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Lavender and sleep: A systematic review of the evidence

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... Different drugs are generally used to treat sleep disorders. Diazepam and nitrazepam, which belong to the family of benzodiazepines, are the most commonly used drugs (Fismer & Pilkington, 2012). Although these agents are efficient, they have several side effects, such as rebound anxiety, falls, and respiratory muscle depression (Chen et al., 2016;Wang et al., 2019;Uzun et al., 2010;Pagel et al., 2018). ...
... Also, they are rarely effective against acute and transient sleep disorders (Pagel et al., 2018). On the other hand, inhalation aromatherapy is relatively safe and easy to use (Fismer & Pilkington, 2012;Hassan et al., 2020;Bikmoradi et al., 2015). It also leads to relaxation and improvement of physical, psychological, and emotional functioning (Cho et al., 2017). ...
... It also leads to relaxation and improvement of physical, psychological, and emotional functioning (Cho et al., 2017). Nevertheless, aromatherapy has several complications, such as mild allergic reactions, nausea, and headache (Fismer & Pilkington, 2012;Hassan et al., 2020;Bikmoradi et al., 2015). In this type of treatment, the roots, stems, and leaves of flowers and aromatic plants are used (Ali et al., 2015). ...
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Background Sleep disorder is a critical problem in cardiac patients. This study aimed to compare the effects of aromatherapy ‌with peppermint and lavender essential oils on the sleep quality of cardiac patients. Methods A total of 105 patients were randomly allocated to three groups of peppermint essential oil, lavender essential oil, and control. In each experimental group, the patients inhaled three drops of lavender and peppermint essential oils, whereas the control group received aromatic distilled water. Data were collected using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The participants completed PSQI before and after the intervention. Results There was a significant difference in the mean score of PSQI in each of the experimental groups before and after the intervention; however, the difference was not statistically significant between the experimental groups. Conclusion Aromatherapy with lavender and peppermint essential oils can improve the sleep quality of cardiac patients. Therefore, use of this non-pharmacological intervention, as an effective and simple approach, is recommended for cardiac patients. Trial registration IRCT, IRCT201601244736N10. Registered 4 November 2016.
... Specific ingredients commonly used in commercial odorants targeting sleep and well-being (e.g., lavender, patchouli) have been found to induce central relaxant and sedative effects (Haze et al. 2002;Ito and Ito 2011;El Alaoui et al. 2017). However, the process through which an odor produces affective responses is relatively unknown, but it is hypothesized to be via the amygdala, through the absorption of pharmacologically active components of an odor and/or its perceptual associations (Fismer and Pilkington 2012). Odors can nevertheless have profound effects, where studies have reported that pleasant odor inhalation may have positive psychophysiological impacts (Liljenquist et al. 2010;Haehner et al. 2017). ...
... Previous works have demonstrated that odors, especially lavender, can aid sleep and well-being in patients having clinical interventions (e.g., Lytle et al. 2014;Muz and Taşcı 2017;Ayik and Özden 2018). A majority of studies in aromatherapy research have used anecdotal and subjective evidence, where objective investigations are relatively few (Fismer and Pilkington 2012). Only a handful of studies have systematically looked at the effects of pleasant odors on sleep quality in healthy humans (e.g., Hardy et al. 1995;Sano et al. 1998;Tanaka et al. 2002) and have found some beneficial impact, yet we know little about the exact relationship between odors and their neural, behavioral, and perceptual effects. ...
... Lavender and lavandin flower essential oil is applied topically for skin conditions, inhaled as a sleep aid, or taken internally to obtain relief from anxiety. 10,[31][32][33][34] English lavender has been traditionally employed to treat symptoms of certain nerve-related disorders like minor insomnia. 35 Fresh lavender flowers are added to jams, ice cream, vinegar, and herbal teas. ...
... Several publications suggest external uses of English lavender flower oil for relaxation, the relief of anxiety and depressive mood, and to promote sleep. 10,[32][33][34][36][37][38][39] English lavender oil applied in aromatherapy appears to positively affect individuals' mood, improve sleep patterns, and increase alertness based on assessments of electroencephalographic activity, mathematical computation speed, and sensory evaluation. 36,37,40 While many smaller clinical studies suggest a therapeutic benefit of lavender oil inhalation in patients with anxiety and insomnia, larger studies are needed to generalize these findings. ...
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The main goal of this bulletin is to provide timely information and/or updates on issues of adulteration and mislabeling of essential oil (EO) of English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) in particular with lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loisel, syn. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. × Lavandula latifolia Medik.), spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Medik.), linalool and linalyl acetate-rich EOs, terpenes, and synthetic chemicals. This bulletin may serve as a guide for quality control personnel, the international herbal products, cosmetic, and essential oil industries, and the extended natural products community in general. It is also intended to present a summary of the scientific data and methods on the occurrence of species substitution, adulteration, the market situation, and economic and safety consequences for the consumer and the industry.
... Specific ingredients commonly used in commercial odorants targeting sleep and well-being (e.g., lavender, patchouli) have been found to induce central relaxant and sedative effects (Haze et al. 2002;Ito and Ito 2011;El Alaoui et al. 2017). However, the process through which an odor produces affective responses is relatively unknown, but it is hypothesized to be via the amygdala, through the absorption of pharmacologically active components of an odor and/or its perceptual associations (Fismer and Pilkington 2012). Odors can nevertheless have profound effects, where studies have reported that pleasant odor inhalation may have positive psychophysiological impacts (Liljenquist et al. 2010;Haehner et al. 2017). ...
... Previous works have demonstrated that odors, especially lavender, can aid sleep and well-being in patients having clinical interventions (e.g., Lytle et al. 2014;Muz and Taşcı 2017;Ayik and Özden 2018). A majority of studies in aromatherapy research have used anecdotal and subjective evidence, where objective investigations are relatively few (Fismer and Pilkington 2012). Only a handful of studies have systematically looked at the effects of pleasant odors on sleep quality in healthy humans (e.g., Hardy et al. 1995;Sano et al. 1998;Tanaka et al. 2002) and have found some beneficial impact, yet we know little about the exact relationship between odors and their neural, behavioral, and perceptual effects. ...
Article
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Introduction Olfaction has an important role in physiological and affective processes, as well as the potential to have profound effects on activities such as sleep and learning. We investigated two commercially manufactured odors (“Deep Sleep” and “Oriental,” from This Works) purported to promote sleep, compared with control odor, where we aimed to explore whether neural and behavioral differences existed after odor inhalation. Methods In a neuroimaging study, 30 healthy participants were exposed to the odors via an olfactometer during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a further behavioral study using 12 chronic insomniacs, we investigated whether the commercial odors showed effects on sleep during a double-blind, randomized home evaluation. Results In the neuroimaging, the odors were related to activation of olfactory-relevant areas, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, and we found positive connectivity between the piriform cortex and the hippocampus, amygdala, insula, and middle cingulate cortex. Deep Sleep specifically activated the superior temporal gyrus, whereas Oriental activated the caudate. Further, these commercial odors showed some beneficial impact on sleep. Conclusions The perceptual and neural impacts of the commercial odors showed that olfactory stimulation can potentially aid sleep and modify affective processes in a number of ways. Implications The present work opens up opportunities for further investigations into how different odors may lead to specific behavioral and physiological modifications, such as their impact on sleep and well-being, which may provide non-pharmacological alternative approaches.
... Jasmine odor led to greater sleep efficiency and reduced sleep movement 10 . Lavender oil, in turn, enhanced sleep effectiveness, increased total sleep time 11,12 , promoted sleep in patients with insomnia 13 and those having clinical interventions 14,15 . ...
... Given the common anecdotal and subjective evidence in aromatherapy research, systematic objective investigations on the impact of odors on sleep quality are few 11,24 . Pleasant odors were found to have some beneficial effects on sleep quality in healthy humans 8,13,23,25 . ...
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The present study aimed to systematically examine whether laurinal, orange odor, and a specifically designed “perfume” influence sleep quality. During sleep, healthy participants (n = 139) were presented with odor or no odor through nose clips for fourteen consecutive nights (phase one). We collected physiological parameters together with subjective reports. Later on, longer lasting effects of this manipulation were examined for the following fourteen nights (phase two) without exposition to odors. Additionally, olfactory, cognitive and non-cognitive measures were conducted before phase one, between both phases and after phase two. One-way analyses of variance for repeated measures with nights and condition (1 vs 2) as the within-subject factor and odor condition (0, 1, 2 or 3) together with odor pleasantness rating as between-subject factor, was employed to analyse data. Overall, the present results demonstrated that the odor condition in comparison to control had no consistent effect on sleep in healthy participants which can be possibly explained by exposure to odors via nose clips. However, the analyses indicated that the individual pleasantness of odors enhanced the positive assessment of sleep quality. Altogether, the present results indicate that the subjective perception of an odor’s hedonic value appears to be crucial for sleep quality, not the odors themselves.
... The results of this study are in agreement with those of the present meta-analysis with respect to effectiveness of lavender, but the target group in the present meta-analysis was postpartum women who had recently given birth to children. However, in the mentioned review study, the effect of lavender together with Eucalyptus was studied only in one study on postpartum maternal sleep quality [34], which was not included in the present meta-analysis because it did not satisfy the inclusion criteria. ...
... Moreover, none of the three studies reported side effects after using lavender. Current depression or a history of it, newborn gender, postpartum complications [34] and obesity [35] are among factors influencing postpartum maternal sleep quality. Nevertheless, newborn gender and postpartum complications in one of the studies [24], history of depression in two of the three studies [11,23] and obesity in one study were controlled [11]. ...
