Article

An investigation of driver attitudes and behaviour in rural and urban areas in Norway

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Abstract

This study aimed to investigate differences in self-reported driver attitudes and behaviour in rural, peri-urban and urban areas in Norway. Age, gender and education were controlled for. An additional aim was to investigate the relations between demographics, personality variables, driver attitudes and behaviour in the complete sample and across the different geographical areas. To obtain these aims, a questionnaire was distributed by mail to a randomly selected sample from the Norwegian population registry (N=6203). Of the distributed questionnaires the response rate was 30%. Differences in attitudes and self-reported behaviour were significant due to type of geographical area. However, the results showed that gender, age and education caused stronger differences than type of geographical area in attitudes to driving and driver behaviour. SEM-analysis failed to reject the notion that the strength of the structural relations was similar in the geographical areas. This could imply that demographic characteristics, and their compositions in rural, peri-urban and urban areas, are more important for differences in driver behaviour and attitudes than characteristics of the traffic environment.

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... Likewise, risk perception as personality trait were also found to influence driving behavior [39]. Reference [30] showed Age, gender and peer group as other personality characteristics that significantly influence road traffic safety. ...
... For instance, [25] showed that attitudes towards road traffic safety were significant explanatory of road traffic behaviors in Norway but contradict the outcomes in Ghana. Also, [30] indicated that risk concepts and attitudes to driving explained a significant proportion of behavior variance in Norway, Russia and India but the model was poorly fitted in the low-income Sub-Saharan Africa countries of Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda. Likewise, in year 2000 the Norwegian parliament Vision Zero road safety policy was formulated following the success of the policy in Sweden. ...
... Reference [30] found that gender and age have significant influence on differences in driver attitudes and behavior in both rural and urban areas. Males and young adolescents were seen to have less favorable attitudes towards driving safety, less sensitivity to risk and underestimate the probability and severity of risks. ...
Article
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Road traffic safety among socioeconomic issues has become the major concern across the globe due to rise in road crashes attributed largely to human factor. This study tends to address attitudinal behavior of road users towards road ethics in Ilorin metropolis-Nigeria; covering both driver and motorcyclists and perception of motorists on road traffic enforcement agent. Questionnaire was employed as survey tools. Ordered logistic model were used to analyse the data on attitude of motorists and road traffic laws enforcement agents. About 87% of the 440 administered questionnaire were returned valid. A 3-model analysis was carried out and the findings showed that the attitude of the motorists, road traffic law enforcement agents and demographical index (gender, age and education) correlated with, and influence compliance with road traffic laws.
... In fact, personality is a quite permanent factor that is not manageable though interventions and that is hypothesized to be a distal predictor of behavior, therefore it can only affect attitudes, which are considered to be the more immediate antecedents of behavioral intention and action (Fishbein and Cappella, 2006). To sustain the crucial role of drivers' attitudes, Nordfjaern et al. (2010) found that some personality characteristics, such as anxiety, sensationseeking and normlessness were weakly associated with aberrant driving behavior and demonstrated that the relationship between personality and risky driving could be better understood when considering attitudes toward risky driving. ...
... Secondly, results showed that violations are a stronger predictor of accidents amongst young drivers than they are amongst older drivers. Furthermore, although positive attitudes toward traffic safety improve with age (e.g., Iversen and Rundmo, 2004;Nordfjaern et al., 2010), age did not moderate the effects of attitudes on driving behaviors. Many studies have found that attitudes toward traffic safety predicted mainly volitional behavior (e.g., violations and errors), whereas to a lesser extent they predict behaviors that are not under the control of the individual (e.g., lapses) (e.g., Lucidi et al., 2014;Mallia et al., 2015). ...
... This happens to the same degree for different drivers' age groups. Lastly, with regards to personality traits, previous findings showed that, for example, the average level of excitement-seeking decreased with age (Steinberg et al., 2008;Nordfjaern et al., 2010); nevertheless, age did not moderate the effects of excitement-seeking on driving behaviors (e.g., Lucidi et al., 2014;Mallia et al., 2015). In fact, excitement seeking affected violations in all the tree age groups of drivers to the same amount. ...
Article
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In the last few decades, several studies have investigated the role of personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety in predicting driving behaviors in diverse types of drivers across several countries. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies so far have investigated the possible moderating role played by age in relation to predictors of accident risk. Answering this open question would provide information about the generalizability of the model across different subpopulations and would make possible the tailoring of the interventions to specific target groups. The study involved 1,286 drivers from three different age groups (young: n = 435; adult: n = 412; old: n = 439) which completed a questionnaire measuring drivers’ personality traits (i.e., anxiety, hostility, excitement seeking, altruism, normlessness), positive attitudes toward traffic safety, risky driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), accident involvement and number of traffic fines issued in the last 12 months. Multi-group Variance Based Structural Equation Modeling (VB-SEM) across the three age groups showed that the hypothesized model had a good fit with the data in all the three age groups. However, some pattern of relationships between the variables varied across the three groups, for example, if considering the direct effects of personality traits on risky driving behaviors, anxiety, altruism, and normlessness predicted violations only in young and adult drivers, whereas excitement seeking was associated with lapses only in young drivers; anxiety was a positive predictor of drivers’ errors, both in adult and older drivers, whereas excitement seeking predicted errors in adult and young drivers. On the other hand, attitudes significantly and negatively predicted violations and errors in all the three age groups, whereas they significantly and negatively predicted lapses only in young and older drivers. The results of the present study provided empirical basis to develop evidence-based road safety interventions differently tailored to the specific life’s stage of the drivers.
... Differences in risk perception between environments could explain why serious crashes are often more common in rural areas (Eiksund 2009;NHTSA 2010;Nordjaern et al. 2010;Siskind et al. 2011). On rural roads drivers perceive high travel speeds as less risky due to higher speed limits and lower visual complexity (Rakauskas et al. 2009). ...
... For example, young rural drivers consider speeding on rural roads an acceptable, controllable risk (Knight et al. 2013). However, most studies comparing risk perception between urban and rural environments have used between-subject comparisons (Dunsire and Baldwin 1999;Leadbeater et al. 2008;Nordjaern et al. 2010), effectively comparing rural and urban drivers, rather than environments. Within-subject comparisons of urban and rural driving environments are therefore required to provide more sensitive analysis (Streff and Geller 1988). ...
Article
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Objective: The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those considered to have lower safety relevance. The aim of the present study was to explore factors that are likely to influence perceptions of risk and safety regarding changing visual information in the driving environment. Factors explored were the environment in which the change occurs (i.e., urban versus rural), the type of object that changes, and the driver's age, experience and risk sensitivity. Methods: 63 licensed drivers aged 18–70 years completed a hazard rating task, which required them to rate the perceived hazardousness of changing specific elements within urban and rural driving environments. Three attributes of potential hazards were systematically manipulated: the environment (urban, rural); the type of object changed (road sign, car, motorcycle, pedestrian, traffic light, animal, tree); and its inherent safety risk (low-risk, high-risk). Inherent safety risk was manipulated by either varying the object's placement, on/near or away from the road, or altering an infrastructure element which would require a change to driver behaviour. Participants also completed two driving-related risk perception tasks, rating their relative crash risk and perceived risk of aberrant driving behaviours. Results: Driver age was not significantly associated with hazard ratings, but individual differences in perceived risk of aberrant driving behaviours predicted hazard ratings, suggesting that general driving-related risk sensitivity plays a strong role in safety perception. In both urban and rural scenes there were significant associations between hazard ratings and inherent safety risk, with low-risk changes perceived as consistently less hazardous than high-risk impact changes; however, the effect was larger for urban environments. There were also effects of object type, with certain objects rated as consistently more safety relevant. In urban scenes, changes involving pedestrians were rated significantly more hazardous than all other objects, and in rural scenes, changes involving animals were rated as significantly more hazardous. Notably, hazard ratings were found to be higher in urban compared with rural driving environments, even when changes were matched between environments. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that drivers perceive rural roads as less risky than urban roads, even when similar scenarios occur in both environments. Age did not affect hazard ratings. Instead, the findings suggest that the assessment of risk posed by hazards is influenced more by individual differences in risk sensitivity. This highlights the need for driver education to account for appraisal of hazards' risk and relevance, in addition to hazard detection, when considering factors which promote road safety.
... T he inf luence of socio-demographic variables such as gender, age, educational levels and personality variables on driver behaviour has been widely established by several studies in high income countries (Nordfjaern et al., 2010(Nordfjaern et al., , 2012Oltedal and Rundmo, 2006;Lund and Rundmo, 2009;Yagil, 1998;Deery, 1999). Similar studies in low income countries have indicated that male gender and low age influence risk constructs, attitudes and driving behaviour in similar patterns (Afukaar et al., 2003;Odero et al., 1997). ...
... Various studies have demonstrated that demographic variables (gender and age) have an influence on driver attitudes, traffic violations and involvement in crashes. Nordfjaern et al. (2010) found that gender and age have significant inf luence on differences in driver attitudes and behaviour in both rural and urban areas. Males and young adolescents are seen to have less favourable attitudes towards driving safety, less sensitivity to risk and underestimate the probability and severity of risks caused by traffic conditions compared to females and the elderly. ...
Article
This study investigated age and gender related differences in drivers’ self-reported attitudes towards traffic violations and the gains or motivations influencing the violation of traffic laws in Kumasi. A total of 285 drivers were sampled for the study drawn from local bus terminals and taxi stations, work places, universities and other gatherings within the Kumasi Metropolis. Both self-completed questionnaires and interviews were used for the study. The results of the study showed that gender and age have significant influence on attitudes towards the commission of traffic violations though not by a large margin. The perceived gains associated with traffic violations also to a large extent influence driver attitude towards traffic violation in Kumasi with men being more motivated by the perceived gains to be derived from traffic violations than females. Neither significant nor great age differences were found regarding the extent to which perceived gains influenced the commission of traffic violations. Plausible explanations and implications for these findings to traffic safety campaigns as well as methodological issues are discussed. Suggestions for further research are also highlighted.
... Furthermore, in accident analysis, personality traits linked strongly to attitudes play a vital role. Analysing driver behaviours that cause accidents by understanding the attitudes towards safety and risky driving behaviour could improve the prediction of traffic accidents [44]- [46]. ...
... X_SD = mat[:, [2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,11,13,14,15,16,18,19,20,21,22,24,25,27,28,29]].astype("float32") # Set of Socio-demographic Variables X_TC = mat[:, [30,31,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,46,47,48,49]].astype("float32") with file: write = csv.writer(file) write.writerows(y_hat_v3) ...
Thesis
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For practical reasons, surveys that aim for a large number of respondents tend to restrict themselves to closed-ended responses. Despite potentially bringing richer insights, open-ended questions pose significant challenges in extracting useful information while significantly increasing the analysis time. Nevertheless, automatic text analysis techniques could speed up the analysis of open-ended responses. Furthermore, open-ended questions in conjunction with closed-ended questions are likely to influence the closed-ended responses. Considering this, we pursued the following four objectives in this thesis, a. to analyse if the method of collecting qualitative data influences the survey responses, b. to develop an approach to extract open-ended responses from a survey and process the data, c. to compare the relative performance of the open-ended and closed-ended responses in analysing qualitative data, d. to develop a framework that measures attitudes while allowing respondents to choose their preferred type of question (closed- or open-ended). This thesis analyses the suitability of using Topic Modelling to extract information from the open-ended responses to measure attitudes. As a case study throughout the whole thesis, we used questionnaires that collect information on the attitudes related to Autonomous Vehicles (AV). In this case study, alternative versions of the questionnaires that consider open- and/or closed-ended questions were presented randomly to respondents. Thus, two datasets were collected, a. 364 responses from India on the intention to use Shared AVs, b. 3002 responses from the USA on the intention to use AVs for commute trips. To quantify the relative benefits, we evaluated the relative performance of the alternative versions of the questionnaire to measure attitudes. In this regard, we assessed the predictive capability of the statistical models estimated using each of these independent datasets. Besides, the responses to the attitudinal questions are evaluated to analyse if the mode of asking questions influence the measured attitudes. Finally, having estimated the models, we developed a framework that measures attitudes by allowing respondents to choose their preferred type of question. Our results indicate that the use of open-ended questions before the set of Likert scale questions could alter the responses to the Likert scale questions. The consequence is a reduction in the number of neutral responses and an increase in positive attitude among those answering the questionnaire with open-ended questions. We also evaluated the suitability of using Topic Modelling techniques such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation and supervised Latent Dirichlet Allocation and found them effective. However, we could not find significant improvements in performance using the supervised approach. When comparing the predictive capabilities of the models estimated using questions that used Likert scale responses with and without open-ended questions, the performance of the models was superior for the dataset which had open-ended questions before the Likert scale responses. However, we could not find it beneficial to replace Likert scale questions with open-ended questions fully. Using the dataset collected from the USA, we proposed a modelling framework that allows researchers/analysts to let respondents answer the questionnaire using question types (closed- or open-ended questions) of their choice. The performance of the proposed model was superior to that of the individually estimated models, particularly for the test set. Index Terms—Topic Modelling, Latent Dirichlet Allocation, Supervised Latent Dirichlet Allocation, Likert Scales, Open-ended Questions, Travel Behaviour Research, Model-based Machine Learning, Bayesian Estimation
... The authors in [42] identified that urban road network design consisted of higher lengths of road and traffic volume, which in turn increased the collision rates. The authors in [43] add to this by highlighting the strongest predictors of fatality rates due to vehicle collisions as being age and number of residents in the geographical areas. The authors in [44] adopted Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data which contains driver, trip and vehicle specific information. ...
