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A Motivational Science Perspective on the Role of Student Motivation in Learning and Teaching Contexts

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Abstract

A motivational science perspective on student motivation in learning and teaching contexts is developed that highlights 3 general themes for motivational research. The 3 themes include the importance of a general scientific approach for research on student motivation, the utility of multidisciplinary perspectives, and the importance of use-inspired basic research on motivation. Seven substantive questions are then suggested as important directions for current and future motivational science research efforts. They include (1) What do students want? (2) What motivates students in classrooms? (3) How do students get what they want? (4) Do students know what they want or what motivates them? (5) How does motivation lead to cognition and cognition to motivation? (6) How does motivation change and develop? and (7) What is the role of context and culture? Each of the questions is addressed in terms of current knowledge claims and future directions for research in motivational science.

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... Flere forskere har dog peget på, at der er et betydeligt overlap mellem begreber relateret til forskellige aspekter af studielivet i forskellige dele af litteraturen, og at mange forsømmer at definere de centrale begreber i dybden, hvilket resulterer i begrebsmaessig forvirring (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004;Kahu, 2013;Pintrich, 2003). Vi har derfor fulgt opfordringen fra Fredricks et al. (2004: s. 65) til at sammentaenke en del af indsigterne fra forskningen i: 1) studerendes engagement, 2) hvad der motiverer studerende og 3) studerendes følelser relateret til at praestere kombineret med nogle af Tintos centrale sondringer. ...
... Vores begreb for fagligt engagement består af følgende fire aspekter fra litteraturen om motivational science: Interesse, Brugbarhed, Indsatsregulering og Elaborering (EVA, 2020b, baseret på Pintrich, 2003). Vi forstår social tilknytning med udgangspunkt i Self Determination Theory (SDT), der ligeledes er en af de grundlaeggende teorier inden for motivationsforskning. På baggrund af SDT betegner social tilknytning de studerendes oplevelse af at høre til eller vaere tilknyttet en gruppe af andre studerende på uddannelsen. ...
... Vi har ligeledes undersøgt, hvordan studieledere på forskellige uddannelser arbejder med at understøtte studiemiljølet på disse punkter (EVA, 2022b). Pintrich (2003) har opstillet nogle principper for, hvordan man gennem undervisningen kan fremme motivationen blandt studerende. Det handler fx om 1) at undervisere giver praecis feedback, der påpeger, hvad studerende kan og ikke kan, med fokus på at opbygge kompetencer, 2) tildeling af opgaver med passende svaerhedsgrad, så studerende kan traekke på tidligere viden, 3) feedback, der fokuserer på strategier, indsats og muligheden for at kontrollere laeringsprocessen samt 4) meningsfulde og forståelige rationaler osv. ...
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Frafald er et stædigt problem, som optager mange i uddannelsessektoren. Og med god grund. Omkring hver tredje studerende, der optages på en videregående uddannelse, ender med at falde fra, og frafald er forbundet med betydelige omkostninger for de studerende, som beslutter sig for at afbryde uddannelsen, for uddannelsesinstitutionerne og for samfundet. Det er næppe hverken ønskeligt eller muligt at nedbringe frafaldet til nul. Uanset hvor god vejledning og information de unge får, vil nogle unge opleve at have truffet det forkerte studievalg, og i disse tilfælde vil det være i alles interesse, at uddannelsesforløbene afbrydes. Derudover er en stor del af frafaldet i realiteten studieskift: Kun en ud af otte (12 %) af de optagne falder fra uden at starte på en anden videregående uddannelse efterfølgende (EVA, 2021a). Det har naturligvis stor betydning for de samlede omkostninger forbundet med frafald, som i et lidt længere perspektiv i høj grad hænger sammen med de unges karriere på arbejdsmarkedet. Her har en tidligere analyse foretaget af EVA vist, at unge, der ikke færdiggør en videregående uddannelse, har markant højere risiko for at modtage offentlig forsørgelse sammenlignet med unge, som gennemfører. Det gælder i øvrigt også for udsatte unge (EVA, 2019f ). Alligevel giver det