Article
Poor sleep quality in the postpartum period can have various negative effects on the health of mothers and infants such as anxiety, depression, low breastfeeding self-efficacy and disrupted child-mother attachment. Accordingly, intervention seems necessary to improve sleep quality. Given the probable effect of lavender on sleep problems, the present research intended to determine its effects on mothers’ sleep quality during postpartum period. The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus databases and the Persian language databases (Magiran and SID) were searched for all the articles they included at the end of February 2021. The risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane tool. The results of the meta-analysis were reported as the standardized mean difference (SMD). Heterogeneity of the studies was investigated using the I-squared test (I ² ). Three out of the 292 obtained studies entered the meta-analysis. The results indicated that sleep quality in the group receiving lavender improved compared to the control group, (SMD = −0.61; 95% CI: −1.07 to −015 p = 0.01) whereas the heterogeneity was higher. (I ² = 75%; Tau2 = 012; Chi2 = 7.905, p = 0.02). According to the results of this systematic review, use of lavender can improve postpartum maternal sleep quality. However, further randomized controlled trials using identical methodology, larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are needed.
... Although massage lead to muscular pain relief but several factors such as the age of patients and their underlying disorders, the duration and method of massage, patient's psychological conditions, or the amount of oil used might be contributed to controversies on the effects of lavender or olive oil. For instance, Fismer and Pilkington (21) only used one drop of lavender for one night or in Hashemi et al (9) study, massage followed for three weeks. ...
... Accordingly, examining the main hypothesis of our study results showed that pain in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks in the lavender oil group was less than that in the olive oil group. Lavender is a safe herb and no toxicity has been reported and it seems that lavender contains linalyl acetat and linalool with sedative effects (21) . On the other hand, lavender stimulates the limbic system and releases neurotransmitters such as enkephalin, endorphins, serotonin, and in addition to creating a sense of calm and reducing anxiety, also reduces pain perception (22) . ...
Article
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Background: Pain due to muscular cramp during hemodialysis is one of the most common problems experienced by patient undergoing hemodialysis, and is associated with poor outcomes of patients. The main aim of this study was to comparing the effects of lavender oil and olive oil massage on Pain due to muscular cramp during hemodialysis. Methods: In this random clinical trial, 60 hemodialysis patients were enrolled randomly and allocated to two groups with 30 members in Lordegan and Brojen hospitals, Shahrekord, Iran. The intervention included flora massage on the lower leg muscles so that the first group received olive oil massage (10 drops) and the second group received lavender oil massage (10 drops) for four weeks. After a tow week washout period, the groups were interchanged. The collected data was analyzed in SPSS (v.22) using repeated measure ANOVA and paired t-test. Findings: Pain due to muscular cramp in the lavender group was significantly less than that of the olive oil group in the 2nd (p<0.001), 3rd (p<0.001), and 4th (P<0.019) weeks of intervention. Conclusion: Pain due to muscular cramp in hemodialysis patients can be attenuated with lower leg massage using olive oil and lavender oil. Lavender oil was more effective than olive oil.
... 14 The aromatherapy is considered as a comprehensive intervention and an effective mediator for pain relief, relieving anxiety and improving the quality of sleep, and is associated with better acceptance of patients. 15,16 One of the most aromatic and volatile oils used in aromatherapy is the oil from the lavender plant, which belongs to the peppermint species, a herbaceous, aromatic, and always lush plant. 14 This herb is anti-anxiety and sedative. ...
... Among the studies, some indicated positive effects of this inhalation on the quality of sleep in patients with chronic insomnia, hemodialysis, and acute coronary syndrome (ACS), 2,17 improvement in heart rate and sleep quality in middle-aged women 18 and increased deep sleep in young people; 19 however, studies have not always been meaningful in this regard. 16 Another effective plant in aromatherapy is damask rose (Rosa damascena), which has antianxiety effects with two substances of citronella and 2-phenylethyl alcohol. 13 This fragrance with positive effects on the CNS 7 can reduce neurological stress and tension. ...
Article
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Background: Numerous studies have investigated the effect of lavender and damask rose aromatherapy on sleep quality. There is, however, little research to compare the impact of them over each other. The aim of current study was to compare the effect of aromatherapy with lavender and damask rose on sleep quality in patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in Guilan Province, Iran, in 2017-2018. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial (RCT) study, 97 patients undergoing CABG were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. In the intervention groups, the patients were asked by the researcher to inhale the lavender or damask rose randomly every night for 5 consecutive nights at 22:00. The control group received routine nursing care in compliance with the hospital procedure. Data were obtained by demographic-clinical and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaires. To analyze the data, chi-square test, t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Wilcoxon test were used. Results: During the 5-night intervention period, despite a relative improvement of sleep quality in intervention groups compared to the control group, none of the two aromatherapies had a statistically significant effect on any of delayed sleep (P = 0.514), sleep duration (P = 0.839), sleep efficiency (P = 0.067), sleep disturbances (P = 0.061), and daily functional disorders (P = 0.114) except for subjective sleep quality (P = 0.016) and use of sleep medications (P = 0.031). Conclusion: Using both aromatherapies with lavender and damask rose indicated positive effects on sleep quality of the CABG patients, but we could not find a superiority over each other.
... Lavender has antioxidant [13], anti-anxiety [16], anti-epileptic [17], antidepressant [18], anticancer [21] and antifungal [23] effects. It is also used to treat insomnia [19], reduce morphine tolerance and dependence on morphine [20], and regulate the immune system [22]. This study aimed at comparing the effect of massage with lavender gel and piroxicam gel on muscle soreness caused by exercise in male students of the Gonabad University of Medical Sciences. ...
Article
Aims: Muscular pain is a common complication of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of massage with lavender gel and piroxicam gel on exercise-induced muscle pain in male students of Gonabad University of Medical Sciences. Methods & Materials: This semi-experimental study was performed on 75 male students of Gonabad University of Medical Sciences in 2018. The Samples were randomly divided into three groups of 25, including a lavender gel massage group, a piroxicam gel massage group, and a placebo gel massage group. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups of 25, including a lavender gel massage group, a piroxicam gel massage group, and a placebo gel massage group. The training program lasted for 45 minutes, including 10 minutes of warming up and doing stretching exercises, 30 minutes of exercises and the main exercises and 5 minutes for cooling. The research instrument was a checklist for the demographic characteristics of the samples and the Thalog malformation questionnaire. Samples completed the Thalog pain questionnaire after completing the exercise and also after the massage. The Mean±SD were used for descriptive statistics. Normaly distributed data were analyticaly analyzed by paired t-test and ANOVA and non-normaly distributed data were analyticaly analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Findings: The results showed that muscle pain induced by exercise in all three groups after massage was significantly reduced compared to before massage (P
... It also targets the cholinergic system which is involved in analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-depressive, and anticonvulsant functions, all of which may benefit sleep quality [7]. A systematic review identifying eight eligible studies found overall positive effects of lavender oil on sleep but concluded that the methodological soundness of the trials was limited [8]. Interestingly, the authors raised concern with regard to the effect constant nightly exposure to essential oils may have on waking functions. ...
Article
Background: Essential oils are among the preferred alternative remedies for treating sleep disturbance, but empirical evidence for their effectiveness is varied. According to a new line of research, an inhaler designed to deliver high concentrations of essential oil molecules directly into the nose effectively influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomous nervous system. Objective: This study was run to investigate whether insomnia complaints were reduced upon use of the inhaler AromaStick® ‘Relax’. Methods: A documentation field study involving thirty individuals with a recorded history of non-specific insomnia complaints was conducted to determine the inhaler’s specific effects. Results: Upon the nightly use for one week, the odor inhaler strongly improved sleep quality and reduced symptoms associated with poor sleep. Depending on the dimensions tested, effect sizes ranged between 0.8 < d < 2.6. Strongest effects were found for ‘difficulty maintaining sleep’, ‘difficulty initiating sleep’ and ‘feeling recovered after sleeping’. Conclusion: The inhaler proved to be useful in mitigating sleep impairment. The effects were strongest in individuals reporting low sleep quality.
... The reason for choosing lavender oil in the aromatherapy administration is that lavender oil is the least toxic oil that is most frequently used for symptoms of sleep problems, stress, anxiety, and fatigue in the literature. 17,[23][24][25][26][27][28] During the administration, 2 drops of lavender oil were dripped on a 2 × 2-cm cotton pad and placed on a stand approximately 15 to 20 cm far from the nose so that they could inhale it. The administration was conducted between 22.00 PM and 08.00 AM by considering the sleeping hours of the elderly. ...
Article
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This randomized controlled experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of inhaled aromatherapy on the sleep quality and fatigue level of the institutionalized elderly. The sample of the study consisted of a total of 59 elderly individuals (30 in the intervention group and 29 in the control group) who met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study. Aromatherapy (lavender oil) inhalation was administered to individuals in the intervention group half hour before their sleep every day for a month in accordance with aromatherapy protocol. No administration was applied to the control group. The data were collected using the Elderly Description Form, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Fatigue Severity Scale. Forms were completed in the beginning of administration and in the follow-up at the end of 4 weeks (baseline and last follow-up). In the study, it was determined that aromatherapy administration improved sleep quality (P < .001) and decreased fatigue severity in the elderly (P < .05). The study should be replicated in a different group.
... Although these medications may induce or prolong sleep stages, but the quality of sleep may still remain poor. In addition, the use of these drugs causes complications such as drug resistance and withdrawal symptoms (Fismer and Pilkington, 2012;Najafi et al., 2014). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacologic relevance: Lavandula angustifolia Mill (lavender) odor was traditionally used as sleep enhancer. Previous studies have shown interaction between insomnia, quality of life and control of diabetes mellitus (DM). Insomnia is suggested to increase the risk of depression and decrease the quality of life in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of inhaled Lavandula angustifolia Mill. as a complementary therapy for insomnia in diabetic patients. Methods: In a randomized crossover placebo-controlled clinical trial, 52 patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) and insomnia, defined as Pittsburgh Insomnia Rating Scale-20(PIRS-20)>5,were treated with inhaled lavender or placebo for two periods of 4 weeks duration with one week interval as washing period. Sleep quality, quality of life and mood status were assessed by PIRS-20, WHO Quality of Life-BREF(WHOQOL-BREF) Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale respectively, at baseline and end of each period of study. Fasting blood glucose (FBS), calorie intake and physical activity were measured before and after the interventions. Results: At the end of study, data of 37 patients (all received both lavender and placebo in cross-over design) were analyzed. Based on crossover analysis the first treatment was not effective on the second treatment. Inhaled lavender resulted in a significant better outcome compared to placebo according to mean PIRS-20, WHOQOL-BREF and Beck Depression Inventory scores in both crossover arms. Likewise there was a significant better outcome in PIRS-20 domains for quality and quantity of sleep after Inhaled lavender compared to placebo. No significant improvement was observed in fasting glucose in lavender compared to placebo administration period. Conclusion: Inhaled lavender can improve sleep quality and quantity, quality of life and mood in diabetic patients suffering from insomnia with no significant effect on metabolic status.