... Their study concludes that aggressive driver behaviour among taxi drivers are linked to longer trips, short delivery time, high monetary value, driving at night, and, lastly, forced low-speed limits. Given all of the above, the authors in [43] highlight the impact physical changes to road networks can have by enforcing slower speeds such as road humps, while also indicating that driver behaviour may also be altered indirectly by influencing the public's attitudes and norms which links to the literature on "self-explaining" roads [48] mentioned earlier in the Introduction section. ...
Article
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Roadside collisions are a significant problem faced by all countries. Urbanisation has led to an increase in traffic congestion and roadside vehicle collisions. According to the UK Government’s Department for Transport, most vehicle collisions occur on urban roads, with empirical evidence showing drivers are more likely to break local and fixed speed limits in urban environments. Analysis conducted by the Department for Transport found that the UK’s accident prevention measure’s cost is estimated to be £33bn per year. Therefore, there is a strong motivation to investigate the causes of roadside collisions in urban environments to better prepare traffic management, support local council policies, and ultimately reduce collision rates. This study utilises agent-based modelling as a tool to plan, experiment and investigate the relationship between speeding and vehicle density with collisions. The study found that higher traffic density results in more vehicles travelling at a slower speed, regardless of the degree to which drivers comply with speed restrictions. Secondly, collisions increase linearly as speed compliance is reduced for all densities. Collisions are lowest when all vehicles comply with speed limits for all densities. Lastly, higher global traffic densities result in higher local traffic densities near-collision sites across all adherence levels, increasing the likelihood of congestion around these sites. This work, when extended to real-world applications using empirical data, can support effective road safety policies.
... A relatively high proportion of the sample (47.9%, n = 824) had high education from a college or university. In previous work the present sample was compared with population demographic characteristics in the Norwegian Statistics Database (Nordfjaern et al., 2010). This analysis reflected that our sample did not deviate substantially from the Norwegian population in gender, age, geographic spread and education. ...
... Although the dimensionality of the instruments used in the present study has been tested previously (e.g. Moen, 2007; Nordfjaern and Rundmo, 2010; Ulleberg and Rundmo, 2003), these studies were conducted in different samples. Therefore, we included all item-indicators for the latent constructs in the model (i.e. a measurement model and structural model). ...
... As sensation-seeking is one of the very typical personality traits in traffic psychology, it is worthy to investigate its relationship with driving experience. Also, lower sensation-seeking scores were associated with the increase in age (Nordfjaern et al., 2010). While risk perception is another important psychological factor associated with driving experience, as novice drivers generally cannot judge driving risks accurately (Deery, 1999), and they tend to overestimate their driving skills (Rothbart et al., 2001), or underestimate the serious consequences of risky driving behaviors (Delhomme et al., 2009). ...
... The current study indicates that driving experience negatively affects sensation seeking while positively affect risk perception. With the increase of driving experience, the driver has a lower tendency to seek stimulation, which is consistent with the conclusion made by Nordfjaern et al. (2010), in which lower sensation-seeking scores are associated with an incremental in age. On the contrary, an experienced driver has a higher ability to recognize the severity of risky driving behaviors, which is also verified by Delhomme et al. (2009). ...
Article
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High-risk drivers are more likely to be involved in traffic accidents, and the driving risk level of drivers could be affected by many potential factors, such as demographics and personality traits. Based on the Structural Equation Model (SEM), this study involves a sample of 3150 drivers from the Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP 2), to explore the relationships among drivers' demographic characteristics (gender, age, and cumulative driving years), sensation seeking, risk perception, and risky driving behaviors. More specifically, the mediation model of driver characteristics on risky driving behaviors moderated by gender is constructed by the SEM. The results show that the effects of driving experience on risky driving behaviors are partially mediated by sensation seeking and risk perception for male drivers, while those are completely mediated by sensation seeking and risk perception for female drivers. Moreover, the development trend of risky driving behavior engagements declines greater with the growing of driving experience for female drivers than male drivers. Finally, a classification model of the driver's driving risk is proposed by the Random Forest classifier, in which the driving risk level of the driver evaluated by the crash and near-crash rate could be classified through the driver's self-reported demo-graphics, sensation seeking, risk perception, and risky driving behaviors. The classification accuracy achieves up to 90 percent, which offers an alternative approach to identifying potential high-risk drivers to reduce property losses, injuries, and death caused by traffic accidents.
... Especially, studies of car drivers have contributed to enhance our knowledge of the role of attitudes in road users' risk-taking behaviour (e.g. Aberg, 1993;Iversen & Rundmo, 2004, 2009Nordfjaern, Jorgensen, & Rundmo, 2010Parker, Manstead, Stradling, Reason, & Baxter, 1992). The most influential theories regarding the association between attitudes and behaviour are the theory of reasoned action (TRA) (Fishbein, 1968) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991). ...
... Furthermore, the balance between the motives for cycling as a matter of individual choice and cyclists' dependence on infrastructure may be affected by whether basic cycling infrastructure is available (de Geus et al., 2019;de Geus, De Bourdeaudhuij, Jannes, & Meeusen, 2008). One study of risk-taking behaviour and attitudes among Norwegian car drivers revealed that drivers who lived in rural areas had less ideal driver attitudes compared with drivers who lived in urban areas (Nordfjaern, Jorgensen, & Rundmo, 2010). Due to differences between urban and rural areas in Norway with regard to cycling infrastructure and traffic environments, we hypothesized that cyclists who lived in rural areas would differ from those who lived in urban areas in terms of their safety attitudes and their amount of risk-taking behaviour in traffic. ...
Article
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The main aim of the study was to investigate whether attitudes toward traffic safety, risk perception, worry, risk tolerance, safety priority, and accident involvement are associated with cyclists’ risk-taking behaviour. Two types of cyclists’ risk-taking behaviour were studied: (1) ‘violation of traffic rules, and (2) ‘conflicts with other road users when cycling’. The study was based on a questionnaire survey carried out in 2017 among regular cyclists in Norway (n = 426). The results revealed that cyclists’ risk-taking behaviour was influenced by their attitudes, risk perception, and accident involvement. Pragmatic attitudes toward traffic rule violations and safety priority were found to be important predictors of the frequency of rule violations when cycling. Attitudes towards the enforcement of traffic rules for cyclists and dissatisfaction with the traffic rules for cyclists were found to be important predictors for the frequency of situations involving conflicts with other road users. Risk perception and accident involvement were found to be associated with conflicts with other road users, but not with rule violations when cycling. The findings show that risk perception and attitudes toward traffic safety are important for cyclists’ risk-taking behaviour in traffic. The road infrastructure and the traffic regulations are primarily planned for car drivers and pedestrians. If cyclists’ attitudes are to be changed, the cycling infrastructure and traffic rules for cyclists would need to be adjusted to cyclists as road users. When building new infrastructure and implementing new safety measures for cyclists, it is important to include attitude campaigns, as well as communications to the public about safety and the risks linked to cycling. Attitude campaigns could be used to strengthen the authorities’ communications that cyclists are prioritized as road users.
... Furthermore, personality is considered to be a distal predictor of behavior, as compared to other more immediate antecedents of behavioral intention and action initiation (Fishbein and Cappella, 2006). In line with this argument, Nordfjaern et al. (2010) found that, in a representative sample of Norwegian drivers, personality traits, such as anxiety, sensation seeking and normlessness were weakly associated with risky driving, and argued that the personality-risky driving relationship could be better understood after considering more immediate antecedents of driving behavior, such as attitudes towards risky driving. In the behavioral science literature, theoretical models such as the theory of planned behavior and the integrative model posit that the effects of personality traits on both intentions and actual behavioral enactment can be mediated by social cognitive variables, such as attitudes (Ajzen, 2011;Fishbein, 2009). ...
... Structural equation modeling (SEM), through Mplus software (Version 6; Muthén and Muthén, 2010), was used in order to test the hypothesized model. The model's parameters were estimated using the weighted least squares means and variance adjusted (WLSMV) estimation method. ...
Article
Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Peltzer (2008) provided an approximation of the following statistics of fatal road accidents in some sub-Sahara African countries in the year 2011: Zimbabwe (34,000), South Africa (10,845), Zambia (22,750),and Botswana (18,001). Most of the road accidents have been largely attributed to human factors such as age, level of education, and gender (Iversen & Rundmo, 2004;Nordfjaern, Jørgensen, & Rundmo, 2010;Peltzer, 2008;Yagil, 1998), while others could be attributed to drivers' attitudes and behaviours on the roads (Iversen, 2004). Although innovation has significantly improved mechanical and safety standards in automobile manufacturing, and with improvements in road infrastructure by various governments, little has been done to understand the psychological factors underpinning driver behaviour and attitudes. ...
... Although innovation has significantly improved mechanical and safety standards in automobile manufacturing, and with improvements in road infrastructure by various governments, little has been done to understand the psychological factors underpinning driver behaviour and attitudes. Scientific understanding of this psychological attribute will assist in reducing accidents on our roads (Kwadjo, Knizek, & Rundmo, 2013;Iversen, 2004;Nordfjaern et al., 2010). ...
Article
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The religious perception among individuals in sub-Saharan Africa that the ‘Big Five’ personality dimensions and fatalism are predictors of drivers’ behaviours and road accidents has received little scientific investigations. This paucity of research in the roles of psychological factors such as personality and fatalistic beliefs in shaping positive driver behaviour and attitudes has thus provided motivation for the conduct of this quantitative study. We collected data from 203 conveniently sampled taxi drivers in Gauteng province of South Africa by means of a structured questionnaire. Our analysis, using Structural Equation Modelling, found significant positive relationships between agreeableness and positive driver behaviour, conscientiousness and positive driver behaviour, fatalism and extraversion, as well as fatalism and positive driver behaviour. The results highlighted the dimensions of being methodical, organised, and risk aversive on the road, on the one hand, and being social, cooperative, and good-natured, on the other hand. Findings of the study further indicated that fatalistic beliefs are prevalent and indeed characteristic of individuals who are sociable, gregarious, and assertive. These individuals tend to uphold their religious and spiritual beliefs in the linkages between road accidents and destiny. Insights provided by this study could assist the Department of Transport and related Road Safety Authorities in designing road safety campaigns that addresses the erroneous beliefs by drivers that road accidents are pre-destined, and not as a result of individual’s driving behaviour.
... Meanwhile, the theory of planned behavior [12] adds perceptions of control as a predictor of behavioral action. Consequently, when facing a behavioral activity, the individual behavior will be more possibly initiated by higher levels of favorable attitudes, norms and perceived control [13]. Decision making is influenced by culturally conditioned cognition [14][15][16]. ...
Conference Paper
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This study aims to examine the severe consequences of traffic crashes related to a special group of drivers in China, which is called the 'Second Rich & Powerful Generation' (SRPG). The unique driving behaviors and attitudes of this special group are intertwined with the general cultural and social environment in China. To investigate the difference of traffic crash consequences between drivers who belong to SRPG and general driver population, injuries and fatalities in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were compared. Results consistently showed that while no significant difference was detected between these two groups in terms of injuries, fatalities per crash caused by SRPG were significantly larger than that caused by general driver population. Findings from our study clearly demonstrate the complexity of road safety issues in developing countries, and can also be used to develop road safety improvement strategies tailored to SRPG.