god mening at bestræbe sig på at nedbringe frafaldet, og her er der meget, man kan interessere sig for. Fx er det oplagt, at de studerendes studievalg og optagelsesprocessen har betydning. Det er også oplagt at forhold på uddannelsen som fremmer engagement, motivation og læringsudbytte har betydning for de studerendes frafaldssandsynlighed. Endelig er der en række aspekter ved fx de studerendes baggrund, som uddannelsen ikke umiddelbart kan påvirke, men hvor det alligevel kan være værdifuldt at kende til de forhold og karakteristika, der hænger sammen med en højere frafaldsrisiko. På EVA har vi siden 2016 gennemført en række undersøgelser med henblik på at kunne belyse faktorer, der hænger sammen med frafald på de videregående uddannelser. Vi vil i denne artikel kort introducere EVA’s tilgang til feltet og dernæst opsummere resultaterne fra de analyser af frafald, som EVA har gennemført gennem de senere år.1
... Students who are intrinsically motivated are inspired by internal reasons such as expanding their knowledge. It manifests in behaviour which is driven for internal reasons and reflects in the behaviour of a learner who has a high level of internal control (Pintrich 2003). However, obtaining external goals such as a position or entrance to a particular career drive extrinsically motivated students (Donald 1999;Lepper 1998;Paulsen & Gentry 1995;Dev 1997). ...
... Previous research indicates that student performance is also significantly impacted by students' realistic expectations and a healthy dose of confidence (Robbins, Lauver, Le, Davis, Langley & Carlstrom 2004;Zeegers 2004). Confident students are more intellectually engaged in the learning process than their counterparts (Pintrich 2003;Pintrich 1999;Schunk 1991). Pintrich (2003) asserts, however, that students who are overconfident and overestimate their potential for success are often not as adaptable, ignoring the information from formative assessments. ...
... Confident students are more intellectually engaged in the learning process than their counterparts (Pintrich 2003;Pintrich 1999;Schunk 1991). Pintrich (2003) asserts, however, that students who are overconfident and overestimate their potential for success are often not as adaptable, ignoring the information from formative assessments. ...
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University success is impacted largely by the successful transition of students in their first year. This study’s objective is to identify the motives, expectations and preparedness of first-year accounting students enrolled for an accounting degree at the University Of the Western Cape (UWC) for higher education. Students’ motives, expectations and preparedness for higher education have been found to impact their success in their tertiary studies. A quantitative approach was used for this study. A questionnaire was administered to first-year accounting students at UWC during the first lecture of their first accounting module. Descriptive statistics was used in order to analyse the data obtained from the questionnaire. The findings include that students’ time commitments were aligned to that proposed by the university, that they were motivated by a mixture of internal and external factors and that they expected to grow intellectually as a result of studying B.Com (Accounting) at UWC but did not expect to develop better social skills. Educators should acknowledge the importance of and incorporate initiatives to develop the interpersonal skills in the training of accounting graduates. The study contributes to understanding the first-year experience of students studying at a historically disadvantaged institution in South Africa.
... Mens der er en tiltagende konsensus med hensyn til at fokusere på studerendes engagement, er der fortsat mange forskellige bud på, hvordan engagement defineres (Kahu, 2013, p. 758). Vi definerer nedenfor fagligt engagement og social tilknytning baseret på den uddannelsespsykologiske litteratur om studerendes motivation og laering (Pintrich, 2003;Fredericks et al., 2004;Kahu, 2013). ...
... Faglig interesse og brugbarhed betragtes som emotionelt betingede og motiverende i sig selv, mens elaborering og indsatsregulering betragtes som kognitivt betingede laeringsstrategier, der udover at fremme indlaering af stoffet også kan vaere med til at fremme studerendes motivation, fordi disse aspekter øger oplevelsen af kontrol med laeringssituationen (Fredericks et al., 2004;Pintrich, 2003). ...