... In the quantitative synthesis, inhalation of lavender decreased levels of anxiety, according to any validated scale and sign of anxiety (Donelli et al., 2019), but caused no reduction of blood pressure, a physiological parameter of anxiety. Investigation of effects of inhalation of lavender oil aroma in sleep needs more in-detail surveys (Fismer & Pilkington, 2012). Some studies have shown the effiency of oral lavender supplements, but independent replications are needed to draw conclusions (Perry et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Plant food additives are becoming more and more popular and broadly applied products, though the information on risks they poses to the organism is limited and contradictive. Obesity and overeating are some of the commonest health issues around the world, and people are increasingly consuming workability-enhancing preparations as a simple and fast method of weight control. The plant-based preparations are considered less harmful than the synthetic chemical ones. Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Melissa officinalis L. and Vitex angus-castus L. are broadly used as food additives and medicinal plants, despite the fact that their complex physiological assessment on model animals in the conditions of obesity has not yet been performed. We carried out a 30-day experiment on white male rats. All the animals were given high-fat diet, and the experimental animals, in addition to this diet, received 5% crumbled dry herbs of L. angustifolia, M. officinalis or V. angus-castus. Taking into account the overall amount of consumed food, the mean daily gain in body weight; at the end of the experiment, we determined the index of the weight of the internal organs, biochemical and morphological blood parameters. At the beginning and the end of the experiment, the rats were examined for motor and orienting activities, and emotional status. Rats on high-fat diet gained up to 112% body weight by the end of the experiment, while rats that had received V. angus-castus gained up to 119%, M. officinalis – 135%, L. angustifolia – 139%, compared with the initial body weight. Addition of medicinal plants to the diet led to increase in average daily weight increment, significantly and reliably after consuming lavender and lemon balm, less significantly and unreliably after eating Vitex. L. angustifolia and M. officinalis reduced the relative brain weight, and ingestion of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis caused notable decrease in the relative mass of the thymus (down to 58% and 47% of the relative weight of thymus in animals of the control group respectively). Also, these plants decreased the motor and orienting activities of the rats by the end of the experiment. As for the biochemical parameters of blood, the activity of alkaline phosphatase significantly increased to 406% following consumption of Melissa, to 350% after consuming lavender, and to 406% after Vitex, compared to the control group. Furthermore, all the groups were observed to have increased AST and ALT activities. Intake of lavender led to increases in cholesterol (to 125%) and LDL cholesterol (to 228%), whereas the groups that consumed lemon balm were observed to have decreases in urea nitrogen (to 79%), totalbilirubin (to 63%) and triglycerides (to 63%). Addition of Vitex led to increase in the index of aterogenecity against the background of notable fall in HDL cholesterol (to 52% of the control group). The medicinal plants also contributed to the normalization of the glucose level. Morphological analysis of blood revealed no significant changes, except heightened content of monocytes in blood, which is characteristic of all groups, including the control. Effects of L. angustifolia, M. officinalis and V. angus-castus on the organism of rats on excessive-fat diet require additional histological, histochemical and immunological surveys.
... Lavender aromatherapy for sleep is often used in hospitals in the United States. However, while meta -analyses have demonstrated its effectiveness, [1,2] evidence related to dosage, type of aroma transmission, single vs mixed oils used, populations studied and countries where research has been conducted vary greatly. This variation impedes devel-oping specific interventions and policies for nurses' use. ...
Article
Background and objective: The importance of promoting sleep for hospitalized patients is vital especially because sleep has been shown to promote healing. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches for health and wellness have been widely used in the United States. However, for hospitalized patients, while aromatherapy such as lavender is often used by nurses for comfort and sleep, the evidence for specific dosage and administration methods are unclear, even though its effectiveness has been shown and published. The purpose of this scoping review is to highlight the significant issues surrounding the evidence to date for lavender aromatherapy’s clinical use for hospitalized patients.Methods: This review utilized the PRISMA steps to identify literature important to the study’s purpose.Results: After the initial search using specific keywords yielded 588 articles, further steps in the process resulted in 8 studies whose purpose was to test the effectiveness of lavender aromatherapy for sleep in hospitalized patients. Three major categories that resulted from the review addressed the clinical evidence limitations associated with lavender’s use for sleep: the wide range of sample characteristics and counties, mixed variables for study purposes, and disparate dosage and administration methods. Most significant for clinical practice was the disparate dosages and methods of lavender aromatherapy administration across the studies reviewed for effectiveness.Conclusion and implications: Nurses should proceed with caution when using lavender aromatherapy for hospitalized patients. This review highlighted the need for nurses to conduct and disseminate findings from randomized clinical trials utilizing hospitalized general medical-surgical patients. Testing dosages and administration methods that have shown to be effective for medical surgical hospitalized patients is warranted.
... L. angustifolia possesses various therapeutic properties, such as antibacterial [6], anti-inflammatory [7], analgesic [5], antistress [8,9], anxiolytic [10], and sedative [11] effects. It has also been reported to accelerate the onset of sleep and improve sleep quality [12,13]. Goel et al. [14] Healthcare 2021, 9,909 2 of 10 reported that LEO inhalation increased slow-wave (deep) sleep, and Arzi et al. [15] reported that LEO odor sensed via a nasal mask exhibited a trend of reducing wake frequency. ...
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Lavender essential oil (LEO) was reported to improve sleep quality. We investigated the influence of aromatherapy by testing the effects of LEO on stress responses during a short-duration sleep in a single-blind, randomized, crossover trial. The subjects were twelve healthy adults who were nonsmokers without any known disease and who were not prescribed medications, and nine of these completed the study. After the subjects had fallen asleep, they were sprayed with LEO using an aroma diffuser. Before and after 90 min of sleep, α-amylase, chromogranin A (CgA), and cortisol levels in saliva were measured as objective stress indicators, and the Japanese version of the UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist was used as a subjective indicator. A comparison of changes before and after sleep, with and without LEO, revealed that the cortisol level did not significantly change; however, α-amylase (p < 0.05) and CgA (p < 0.01) levels significantly decreased after LEO inhalation. A mood test indicated no change in mood before and after sleep, with or without LEO. Since α-amylase and CgA reflect the sympathetic nervous system response, these results indicate that LEO aromatherapy during a short-duration sleep cycle suppresses the stress response, especially that of the sympathetic nervous system.
... Undoubtedly, fatigue is a multifactorial phenomenon and its management should take into consideration other factors, such as BMI and sleep quality. It is also worth noting that aromatic oils can inhibit the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) pathways and suppress the neurotransmitters, which makes them a good candidate for inducing sleepiness and alleviating fatigue (Fismer and Karen, 2012). ...
... Although there are drugs used to improve sleep disturbances efficiently, they may have several effects such as tolerance, increased pill burden, adverse reaction, drug dependency and higher health care costs (Fismer & Pilkington, 2012;Hu et al., 2015). As a result, it has become clinically important to design appropriate interventions focusing on behavioral changes with minimal or no complications to improve and promote sleep hygiene practices among people with HIV/AIDS (Hu et al., 2015;Webel et al., 2013). ...
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Background Sleep hygiene is a series of behavioral practices that can be performed by individuals with sleep complaints to prevent or reverse sleep difficulties. The feasibility, cost-effectiveness, absence of side effects and immediate responses to sleep problems make sleep hygiene practices more applicable than other treatment options for people living with HIV/AIDS. However, there is no evidence regarding sleep hygiene awareness and its practice in people with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. Objectives This study aimed to assess the knowledge, practice and correlates of sleep hygiene among adults attending outpatient anti-retroviral treatment at Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Methods This was an institutional based cross-sectional study conducted from 1st of May to 16th of June 2018 amongst people attending anti-retroviral therapy follow-up at Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit a total of 396 study participants. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire. The Sleep Hygiene Index was used to measure the level of sleep hygiene of study participants. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with sleep hygiene practice. In the multi-variable analysis, variables with P-values of less than 0.05 were considered as significant correlates of sleep hygiene practice with 95% confidence interval. Results The findings of this study showed that there are limitations regarding the knowledge and practice of sleep hygiene of people with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. None of the participants attended training regarding sleep hygiene. More than half (51.3%) had poor sleep hygiene practice. Female sex [AOR = 5.80:95% CI (3.12, 10.7)], being single [AOR =2.29:95% CI (0.13, 9.51)], depression [AOR = 2.93: 95% CI (1.73, 4.96)] and current khat use [AOR = 3.30; 95% CI (1.67, 6.50)] were identified as statistically significant correlates of poor sleep hygiene practice. Conclusions Knowledge regarding sleep hygiene is poor, and its practices are incorrect amongst people living with HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. These findings demonstrate a need for professionals to play a major role in addressing this problem by integrating sleep hygiene as an added treatment modality to the HIV/AIDS care service. Designing training programs and awareness creation strategies for people with HIV/AIDS to improve their sleep hygiene practice is also highly recommended.
... Among the various plants, Lavandula gender is an aromatic medicinal plant and its oil has shown that it is effective against several diseases. Lavandula is used as antimicrobial, antioxidant and antifungal and relaxing agent [4][5][6][7][8]. For this reason, the genus Lavandula was chosen for this study. ...