... The 14 items of driving attitude subscale were selected from the Driving Attitude Scale (DAS) designed by Ulleberg (2003) and translated to Chinese by Hou (2007). Many reseaches about driving attitude were based on the DAS (Iversen, 2004;Iversen & Rundmo, 2004;Nordfjaern, Jorgensen, & Rundmo, 2010;Theofilatos & Yannis, 2014). The subscale included three factors: ...
Article
The motive of this study was to investigate the aberrant driving behaviors of “problem drivers” who had more violations and accidents, measure the characteristics of them and explore the factors that make them problem drivers. A questionnaire that measures driving behaviors, driving attitudes, driving skills and personality characteristics was implemented via the internet, to both problem drivers (frequent violations or more accidents) and safe drivers (less violations or accidents). A logistic regression model was employed to explore what kinds of drivers had more traffic violations or accidents. Results showed that age and frequency of driving were significantly correlated with their violations and accidents. Drivers that violate traffic laws tend to drive more efficiency and have an experience of bad riding attitudes. Problem drivers also have poor driving skills. However, the two groups did not show significant differences on personality characteristics. The results suggested that attitude and driving skill were significant factors that influence penalty points and accidents of drivers in China. This research can provide guidance in driving behavior modification and traffic safety education. Behaviors of drivers in China may become safer if their skills can be improved and their attitudes toward traffic safety are changed.
... Of these measures, two related to decision making involving stop signal dilemmas at four-way intersections (i.e., time in red and failed to stop [see below]); one evaluated left turn decisions (i.e., left turn latency); and one related to passing a lead vehicle (i.e., overtaking). These four risky driving scenarios were selected because they are common driver behaviors and relevant to real-world crash risk at red light intersections (Retting, Ulmer, & Williams, 1999) left-hand turn intersections (Bingham & Ehsani, 2012;Wang & Abdel-Aty, 2008) and while overtaking on two-way rural roads (Khorashadi, Niemeier, Shankar, & Mannering, 2005;Nordfjaern, Jørgensen, & Rundmo, 2010) (see Table 2). ...
... In addition, existing literature indicates that personality traits significantly affect personal attitudes in the field of road safety (Castellà and Pérez, 2004;Yang et al., 2020;Nordfjaern et al., 2010). Some previous studies have also found a link between road users' attitudes and their risk perception (Yang et al., 2020;Nguyen-Phuoc et al., 2020b;Kummeneje and Rundmo, 2020;Wang et al., 2020). ...
Article
Pedestrians may be the most vulnerable group among road users, and mobile phone use while crossing the street is ubiquitous worldwide in this information era. However, previous studies have found that such distracting behaviors may increase the risk of injury and death. The present study primarily aimed to explore the effect of reinforcement sensitivity theory components (i.e., Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), Behavioral Approach System (BAS)), risk perception, attitudes towards red light running, and fear of missing out (FoMO) on mobile phone use while crossing the street among pedestrians. Risk perception was measured in three ways (i.e., assessing the probability of a negative outcome (RP-Pro), judging the severity of the consequence (RP-Se), and evaluating the general riskiness of the behavior (RP-Ri)). An online questionnaire survey was conducted, and only valid responses (N = 425) were used for subsequent data analyses. The results indicated significant differences in the responses across the risk perception questions with different focuses. Participants who reported engaging in more distracted street-crossing (i.e., high-risk takers) perceived a significantly lower risk, and this difference did not depend on the focus of risk perception. Three path analysis models with differential risk perception constructs (RP-Pro, RP-Se, and RP-Ri) were developed to examine the relationship between risk perception and distracted street-crossing. The results suggest that the relationship between these two variables does not depend on the focus of the risk perception questions. Moreover, FoMO was a predictor of mobile phone use while crossing the street, while attitudes had both direct and indirect effects on behavior. BIS and BAS had the lowest total effect on mobile phone use among pedestrians. In particular, a direct association between BAS and distracted street-crossing was found only in the model in which risk perception was measured by judging the severity of crashes caused by mobile phone use distraction. This study may be meaningful for understanding the associations between psychological factors and mobile phone use among pedestrians. The implications of the findings for the development of safety interventions are discussed in this study.
... It is believed that PBC also has a direct impact on behavior. The TPB has been used by many researchers in evaluating travel behavior (Anable, 2005, Cao and Mokhtarian, 2005a, b, Hunecke et al. 2007, Nordfjaern et al. 2010. The NAM originally was developed to explain prosocial behaviors or environmentally significant behavior. ...
Article
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This paper aims to identify the underlying factors in the acceptability of public transport improvement, office-based transport service, and fiscal policy measures using a framework of behavioral theories. The findings are based on results of a questionnaire survey, factor analyses, and structural equation modeling. This paper develops a joint-structural model of the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activation model, and explains the significance of behavioral theories in predicting people’s behavioral intentions and response to travel demand management (TDM) measures. The findings reveal that attitudes toward public transport, perceived behavioral control over public transport, and social and personal norms are significant determinants of people's behavioral intentions regarding TDM measures. Other factors include social status traits, flexibility and freedom, income and traveling mode. Some intervention packages have been suggested to activate different attitudes and norms for effective behavioral change. This study should provide a deep understanding of significant factors that need to be considered in implementing TDM measures in developing countries.
... In order to compensate that loss in salary, drivers work longer hours under precarious conditions, with consequences to their health and psychosocial well-being, as well as consequences to the number of road accidents in the city. There are over 45,000 microbus drivers in Mexico City, and although they fulfill the obligations derived from the concession and their vehicle, with respect to their work and social security they are informal workers, with no benefits, fixed income or health insurance; therefore, their actual job, with its risks and demands, is translated into long hours of work, fatigue (Brown, 1994; Mohammadzadeh Moghaddam & Abolfazl, 2014), professional illnesses and stressful conditions that produce aggressive behaviors (Björklund, 2008;(Nordfjaern, Halvard Rundmo, 2010) and constitute a risk factor in road safety (Lam, 2004). In 2012 in Mexico City alone, 4,712 accidents were recorded in the public transportation sector (INEGI, 2012), a number that would increase if vehicles in Greater Mexico City were included. ...
Article
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There are approximately 45,000 legally registered microbus drivers in Mexico City. Being legally registered means that they fulfill in due time all the obligations and observe the regulations derived from their vehicle and their concession. However, for working and social security purposes they are informal operators and live in precarious conditions, as they are not in receipt of benefits and do not have a fixed salary or health insurance. This means that their job and the risks and demands involved in it are translated into long days of work, fatigue, professional illnesses and stressful conditions which lead to aggressive behaviors and constitute a risk factor in road safety. In 2012 alone, 4,712 accidents were recorded in this group. Thus, based on the premise that working and health conditions determine road safety, an exploratory descriptive study was conducted from a quantitative research approach. Such study consisted of 500 supervised interviews with drivers, to explore socioeconomic, work and health variables, including some aspects of road safety and driving styles. The exposure-effect ratio in road accidents was then analyzed. Among the main results of this research, a correlation of 0.77 was identified between road accidents and drivers working for over 8 hours per day; 0.78 for drivers working more than 5 days per week; and 0.73 between the number of tickets and working days of more than 8 hours. Road accidents are explained by these high percentages.
... The current study indicates that driving experience negatively affects sensation-seeking while positively affect risk perception. With the increase of driving experience, the driver has a lower tendency to seek stimulation, which is consistent with the conclusion made by Nordfjaern et al. [161], in which lower sensation-seeking scores are associated with an incremental in age. On the contrary, an experienced driver has a higher ability to identify the severity of risky driving behaviors, which is also verified by Delhomme et al. [162]. ...
Book
A road traffic participant is a person who directly participates in road traffic, such as vehicle drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or cyclists, however, traffic accidents cause numerous property losses, bodily injuries, and even deaths to them. To bring down the rate of traffic fatalities, the development of the intelligent vehicle is a much-valued technology nowadays. It is of great significance to the decision-making and planning of the vehicle if the pedestrians’ intentions and future trajectories, as well as those of surrounding vehicles, could be predicted, all in an effort to increase driving safety. Based on the image sequence collected by onboard monocular cameras, we use the Long Short-Term Memory- (LSTM) based network with an enhanced attention mechanism to realize the intention and trajectory prediction of pedestrians and surrounding vehicles. However, although the fully automatic driving era still seems far away, human drivers are still a crucial part of the "road–driver–vehicle" system under current circumstances, even dealing with low levels of automatic driving vehicles. Considering that more than 90% of fatal traffic accidents were caused by human errors, thus it is meaningful to recognize the secondary task while driving, as well as the driving style recognition, to develop a more personalized advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) or intelligent vehicle. We use the graph convolutional networks for spatial feature reasoning and the LSTM networks with the attention mechanism for temporal motion feature learning within the image sequence to realize the driving secondary-task recognition. Moreover, aggressive drivers are more likely to be involved in traffic accidents, and the driving risk level of drivers could be affected by many potential factors, such as demographics and personality traits. Thus, we will focus on the driving style classification for the longitudinal car-following scenario. Also, based on the Structural Equation Model (SEM) and Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP 2) naturalistic driving database, the relationships among drivers’ demographic characteristics, sensation seeking, risk perception, and risky driving behaviors are fully discussed. Results and conclusions from this short book are expected to offer potential guidance and benefits for promoting the development of intelligent vehicle technology and driving safety.
... These studies have robustly and consistently demonstrated that in terms of age, younger drivers are more likely to commit traffic violations and at a greater risk of crash involvement than older drivers (Akaateba and Amoh-Gyimah, 2013;Elvik, 2010;Forward, 2009;Willemsen et al., 2008;Yan et al., 2007;Afukaar et al., 2003;Shinar et al., 2001;Norris et al., 2000;Deery, 1999;Yagil, 1998;Parker et al., 1995). Nordfjaern et al. (2010) found young adolescents to have less sensitivity to risk and unfavourable attitudes towards traffic safety regulations. Shinar et al. (2001) found that the observance of speed limits increased with age whilst the tendency to speed decreases with increasing age. ...
Article
This paper investigated the influence of three distinct variables; driver educational attainment, driving experience, and form of driver training on drivers’ self-reported attitudes towards the frequency of commission of traffic safety violations in Kumasi, Ghana. A total of 285 participants were sampled from public transport terminals, work places, market places and other social centres within the Kumasi Metropolis using both interviewer-administered and self-administered questionnaires. The results of the study showed that there were small but yet significant associations between driver education, driver training and driving experience on the one hand, and the frequency of violation of traffic safety laws on the other hand. The mean frequency of commission of traffic violations increased with increasing driver experience whilst the frequency of violation of traffic regulations on speeding and overtaking when prohibited decreased with increasing education in Kumasi. Drivers trained from driving schools reported an overall higher mean frequency of commission of traffic violations compared to other drivers interviewed. Plausible explanations and implications of the study’s results on traffic safety campaigns in Ghana as well as methodological issues have been discussed. Based on the results of the study, this paper strongly recommends targeted and more tailored traffic safety behaviour change campaigns combined with a strict enforcement of traffic safety regulations in the country.
... Crashes occurring on rural two-lane highways are more likely to result in severe driver incapacitating injuries and fatalities (Khorashadi et al., 2005;Nordfjaern et al., 2010). According to statistical data released by the Local and Rural Road Safety program, the unique characteristics and attributes associated with rural twolane highway crashes in order to better understand their significant causal factors determining driver injury severities. ...
... However, the role of sensation seeking and normlessness for risk-taking behaviour is not clear. Nordfjaern, Jørgensen, and Rundmo (2010) found that personality traits were relatively weakly related to risky driver behaviour in a representative sample of the Norwegian population. Similar findings have been reported in Australia (Machin and Sankey 2008). ...