... Tidligere studier, der er baseret på beslaegtede begreber, har vist, at studerendes engagement og deres relationer til andre på uddannelsen både kan øge motivation og laeringsudbytte samt mindske de studerendes frafaldsrisiko (Fredericks et al., 2004;Kahu, 2013;Pintrich, 2003). På baggrund af disse studier samt de teoretiske overvejelser formoder vi, at et højt niveau af både fagligt engagement og social tilknytning øger de studerendes motivation, deres følelse af at høre til på uddannelsen, deres tidsforbrug på uddannelsen samt deres laeringsudbytte. ...
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I arbejdet med at nedbringe frafaldet på de videregående uddannelser og i forskningen om frafald skelner man ofte mellem en social og en faglig dimension af studielivet, hvilket ofte er inspireret af Vincent Tintos arbejde (se fx Tinto, 1993). Kapitlet bygger videre på denne tradition og argumenterer for, at de studerendes faglige engagement og sociale tilknytning udgør nøglebegreber i forhold til studerendes fastholdelse og læringsudbytte på de videregående uddannelser. I kapitlet præsenterer vi nye definitioner af og mål for de studerendes faglige engagement og sociale tilknytning samt undersøger relationen mellem målene og de studerendes frafaldsrisiko. Kapitlet baserer sig på en større undersøgelse fra Danmarks Evalueringsinstitut (EVA), der bl.a. går mere i dybden med skalaudvikling- og validering af målene.
... There is a decline in academic engagement from early adolescence to mid-adolescence (Liem & Martin, 2012;Wang & Eccles, 2012). Educational psychology (and cognate) research has identified salient factors (e.g., motivation, home background) that help explain students' engagement trajectories (Pintrich, 2003). At the same time, popularized anecdotes abound, attributing adolescents' academic struggles to the "storm and stress" and hormonal changes that take place during this developmental period. ...
... In our study, academic motivation (self-efficacy and valuing) played a significant role beyond variance explained by puberty hormones. Whereas educational psychology has long been promoting self-efficacy and valuing as key factors in engagement and learning (Pintrich, 2003), our study formally demonstrated that these psycho-educational concepts have significant presence alongside biological factors such as puberty hormones (see also Christie & Viner, 2005). This has implications for health and related literatures seeking to conduct more encompassing research to better conceptualize, investigate, and optimize adolescents' development. ...
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The significant decline in academic engagement through the early stages of adolescence is well known, however, the relative contribution of the key factors explaining these adolescent patterns over time requires further investigation. Motivation has been a dominant research focus in past decades, while less empirical attention has been given to the comparative effects of puberty hormones (specifically, sex steroid hormones: estradiol and testosterone) that are often the subject of popular “storm and stress” stereotyping regarding adolescent development. From a baseline sample of 342 young people (11–13 years of age, 55 % males) assessed annually across 3 years, we examined the role of motivation (self-efficacy and valuing) and key puberty hormones in predicting males' and females' academic engagement and disengagement trajectories, controlling for personal and background attributes. Latent growth modeling demonstrated that: (a) compared to puberty hormones, self-efficacy and valuing were more strongly associated with engagement (positively) and disengagement (negatively) for both males and females, (b) puberty hormones were more strongly linked to students' disengagement than to their engagement, and (c) the significant links between puberty hormones and disengagement were more salient and consistent across time for males—with higher levels of testosterone and estradiol individually associated with higher disengagement. These findings are discussed in the context of psycho-educational and biopsychological perspectives on adolescents' academic development and hold implications for how to motivate and engage them in developmentally appropriate ways at school.
... According to the research findings, cumulative grade points average is a significant predictor of academic motivation. Previous studies have emphasized that cumulative grand point average motivates students (Vecchione, Alessandri, & Marsicano, 2014) and increases effort (Pintrich, 2003). In addition, while there was no significant difference between gender and academic motivation concerning socio-demographic variables, there was a substantial difference between the grade level and academic motivation in favor of 7th graders. ...
... Bu durumu deneyimleyen kişilerin ise iç denetimlerinin yüksek olduğu belirtilmektedir. Bu bağlantıda, iç denetime sahip öğrencilerin akademik açıdan motive olmada daha başarılı oldukları ileri sürülebilir (Pintrich, 2003). Bununla birlikte Cetin (2015) çalışmasında not ortalamasının akademik motivasyon üzerinde bir etkisinin olmadığını bulmuştur. ...