Article
Introduction Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) presents a public health problem. Some antibiotics became ineffective and bacteria are becoming even more pathogenic. Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) have received greater attention as alternatives to antibiotics since they contain diverse antimicrobial compounds. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a medicinal plant endemic to Morocco, Lavandula tenuisecta Coss.ex Ball (L. tenuisecta). Methods To carry out this work, the chemical composition of the essential oil was determined using gas chromatography (GC) with the detection feature of Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Flame Ionization Detector (FID). Subsequently, the antibacterial power was studied against resistant strains that are isolated from different clinical specimens. The antibacterial screening was carried out using the disc method and then quantitative evaluation was conducted by the microdilution method. Results The essential oil (EO) extraction yield represents 0.02% of the dry plant. The analysis of EO shows 38 components representing 88.6% of the EO. The major constituents were camphor (26.9 %), fenchone (22.7 %) and 1,8-cineole (18.1%). The EO was effective against almost all studied bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values ranging from 6.25 to 50 μg/mL. Conclusion This study showed that the EO from L. tenuisecta was active against all studied strains except Salmonella spp. This antibacterial activity may be related to the synergy between chemical compounds of the EO.
... Specifically, EOs are known to be used in therapeutic preparations for centuries (Hosseinzadeh et al. 2015). The EOs of various Lavandula species from Lamiaceae are well known to have antimicrobial activities along with other effects they posses (Cavanagh & Wilkinson 2002, Fismer & Pilkington 2012). Thus, using the combinations of EOs with standard antifungal drugs employ as an alternative approach against various pathologies including candidiasis and may reduce adverse side effects, lower the dose and decrease toxicity (Cottarel & Wierzbowski 2007). ...
Article
Application of combination studies with essential oils and standard antifungal drugs may reduce adverse effects of synthetic drugs and serve as alternative approach against various pathologies including candidiasis. The aim of the present study was to determine the interaction of two commercial lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller) essential oils in combination with ketoconazole against clinical and standard strains of the human pathogens Candida albicans ATCC 10231, C. krusei NRRL Y-7179 and C. glabrata ATCC 66032. The chemical compositions of the investigated essential oils were confirmed both by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Anticandidal activities of the essential oils were screened in vitro by the microdilution method. The resulting interaction of combining lavender essential oils and ketoconazole was tested using the checkerboard method. The results showed that the interaction between essential oils and ketoconazole revealed additive and indifferent effects against the tested strains. In conclusion, the effects observed by the combination of lavender essential oils and ketoconazole may be encouraging to be used against pathogenic Candida strains.
... They found no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in the quality of sleep. The present findings are also in line with the results obtained by Fismer and Pilkington regarding the effect of aromatherapy with lavender essential oil on the sleep quality of patients in the CCU [55]. Nevertheless, they are in contrast with the results of [14,19,[56][57][58]. ...
Article
Introduction: Poor sleep quality is prevalent in candidates for percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). The present study was conducted to compare aromatherapy with acupressure in terms of their effectiveness in sleep quality in patients undergoing PCIs. Materials and methods: The present study was conducted on 85 patients undergoing PCIs and randomly assigned, using block randomization, to five groups, namely (1)aromatherapy, (2)placebo aromatherapy, (3)acupressure, (4)placebo acupressure (acupressure applied to a point not traditionally associated with improving sleep) and (5)control. The intervention groups received aromatherapy or acupressure or placebo from 10pm to 8am the following day. The control group received only routine care. Sleep quality was measured in the patients using a visual analog scale (VAS) that was completed by them before and after the intervention. Results: The mean pretest score of sleep quality was 2.91 ± 0.53 in the aromatherapy group, 2.84 ± 0.47 in the placebo aromatherapy group, 2.98 ± 0.59 in the acupressure group, 2.75 ± 0.41 in the placebo acupressure group and 2.88 ± 0.41 in the controls. ANOVA suggested no significant differences among these groups in the pretest (P = 0.746). The mean posttest score of sleep quality was 3.72 ± 1.84 in the aromatherapy group, 3.70 ± 1.83 in the placebo aromatherapy group, 7.35 ± 0.99 in the acupressure group, 2.67 ± 0.41in the placebo acupressure group and 2.72 ± 0.34 in the controls, suggesting significant differences among the five groups based on the ANOVA results showed significant differences among the five groups (P < 0.001). The mean posttest score of sleep quality was higher than the pretest score by 4.37 in the acupressure group compared to in the other groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present findings provided scientific evidence for the benefits of using different methods, including acupressure, for sleep quality in patients undergoing PCIs. Iranian registry of clinical trials number: IRCT201707248665N6.
... for instance, aromatherapy with lavender reduces the activity of the nervous system and improves the sleep quality of patients suffering from sleep disorders. 2 Fragrance or perfume consists of top, middle, and base notes, based on their volatilities. 3 The vapour pressures of top, middle, and base notes are >0.13 ...
... 13 Linalool acts as a sedative by influencing the aminobutyric acid receptors in the central nervous system. 14 Some systematic review and meta-analysis studies on the effects of lavender indicated that lavender significantly reduces labor pain [15][16][17] and dysmenorrhea, 18 improves healing of episiotomy, 19 decreases depression, 20 improves the quality and treatment of sleep disorders, [21][22][23] and lower blood sugar. 24 Lavender is used in aromatherapy, aromatherapy massage, dripping oil, oral administration, and bathing. ...
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Background: Lavender is considered as one of the medicinal plants to manage stress. Although many preliminary studies evaluated the effect of lavender on individuals’ stress level, to the best of our knowledge, we did not find a study that summarizes the results. Therefore, the present study aimed to estimate the Pooled effect of lavender on the stress level of individuals using systematic review and meta-analysis. Method: A systematic literature review based on PRISMA 2020 was performed on the SID, MagIran, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science (WoS) databases, and Google Scholar motor engine using related MeSH/Emtree and ‎Free Text words,‎ including “Lavender*”, “Lavandula*”, “Stress*”, “Stress Disorders, Traumatic”, and “Stress, Psychological” with no time limitation until August 2021: We also searched two Iranain free local resourses including MagIran https://www.magiran.com and Scientific Information Database (SID) https://www.sid.ir. The quality assessment of studies was performed using JBI checklist. Heterogeneity among studies was quantified using I2 index and Random Effects model was used to combine the data and perform the meta-analysis. Results: In the initial search, 1520 articles were found. After excluding the irrelevant studies, finally, 21 articles with a sample size of 791 in the intervention group and 804 in the control group were included in the meta-analysis. As a result of combining the studies, stress score after using lavender in the intervention group showed a significant decrease of 0.63 ± 0.13 (95% CI) more than that in the control group (P
... Essential oils (EOs) have proven their specific applications in different areas, including in human health, as a treatment for various disorders (migraine [1], skin disorders [2], fatigue [3,4], stroke [5], sleep disorders [6,7], endocrine disorders [8], depressive disorders [9], etc.). In medicine, EOs are considered good candidates as complementary and alternative treatment components due to their antimicrobial properties [10], possible anesthetic [11], or immunostimulatory effects [12]. ...
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The purpose of this study is to reveal the chemical and biochemical characteristics and the potential aromatherapy applications of the essential oil (EO) of Salvia officinalis (common sage) within a hospital environment. The chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Three types of sage EOs were included in this study: two commercial oils and one oil obtained by in-house hydrodistillation. Based on the findings , these EOs were included in different chemotypes. The first two samples were similar to the most common chemotype (α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole > β-thujone), while the in-house sage EO revealed a high content of 1,8-cineole, borneol, α-thujone, similar to the Dalmatian type. The latter sample was selected to be evaluated for its antioxidant and medical effects, as borneol, a bi-cyclic monoterpene, is known as a substance with anesthetic and analgesic effects in traditional Asian medicine. The study suggests that the antioxidant capacity of the sage EO is modest (33.61% and 84.50% inhibition was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively), but also that the inhalation of sage EO with high borneol content by hospitalized patients could improve these pa-tients' satisfaction.
... In recent years, it acclimatised to continental climates [7], but its spread continues to be hindered by temperature limitations [5,8]. It is used for its therapeutical properties in curing a series of illnesses [9][10][11][12]. Its chemical qualities differ depending on the variety [13,14] and soil [15], and it is also an essential resource for the cosmetics and perfume industry [16,17] and even the food industry [18]. ...
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Lavender crops have had an impressive continuous development in recent years, being currently a suitable alternative to other traditional crops because they can yield a high profit per hectare. This can be especially useful in Romania, with its high prevalence of subsistence and semi-subsistence farms. This study aims to analyse the issue of small emergent lavender farms in the context of the current Romanian agricultural background, including the framework mechanisms for implementing the Common Agricultural Policy at a national level. The research uses the qualitative survey method to provide broad, synthetic, analytical insights into small lavender farms/businesses in Romania, considering the perspective of the following two target groups: farm owners and civil servants with agricultural expertise. The main results show that both sample groups agree that lavender farms can be successful and satisfactory solutions. Increasing participation in information and training sessions may improve farmers’ access to financing mechanisms, but both small farmers and civil servants with agricultural expertise identify a series of problems, mainly regarding the absence of a dedicated market for lavender-based products and a lack of labour force, both essential for maintaining the farming–processing–commercialising chain. The authors also conclude that a more flexible and future harmonisation between Romania’s agricultural realities, the Common Agricultural Policy, and the National Rural Development Programme would improve lavender farming’s social and economic impact. Follow-up research may envisage more in-depth market analyses for this emerging sector in Romania, facing obvious competition, but which could also benefit from good practice exchanges in the region.
... Metaanalysis also showed that aromatherapy was more effective than placebo in deceasing score of depression. Lavandula angustifolia, from the family Lamiaceae is an herbaceous herb and its aromata has a significant positive effect on the digestive and central nervous systems and has been proven to have analgesic, antiinflammatory and calming effects in various studies (28)(29)(30). Lavender alone or in combination with Neroli had good effect on PPD. Linalool and linalyl acetate as the most important compounds in lavender have the highest absorption levels through the skin following massage with essential oil; so that they can be detected rapidly in the plasma after topical application, and their levels reach the highest limit after about 19 minutes. ...