Article
Aims: The aim of the study was to make a theoretical contribution by investigating social cognitive factors and personality traits related to risky driver behaviour in a Turkish sample. The study tested three theoretical models by Structural Equation Modelling (SEM): (1) a model using risk perception and attitudes towards traffic safety to predict driver behaviour, (2) a model which used normlessness and sensation seeking traits to predict such behaviour, and (3) a model which used both the social cognitive factors and personality traits to predict driver behaviour. Methods: A questionnaire survey with validated measurement instruments was conducted in a sample of Turkish drivers (n = 213). The response rate was 61%. Results: A combined social cognitive and personality trait model had tolerable fit and explained 24% of the variance in driver behaviour. The relations between personality traits and risk perception with driver behaviour were mediated through attitudes towards traffic safety. Risk taking personality traits had relatively strong negative relations to unsafe driver behaviour, whereas risk perception had a relatively weak positive relation to such behaviour. Conclusions: A combined social cognitive and trait approach may be efficient in human factor campaigns aimed to reduce risky driver behaviour in Turkey. Personality traits may be important for driver behaviour because they influence the attitudinal determinants of such behaviour. Increased police enforcement of road traffic regulations may reduce risky driving among individuals with normlessness and sensation seeking traits. Personality traits may also guide efforts aimed at early identification of risky drivers and campaigns could be entailed to specific personality characteristics.
... The differences in helmet use for pillion riders by gender were however not significant. The higher helmet use among females is consistent with other studies and literature that assert that females tend to comply more with road traffic regulations and adopt safer behaviour than males (Nordfjaern et al., 2010;Xuequn et al., 2011;Ledesma and Peltzer, 2008;Li-Ping et al., 2008;Dandona et al., 2006). Besides gender differences, helmet use among motorcyclists was also identified to be significantly higher during morning and evening periods and on weekdays where police presence is largely anticipated. ...
Article
Motorcyclists' injuries and fatalities are a major public health concern in many developing countries including Ghana. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists in Wa, Ghana. The method used involved a cross-sectional roadside observation at 12 randomly selected sites within and outside the CBD of Wa. A total of 14,467 motorcyclists made up of 11,360 riders and 3107 pillion riders were observed during the study period. Most observed riders (86.5%) and pillion riders (61.7%) were males. The overall prevalence of helmet use among the observed motorcyclists was 36.9% (95% CI: 36.1-37.7). Helmet use for riders was 45.8% (95% CI: 44.8-46.7) whilst that for pillion riders was 3.7% (95 CI: 3.0-4.4). Based on logistic regression analysis, higher helmet wearing rates were found to be significantly associated with female gender, weekdays, morning periods and at locations within the CBD. Riders at locations outside the CBD were about 7 times less likely to wear a helmet than riders within the CBD (48.9% compared to 42.3%; χ(2)(1)=49.526; p<0.001). The study concluded that despite the existence of a national helmet legislation that mandates the use of helmets by both riders and pillion riders on all roads in Ghana, helmet use is generally low in Wa. This suggests that all stakeholders in road safety should jointly intensify education on helmet use and pursue rigorous enforcement on all road types especially at locations outside the CBD to improve helmet use in Wa.
... This corroborates widely held views that males and young adolescents generally have less favorable attitudes toward safety and are less sensitive to risks compared to females and the elderly. Similar findings of low helmet use among males and younger riders were identified in Ghana (Ackaar and Afukaar 2010) and cities in other developing countries (Ichikawa et al. 2003;Nordfjaern et al. 2010;Papadakaki et al. 2013;Xuequn et al. 2011). Contrary to findings by Sreedharan et al. (2010) that unmarried persons were 2.3 times more likely to use a helmet compared to married persons, this study revealed that currently and previously married people are significantly more likely to use a helmet compared to unmarried ones. ...
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the correlates and barriers to helmet use among motorcycle riders in Wa, a motorcycle predominant town in Ghana. An additional objective was to find out the association between helmet use and riders' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards helmets. Cross-sectional surveys comprising both observation of helmet use and interviews were conducted among motorcycle riders at six randomly selected fuel stations and four motorcycle service centres within and outside the Central Business District of Wa. Questions covered riders' socio-demographic and riding characteristics, helmet use, reasons for use or non-use of helmets, and knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about helmets. Analyses were based on frequencies and testing of strength of association using adjusted odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals) in Binary Logistic Regression. The prevalence of helmet use among the 271 sampled riders was 46% (95% CI: 40.2-52.0). Gender, age, marital status and occupation were significant socio-demographic correlates of helmet use in Wa. Compared to currently married riders, unmarried riders were 5times less likely to use a helmet. No significant association existed between riders' educational attainment and helmet use. Helmet use was also positively correlated with helmet ownership and license holding. The leading reasons stated for helmet non-use among non-users were, not travelling on a long distance and helmets block vision and hearing. Protection from injury, legal requirement, and coping with the police for fear of being accosted for helmet non-use were identified as common reasons for helmet use. Positive attitudes and beliefs were also significantly correlated with helmet use. Despite the existence of a legislation mandating the use of helmets on all roads as well as the high level of awareness among riders on this legislation and the benefits of helmets, the incidence of helmet use among motorists continue to be low in Wa, Ghana. This means that efforts to identify strategies to increase helmet use need to continue. The evidence provided by this study suggests that stakeholders in road safety need to put in interventions to ensure a rigorous enforcement of the helmet use legislation and improvement in helmet design. These should be combined with the development of targeted educational programs with the aim of changing unfavorable attitudes and beliefs towards helmet use.
... According to Parker et al. (1995) and Evans (1996) there are documented evidences indicating that driver behavior plays a key role in traffic safety as it is important in traffic accident. Whereas, attitudes have been revealed by many studies to be significant predictors of drivers' behavior and have also identified to indirectly affect involvement in traffic accidents (Parker et al., 1995;Iversen & Rundmo, 2004;Iversen, 2004;Rakauskas et al., 2007;Yunesian et al., 2008;Eiksund, 2009;Lund & Rundmo, 2009;Nordfjaern et al., 2010). These studies provide evident that attitude, risk perception and behavior were found to be related to each other International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 2017, Vol. 7, No. 7 ISSN: 2222and to traffic safety within traffic psychology. ...
... The first focuses on personality traits as predictors of risky and aggressive driving behavior. This research has revealed weak but stable relations between some personality traits, like sensation seeking, anger and normlessness, and potentially harmful driving behavior (Yang, Du, Qu, Gong, & Sun, 2013;Nordfjaern, Jørgensen, & Rundmo, 2010;Iversen & Rundmo, 2002). Personality traits are therefore generally considered as distal influencers of this kind of behavior (Mallia, Lazuras, Violani, & Lucidi, 2015;Ulleberg & Rundmo, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Risky and aggressive driving is an important cause of traffic casualties and as such a major health and cost problem to society. Given the consequences for others, risky and aggressive driving has a clear moral component. Surprisingly, however, there has been little research on the relation between morality and risky and aggressive driving behavior. In this study we aim at addressing this gap. First, we present a conceptual analysis of the relationship between moral values and aggressive driving behavior. For this purpose, we extend Schwartz’s integrated model of ethical decision making and apply it to the context of aggressive driving. This conceptual analysis shows that moral decision-making processes consist of several stages, like moral awareness, moral judgment and moral intent, each of which are influenced by individual and situational factors and all of which need to materialize before someone’s generally endorsed moral value affects concrete behavior. This suggests that the moral value-aggressive driving relationship is rather indeterminate. This conceptual picture is confirmed by our empirical investigation, which tests to what extent respondents’ moral values, measured through the Moral Foundation Questionnaire, are predictive of respondents’ aggressive driving behavior, as measured through an aggressive driving behavior scale. Our results show few and rather weak empirical relationships between moral values and committed aggressive driving behaviors, as was expected in light of our conceptual analysis. We derive several policy implications from these results.
... Finally, identified results show that age is positively related to perceived legitimacy for the police, punishment and traffic rule enforcement. This is consistent with the literature showing that, compared to older drivers, young drivers take more risks on the road, have a more positive attitude toward traffic violations and a more negative attitude toward traffic rule enforcement (e.g., Akaateba & Amoh-Gyimah, 2013; Nordfjaern et al., 2010;Starkey & Isler, 2016). In this context, perceived legitimacy could be characterized by a mediating role which should be further investigated. ...
Article
Background. Perceived legitimacy associated with rules and authorities is an important element for understanding and encouraging compliance with rules in the field of road safety, often more so than with a deterrence approach. Despite a growing interest in legitimacy in recent decades and in the psychological field in particular, its definitions and measurements appear to be heterogeneous, subject to debate and in need of a common theoretical framework. Therefore, one can expect these limitations to also concern the definitions and measurements of legitimacy in the field of road safety. However, no literature review related to this issue is currently available. This contribution therefore aims to fill this void by proposing a scoping review investigating, in the field of road safety, how legitimacy is defined, measured, related to compliance and what are its main determinants. Methods :A scoping review was conducted, based on research literature from eight databases and concerned with the perceived legitimacy of traffic rules or traffic enforcement and rule compliance or traffic violations. Twenty-six publications meeting inclusion criteria were retained. The characteristics and content of publications were analyzed to identify the relevant elements related to our research questions. Results and conclusion: The main results revealed that perceived legitimacy in the field of road safety can be related to different objects (i.e., traffic rules, traffic violations, traffic enforcement, institutions) that should be better delineated and differentiated in future research. While perceived legitimacy is generally associated with compliance with traffic rules, its theoretical definitions and measures in the field of road safety are heterogeneous and present validity issues which limit the comparability of studies and so the accumulation of knowledge for both theoretical research and road safety applications. No empirical study investigating the outcomes of perceived legitimacy beyond compliance was identified. Few empirical studies have investigated the determinants of perceived legitimacy. Most identified empirical studies were cross-sectional, which is a limitation to establishing causality in investigated relationships. Theoretical implications and research perspectives to improve studies on legitimacy in the field of road safety and develop a multidimensional model of the perceived legitimacy of traffic rules are therefore proposed and discussed.
... Finally, identified results show that age is positively related to perceived legitimacy for the police, punishment and traffic rule enforcement. This is consistent with the literature showing that, compared to older drivers, young drivers take more risks on the road, have a more positive attitude toward traffic violations and a more negative attitude toward traffic rule enforcement (e.g., Akaateba & Amoh-Gyimah, 2013; Nordfjaern et al., 2010;Starkey & Isler, 2016). In this context, perceived legitimacy could be characterized by a mediating role which should be further investigated. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Perceived legitimacy associated with rules and authorities is an important element for understanding and encouraging compliance with rules in the field of road safety, often more so than with a deterrence approach. Despite a growing interest in legitimacy in recent decades and in the psychological field in particular, its definitions and measurements appear to be heterogeneous, subject to debate and in need of a common theoretical framework. Therefore, one can expect these limitations to also concern the definitions and measurements of legitimacy in the field of road safety. However, no literature review related to this issue is currently available. This contribution therefore aims to fill this void by proposing a scoping review investigating, in the field of road safety, how legitimacy is defined, measured, related to compliance and what are its main determinants.MethodsA scoping review was conducted, based on research literature from eight databases and concerned with the perceived legitimacy of traffic rules or traffic enforcement and rule compliance or traffic violations. Twenty-six publications meeting inclusion criteria were retained. The characteristics and content of publications were analyzed to identify the relevant elements related to our research questions.Results and conclusionThe main results revealed that perceived legitimacy in the field of road safety can be related to different objects (i.e., traffic rules, traffic violations, traffic enforcement, institutions) that should be better delineated and differentiated in future research. While perceived legitimacy is generally associated with compliance with traffic rules, its theoretical definitions and measures in the field of road safety are heterogeneous and present validity issues which limit the comparability of studies and so the accumulation of knowledge for both theoretical research and road safety applications. No empirical study investigating the outcomes of perceived legitimacy beyond compliance was identified. Few empirical studies have investigated the determinants of perceived legitimacy. Most identified empirical studies were cross-sectional, which is a limitation to establishing causality in investigated relationships. Theoretical implications and research perspectives to improve studies on legitimacy in the field of road safety and develop a multidimensional model of the perceived legitimacy of traffic rules are therefore proposed and discussed.