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The aim of this study is to examine the role of school atmosphere and socio-demographic variables (gender, class level, place of residence and presence of a computer at home) on the academic motivation of secondary school students. A total of 940 7th and 8th grade students studying at a public school participated in the study. “Academic Motivation Scale”, “School Atmosphere Scale” and “Personal Information Form” were used as data collection tools in the research. Regression analysis and t test were used in the analysis of the data. According to the results of the research, 15% of the change in academic motivation is explained by the variables of gender, age, cumulative grand point average and school atmosphere. While the cumulative grand point average and school atmosphere significantly predicted academic motivation, age and gender did not. In addition, while there was no significant relationship between female and male students in terms of academic motivation scores; a significant difference was found in terms of academic motivation scores in favor of students who attend the 7th grade, live in the village and do not have a computer at home. Findings reveal the importance of school atmosphere and environmental factors in increasing students' academic motivation.
... At the Person level, metacognitive knowledge is considered a domaingeneral, person-related property that affects problem-solving across various domains (Desoete & De Craene, 2019). Metacognition at the Person level is connected to mastery goal orientation and greater intrinsic motivation to learn Pintrich, 2003;Taylor et al., 2014;. Metacognitively aware students are able to strategically set, evaluate, and achieve their learning goals, and perform better academically (Dunlosky & Rawson, 2012;Pintrich, 2003). ...
... Metacognition at the Person level is connected to mastery goal orientation and greater intrinsic motivation to learn Pintrich, 2003;Taylor et al., 2014;. Metacognitively aware students are able to strategically set, evaluate, and achieve their learning goals, and perform better academically (Dunlosky & Rawson, 2012;Pintrich, 2003). ...
Article
Metacognition and motivation are considered key facets of self‐regulation in various contexts. Recent studies identified a link between metacognition and creative performance, with metacognitively aware students performing more creatively and exhibiting higher levels of intrinsic and identified extrinsic motivation. The present study aims to examine the relationship between metacognition, orientation toward intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, and creative performance. One hundred nineteen university students completed the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) and Scale of Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom and performed four verbal creativity tasks (product improvement task, consequences task, and two unusual uses tasks). The partial correlation network showed that all the creativity tasks were uniquely related to at least one facet of metacognition, and that the most complex task (product improvement task) was linked to both metacognitive knowledge and regulation. Furthermore, the structural equation model indicated that orientation toward intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between metacognition and creative performance, explaining 16% of the variance in creative performance.
... According to the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) results applied for the degree of agreement of the factor structure of the scale with the obtained data (=531. 53 It was determined that the internal consistency coefficient of the 30-item scale was .929 and the item-total correlations of the items ranged between .17 and .72. ...
... Considering the self-regulatory learning skills thought to affect the achievement of the vocational college students in the flipped classroom method, a positive and statistically significant correlation was found between self-efficacy, interactive learning environments, satisfaction, usefulness, and self-regulatory learning skills and achievement scores. This finding obtained from the study is similar to the results of studies in the literature that found that self-regulated learning skills in online courses are positively related to students' success [1,29,30,[49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56]. Contrary to this, [57] did not find any significant relationship between students' academic achievement and self-regulated learning skills in a related study. ...
... Avtorji so razvili različne modele, ki vključujejo dve, tri, štiri ali celo šest ciljnih usmerjenosti (Hall, Sampasivam, Muis in Ranellucci, 2016). Na tem mestu izpostavljava model, ki razlikuje med cilji obvladovanja (neke naloge, problema …) in cilji dosežkov (rezultat, ocena) (Linnenbrink, 2007;Pintrich, 2003). Cilji obvladovanja usmerjajo študente k učenju in razumevanju, razvijanju novih spretnosti in izboljšanju učenja glede na lastne standarde uspešnosti. ...