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Background: Postpartum depression has negative effects on mother, child and family. Regarding the side effects of antidepressants and because of contradictory results on the effects of herbal medicines, the present meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of herbal medicines in treatment of postpartum depression and maternal-infant attachment. Materials and Methods: An extensive search was done in databases of Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, and Web of Science in English databases as well as IranDoc, Magiran, Medlib and SID, in Persian databases with no time limitations until November 2018. Two independent researchers screened articles, in the next step, full texts of probably relevant articles were summarized and categorized based on the evaluated outcomes and overall effect size was presented. Results: The meta-analysis of five trials showed score of depression was lower in herbal medicines group compared to placebo (Standardized Mean Difference [SMD=-0.648], 95% confidence interval [CI]:-0.849 to-0.446). Heterogeneity was non-significant (I 2 =0%, p=0.476). Meta-analysis of compounds containing lavender decreased score of depression significantly compared to control group. Heterogeneity was non-significant (SMD=-0.629, 95%CI:-0.847 to-0.411, I 2 =9.8%, p=0.34). The lavender meta-analysis of three studies showed a significant effect in comparison to control group (SMD=-0.570, 95%CI:-0.799 to-0.341; I 2 =9.8%, p=0.34). The aromatherapy meta-analysis showed that aromatherapy with or without massage could lead to a significant decrease in score of depression compared to control group (SMD=-0.637, 95%CI:-0.924 to-0.333; I 2 =66%, p=0.084). Some herbal medicines showed a significant effect on maternal-infant attachment and feelings toward baby scale. Conclusion: Herbal medicines can be considered as an alternative option in treatment of postpartum depression. Also, maternal-infant attachment and feelings toward baby scale were affected by herbal medicines.
... Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil has early evidence of helpfulness for insomnia [36]. In this systematic review, five of the eight studies meeting the inclusion criteria showed either increased deep sleep or reduced wake frequency compared to controls. ...
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Introduction: Elderly people often have problems with a comfortable sleep. In this account, we aimed to evaluate the effect of lavender on the quality of sleep in elderly patients hospitalized in internal wards of selected hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 64 elderly patients admitted to internal hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) who had sleep disorders were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received 3 drops of lavender essential oil and the control group inhaled 3 drops of normal saline for one week from two hours before bedtime until awakening. Sleep quality of both groups was determined before and after the end of the intervention using Pittsburgh standard sleep quality questionnaire and descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The mean (SD) of the sleep quality score of the control group before intervention was 12.25 (2.28) and after the intervention 12 (2.46) and in the intervention group before intervention was equal 13.18 (2.87) and later. T0he intervention 8.96 (3.71) was. The mean of total sleep quality score in the intervention group at the end of the study was lower than the control group using the Mann-Whitney test (P = 0.001), which indicates a significant Being an intervention. Conclusion: Given that complementary medicine is increasingly part of nursing care, the lavender-based herbal remedy with a positive effect on the quality of sleep in the elderly can be used as a complementary measure. Keywords: Aromatherapy, Lavender, Sleep Hygiene, Aged * Corresponding author. +98 21-88202519 R-esmaieli@sbmu.ac.ir Received: 26 Feb 2018; Accepted: 7 Jan 2019 254-261 Downloaded from koomeshjou
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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aromatherapy on sleep quality. Methods: This is a systematic review of randomized controlled trial studies (PROSPERO registration number CRD42017064519). In this study, the PICO were adults and the elderly, aromatherapy intervention, a comparative intervention with the control and placebo oil groups, and sleep. The selected articles were in English, Korean, and Chinese. Results: The results of the meta-analysis showed that the effect sizes of the experimental group were 1.03 (n=763, SMD=1.03, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.39) (Z=5.47, p<.001). In the aromatherapy intervention group, the effect size of sleep was statistically significant (QB=9.39, df=2, p=.009), with a difference of 0.77 for inhalation, 1.12 for oral intake and 2.05 for massage. A post-analysis showed that the effect of massage on sleep was significantly greater than the inhalation method. The regression coefficient of the intervention period, B=0.01 (Z=1.43, p=.154), also showed that the longer the intervention period, the larger the effect size; however, it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: A total of 23 literature analyses showed that aromatherapy is effective in improving quality of sleep, and the massage method is more effective in improving quality of sleep than the inhalation method. A meta-ANOVA showed that the aromatherapy intervention affected the high heterogeneity of the effect size. Thus, future research with stricter control in methods and experimental procedures is necessary.
Article
Background Pharmacological interventions for sleep (analgesic, sedative and hypnotic agents) can both disrupt and induce sleep and have many negative side effects within the intensive care population. The use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies to assist with sleep has been studied but given the variety of modalities and methodological limitations no reliable conclusions have been drawn. Objective To synthesise research findings regarding the effectiveness of using complementary and alternative medicine interventions within the domains of mind and body practices (relaxation techniques, acupuncture) and natural biologically based products (herbs, vitamins, minerals, probiotics) on sleep quality and quantity in adult intensive care patients. Review method used Systematic review Data sources Five databases were searched in August 2018 and updated in February 2019 and 2020. Review methods: Searches were limited to peer reviewed randomised controlled trials, published in English involving adult populations in intensive care units. Interventions were related to the complementary and alternative medicine domains of mind and body practices and natural products. Included studies were assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Results Seventeen studies were included. The interventions used varied: 4 investigated melatonin; 4 music +/- another therapy; 3 acupressure; 2 aromatherapy and 1 each for relaxation and imagery, reflexology, bright light exposure and inspiratory muscle training. Measurement of sleep quantity and quality was also varied: 5 studies used objective measures such as Polysomnography and Bispectral index with the remaining using subjective patient or clinician assessment (for example, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, observation). Given the different interventions, outcomes and measures used in the studies a meta-analysis was not possible. Generally, the results support the use of complementary and alternative medicine for assisting with sleep with 11 out of 17 trials reporting significant results for the interventions examined. Conclusions Complementary and alternative medicine interventions, in particular, melatonin and music, have shown promise for improving sleep in adults with critically conditions; however, further research that addresses the limitations of small sample sizes and improved techniques for measuring sleep is needed.
Article
Objective Non-restorative sleep (NRS) affects 10% people worldwide, leading to poor sleep quality, physical and cognitive fatigue. This is the first human study in which an extract of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal L.) was evaluated for effects in improving overall sleep quality in subjects with NRS. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 150 healthy subjects scoring high on non-restorative sleep measures were given 120 mg of standardized ashwagandha extract (Shoden®) once daily for 6 weeks. Subjects were evaluated using the Restorative Sleep Questionnaire-weekly version and World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref scale. Sleep actigraphy was used to measure the onset of sleep latency, sleep efficiency, total sleep time and wake after sleep onset. Safety of the treatment was determined by testing of vitals, hematology, biochemistry and urinanalysis. Results 144 subjects completed the study, with no dropouts due to adverse events. A 72% increase in self-reported sleep quality was found for the treatment group, compared with 29% in the placebo group (p < 0.001). Based on activity monitoring data, the treatment group showed significant improvement in sleep efficiency (p < 0.01), total sleep time (p < 0.001) and sleep latency (p < 0.01) and wake after sleep onset (p < 0.05) versus placebo after 6 weeks. In the ashwagandha group quality of life scores showed significant improvement in physical (p < 0.001), psychological (p < 0.001), and environment domains (p < 0.01). Conclusions Supplementation with the standardized ashwagandha extract for 6 weeks improved the overall quality of sleep by significantly improving the Non-restorative sleep (NRS) condition in healthy subjects. No treatment related adverse events were reported in the study. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry-India (www.ctri.nic.in). Registration number: CTRI/2017/02/007801.
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Introduction: One of the common problems of patients after open heart surgery is sleep disturbance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of benson relaxation on sleep quality after coronary artery bypass graft. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 80 patients allocated to the benson relaxation and control groups. For the intervention group, Benson's relaxation technique was done twice a day for a period of four weeks. The control group received routine care only. In both groups, sleep quality was measured before and after study using Pittsburgh sleep quality questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Befor intervention, there were no significant differences between two groups of Benson relaxation and control group in any variables of sleep quality and total sleep quality (P>0.05). After intervention, in the Benson relaxation group, the patients' sleep quality was significantly better than the control group in terms of subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep efficacy, sleep disturbances and total quality (P0.05). Conclusion: Using Benson's relaxation technique as supplementary and alternative therapies to improve the sleep quality of patients after open heart surgery is recommended.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) essential oil is renowned for its use in the treatment of insomnia and mental disorder diseases in folk medicine. Previous pharmacological studies have also shown that lavender essential oil displays sedative and hypnotic activities. However, the active ingredients and mechanism of lavender essential oil for sleep-improving effect remain unclear. Aim of the study: This study investigates whether inhalation of different fractions of lavender essential oil can attenuate the sleep disturbances induced by combined anxiety and caffeine and explores the underlying mechanisms. Materials and methods Molecular distillation was applied to separate lavender essential oil into fractions containing different chemical components, and GC-MS was used to analyze the volatile compounds of lavender essential oil and its fractions. The elevated plus maze test, pentobarbital-induced sleep test, and neurotransmitters enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were conducted to evaluate the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects of lavender essential oil and its fractions on mice suffering from sleep disorders. Results The results of behavioral tests indicated that lavender essential oil and its fractions (3%, v/v) exerted an ameliorating effect on sleep disturbances induced by anxiety and caffeine. The light fraction and heavy fractions exhibited complementary chemical composition, with the former enriched in linalool and trans-β-ocimene and the latter in linalyl acetate, lavandulyl acetate, trans-caryophyllene, etc. The light fraction contributed more to sleep maintenance, and the heavy fraction performed better at sleep initiation. The neurobiological parameters elucidated that the mechanism of lavender essential oil for sleep-improving was multifaceted, related to the GABAergic system, cholinergic system, histaminergic system, and monoamines in the limbic system. The heavy fraction shared a similar mechanism with the lavender essential oil, while the light fraction did not actively participate in the cholinergic system, histaminergic system, and dopaminergic system. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrated that different fractions of lavender essential oil played different roles in ameliorating sleep disorders, and this may be credited to their compositional differences and the complicated interactions with the central nervous system. The results are informative for future investigations on the molecular level mechanisms and provide guidance for appropriate applications of lavender essential oil.