... Finally, identified results show that age is positively related to perceived legitimacy for the police, punishment and traffic rule enforcement. This is consistent with the literature showing that, compared to older drivers, young drivers take more risks on the road, have a more positive attitude toward traffic violations and a more negative attitude toward traffic rule enforcement (e.g., Akaateba & Amoh-Gyimah, 2013; Nordfjaern et al., 2010;Starkey & Isler, 2016). In this context, perceived legitimacy could be characterized by a mediating role which should be further investigated. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Perceived legitimacy associated with rules and authorities is an important element for understanding and encouraging compliance with rules in the field of road safety, often more so than with a deterrence approach. Despite a growing interest in legitimacy in recent decades and in the psychological field in particular, its definitions and measurements appear to be heterogeneous, subject to debate and in need of a common theoretical framework. Therefore, one can expect these limitations to also concern the definitions and measurements of legitimacy in the field of road safety. However, no literature review related to this issue is currently available. This contribution therefore aims to fill this void by proposing a scoping review investigating, in the field of road safety, how legitimacy is defined, measured, related to compliance and what are its main determinants. Methods A scoping review was conducted, based on research literature from eight databases and concerned with the perceived legitimacy of traffic rules or traffic enforcement and rule compliance or traffic violations. Twenty-six publications meeting inclusion criteria were retained. The characteristics and content of publications were analyzed to identify the relevant elements related to our research questions. Results and conclusion The main results revealed that perceived legitimacy in the field of road safety can be related to different objects (i.e., traffic rules, traffic violations, traffic enforcement, institutions) that should be better delineated and differentiated in future research. While perceived legitimacy is generally associated with compliance with traffic rules, its theoretical definitions and measures in the field of road safety are heterogeneous and present validity issues which limit the comparability of studies and so the accumulation of knowledge for both theoretical research and road safety applications. No empirical study investigating the outcomes of perceived legitimacy beyond compliance was identified. Few empirical studies have investigated the determinants of perceived legitimacy. Most identified empirical studies were cross-sectional, which is a limitation to establishing causality in investigated relationships. Theoretical implications and research perspectives to improve studies on legitimacy in the field of road safety and develop a multidimensional model of the perceived legitimacy of traffic rules are therefore proposed and discussed.
... According to the theory of planned behaviour and the integrative model, the effects of personalities on behaviour can be mediated by social cognitive variables, such as attitudes [18,19]. The effect of personality on risky behaviour could be better understood after considering the indirect effect of attitudes towards risky behaviour [20]. ...
Article
Elevator accidents happen frequently and cause much loss. Personality factors and safety attitudes have been proved effective in predicting accidents in traffic and workplace. The present study aimed to explore the effect of personality factors and safety attitudes in elevator accidents. A survey was carried out on 383 elevator installers and repairers in China, measuring personalities (conscientiousness, agreeableness, and trait anxiety), safety attitudes, (compliant and proactive) safety behaviours and accidents (occupational injuries). Approximately 60% of the elevator workers had been injured in the past six months. The structural equation model suggested that: Conscientiousness could predict compliant safety behaviour both directly and indirectly through safety attitude, and could predict proactive safety behaviour. Agreeableness could predict compliant safety behaviour. Trait anxiety could predict occupational injuries. Recruiters should choose elevator workers who are conscientious, agreeable, and of low trait anxiety. Safety trainings for elevator workers should focus on culturing their safety attitude.
... Past studies have analyzed the crashes for different settings such as single-vehicle crashes and multi-vehicle crashes and found that there exist substantial differences between the two type of crashes (Chen & Chen, 2011;Geedipally & Lord, 2010;Martensen & Dupont, 2013;Rifaat & Chin, 2007;Ulfarsson & Mannering, 2004;Wu et al., 2014;Yu & Abdel-Aty, 2013). Past studies have also revealed a significant relationship between the severity of injury outcomes and factors such as rural and urban roads (Islam et al., 2014;Khorashadi et al., 2005;Lee & Mannering, 2002;Nordfjaern et al., 2010), Types of roadways (Gong & Fan, 2017;Rusli et al., 2017;Wu et al., 2016;Xie et al., 2012) that are worth to mention. Previous studies have also shown that specific driver attributes such as driver gender, age may be associated with higher crash risk (Anderson & Searson, 2015;Gong & Fan, 2017;Jiang et al., 2013;Kim et al., 2013;Martensen & Dupont, 2013;Wu et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Single-vehicle crashes are of major concern in both developed as well as in Low Middle Income Countries due to the severity of injuries, particularly fatal accidents. In India, a significant proportion of crashes are single-vehicle crashes. The vehicles which are involved in accidents due to causes such as self skidding, hitting stationary objects, trees that are simply contributed by the drivers themselves are referred to as out-of-control single-vehicle crashes. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the risk factors associated with single-vehicle motorcycle collisions in Tamilnadu, India and identifies the unique characteristics and injury outcomes associated with these collisions. Crash dataset for the present study was prepared from the police-reported crashes for the past nine years that occurred within the state of Tamilnadu between 2009 and 2017. The identified contributory factors which influence injury severity include driver characteristics, crash-related factors, traffic-related factors, vehicle and environment-related factors. In this study, injury severity is classified into three categories, i.e. fatal, serious, and minor injuries. Since the outcome of the injury severity could be measured on an ordinal scale, a discrete ordered outcome model, an ordered logit model is applied. To summarise the results, thirteen of the studied factors are found to have a significant influence on the injury severity of drivers. Results show that the likelihood of fatal injuries increases in crashes where motorcyclists hit stationary fixed objects, hit trees, ran-off road, inclement weather conditions, urban areas. It is also found that winter season, north districts of Tamilnadu, single and two-lane roads, highways, village roads and, other district roads, daylight conditions, drivers who are younger and working-age group, overtaking from left, taking u-turn are associated with less likelihood of fatal crashes. To increase the overall safety of the roads, targeted countermeasures may be designed in light of injury severity of the drivers with respect to single-vehicle crashes also. This study provides useful insights for reducing injury severity in single-vehicle motorcycle crashes.
... Besides, people living in urban areas have better riding behavior than those who live in rural and suburban areas. This result is consistent with research by Nordfjaern et al. [5]. Moreover, people who usually travel the longest distance, more than 4 km, have a higher perception of risky behavior and attitude towards traffic safety than other groups which are indicated by the higher values of means than the corresponding mean's values of short travel distance, less than 1 km, and medium distance, from 1 km to 4 km. ...
Article
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Phu Yen is a small province located in the central part of Vietnam and is suffering from a tremendous number of traffic casualties, compared with other cities in Vietnam and developed countries. Young riders take a large proportion, accounting for 47.6% in total traffic crashes. To resolve this issue, the present study aims to (i) analyze young riders' behavior and their attitudes towards traffic safety and to (ii) propose a procedure to develop a book of safe riding guidelines to reduce their involvement in dangerous situations. A set of 73 questions in the questionnaire survey have been conducted to determine the risk-taking behavior and attitude towards traffic safety of 300 individuals, who are using bicycles, e-bikes, mopeds, scooters, and motorcycles less than 150 cc. The statistical results indicate that there are significant differences among riding behavior and attitudes of respondents towards traffic safety regarding the regional factor (rural, suburb, and urban), the demographic factor (gender and age), and the travel distance factor. The guidelines designed based on the questionnaire survey are used to alter adolescents' riding behavior and attitudes and so help them recognize, avoid, and handle risks in demanding traffic situations. An analysis of the before and after the traffic safety training workshop to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed guidelines indicated that there was a significant increment in the perceived risks of young riders after training them by using this book.
... La Ciudad de México tiene más 45,000 conductores de microbús, trabajadores que aunque se encuentran al corriente de las obligaciones y regulaciones derivadas por el derecho de concesión y del vehículo, en materia laboral y seguridad social se establece en la informalidad, sin prestaciones sociales, salario fijo o seguro médico; por lo que el proceso de trabajo, sus riesgos y exigencias, se reflejan en largas jornadas laborales, fatiga (Brown, 1994) (Mohammadzadeh Moghaddam & Abolfazl, 2014) , enfermedades profesionales y condiciones estresantes que producen conductas agresivas (Björklund, 2008) (Nordfjaern, Halvard Jørgensen, & Rundmo, 2010) y que constituyen un factor de riesgo en la seguridad vial (Lam, 2004). Tan sólo en el 2012, se registraron en el Distrito Federal 4,712 accidentes en el transporte colectivo de pasajeros (INEGI, 2012), lo que incrementaría si se tomaran en cuenta los vehículos de la zona conurbada del Distrito Federal. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
VER INVESTIGACIÓN COMPLETA EN: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2017.04.008 RESUMEN La Ciudad de México tiene cerca de 45,000 conductores de microbús registrados de forma legal, es decir, se encuentran al corriente de las obligaciones y regulaciones derivadas por el derecho de concesión y del vehículo. Sin embargo, en materia laboral y seguridad social se establecen en la informalidad con condiciones precarias, sin prestaciones sociales, salario fijo o seguro médico; por lo que el proceso de trabajo, sus riesgos y exigencias, se reflejan en largas jornadas laborales, fatiga, enfermedades profesionales y condiciones estresantes que producen conductas agresivas y que constituyen un factor de riesgo en la seguridad vial. Tan sólo en el 2012, para este grupo de trabajo, ocurrieron 4,712 accidentes, por lo que bajo el supuesto de que las condiciones laborales y de salud son un determinante de la seguridad vial, se realizó un estudio descriptivo exploratorio fundamentado en un enfoque de investigación cuantitativa, en la que se encuesto a 500 conductores, de forma supervisada para explorar variables socioeconómicas, laborales y de salud, incluyendo aspectos de seguridad vial y estilos de conducción; posteriormente, se analizó la relación de exposición y efecto los accidentes de tránsito. Entre los principales resultados se tiene una correlación de 0.77 entre los accidentes de tránsito y los conductores con jornadas laborales diarias superiores a las ocho horas; 0.78 con los que trabajan más de cinco días por semana; y 0.73 entre las infracciones de tránsito y la jornada laboral de más de ocho horas, por lo que se explica con gran porcentaje los siniestros viales.
Article
Given the diversity of questionnaires currently being used in the study of the analytic epidemiology of traffic injuries, we made a review of studies on this question published between 1989 and 2011 in order to identify their advantages and disadvantages. We were able to observe that most of the questionnaires were focused on the human factor regarding the risk of road crashes, but very few of them included intensity of exposure and its association with other risk factors in road crashes. Many questionnaires have a high number of items and complex rating scales. Furthermore, in Spain there are few validated questionnaires which contain complete information about exposure and road crashes. In Spain we should work on the design and validation of questionnaires containing questions aimed at obtaining complete and easy information about the epidemiology of traffic injuries. In this way we would be able to increase our awareness of traffic injuries and how to prevent them.
Article
Micro-mobility vehicles such as electric bicycles, or e-bikes, are becoming one of the essential transportation modes in metropolitan areas, and most deliveries in large cities are dependent on them. Due to the e-bike’s popularity and vulnerability, e-bike crash occurrence has become a major traffic safety problem in many cities across the world; finding the most important human factors affecting e-bike safety has thus been an important recent issue in traffic safety analysis. Since delivery riders are a key group of e-bike users, and since helmet use plays a crucial role in reducing the severity of a crash, this study conducted a city-wide online survey to analyze the helmet usage of 6,941 delivery riders in Shanghai, China. To determine the in-depth mechanisms influencing helmet use and e-bike crash occurrence, including the direct and indirect effects of the relevant factors, two mediator ordered logistic regression models were employed. The mediator ordered logistic model was compared with the traditional logistic regression model, and was found to be superior for modeling indirect as well as direct influencing factors. Results indicate that riders’ familiarity with traffic regulations (FTR) is an extremely important variable mediating between the independent variables of riders’ educational level and age, and the dependent variables of helmet use and e-bike crashes. Improving riders’ FTR can consequently increase helmet use and decrease crash occurrence. Authorities can apply these findings to develop appropriate countermeasures, particularly in legislation and rider training, to improve e-bike safety.
Article
In socio-technical systems such as modern planes or cars, assistance systems are used to increase performance and to maintain safety. This raises the questions, how they cooperate with human drivers and whether human operators face a loss of control. The article examines the loss-of-control argument empirically by means of a survey of a sample of car drivers with a number of driver assistance systems. It takes personal experiences with these systems into account, as reported by interviewees, and also figures out main factors that influence the drivers’ perceptions. We want to assess if the cooperation of driver assistance systems in modern cars raises the complexity and non-controllability of the whole system to a degree that is evaluated negatively by respondents in terms of loss-of-control. Additionally, our study asks how the interviewees perceive the current role distribution in modern cars and which future role distribution between humans and autonomous technology they expect. Our analysis will show that our respondents mostly feel comfortable with driver assistance systems, and satisfaction with automated driving does not decrease, but rather increase if more driver assistance systems of the maneuver type are implemented. At the same time, the number of automation malfunctions, reported by our interviewees, proved to be much smaller than we expected. In contrast to the assertion of a loss-of-control in highly automated systems, our data will show, that this hypothesis cannot be confirmed, at least not at the level of self-reported personal experiences and subjective perceptions of non-professional users such as car drivers.