... Cilji obvladovanja usmerjajo študente k učenju in razumevanju, razvijanju novih spretnosti in izboljšanju učenja glede na lastne standarde uspešnosti. Po drugi strani cilji dosežkov predstavljajo za študenta skrb, kako bodo izkazali svoje zmožnosti, pridobili priznanje, zaščitili svoje samospoštovanje (strah pred kritiko); vodijo pa tudi k oblikovanju standardov glede na primerjavo z ostalimi študenti in željo, da bi jih prekosili (Pintrich, 2003). De Clercq, Galand in Frenay (2013) so potrdili rezultate številnih predhodnih raziskav, ki so pokazale, da cilji obvladovanja napovedujejo uporabo globinskega pristopa pri študentih. ...
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V poglavju analiziramo vplive dveh evropskih instrumentov, ki sta se vzpostavila v okviru lizbonskega in bolonjskega procesa, to sta evropsko ogrodje kvalifikacij za vseživljenjsko učenje (EOK) ter evropsko ogrodje visokošolskih kvalifikacij (EOVK), na vzpostavitev nacionalnega ogrodja kvalifikacij in kurikularno načrtovanje v visokem šolstvu v Sloveniji. Preučujemo proces, ki se izvaja pod okriljem evropeizacije izobraževanja in poteka od zgoraj navzdol. V okviru slednjega nas zlasti zanima, kako oba evropska instrumenta (EOK, EOVK) vplivata na načrtovanje študijskih programov v visokem šolstvu. Pri tem se podrobneje posvetimo konceptu učnega izida kot osrednjemu elementu obeh ogrodij in pokažemo, kako se koncept učnega izida uveljavlja v visokošolskem kurikularnem načrtovanju in v kakšnem odnosu je do drugih komponent visokošolskega kurikularnega načrtovanja, zlasti do ciljev in kompetenc. Ob tem natančneje preučujemo, na kakšen način je mogoče učne izide načrtovati na ravni predmeta v visokošolskem izobraževanju. V zaključku podamo nekaj predlogov o oblikovanju učnih izidov na ravni študijskega programa in predmeta ter o razmerju učnih izidov do ciljev in kompetenc programa.
... This implies that there is not a clear, single, optimal combination of components that would have a positive effect. Rather, students' motivation, learning, and achievement may take different "paths" (Pintrich, 2003), and may be enhanced by different combinations of cognitive-motivational processes. Obviously, combinations could include more than just one cognitive module and one motivational module. ...
... The research of autonomy support in teaching and learning practices has been paid a lot of attentions since it's proved an effective approach dealing with the problem of low learning motivation among students according to Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000 (eg., Shih, 2009;Jang, Kim, & Reeve, 2012;Carreira et al., 2013). Teachers who rely on an autonomysupportive style generally vitalize students' autonomous motivation and then positively predict their academic performance (e.g., Fortus & Vedder-Weiss, 2014;Pintrich, 2003;Jang, Kim, & Reeve, 2012), while teachers who rely on a controlling style generally neglect or even undermine their students' autonomous motivation and classroom functioning (Deci, Schwartz, Sheinman, & Ryan, 1981;Reeve, 2009). ...
... Learning in indoor and outdoor classrooms is also able to increase students' attitudes toward (Hossain, Tarmizi, & Ayub, 2012) and interest in mathematics (Laal, & Ghodsi, 2012), which in turn can increase students' motivation and learning outcomes in mathematics. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of students caused by the learning atmosphere in indoor and outdoor classrooms is clearly a positive energy that is able to move students to take part in mathematics learning with pleasure and generate high willingness to learn (Tohidi & Jabbari, 2012), so that the post-test socres were very high (Pintrich, 2003). Pambudi, Sunardi, & Sugiarti, Learning Mathematics Using a Collaborative RME … ...