Article
Introduction Pain and anxiety are one of the major problems of burn patients. Despite the use of different medications, patients still suffer from these two problems. Aromatherapy along with medication can help in alleviating these symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the effect of inhalation aromatherapy with damask rose essence on pain and anxiety in burn patients. Methods This three groups' clinical trial was conducted on 120 patients with burns less than 30%. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups, named aromatherapy damask rose essence, placebo, and control groups. The pain intensity was assessed using visual analogue scale prior to intervention, immediately before, and 15 min after dressing. Anxiety was measured using Spielberger Inventory at before intervention and 15 min after dressing, also the prolonged effect of intervention on pain was assessed by number of the received analgesics drugs at immediately until four hours after dressing. The intervention included inhalation of 6 drops of 40% damask rose essential oil, in the damask group, and six drops of distilled water in placebo group one hour before change dressing. The control group received no intervention. Results Baseline state –trait anxiety and pain intensity were similar in these three groups (p > 0.05). But, there was a significant reduction in pain intensity immediately before and after dressing and state anxiety after dressing in the damask group compared to the placebo and control groups (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the placebo and control groups in terms of these variables at these times (p > 0.05). Also, there was no significant among three groups in frequency of received analgesics drugs and trait anxiety after intervention (p > 0.05). Conclusion Inhaled aromatherapy with Damask rose essence can reduce the pain intensity and state anxiety in burn patients. Therefore, it is recommended to use Damask rose essence, as an easy and affordable method along with other treatments.
Article
We reviewed 20 randomized controlled trials concerning the intervention methods and effects of lavender essential oil on adults' sleep quality. Fourteen showed positive intervention effects. A mixture of subjective and objective indicators was used. Lavender essential oil was associated with improved sleep quality before insomnia or other sleep disorders occurred.
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The increase in the utilization of Lavandula essential oil in industries led to an impressive rise in the demand for quality essential oils. However, a post-harvest drying of Lavandula species can be a decisive factor to determine the quantity and quality of essential oil. The study was conducted in western Himalayan conditions to assess the essential oil content and composition of two Lavandula species viz., lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loisel), at four different drying duration (0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after the harvest). The higher growth attributes viz., plant height (71.7 cm), ear length (8.8 cm), number of spikes (18.1), and number of flowers per ear (47.5) were higher in lavandin, while the number of branches (17.1) was higher in lavender. Essential oil content (%) and moisture reduction (%) were significantly higher at 72 h than at 0 h. The major components of lavender and lavandin essential oil were linalool (33.6–40.5%), linalyl acetate (10.8–13.6%), lavandulyl acetate (2.8–14.5%), and linalyl propionate (5.3–14.1%) in both the Lavandula species. There was a decreasing trend in linalool and an increasing trend in linalyl acetate content in lavandin, with an increase in drying duration up to 72 h; while in lavender, no regular trend was observed in linalool and linalyl acetate content. It was observed that linalool and linalyl acetate levels were the highest at 24 and 0 h of drying in lavender and lavandin, respectively, and essential oil extraction can be done according to the desire of the constituent at varied drying duration.
Article
Sleep disorders are one of the most prevalent psychiatric diseases. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder amongst the general population. It is also one of the most frequent complaints in primary healthcare centers. Lavender is called “the broom of the brain” in different oriental traditional medicines. It is one of the most used plants for patients with sleep disorders. This study reviews what is currently known about the use of lavender for sleep disorders in patients with different diseases, from cancers and end‐stage renal disease to neurological‐psychiatric diseases (e.g., depression, dementia, and autism), respiratory, cardiac, and metabolic diseases. Additionally, its most used administration route is the inhalation of its essential oil (i.e., aromatherapy) alone or in combination by massage. Some limitations of the reviewed literature were discussed briefly. Overall, this critical review provides promising evidence of the lavender efficacy for sleep disorders in a wide variety of populations and diseases. However, further clinical studies with robust design and longer durations of intervention are necessary for more evidence‐based judgment on its effect on sleep problems and to investigate its mechanism of action.
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Most modern people have complained chronic sleep loss and decreased sleep quality. Sleep problems lead to immunological dysfunction, cognitive impairment and increased risk of neuropsychiatric diseases including dementia and depression. Because it is difficult to get enough sleep time for modern people who work around-the-clock, sleep issues remain unsolved. Aromatherapy, a complementary and alternative medicine, has been proved to improve sleep quality. The present review introduces and summarizes current findings along with our research on the beneficial effects of aromatherapy using natural essential oils on sleep loss-induced hippocampal dysfunction and spontaneous sleep in animals.
Article
Pharmacotherapy is the conventional treatment for depression, with only half of the patients responding to the first trial of monotherapy with first-line medicines. One way to overcome this resistance is to use complementary and alternative medicine. The antidepressant effects of Lavandula angustifolia , which is commonly called lavender, have been investigated in previous studies. This study aims to provide the first systematic review of lavender in treating patients with depression diagnosis. ISI Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and three trial registries were searched until May 2020 to find randomized controlled trials on lavender for depressed patients. The primary outcome was difference between the intervention and control groups in changing depression scores from baseline to endpoint. The included studies were assessed for effect size and methodological quality. Seven clinical trials were identified, in which 852 patients were studied. In six trials, the effectiveness of lavender in treating depression was reported, as being more pronounced adjunct to a typical antidepressant in one study. Significant reported side effects include headaches and eructation. Lavender is beneficial, tolerable, and safe in treating depression. Despite obtaining promising results, they are not enough to recommend prescribing lavender to depressed patients. Further high-quality, large-scale studies for rectifying the shortcomings of existing studies are recommended.
Article
Introduction: Patients with heart disease suffer from sleep disorders due to the disease process. Aromatherapy is one of the ways to treat sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of aromatherapy with orange and citrus aurantium on sleep quality in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was performed on 120 patients admitted to selected hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) in 2019. The samples were randomly divided into four groups of aromatherapy with Orange extract, Citrus aurantium extract, Orange - Citrus aurantium extract and the control. The control group received only routine care. Data collection tools included St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Quality Questionnaire and demographic profile form. Results: The mean sleep time in the Citrus aurantium group (6.5 ± 0.3 hours), the orange group (8 ± 0.7 hours) and the Orange-Citrus aurantium group (8 ± 0.8 hours) was significantly higher than the control group (5.4 ± 0.4 hours) (p=0.000). The mean score of sleep quality in the orange, Citrus aurantium and Orange-Citrus aurantium groups was significantly better than the control group (p=0.0008). The sleep quality score in the combined aromatherapy group was significantly higher than each group alone (P
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This paper seeks to establish a framework for instantiating wellbeing in the built environment through the lens of integrative health. Integrative health is defined as “healing-oriented medicine that takes into account the whole person, including all aspects of lifestyle,” and includes seven core areas, or domains: sleep; resiliency; environment; movement; relationships; spirituality; nutrition. This framework can guide design professionals in including elements of the built environment to support each of these domains, and health professionals in understanding how elements of the built environment design can support integrative health. The goal of this review article is to connect these seven integrative health domains to built environment interventions that enhance and support healthy lifestyles and wellbeing. Common themes which emerge from the literature review include access to natural and circadian electrical lighting, views, connections to nature (biophilia), indoor air quality, control of one's environment, and spatial layout. There is a lack of research on how these domains of integrative health and built environment outcomes may be closely connected and influence each other. To address this need, we first discuss each of the seven domains and their connections to the built environment. We then provide suggestions on how to integrate these findings in design by discussing recently developed tools to promote health and wellbeing in the built environment: 1) the Sustainable Facilities Tool for healthy buildings developed by the US General Services Administration and its academic partners, and 2) other guidelines for healthy buildings.
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Currently, the quality of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) essential oil (LEO) is defined and regulated based on standards and methods established by regulatory authorities. Unfortunately, these existing standards and methods are not sufficient for LEO quality evaluation due to the complexity of LEO and adulteration encouraged by a burgeoning market. This study provides an efficient and reliable method for LEO quality assessment and adulteration detection. After a comprehensive investigation, involving a large set of LEO samples (n = 72) analyzed by multiple techniques (GC/MS, GC/Q-ToF, NMR, and chemometric analysis), a new approach named Q-Index was proposed. Fourteen marker compounds, along with trans-furano-linalool oxide acetate (an indicator of synthetic compound adulteration in LEO), were identified. These marker compounds played significant roles in discriminating the adulterated samples from the authentic LEOs. Calculation of the Q-Index value using the identified marker compounds permitted the detection of fraudulent samples. As demonstrated, all the authentic LEOs exhibited high Q-Index values (>100), whereas the adulterated or poor-quality samples displayed low Q-Index values (<100). The NMR-based chemometric analysis, which served as an independent and complementary approach to the GC/MS and Q-Index methods, was applied in order to assess the validity of the Q-Index method. Overall, the results obtained from different methods were in good agreement. Moreover, compared to the NMR method, the Q-Index approach possessed greater sensitivity in detecting LEO adulteration associated with the addition of synthetic compounds. Results of this study demonstrated that the Q-Index method could be successfully applied for LEO quality assessment and adulteration detection. This approach may have a significant potential to improve quality control for the LEO industry.
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Since ancient times, humans have used aromatic plants and their extracts for religious rituals, perfumery, cosmetics, food manufacture and preservation, as well as for aromatherapy, disease control and for making medicinal drugs, which are needed nowadays inpharmaceutical industry. Essential oils, are essence extracted from the plant or from some of its parts, itcould be defined as natural metabolic secretions that has not yet fully understood. It can also be considered as real plant hormonesgives it anaromatic smell characterized by its strong concentration and easy volatilizationas it evaporates completely without leaving a greasy tracebehind it, these oils are extracted in different extraction methods.Essential oils havebeen used as an alternative medicine since Twelfth century, and became more widespread in the second half of the Sixteenth century. This has allowed modern chemistry to adopt ascientificapproach in usingit, which gave many publications and research during the Nineteenth and Twentieth century. As they have been proven to be good sources of biologically active compounds with medicinal properties, such as reducing fever, treating digestive and respiratory disorders and strengthening the immune system, in addition to its impact on anxiety and depression.This review paperis highlighting on some essential oils extracted from its medicinal plants and the methods of its extraction including the chemical structure of its most important components that give the therapeutic properties reflecting ongeneral healthand safet
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This chapter will focus on Ayurveda and yoga to understand the power of the mind and body to resolve conflict. The fundamental principles of Ayurveda will be discussed in relation to the universe and body because we are a microcosm of the macrocosm. A society so rich in science, pharmaceuticals, and healthcare professionals still struggles for good health. Society continues to remain malnourished even though overfed with food causing the human mind to turn to other modalities like Ayurveda and yoga. As contemporary medicine starts with disease, Ayurveda begins with health with the focus on maintaining the health of the healthy. The fundamental principles of Ayurveda regarding the biological humors (doshas) will be discussed in relation to the five elements of ether, air, fire, water, earth. The main focus will be diet and lifestyle. This chapter will provide pearls of Ayurvedic wisdom to allow one to assimilate these practices into daily life.
