A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of New Interventions for Peripheral Intravenous Cannulation of Children

From the *Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta and †Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Pediatric emergency care (Impact Factor: 1.05). 07/2013; 29(7):858-66. DOI: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e3182999bcd
Source: PubMed


Establishing intravenous access in children is often challenging for health professionals. Multiple attempts at peripheral intravenous cannulation (PIVC) cause increased pain and delayed delivery of therapy. Our objective was to synthesize and evaluate the best evidence for novel interventions designed to improve pediatric PIVC.
We searched for published and unpublished studies using MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science,, and We included studies for meta-analysis if they were randomized, evaluated an intervention other than ultrasound, and reported on 1 of 3 primary outcome measures: success or failure of PIVC, number of attempts to successful cannulation, and procedure time. Two blinded reviewers assessed studies for eligibility and applied a data extraction form to those included. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.
Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of 3 different interventions were identified. A meta-analysis of 3 RCTs found that use of a transilluminator was associated with a decreased risk of first-attempt PIVC failure (risk ratio, 0.66; confidence interval, 0.41-1.06). Meta-analysis of 3 other RCTs found that near-infrared light devices do not impact the risk of first-attempt PIVC failure (risk ratio, 0.99; confidence interval, 0.74-1.33).
Near-infrared light devices might be efficacious in selected subpopulations, but the available evidence does not support an overall benefit in the pediatric population. Transilluminators modestly improve pediatric PIVC, but the clinical significance of this benefit is questionable. Nitroglycerin ointments may increase the risk of PIVC failure and are associated with adverse effects.

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    ABSTRACT: Peripheral intravenous catheterization in children is challenging, and success rates vary greatly. We conducted a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to determine whether the use of ultrasound or near-infrared vascular imaging to guide catheterization would be more effective than the standard approach in achieving successful catheter placement on the first attempt. We enrolled a convenience sample of 418 children in a pediatric emergency department who required peripheral intravenous catheterization between June 2010 to August 2012. We stratified them by age (≤ 3 yr and > 3 yr) and randomly assigned them to undergo the procedure with the standard approach, or with the help of either ultrasound or near-infrared vascular imaging. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had successful placement of a catheter on the first attempt. The rate of successful first attempts did not differ significantly between either of the 2 intervention groups and the standard approach group (differences in proportions -3.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -14.2% to 6.5%, for ultrasound imaging; -8.7%, 95% CI -19.4% to 1.9%, for near-infrared imaging). Among children 3 years and younger, the difference in success rates relative to standard care was also not significant for ultrasound imaging (-9.6%, 95% CI -29.8% to 10.6%), but it was significantly worse for near-infrared imaging (-20.1%, 95% CI -40.1% to -0.2%). Among children older than 3 years, the differences in success rates relative to standard care were smaller but not significant (-2.3%, 95% CI -13.6% to 9.0%, for ultrasound imaging; -4.1%, 95% CI -15.7% to 7.5%, for near-infrared imaging). None of the pairwise comparisons were statistically significant in any of the outcomes. Neither technology improved first-attempt success rates of peripheral intravenous catheterization in children, even in the younger group. These findings do not support investment in these technologies for routine peripheral intravenous catheterization in children., no. NCT01133652. © 8872147 Canada Inc.
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