Article
There is a great necessity to understand the endogenous and exogenous mechanism of how male and female driver characteristics determine the crash severity. Consequently, this paper estimated a group of random paramters logit models with heterogeneity in means and variances to investigate the heterogeneity and temporal stability of how male and female drivers affect crash severity. Using the crash data from California between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2017, an extensive body of factors that could potentially affect crash injury severity were examined. Additionally, the temporal stability and gender transferability of the models were investigated through a series of likelihood ratio tests. Marginal effects were also adopted to analyze the temporal stability of the explanatory variables. Three crash injury severity categories were investigated including fatal injury, severe injury, and minor injury, in terms of roadway characteristics, environmental characteristics, crash characteristics, temporal characteristics and driver characteristics significantly influencing crash injury outcomes. Remarkable differences were observed between crashes involving male and female drivers, and both male and female related crashes exhibited statistically significant temporal instability over the five-year period considered. This paper could potentially be utilized to ameliorate highway safety aimed at male and female drivers respectively and facilitate the development of crash injury mitigation policies. Spatial stability may be also a valuable issue that should be further investigated in future research.
Article
With the emergence of connected vehicle (CV) technology, there is a doubt whether CVs can improve driver intentions and behaviors, and thus protect them from accidents with the provision of real-time information. In order to understand the possible impacts of the real-time information provided by CV technology on drivers, this paper aims to develop a model which considers the heterogeneity between drivers with the aid of the extended theory of planned behavior. At the uncontrolled non-signalized intersections, a stated preference (SP) questionnaire survey was conducted to build the dataset consisting of 1001 drivers. Based on the collected dataset, the proposed model examines the relationships between subjective norms, attitudes, risk perceptions, perceived behavioral control and driving intentions, and studies how such driving intentions are simultaneously related to driver characteristics and experiences in the CV environment. Furthermore, driver groups which are homogenous with respect to personality traits are formed, and then are employed to analyze the heterogeneity in responses to driving intentions. Four key findings are obtained when analyzing driver responses to the real-time information provided by CV technology: 1) the proposed H-ETPB model is verified with a good fitness measure; 2) irrespective to driver personality traits, attitudes and perceived behavioral control have a direct and indirect association with driving intentions to accelerate; 3) driving intentions of high-neurotic drivers to accelerate are significantly related to subjective norms, while that of low-neurotic drivers are not; 4) elder high-neurotic drivers, and low-neurotic drivers who have unstable salaries or ever joined in online car hailing service have a strong intention in accelerating. The findings of this study could provide the theoretical framework to optimize traffic performance and information design, as well as provide in-vehicle personalized information service in the CV and CAV environments and assist traffic authorities to design the most acceptable traffic rules for different drivers at an uncontrolled non-signalized intersection.
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The DFT statistics (2010) revealed that red light running behaviour causes approximately 10 casualties per day in the UK, which is 3.4% higher than the previous year (2009). There has been uncertainty about the reasons for these violations; past literature has suggested that it could be due to insufficient amber duration or factors associated with the road environment, drivers and driving behaviour. Despite the underlying causes of these violations, red light running behaviour has been found to be more prevalent amongst younger drivers. A driving decision behaviour framework that captures continuously driver speed and acceleration performance, and their decisions was proposed. This research identifies contextual variables that can be used to predict driver’s decisions at junctions during the amber onset (such as presence of pedestrians and heavy vehicles). In particular, drivers were more likely to cross the junction when there was a vehicle directly ahead of them. Studies of drivers were conducted in a STISIM driving simulator. A methodology was developed to categorise driver responses as safe or unsafe, and to systematically assess the performances of different interventions. The advanced signal intervention (with a set of advanced signals placed upstream on the same approach of the original traffic light displaying the impending signal status from the next second) was the most effective intervention to increase stopping decision (with maximum deceleration rate < 4.9m/s2) without elevating driver uncertainty at junctions. The flashing amber intervention (with a standalone flashing amber light adjacent to the original traffic light activated 1s prior to the amber onset) however seemed to encourage drivers to stop early. Drivers braked significantly earlier when compared to other interventions and the control condition (i.e. baseline scenario). The extended amber intervention (with 4s amber phase) has slightly reduced unsafe stopping behaviour when compared to the control condition, but the intervention also increased driver uncertainty. 70% among the stopping decisions were categorised as unsafe (with maximum deceleration rate > 4.9m/s2), and therefore may not be recommended. The positive effects of the interventions to reduce violations were negated at urban junctions, which suggest that red light countermeasures may not be required at urban junctions. The findings also revealed a slower braking response time to the interventions when the drivers were within close proximity to another vehicle, thus highlighting the contextual effects of their preceding vehicle as suggested from the observational study. Future research should be extended to assess the performance of the advanced signal intervention to different levels of traffic flow and turning manoeuvres. Larger sample of drivers should be employed for improved reliability.
Article
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The growth of Matic-Motorcycle in Indonesia is increased steeply lately. According to Assosiasion of Indonesian Motorcycle Industry, AISI the sales of matic motorcycle have achieved 75,49% (3,639,000) of the wholesaler 4,821,000. In fact, motorcycle users do not realize that automatic motorcycle’s characteristics especially braking distance are different with those of non-automatic motorcycles. The different way of riding can cause uncontrolled vehicles during braking, when promptly change speed either faster or slower. Stopping sight distance is the distance needed by riders in order to stop their moving vehicles after seeing the obstacles in the front. This research is seeking to know the behavior of motorcycle users and stopping sight distance that is ideal for the users of automatic motorcycles. Multi linear Regression model is made to find out the relationship between stopping sight distance and other variables such as speed, machine capacity, type of brakes etc. From this model, it can be derived the ideal stopping sight distance which is affected by speed, machine capacity, type of front brakes. Perkembangan sepeda motor matic di Indonesia mengalami pertumbuhan yang sangat pesat beberapa tahun belakangan ini. Menurut data dari asosiasi industri sepeda motor Indonesia( AISI,2015) penjualan sepeda motor matic mengalami pertumbuhan yang sangat pesat dibandingkan dan motor bebek dan sport, yaitu 75,49% (3,639 juta matic dari penjualan 4,821 juta motor keseluruhan). Fakta di lapangan, pengguna tidak menyadari beda karakteristik kendaraan motor matic dengan non matic. Perbedaan ini mengakibatkan tidak terkontrolnya kecepatan kendaraan dimana seringnya terjadi perubahan percepatan dan perlambatan pada kendaraan tersebut. Jarak pandangan henti adalah jarak yang dibutuhkan oleh pengendara untuk menghentikan kendaraannya yang bergerak setelah melihat adanya rintangan pada lajur jalannya. Penelitian ini ingin mengetahui perilaku pengendara dan jarak pandang henti yang ideal bagi pengendara sepeda motor matic. Model Multi linear Regression hubungan Jarak pandangan henti dengan variable kecepatan, kapasitas mesin dan jenis rem diteliti. Hasilnya diperoleh jarak henti ideal yang dipengaruhi oleh kecepatan, kapasitas mesin, dan jenis rem depan.
Article
In China, drivers’ queue-jumping behaviors are very common. To explore the factors affecting drivers’ queue-jumping, first, a driving attitude scale, a risk perception scale and a queue-jumping behavior scale were designed, and an existing Type A behavior pattern scale and a driver skill scale were also introduced. Second, these scales were used to collect empirical data, and 202 valid samples were obtained. Third, the reliability and validity of the developed scales were verified, and a structural equation model of drivers’ queue-jumping behaviors was established to explore the interrelationships among the Type A personality trait, cognitions (including attitudes and risk perception), driver skills (including driving skill and safety motivation) and queue-jumping behaviors. The results showed that drivers’ cognitions significantly affected their queue-jumping behaviors; specifically, drivers’ attitudes toward queue-jumping and traffic violations positively correlated with their queue-jumping behaviors (β = 0.323, t = 3.470; β = 0.277, t = 3.072), while drivers’ risk perception toward queue-jumping negatively correlated with their queue-jumping behaviors (β = −0.297, t = −3.889). Drivers’ driving skill and safety motivation also significantly affected their queue-jumping behaviors (β = 0.198, t = 2.385; β = −0.355, t = −4.101). Although Type A personality trait had no significant effects on drivers’ queue-jumping behaviors, it had significant effects on drivers’ attitudes toward queue-jumping and traffic violations (β = 0.336, t = 4.720; β = 0.215, t = 2.873) and their risk perceptions toward queue-jumping (β = −0.232, t = −3.279). In other words, the Type A personality trait can indirectly affect drivers’ queue-jumping behaviors through drivers’ attitudes and risk perceptions toward queue-jumping. The results provided offer traffic administration departments a theoretical foundation for governing this behavior.
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In spite of numerous efforts to quantitatively identify the factors contributing to the injury severity of different crash types in rural and urban settings, the distinction between rural and urban areas regarding the injury severity of run-off-road (ROR) crashes involving large trucks is still not clearly understood. As such, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of area type (i.e., urban vs. rural) on injury severity outcomes sustained by drivers in ROR crashes involving large trucks while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. To do this, the latent class ordered probit models with two classes are developed. The crash data pertaining to ROR crashes involving large trucks in Oregon between 2007 and 2014 were utilized. The estimation results reveal that the developed latent class ordered probit models (for urban and rural areas) are substantially distinct in terms of the contributing factors affect urban and rural ROR crash severities. The results indicate that female drivers and speed limit of 55 mph were associated with moderate injuries (non-incapacitating) in rural roadway ROR crashes while no injury outcome is most likely for crashes occurred in urban roadways with raised medians and on areas with a population density between 10,001 and 25,000. Also, the findings show that some factors increase the risk propensity of sustaining higher injury levels regardless of the land use setting such as crashes on horizontal curves, not wearing seatbelt, and driver fatigue. The findings of this study could benefit trucking industry, transportation agencies, and safety practitioners to prevent or alleviate the injury severity of ROR crashes involving large trucks by developing appropriate and cost-effective countermeasures.
Article
Achieving road safety depends on driver attitudes and behaviours in handling the vehicle on roads. The availability of good road, improvement of vehicle designs and drivers experience lead to reduction in crashes but not prevention of crashes. The study aims to predict the drivers’ intentions towards speeding and overtaking violations when under the influence of motivational factors using belief measure of TPB and DBQ variables. To achieve this, questionnaires were randomly administered to a sample of Ghanaian drivers (N = 354) who held valid driving licenses. This study applied regression techniques. The result shows that the components of TPB and DBQ variables were able to predict drivers’ intentions towards speeding and overtaking violations. The study further shows that components of TPB made larger contributions to the prediction of divers’ intentions to speeding and overtaking than the DBQ. Further analysis revealed that, in the prediction of drivers’ intentions, speeding attitude was the most frequent violations compared to overtaking. The drivers tend to involved in overtaking violations when they perceived the driving motivations would enhance the performance of the behaviour. Additionally, control belief has been the strongest predictor of drivers’ intentions under the influence of motivations to speeding and overtaking violations. It appeared that the drivers who intended to involve in speeding and overtaking violations had strong beliefs in the factors and are more likely to violate based on their beliefs. The practical implications of the findings for the development of interventions to promote road safety and positive changes are also discussed.
Article
Stage-based interventions have been tested and found to be successful in helping people adopt healthy and safe lifestyles. The safety stages of change model, a modified version of Prochaska's transtheoretical framework, shows how workplace safety behavior can progress through five stages: pre-contemplation, contemplation, other-directed action, self-directed action, and maintenance. In this study, we explored the potential application of the safety stages of change model to study the use of cell phones and other electronic communication devices among employees prohibited from using them while driving on company business. About 18% of the study sample was made up of pre-contemplators and contemplators who should be considered a priority for interventions designed to reduce distracted driving in occupational settings. We used a series of discriminant function analyses to predict stage assignment based on a number of psychosocial factors related to employees' attitudes, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and normative beliefs. Even though interpretation of the results was complicated by partial misclassification of cases, the study succeeded in identifying what specific factors may facilitate progression to more advanced behavioral stages among employee drivers. Practical implications are discussed as a blueprint for future stage-based as well as non-staged safety improvement interventions in the workplace.