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Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in the general population, and is commonly encountered in medical practices. Insomnia is defined as the subjective perception of difficulty with sleep initiation, duration, consolidation, or quality that occurs despite adequate opportunity for sleep, and that results in some form of daytime impairment.1 Insomnia may present with a variety of specific complaints and etiologies, making the evaluation and management of chronic insomnia demanding on a clinician's time. The purpose of this clinical guideline is to provide clinicians with a practical framework for the assessment and disease management of chronic adult insomnia, using existing evidence-based insomnia practice parameters where available, and consensus-based recommendations to bridge areas where such parameters do not exist. Unless otherwise stated, "insomnia" refers to chronic insomnia, which is present for at least a month, as opposed to acute or transient insomnia, which may last days to weeks.
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The sedative properties of the essential oil of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller) and of its main constituents--linalool and linalyl acetate--were investigated in mice followed up in a series of experimental procedures. The significant decrease in the motility of female and male laboratory animals under standardized experimental conditions is found to be closely dependent on the exposure time to the drugs. Nevertheless after an injection of caffeine into mice a hyperactivity was observed which was reduced to nearly a normal motility only by inhalation of these fragrance drugs. In particular the correlation of the motility of the animals to linalool in serum is experimentally proven, thus furnishing evidence of the aromatherapeutical use of herbal pillows employed in folk medicine since ancient times in order to facilitate falling asleep or to minimize stressful situations of man.
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The use of plant essential oils in aromatherapy has been recorded for thousands of years, but until recently there was very little formal evidence regarding the use of these treatments in people with dementia. Over the past few years a number of clinical trials have compared aromatherapy, principally using either lavender (Lavandula angustifolia or Lavandula officinalis) or lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), with inactive treatment. All of these studies demonstrated a significant impact on behavioural problems in patients with dementia, with negligible side-effects. However, there is still not sufficient evidence to recommend widespread use in clinical practice and the key question of whether these treatments can provide a viable alternative to existing pharmacological agents needs to be addressed.
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In a world increasingly concerned with safety legislation, we have to improve our comprehension of safety issues, and make this available to our respective colleagues, customers and clients. This safety knowledge may have global, continental, national and local aspects enshrined within it, and it is our duty to become familiar with these requirements and act according to the law, or the spirit of the law. This paper attempts to cover topics around safety and aromatherapy.
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Therapeutic massage is the manipulation of the soft tissue of whole body areas to bring about generalised improvements in health, such as relaxation or improved sleep, or specific physical benefits, such as relief of muscular aches and pains.A typical massage treatment session Background Almost all cultures have developed systems of therapeutic massage. Massage techniques play an important part in traditional Chinese and Indian medical care. European massage was systematised in the early 18th century by Per Hendrik Ling, who developed what is now known as Swedish massage. Ling believed that vigorous massage could bring about healing by improving the circulation of the blood and lymph. In the past 20-30 years complementary therapists have adapted Swedish massage so as to place greater emphasis on the psychological and spiritual aspects of treatment. Benefits of massage are now described more in terms such as “calmness” or “wholeness” than in terms of loosening stiff joints or improving blood flow. In contrast to the vigorous and standardised treatment recommended by Ling, current massage techniques are more gentle, calming, flowing, and intuitive. View this table:In this windowIn a new windowExamples of other predominantly touch based therapies Several techniques derive from traditions separate from European massage. In reflexology, areas of the foot are believed to correspond to the organs or structures of the body. Damage or disease in an organ is reflected in the corresponding region, or “reflex zone,” of the foot. When this is palpated the patient is said to experience pain or pricking, no matter how gently pressure is applied. Reflexology treatment consists of massage of the disordered reflex zones. In aromatherapy, oils derived from plants (“essential oils”) are added to a base massage oil, which acts as a lubricant during treatment. Although often used purely for their smell, the oils are claimed to have a wide range of medicinal properties, including …
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Insomnia is a subjective term describing the perception of disturbed or inadequate sleep. Causes include medical diseases, psychiatric disorders, drugs, behavioural factors, circadian dysrhythmias and primary sleep disorders. Insomnia is common, affecting approximately one-third of the total population, and of these about 10% consider it a chronic problem. Insomnia is more common in females and increases with age. Many people with insomnia resort to ineffective or dangerous self-treatment regimens and the combination of alcohol with non-prescription drugs is common. We have carried out a study on 20 patients with Primary Insomnia and were able to demonstrate significant differences in both descriptive and objective EEG data between those with Primary Insomnia and controls. Careful evaluation of the sleep problem and accurate diagnosis are essential in order to choose the right treatment for an individual patient. When a specific problem is identified (psychiatric, physical, behavioural), then the underlying cause needs to be treated. Insomnia can be treated by either non-pharmacological or pharmacological intervention, and often both are used simultaneously. It is recommended that hypnotic treatments should be used for no more than one month.
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This study compared the analgesic efficacy of postoperative lavender oil aromatherapy in 50 patients undergoing breast biopsy surgery. Twenty-five patients received supplemental oxygen through a face mask with two drops of 2% lavender oil postoperatively. The remainder of the patients received supplemental oxygen through a face mask with no lavender oil. Outcome variables included pain scores (a numeric rating scale from 0 to 10) at 5, 30, and 60 minutes postoperatively, narcotic requirements in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), patient satisfaction with pain control, as well as time to discharge from the PACU. There were no significant differences in narcotic requirements and recovery room discharge times between the two groups. Postoperative lavender oil aromatherapy did not significantly affect pain scores. However, patients in the lavender group reported a higher satisfaction rate with pain control than patients in the control group (P = 0.0001).
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This article explores certain concepts relating to critiquing research papers. These include considering the peer review process for publication, demonstrating the need for critiquing, providing a way to carefully evaluate research papers and exploring the role of impact factors. Whilst all these features are considered in this article, the focus is on presenting a systematic and comprehensive way of critiquing research papers. The information provided should be of use to the many radiographers, associated health professionals and undergraduate and postgraduate students embarking on research projects.
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Four hundred and fifty college students rated the credibility of the rationales and procedural descriptions of two therapy, three placebo, and one component-control procedure frequently used in analogue outcome research. The rating scale was designed to assess both the credibility and the expectancy for improvement generated by the rationales. The results indicated that the control conditions were, in general, less credible than the therapy conditions. Implications for outcome research are briefly discussed.
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The objective of this study was to examine the methods used in systematic reviews of safety across a range of complementary therapies to assess the variation in approach and the potential for developing guidance on conduct and reporting. Systematic reviews focusing on safety were retrieved from NHS Evidence and searches of major databases. A pre-prepared template was used for data extraction. Information extracted included details of search strategies, sources, participants, interventions, reported adverse event/effect(s) and causality assessment. Data extraction was carried out by one researcher and a check for accuracy by a second researcher. Methods were assessed against criteria based on guidance provided by the Cochrane Adverse Effects Methods Group. A total of 2563 citations were screened and 88 systematic reviews were selected for inclusion. The majority focused on the safety of herbs and nutritional supplements. Approximately half the reviews covered all aspects of safety; other reviews addressed specific adverse effects or interactions. Types of data included in the reviews did not always reflect the focus of the review. Search strategies, sources used, quality assessment and assessment of causality also varied. Detailed examination and comparison of the methods has highlighted several areas in which there is potential for development of guidelines and consensus on standards. These include search strategies, sources of information, data extraction and assessment of causality. The value of systematic reviews in relation to large outcome studies requires further consideration.
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This study aimed to investigate the attitude towards holistic complementary and alternative medicine of healthy people, and to evaluate the relationship between attitude towards holistic complementary and alternative medicine and the characteristics of the participants. Complementary and alternative medicines are becoming more accepted. This study used descriptive and correlational designs. The study included healthy individuals who attended or visited a primary care centre for healthcare services. The sample of the study consisted of 448 persons who responded to the questionnaire. The Attitude towards Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine scale consisted of 11 items on a six-point, and two subscales. The mean score of holistic complementary and alternative medicine was studied in relation to attributes and holistic complementary and alternative medicine. The mean score on the scale was 58.1 SD 4.1 point, and in terms of the mean score of the scale, the sample group showed a negative attitude towards holistic complementary and alternative medicine and one subscale. Demographic characteristics of the sample group affected attitudes towards holistic complementary and alternative medicine and both subscales. In light of these results, it is clear that healthy Turkish population have a tendency towards conventional medicine. Health professionals caring for healthy people should provide comprehensive care that addresses the physical, psychosocial and spiritual needs of the individual; they could provide the consultation regarding to different patterns of complementary therapies.
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Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint reported to physicians. Treatment has traditionally involved medication. Behavioral approaches have been available for decades, but lack of physician awareness and training, difficulty in obtaining reimbursements, and questions about efficacy have limited their use. These practice parameters review the current evidence with regards to a variety of nonpharmacologic treatments for insomnia. Using a companion paper which provides a background review, the available literature was analyzed. The evidence was graded by previously reported criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine with references to American Psychological Association criteria. Treatments considered include: stimulus control, progressive muscle relaxation, paradoxical intention, biofeedback, sleep restriction, multicomponent cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene education, imagery training, and cognitive therapy. Improved experimental design has significantly advanced the process of evaluation of nonpharmacologic treatments for insomnia using guidelines outlined by the American Psychological Association (APA). Recommendations for individual therapies using the American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommendation levels for each are: Stimulus Control (Standard); Progressive Muscle Relaxation, Paradoxical Intention, and Biofeedback (Guidelines); Sleep Restriction, and Multicomponent Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Options); Sleep Hygiene Education, Imagery Training, and Cognitive Therapy had insufficient evidence to be recommended as a single therapy. Optimal duration of therapy, who should perform the treatments, long term outcomes and safety concerns, and the effect of treatment on quality of life are questions in need of future research.
