteria-resisting soluble compounds are removed, the antibacterial activity increases in natural bamboo fibers. However, even when the viscose process removes both kinds of compounds it may still show bacterial resistance due to the presence of some residual process chemicals. This study provides such interesting evidence of antibacterial activity in red margin bamboo, natural bamboo fibers, and commercial bamboo viscose.
Chapter
This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Easy Care Finishing Softening Finishes Hydrophobic and Oleophobic Functional Finishes Flame‐Retardant Functional Finish Antimicrobial Finish UV Protection Functional Finishes Recent Developments in Functional Finishes Future Trends
Article
This study contributes to the construction of sustainable supply chain capabilities in the textile industry. Previous studies are lacking with regard to sustainable supply chain capabilities; specifically, there are hierarchical structures and measures in qualitative information and quantitative data in nature. In addition, previous studies do not integrate social media with qualitative information and quantitative data, even though social media is an important reference for decision-making. Hence, this study applied the fuzzy synthetic evaluation and decision-making trial evaluation laboratory to address linguistic preferences and provide a strategic approach for the proposed attributes. The results present the integration of qualitative information and quantitative data for building a hierarchical structure with sustainable supply chain capabilities and indicate that social, dynamic and information capabilities are simultaneously strongly affected. The top seven criteria that most influence sustainable supply chain capabilities are outbound logistics flexibility, supply chain reconceptualization, information quality, coevolution, market-oriented perception, partner development and knowledge acquisition and absorptive capacity. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
on the control of substances toxic to aquatic and human life. This differed drastically from the CWA which was primarily concerned with maintaining a minimum dissolved oxygen level in re- ceiving waters. The WQA was exten- sive and the United States Environ- mental Protection Agency (EPA) was charged with implementing guidelines for state and local regulatory agencies to follow. EPA, pursuant to its authority under Section 304(a) of the Clean Water Act, has published water quality criteria to help develop permit conditions for toxic pollutants. These criteria are intended for national application but may be re- placed, when appropriate by site spe- cific criteria. The guidance document, EPA Quali- ty Criteria for Water issued in 1987 by EPA, significantly altered the permit writing process.1 The NPDES permitting system originally introduced in 1972 still remains as the method for control of discharges. The 1987 document identified 129 chemical constituents to be monitored where previously there had been only approximately 30. In ad- dition, thus document specified detec- tion limits, test methods to be used and utilized stream models for the de- termination of discharge limits. tion, approximately 30 to 50% of the dischargers will need to install alternate processes (i.e. reverse osmosis and ton exchange) to meet the new limitations."
Book
This revised edition of a standard work has been slightly abridged, largely by the omission of outdated matter (5th edition, 1975, xii + 709 pages--see abstract 1975/9540). The earlier chapters, as in the previous edition, deal with natural and synthetic fibres (structure, basic chemistry, properties), with attention to processes that precede dyeing (scouring and bleaching) and to developments in shrink-resistant finishes, fluorescent brighteners, and new types of dyeing machines. The ensuing chapters cover the general theory of dyeing and the classification, manufacture and application of the whole range of dyes, with detailed instruction on methods currently in use. Additions have been made to the final two chapters on testing dyed materials and on colour. An appendix gives miscellaneous tabulated data and conversion factors; there are name, dye, and general indexes.
Article
In France, as elsewhere, government funding of science may not be soaring but with a 7% budget increase in 1992, the Ministry of Research and Technology (MRT) is faring better than most. And set against an average ministry increase of just 2% as France counts the cost of the Gulf crisis, the MRT's allocation is a strong political statement of the government's belief in the necessity of research for future economic growth.
Article
The document provides NPDES with procedures to assess the nature of effluent toxicity to aquatic organisms. It is intended for use by those having difficulty meeting their permit for whole effluent aquatic organism toxicity limits or to reduce or eliminate effluent toxicity. The document does not address human health toxicity concerns such as those from bioconcentration, water supplies and recreational uses. The methods are applicable to identifying the cause of toxicity for samples other than effluents which display acute toxicity, such as ambient water samples, elutriates and pore waters from sediments, and possibly leachates. While the authors generally refer to effluents, the application of the techniques for any aqueous sample is implied. These methods may have applicability to effluents and other types of samples that exhibit chronic toxicity as well.
Article
[Excerpt] The article “examines employment trends in the textile and apparel industries, reviewing the likely causes of both the recent historical and projected declines, their varied effects across occupations groups, and the response American producers have developed to adapt to the rapidly changing economic realities”.
Milliken and Company: Supplier recognition presen-tation. SC: Greenville
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