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The rapid increase in travel demand tends to increase social loss by increasing traffic jams and accidents, influence on environment and energy consumption. The main reasons of increase in automobile ownership and usage are low ownership and usage cost, status symbol, government policies on vehicle ownership, and inefficiency and under development of public transportation. The experience of many cities reveal that as capacity is increased, demand increases at a similar rate and subsequently in the long-term travellers do not experience a reduction in travel time and society additionally suffers from expensive road infrastructure, environmental degradation, and high-energy consumption. Moreover, in developing countries, it is difficult to deal with increased travel demand just by increasing the capacity of infrastructure due to financial, political, and technical issues. Under these circumstances, it is essential to look for alternative measures i.e. transportation demand management (TDM) measures. The TDM term is used for different demand side measures that encourage the use of existing transportation infrastructure more efficiently, or an approach to influence the travel behaviour with the purpose to reduce the needs of trips or to spreading the needs in time and space. Cities in developing countries are experiencing difficulty in determining appropriate mix of TDM measures to encourage travellers to change their normal travel behaviour. In this study, it is supposed that those TDM measures would be effective which aim to keep existing public transport users, make efficient use of automobile and reduce private vehicle trips, provide alternatives to private transport, and minimize the benefits of using private vehicle through fiscal and mobility restrictions. Factors influencing the public acceptability and effectiveness of specific measures are essential to evaluate in advance in specific region. Few studies in developing countries provide the evidence of influence of income, education, gender and social and religious factors on acceptability and effectiveness of TDM measures. On the other hand, studies in the developed countries have shown many factors i.e. pro-environmental behaviour, problem awareness, individual freedom in mode choice, personal and social norm, situational factors, and value orientation. Other factors such as individual’s lifestyles, attitudes, personality, freedom, status, superiority, feelings of power, and perceived performance of each transport mode seem to play an important role in policymaking. From perspective of developing countries, it is also required to evaluate the influence of above stated factors in integrating the TDM measures. Moreover, design of questionnaires to grasp stated preferences is a critical task due to difficulties in getting reliable data for making significant inferences. The respondent’s literacy level and response rate are the main issues when questionnaires include items regarding personal information, lifestyles, attitudes, norms, and intentions. Applications of theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and norm-activation model (NAM) are also not sure in explaining the behavioural consequences of TDM measures. Therefore, this study aims to design questionnaires for grasping user’s preferences to investigate the influencing factors in integrating TDM measures in developing countries for mitigation of traffic congestion and related environmental and social problems. Lahore city is selected for case study considering the severity of transportation problems, and feasibility of conducting the surveys. It is the second largest city of Pakistan with population almost 8.65 million. Three questionnaires were designed and conducted in Lahore city. Survey related to traffic radio first was conducted through email and then in field during September 2011. Phase-I survey was conducted with the help of university graduate students during September 2011 and 631 usable samples obtained. Phase-II survey was conducted during September-October 2012 again with the help of university graduate students and 354 usable samples obtained. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to analyze the questionnaires data. Study results revealed that radio traffic information has significant influence on road user’s trip making decision, and such simple, audio, and conventional type traffic information sources are suitable in developing countries considering literacy and accessibility issues of travellers. Effectiveness of such traffic information source depends on listening propensity of travellers and their satisfaction with its service quality. Two types of travel pattern exist in Lahore i.e. auto dependent, and non-auto captive behaviour. Time saving, convenience, reliability, flexibility, status symbol, and freedom are main motives in the use of private vehicle and auto-rickshaw, whereas low income and non-vehicle ownership are main reasons of non-auto modes usage. Symbolic, functional, and cost and time factors are significant determinants of public satisfaction with the service quality of public transportation modes and people perceive different modes differently. Daewoo bus service with some service improvements has potential of reducing the inefficiency of existing public transport system. Auto-oriented lifestyles and attitudes tend to reduce, whereas transit oriented factors tend to enhance the usage of public transport. Personality traits, community and congestion oriented travel attitudes, perceived behavioural control and intention are underlying factors of public attitudes towards soft, pull and push measures. Heterogeneity exists between different mode users for lifestyles and attitudes and perceptions to TDM measures. Similarly, attitudes towards public transport, personal and social norms, perceived behavioural control over public transport, perceived freedom and flexibility in travelling, and status oriented factors are significant factors influencing the acceptability of improved public transport, office based transport, and combined fiscal policy. Situational factors, mobility restrictions on car use and people moral obligations have significant impact on people’s intentions towards improved public transport. Perceived attitudinal aspects of private car and public transport such as social/aesthetic and personal orderliness and instrumental are also determinants of people’s attitudes towards public transport. Studied TDM measures were ranked and classified in terms of public favourability index and period of implementation respectively. People perceive soft and pull measures more favourable over push measures. However, push measures have more potential of changing travel behaviour. Polices were developed of appropriate TDM measures under their influencing factors for integration in developing countries. Intervention packages of TDM measures have been proposed to change and activate different attitudes, norms and beliefs, and create awareness among people about merits and demerits of different travel alternatives. Integration of fiscal and mobility restrictions on private vehicle use with public transport improvement and other travel alternative has tremendous potential of changing people’s travel behaviour. Behavioural theories can be applied in isolation as well as in combination in determining the behavioural intentions to TDM measures. This study infers that individual lifestyles, attitudes, norms, and perceived performance of transportation modes are dominant aspects of travel behaviour in integrating the TDM measures, and such aspects can be grasped in developing countries by giving proper attention to questionnaire design and survey methods. However, local circumstances of concerned city should have more importance in designing the appropriate set of policies. At the end, recommendations have been made for future research relevant to the scope of study with putting emphasis on designing stated preference experimental design in order to evaluate the interaction effect between TDM measures.
Research
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Race and racial identity is a frequently discussed topic in the media today. This topic is driven by what oftentimes amounts to culture clashes, and a system that claims impartiality yet is rampant with implicit bias demonstrating favorable treatment of one race over another. An example of this favoritism resides within video game design, where over 50% of player-controlled game characters are White, and less than 40% are Black (Leonard, 2007). Leonard also wrote that Black game characters are more likely to conform to Black stereotypes (e.g. play sports, or involved in gangs) than Whites (e.g. middle class citizen or unhygienic). Minimal research exists on understanding what information a video game character, or avatar, conveys to a game player, and whether this information is platform dependent or not. Furthermore, limited information exists on what the personification of agency really means within a digital environment. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship that race may exert within video game play and, by extension, video game design in regards to the control of in-game avatars. Moreover, the goal is to determine if the Proteus effect, the central psychological theory under analysis, exists for console video game players in regards to race and skin color. Originating from the world of virtual reality, the Proteus effect emphasizes conformity to an avatar’s identity cues (Yee & Bailenson, 2007). Specifically, this study examines how the similarity or mismatch between in game avatars and the individual controlling them affects game-world behaviors. Ninety male university students comprised of 3 different races (Middle Eastern, African American, and Caucasian American) played Grand Theft Auto V (GTAV) on PlayStation 3 with an assignment of either White (Michael) or Black (Franklin) game character condition. Data were collected on a behavioral metric with two primary categories: Crime against people and crimes against property. They also completed a personality inventory (HEXACO), and performed an implicit association task to further scientific exploration of the Proteus effect. The results indicated that behavioral outcomes between the Middle-Eastern and Caucasian Americans contained significant differences, and this was regardless of their digital actor (DA) assignment. However, African American gamers had significant performance differences between the two DA conditions (White, Black); there were more crimes committed against in-game people and in-game property when playing as a White DA than when playing as a Black DA when compared against the other two groups. For the game play itself, no significant performance differences were observed between the White and Black DA conditions when collapsed across race conditions indicating that the platform selected offered equal opportunity for all gamers, and that one DA did not facilitate extra crimes above and beyond the other DA. Personality factors were controlled for through the use of the HEXACO model and demonstrated that the three faces did not significantly differ in terms of personality. However, when considering game play and crime specifically, individuals scoring high in the Honesty-Humility dimension of the personality inventory committed fewer crimes against property during their gameplay as indicated by a significant regression analysis. The Proteus effect exists for console video games, and was observed within this study because a change in self representation via the DA caused an observable change in behavior. The African American participants experimentally depicted this in that they committed significantly less crimes while playing as a Black DA than the crimes they committed while playing as a White DA that did not occur for the other two races. The significance of this finding lies in the fact that this discovery bolsters understanding of DA-man relationships, and the nature of agency within digital environments. This study also demonstrates that DAs can alter gameplay, and the gaming community needs richer designs incorporating racial inclusivity within video games.
Conference Paper
Study aim to advance understanding of empathy in different driver samples, and to identify ways of modifying such social behaviour in dangerous drivers. This is achieved by evaluating empathy – related driver – rehabilitation programs with a novel neurobehavioral technique. Statistics show that almost 85% of road – traffic accidents in the Czech Republic are caused by the drivers themselves, and approximately 63% of these accidents are due to dangerous driving behaviour (e. g. Speeding, aggressive driving). Developing an effective rehabilitation requires an objective method of evaluation. Our rehabilitation program for dangerous drivers consists of empathy induction. Many studies have revealed associations between reduced empathic awareness and various forms of antisocial behavior. Further research also shows that empathic skills can be enhanced during group therapy. Empathy and anti – social behaviour are associated with specific patterns of brain function and structure. Present study focuses on way, how to evaluate the drivers ‘rehabilitation program. We used for this evaluation MRI data combining functional (e.g. partial least squares) and effective connectivity analyses (e.g. dynamic causal modelling) with measures of structural covariance. Combining these multidimensional network level analyses of neuroimaging data with measures of trait empathy and behavioral performance on socio – emotional tasks allow us better comprehensive into brain relationships.
Article
Objective This paper intends to investigate the existing relationship between drivers’ characteristics and their aberrant driving behavior (lapses, errors, and violations), accident and ticket rates. To achieve this, risky drivers s groups are identified with introducing driver’s risk index (DRI). Methods 1769 questionnaires were collected from Iranian drivers to gain information on drivers’ personality, age, gender, education, driving behaviors (lapses, errors and violations), accident and ticket rates. Four indicators were used to describe the driver’s characteristics so that the whole combinations of driver’s characteristics and their relationship could be taken into consideration. K-means clustering and a non-parametric test were implemented to group the combinations within the homogeneous categories based on driving behavior, accident and ticket rates. Results The mean age of respondents was 36.53 (Standard Deviation (SD) = 11.33) with mean driving experience of 10.50 (SD = 9.63) years. The mean kilometers driven was 24875.89 km (SD = 24658.73) for 3 years. Results of the significance test (p-values) showed that there are no differences among lapses and errors with pairwise comparison across the whole clusters, however, other factors showed the most significant differences for resulting clusters by k = 4. Consequently, an ordinal 4-level risk index from 1 “safe” to 4 “risky” were identified. Also, a validation was performed by 158 questionnaires in order to confirm the results. Conclusion These ordinal levels can be used as a driver’s risk index (DRI) to assess the effect of driver’s characteristics on safety. The risk index would help to identify and target high risk drivers with safety Prevention programs.
Article
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A survey of over 1600 drivers is reported, the results of which art: consistent with those reported in an earlier study, which identified a three-fold typology of aberrant driving behaviours. The first type, lapses, are absent-minded behaviours with consequences mainly for the perpetrator, posing no threat to other road users. The second type, errors, are typically misjudgements and failures of observation that may be hazardous to others. The third type, violations, involve deliberate contraventions of safe driving practice. In the present study the survey instrument used, the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire, was also shown to be reliable over time. Each type of behaviour was found to have different demographic correlates. Most importantly, accident liability was predicted by self-reported tendency to commit violations, but not by tendency to make errors or to have lapses. The implications for road safety are discussed.
Article
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A survey of over 1600 drivers is reported, the results of which are consistent with those reported in an earlier study (Reason et al. 1990), which identified a three-fold typology of aberrant driving behaviours. The first type, lapses, are absent-minded behaviours with consequences mainly for the perpetrator, posing no threat to other road users. The second type, errors, are typically misjudgements and failures of observation that may be hazardous to others. The third type, violations, involve deliberate contraventions of safe driving practice. In the present study the survey instrument used, the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire, was also shown to be reliable over time. Each type of behaviour was found to have different demographic correlates. Most importantly, accident liability was predicted by self-reported tendency to commit violations, but not by tendency to make errors or to have lapses. The implications for road safety are discussed.