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In concert with growing public interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), these therapies and products have been increasingly studied over the past two decades for the treatment of sleep disorders. While systematic reviews have been conducted on acupuncture and valerian in the treatment of insomnia, to date no comprehensive review has been conducted on all major CAM treatments. We sought to address this via a rigorous systematic review of hypnotic CAM interventions, including herbal and nutritional medicine, acupuncture, acupressure, yoga, tai chi, massage, aromatherapy and homoeopathy. The electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library were accessed during late 2009 for CAM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the treatment of chronic insomnia. Sixty-four RCTs were identified, of which 20 studies involving eight CAM interventions met final inclusion criteria. Effect size calculations (where possible) and a quality control analysis using a modified Jadad scale were undertaken. Many RCTs lacked methodological rigor, and were commonly excluded due to small sample size or an inadequate control condition. Among the studies that met inclusion criteria, there was evidentiary support in the treatment of chronic insomnia for acupressure (d=1.42-2.12), tai chi (d=0.22-2.15), yoga (d=0.66-1.20), mixed evidence for acupuncture and L-tryptophan, and weak and unsupportive evidence for herbal medicines such as valerian. Surprisingly, studies involving several mainstream CAM therapies (e.g., homoeopathy, massage, or aromatherapy) were not located or did not meet basic inclusion criteria. If CAM interventions are to be considered as viable stand-alone or adjuvant treatments for sleep disorders, future researchers are urged to use acceptable methodology, including appropriate sample sizes and adequate controls. RCTs evaluating other untested CAM therapies such as massage, homoeopathy, or osteopathy are encouraged, as is the exploration of using CAM therapies adjuvantly with conventional therapies.
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In many countries, recent data on the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are available. However, in England, there is a paucity of such data. We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of CAM use in England. Data were obtained from the Health Survey for England 2005, a national household survey that included questions on CAM use. We used binary logistic regression modelling to explore whether demographic, health and lifestyle factors predict CAM use. Data were available for 7630 respondents (household response rate 71%). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of CAM use were 44.0% and 26.3% respectively; 12.1% had consulted a practitioner in the preceding 12 months. Massage, aromatherapy and acupuncture were the most commonly used therapies. Twenty-nine percent of respondents taking prescription drugs had used CAM in the last 12 months. Women (OR 0.491, 95% CI: 0.419, 0.577), university educated respondents (OR 1.296, 95% CI: 1.088, 1.544), those suffering from anxiety or depression (OR 1.341, 95% CI: 1.074, 1.674), people with poorer mental health (on GHQ: OR 1.062, 95% CI 1.026, 1.100) and lower levels of perceived social support (1.047, 95% CI: 1.008, 1.088), people consuming ≥ 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day (OR 1.327, 95% CI: 1.124, 1.567) were significantly more likely to use CAM. Complementary and alternative medicine use in England remains substantial, even amongst those taking prescription drugs. These data serve as a valuable reminder to medical practitioners to ask patients about CAM use and should be routinely collected to facilitate prioritisation of the research agenda in CAM.
Article
Incl. abstract and bibl. references Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are often seen as the 'gold standard' of evaluative research. However, whilst randomisation will ensure comparable groups, trials are still vulnerable to a range of biases that can undermine their internal validity. In this paper we describe a number of common threats to the internal validity of RCTs and methods of countering them. We highlight a number of examples from randomised trials in education and health care where problems of execution and analysis of the RCT has undermined their internal validity. However, awareness of these potential biases can lead to careful planning to avoid or reduce their occurrence. If good quality randomised trials are to inform policy and practice in education then rigorous trials need to be designed that are the least susceptible to threats to their validity.
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In this study, nanocapsules of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) containing lavender oil were synthesized by solvent evaporation emulsion. Poly(L-lactic acid) is a biodegradable aliphatic polyester derived from lactic acid formed by bacterial fermentation of glucose-rich substances. Lavender oil is a plant extract that finds uses in phytotherapy. It is reputed as anti-septic, anti-depressant and sleep promoter. Encapsulation is a technique used to encase tiny oil droplets with a thin and permeable coating that allows for a controlled release of the volatile oil. The size and morphology of the nanocapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscope. The particle size and distribution were measured by photon correlation spectroscopy. The time-controlled release of the lavender oil was studied and the use of the lavender capsules in the remedy of sleep disorder was investigated.
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To determine in healthy people aged > or = 75 years 1) if restricting time in bed and education in health sleep practices are superior to an attention-only control condition (i.e., education in healthy dietary practices) for maintaining or enhancing sleep continuity and depth over 2.5 years; and 2) if maintenance or enhancement of sleep continuity and depth promotes the maintenance or enhancement of health-related quality of life. Single-blind, randomized, clinical trial in a university-based sleep center, enrolling 64 adults (n = 30 women, 34 men; mean age = 79 years) without sleep/wake complaints (e.g., insomnia or daytime sleepiness), followed by randomized assignment to either: 1) restriction of time in bed by delaying bedtime 30 minutes nightly for 18 months, together with education in healthy sleep practices (SLEEP); or 2) attention-only control condition with education in health dietary practices (NUTRITION). SLEEP did not enhance sleep continuity or depth; however, compared with NUTRITION, SLEEP was associated with decreased time spent asleep (about 30 minutes nightly over 18 months). Contrary to hypothesis, participants in SLEEP reported a decrement in physical health-related quality of life and an increase in medical burden (cardiovascular illness), relative to NUTRITION. Neither markers of inflammation, body mass index, or exercise explained treatment-related changes in medical burden. Although we cannot exclude a positive effect of education in healthy nutrition, for healthy elderly >75 years of age without sleep complaints, reducing sleep time may be detrimental, whereas allowing more time to sleep (about 7.5 hours nightly) is associated with better maintenance of physical health-related quality of life and stability of medical illness burden over 30 months.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Texas Woman's University, 1998. Bibliography: leaves 94-102. Abstract. Also available as microform.
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Forty-five complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from high-impact medical journals (NEJM, JAMA, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Archives of Internal Medicine) were reviewed based on their meeting three validity criteria (the existence of a placebo control, moderate attrition rates, and 50 or more participants per group). Of the 26 efficacy trials meeting all three criteria, only 2 (7.7%) were judged to be positive (i.e., the alternative therapy was significantly superior to its placebo control), while over half (55.5%) of the 19 trials that failed to meet one or more of these criteria reported positive results (p < .001). Of the two positive high-validity trials, one was funded and authored by the herbal company marketing the product tested and one used a placebo-control group of questionable credibility. This analysis is consistent with the hypothesis that CAM therapies are no more effective than placebos when adequate experimental control is present.
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Although treatment with the essential oil of lavender induces neuroemotional changes, there is a lack of data regarding its specific effects on neurotransduction, especially dopaminergic neurotransduction. We investigated the relationship between altered motor activity and changes in the expression of dopamine receptors (DR), particularly the receptor subtypes D2 and D3, in lavender oil-treated mice. After the administration of lavender oil (intraperitoneal injections of 10-1000 mg/kg lavender oil once per day for 5 days), motor coordination and dopamine receptor expression were examined in the olfactory bulb and the striatum of the mouse brain. After 5 days, mice treated with 1000 mg/kg lavender oil showed significantly increased rotarod activity when compared to controls. Although DRD2 expression showed no change in the olfactory bulb or striatum of lavender-treated mice, DRD3 expression increased significantly in the olfactory bulb; this increase was dose-dependent and was observed at both the mRNA and protein levels. These data indicate that altered dopamine D3 receptor subtype homeostasis in the olfactory bulb may contribute to lavender oil-induced behavioral change.
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Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common reason for hospital admission, and adjunctive non-pharmacological treatments would be welcomed. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of conducting a study of acupuncture during an acute exacerbation of COPD. We also examined the credibility of a sham device in this setting and assessed the effect of acupuncture on breathlessness and anxiety. A prospective, randomised, patient- and assessor-blinded, sham controlled study was conducted on three consecutive days in a district general hospital. Credibility of both acupuncture and the Park sham device were assessed using the Borkovec and Nau questionnaire. Dyspnoea was measured on the modified Borg score and a 10 cm visual analogue scale, while anxiety was measured on a 10 cm visual analogue scale. 11 patients were recruited and nine completed the study. There were no adverse events with either intervention. Acupuncture was well tolerated and credibility scores were similar before and after real and sham acupuncture. Symptoms improved after both treatments, with no significant difference between groups. In this pilot study acupuncture was well tolerated by subjects experiencing an acute exacerbation of COPD. Acupuncture treatment and the Park sham device were both credible. Although recruitment was slow, a further trial with a larger sample size is feasible and recommended.
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Linalool is a monoterpene often found as a major component of essential oils obtained from aromatic plant species, many of which are used in traditional medical systems as hypno-sedatives. Psychopharmacological evaluations of linalool (i.p. and i.c.v.) revealed marked sedative and anticonvulsant central effects in various mouse models. Considering this profile and alleged effects of inhaled lavender essential oil, the purpose of this study was to examine the sedative effects of inhaled linalool in mice. Mice were placed in an inhalation chamber during 60 min, in an atmosphere saturated with 1% or 3% linalool. Immediately after inhalation, animals were evaluated regarding locomotion, barbiturate-induced sleeping time, body temperature and motor coordination (rota-rod test). The 1% and 3% linalool increased (p<0.01) pentobarbital sleeping time and reduced (p<0.01) body temperature. The 3% linalool decreased (p<0.01) locomotion. Motor coordination was not affected. Hence, linalool inhaled for 1h seems to induce sedation without significant impairment in motor abilities, a side effect shared by most psycholeptic drugs.