Article
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Overview Whereas most traffic crashes occur in urban areas, the rates of fatal crashes and traffic fatalities (per capita and per vehicle mile) are higher in rural areas. The distinction between rural and urban areas is, therefore, an important delineation in any policy discussion about traffic safety. In particular, efforts to distinguish between rural and urban traffic safety should focus on those factors that increase the risk of fatal outcomes in rural areas. Notably, several aspects of the rural road environment can be characterized as hazardous. For example, several road design elements of rural roads, such as high speed limits, narrow shoulders with ditches, and the absence of median barriers can increase the risk of fatal crash types, such as head-on and rollover crashes. Moreover, the low population density and geographic isolation of rural communities can increase detection, response, and travel time for emergency medical services, thereby reducing crash survivability. In addition, the human factors associated with common impairment states and driving behaviors amongst rural drivers are also significant contributors to rural fatal crashes. The social forces that enable these human factors are embodied in the culture of rural communities. Indeed, comparisons of traffic safety performance between different countries have highlighted the importance of social attitudes, safety behaviors, and traffic safety policy in reducing fatal traffic crashes (Page 2001). Thus, it is necessary to consider the human factors associated with fatal rural crashes together with the relevant socio-cultural context of rural communities. Only by understanding the psychological and social factors that define the rural safety culture may it then be possible to development human-centered and culturally sensitive programs to improve traffic safety in rural America.
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There appears to be general agreement among social psychologists that most human behavior is goal-directed (e. g., Heider, 1958 ; Lewin, 1951). Being neither capricious nor frivolous, human social behavior can best be described as following along lines of more or less well-formulated plans. Before attending a concert, for example, a person may extend an invitation to a date, purchase tickets, change into proper attire, call a cab, collect the date, and proceed to the concert hall. Most, if not all, of these activities will have been designed in advance; their execution occurs as the plan unfolds. To be sure, a certain sequence of actions can become so habitual or routine that it is performed almost automatically, as in the case of driving from home to work or playing the piano. Highly developed skills of this kind typically no longer require conscious formulation of a behavioral plan. Nevertheless, at least in general outline, we are normally well aware of the actions required to attain a certain goal. Consider such a relatively routine behavior as typing a letter. When setting this activity as a goal, we anticipate the need to locate a typewriter, insert a sheet of paper, adjust the margins, formulate words and sentences, strike the appropriate keys, and so forth. Some parts of the plan are more routine, and require less conscious thought than others, but without an explicit or implicit plan to guide the required sequence of acts, no letter would get typed.
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No strategy for countermeasure design or future directions of research in the areas of human behavior which leads to traffic accidents or lifestyle-related diseases can be rationally developed without an acceptable working theory of human behavior in these domains. For this purpose, an attempt has been made to conceptually integrate the available evidence with respect to the role of human behavior in the causation of road accidents. From this integrative effort it would seem that the accident rate is ultimately dependent on one factor only, the target level of risk in the population concerned which acts as the reference variable in a homeostatic process relating accident rate to human motivation. Various policy tactics for the purpose of modifying this target level of risk have been pointed out and the theory of risk homeostasis has been speculatively extended to the areas of lifestyle-dependent morbidity and mortality.
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The core aim of the present study is to examine cultural differences in risk perception and attitudes towards traffic safety and risk, taking behaviour in the Norwegian and the Ghanaian public. An additional aim is to discuss the applicability of various traffic measures, suited for low and middle income countries in Africa.Sample: The results of the present study are based on two self-completion questionnaire surveys carried out in February and March 2006. The first was a representative sample of the Norwegian public above 18 years of age (N = 247). The second was a stratified sample of Ghanaian respondents (N = 299). In Ghana the data was collected in Accra and Cape Coast.The results showed that there is potential for further improvement of safety attitudes and risk behaviour among Ghanaians as well as Norwegians. There were also differences in the respondents’ evaluation of attitudes, risk perception and behaviour. Perceived risk and attitudes also significantly predicted risk behaviour and accidents/collisions. The implications of these results for traffic safety will be discussed.
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Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour was used to measure the attitudes and intentions of a large stratified sample of drivers (N = 881) towards four driving violations. Measures were taken of respondents' attitudes to four imaginary scenarios depicting their commission of the four violations concerned. Demographic subgroups of drivers within the sample were differentiated on the basis of their beliefs about and evaluations of their commission of the violations. We were able to identify attitude items differentiating the younger, statistically more “accident liable” drivers in the sample from their older, and statistically safer counterparts. The implications of using this approach to inform future road safety campaigns are discussed.
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Readers who want a less mathematical alternative to the EQS manual will find exactly what they're looking for in this practical text. Written specifically for those with little to no knowledge of structural equation modeling (SEM) or EQS, the author's goal is to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the basic concepts of SEM by applying these principles to EQS, Version 6.1. The book clearly demonstrates a wide variety of SEM/EQS applications that include confirmatory factor analytic and full latent variable models.
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Within psychology, different research traditions have attempted to explain individual differences in risky driving behaviour and traffic accident involvement. The present study attempts to integrate two of these research traditions, the personality trait approach and the social cognition approach, in order to understand the mechanisms underlying young drivers' risk-taking behaviour in traffic. The study was based on a self-completion questionnaire survey carried out among 1932 adolescents in Norway. The questionnaire included measures of risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and self-reported risk-taking in traffic. Personality measures included aggression, altruism, anxiety and normlessness. The results of a structural equation model suggested that the relation between the personality traits and risky driving behaviour was mediated through attitudes. On this basis it was concluded that personality primarily influences risky driving behaviour indirectly through affecting the attitudinal determinants of the behaviour. Practical implications for traffic safety campaigns are also discussed.
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This study investigated differences in risk-perception among U.S., Spanish, West German, and Brazilian drivers. Subjects estimated the risk involved in slide-projected traffic scenes. The scenes, photographed in the United States and Spain, were rated for the amount of risk by using a seven-point scale. The subject groups in each country included younger, middle-aged, and older nonprofessional drivers, as well as middle-aged professional (bus, taxi, or truck) drivers. In the data analyses, the independent variables were subjects' country, age, professional driving experience, and sex, and 23 dichotomously coded characteristics of the traffic scenes. The following are the main findings: (1) Spanish drivers reported the highest risk, while U.S. drivers reported the lowest risk; (2) younger drivers tended to report lower risk than middle-aged and older drivers; (3) nineteen of the 23 analysed characteristics of traffic scenes contributed significantly to risk ratings, even after simultaneously controlling for the effects of all other scene characteristics; (4) ten scene characteristics had a differential effect on the risk ratings in the four tested countries; (5) two scene characteristics had a differential effect on the risk ratings in the four tested subject groups; (6) none of the variables affected differentially the risk ratings of professional vs. nonprofessional drivers and males vs. females. These findings provide information concerning the desirable country- and age-specific emphasis in driver education, driver licensing, and public information campaigns.
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The main purpose of the present study was to investigate factors influencing drivers' decisions to drive after alcohol consumption. Male, Swedish, non-teetotal drivers aged 18 to 54 years (N = 1085) answered a questionnaire concerning their experience of drunken driving. The Ajzen and Fishbein model for explaining behavioral intentions from attitudes and social norms was used as a theoretical guideline in design of questionnaire and analysis of data. LISREL analyses suggested a causal model (which was crossvalidated) where intentions to drink and drive were influenced by attitudes, evaluation of sanctions, social norms, and drinking habits. Analyses of reports of decision making indicated that perceived probability of detection (and accidents) or need for transport, tied to specific situations, were important factors for drivers' decisions to drive or not after alcohol consumption.
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To determine whether the increased risk of dying in a rural vs nonrural motor vehicle crash (MVC) can be attributed to driver demographics, crash characteristics, or police-reported alcohol use. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, comparing all rural (116,242) and a 20% random sample of nonrural (104,197) Michigan drivers involved in an MVC during 1994-1996. Data consisted of all police-reported traffic crashes on public roadways. A logistic regression model was created, using survival as the dependent variable and gender, age, crash characteristics, and rural or nonrural county as independent variables. Driver alcohol use, as reported by the investigating officer, was introduced into the model, and the effect was analyzed. Nonsurvivors represented 0.2% of the total; 99.8% were survivors. Police-reported alcohol use was reported for 3.9% of drivers. Drivers in rural MVCs were more likely to be male, to be more than 50 years of age, to have been drinking alcohol, and to have more severe vehicle deformation as a result of the MVC. The relative risk (RR) for MVC nonsurvivors was 1.69 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3 to 2.1] times higher for drivers in rural than nonrural counties. After adjusting for demographic and crash characteristics, the RR was 1.56 (95% CI = 1.2 to 1.9). Controlling for alcohol and its interactions decreased the RR to 1.26 (95% CI = 0.6 to 2.4), a nonsignificant difference between rural and nonrural MVC mortalities. Alcohol use by drivers in Michigan was a significant contributor for nonsurvivors of rural crashes. Efforts to decrease rural MVC mortality must address alcohol use.
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of population density on mortality after traffic crashes. Subjects were the drivers of vehicles requiring towing after collisions, sampled by NASS-GES during 1994-1998. Cases were classified by population of crash location (greater or lesser than 25,000) and by population density of the driver's county of residence (using ZIP code and Census data). Cases were also categorized by age, belt use and vehicle speed. Analytic methods for weighted, stratified survey data were used to estimate effects on mortality. A total of 190,721 cases with a specified crash location were identified in the sample, of which 93.7% had a specified population at the crash location, and 94.1% could be linked to the driver's county data. Mortality was higher in locations with populations less than 25,000 and was inversely proportional to the driver's county population density. Age, belt use, and vehicle speed also affected mortality significantly, but the effect of rural location remained after controlling for these factors (O.R. 2.10, 95% C.I. 1.62-2.73). The excess risk for residents of rural areas to die in traffic crashes can be attributed in part to post-crash factors.
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The present study aims at identifying determinants of risk behaviour and accident involvement in traffic. The results are based on a self-completion questionnaire survey carried out among a representative sample of Norwegian drivers drawn from the driver's licence register. The data was collected in year 2000 and 2001 (n=2614). The questionnaire included measures of attitudes, risk behaviour and involvement in accidents and near accidents. The results showed that attitudes towards traffic safety issues influenced involvement in risk behaviour in traffic, especially attitudes towards rule violations and speeding. Risk behaviour had an effect on involvement in near accidents and accidents. Variations in attitudes and risk behaviour were related to age and gender.
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Studies have demonstrated that the fatality risk for motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) is higher in rural than urban areas. The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of a fatal outcome associated with a crash by the urban/rural classification of the driver's county of residence and the county of crash before and after adjusting for potentially confounding factors. County of crash and driver's county of residence were classified as urban or rural for 514,648 Utah crash participants. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the impact of rural versus urban crash location on fatality outcomes for both urban and rural drivers. Before adjusting for confounding factors the relative risk of fatality in a rural versus urban crash was 9.7 (95% CI: 8.0-11.7) for urban drivers and their passengers compared to 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3-2.6) for rural residents. Adjustment for behavioral, road, and crash characteristics reduced risk estimates to 2.8 (95% CI: 2.2-3.5) and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.8-1.7), respectively. Urban and rural drivers may have distinct risk factors for MVC fatality in rural areas. Interventions to reduce the risk of fatality in rural areas should evaluate the needs of both urban and rural drivers.
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Data on road traffic fatalities, serious casualties and slight casualties in each local authority district England and Wales were obtained for 1995-2000. District-level data were assembled for a large number of potential explanatory variables relating to population numbers and characteristics, traffic exposure, road length, curvature and junction density, land use, elevation and hilliness, and climate. Multilevel negative binomial regression models were used to identify combinations of risk factors that predicted variations in mortality and morbidity. Statistically significant explanatory variables were the expected number of casualties derived from the size and age structure of the resident population, road length and traffic counts in the district, the percentage of roads classed as minor, average cars per capita, material deprivation, the percentage of roads through urban areas and the average curvature of roads. This study demonstrates that a geographical approach to road traffic crash analysis can identify contextual associations that conventional studies of individual road sections would miss.