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Teaching approach applied by mathematics teacher can affect students' mathematical connection ability (MCA). The fact shows that there are still many teachers using conventional learning, causing passive students and low MCA among students. The purpose of this study was to describe the effectiveness of applying a collaborative realistic mathematics education (RME) approach using the classroom and the outdoor environment to improve students' MCA on the topic of similar triangles. This quasi-experimental research with a qualitative descriptive approach took the subject of ninth-grade students at a public junior high school in Jember, Indonesia. Data were collected using observation sheets, questionnaires, tests, and interviews. The data were analyzed using the effectiveness test (N-gain score). The results showed that the application of collaborative RME using the indoor and outdoor classrooms made students more active in physical, social, and mental activities. This learning is effective in improving students' MCA. The average score of 57.47 in the pre-test increased to 93.88 in the post-test, and the N-gain score was 0.86. Mathematics teachers are advised to apply this learning approach, not only on the topic of similarity triangles, but also on other suitable topics. Abstrak Pendekatan mengajar guru matematika dapat mempengarui kemampuan koneksi matematis (MCA) siswa. Fakta menunjukkan masih banyak guru menggunakan pembelajaran konvensional, sehingga menyebabkan siswa pasif dan MCA siswa rendah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan efektivitas penerapan pendekatan pembelajaran matematika realistik (RME) kolaboratif menggunakan lingkungan dalam dan luar kelas untuk meningkatkan MCA siswa pada topik kesebangunan segitiga. Penelitian quasi experiment dengan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif ini mengambil subjek siswa kelas IX di sebuah SMPN di Jember, Indonesia. Pengumpulan data menggunakan lembar observasi, angket, tes, dan wawancara. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji efektivitas (N-gain score). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan pembelajaran RME kolaboratif di dalam dan luar kelas menjadikan siswa lebih aktif, baik aktivitas fisik, sosial, dan mental. Pembelajaran ini efektif dalam meningkatkan MCA siswa, di mana rata-rata nilai pre test 57,47 meningkat menjadi 93,88 pada nilai post test, dan nilai N-gain score 0,86. Para guru matematika disarankan menerapkan pembelajaran ini, bukan hanya pada topik kesebangunan segitiga, tetapi juga pada topik lain yang cocok.
... Motivational theories try to comprehend what energizes individuals toward activities (Pintrich, 2003). They wish to explain what makes individuals "move" in the meaning of being inspired and engaged, or alternatively passive and alienated (Ryan and Deci, 2000). ...
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Research on game-based learning (GBL) methods shows that they may increase students' motivation and learning in the context of higher education. However, there is still unclarity regarding whether and how GBL methods can be utilized in project management education. Our quasi-experimental study analyzes project management students' experiences of a GBL method applied in six European higher education institutes during late 2021 and early 2022. Data about students' experiences were collected using a post-game survey in which students were asked to evaluate how the applied GBL method affected their motivation and learning. The data were analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Our findings include students' positive and negative perceptions related to the applied GBL method, which influenced students’ motivation to study and learn project management phenomena. Our findings indicate that game-based learning solutions can be used to motivate students and to prepare learners to deal with uncertainty, as in real-life projects.
... For distance learners, setting goals has an important role in performance outcomes (Lynch & Dembo, 2004). Furthermore, goals and context are in mutual interaction, so learners must regulate their effort and attention in structuring the environment within various contexts (Pintrich, 2003). Online education, thus, requires learners to structure and manage their physical learning environment effectively (Lynch & Dembo, 2004). ...
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The present study highlights the significance of online self-regulated learning (SRL) in language education by investigating its impact on English as a foreign language (EFL) achievement. It focuses on the self-reported use of online SRL by focusing on six dimensions: goal-setting, structuring the environment, task strategies, time management, help-seeking, and self-evaluation, and potentially their power in predicting L2 achievement. Employing quantitative explanatory design, this study was conducted at an English preparatory class of a state university in Turkey with 91 undergraduate Turkish learners of EFL. Data were collected through a five-point Likert-type Turkish version of the Online Self-Regulated Learning Scale (Korkmaz & Kaya, 2012), initially developed by Barnard et al. (2009). As for the dependent variable of achievement, summative scores of two exams measuring both receptive and productive skills were gathered. The results suggest that the participants were medium to high level online self-regulated learners. Among the online self-regulation strategies, they report structuring their studying environment as the most frequent behavior, by seeking help from others and setting goals. The most significant positive correlation was observed between time management and goal-setting strategies, with a large effect size of d= 0.56. Our multiple regression model predicted 14% of the variance in language achievement scores; more specifically, employing help-seeking strategies was the strongest predictor of language achievement scores of Turkish EFL learners. The findings emphasize the importance of online self-regulation research and encourage online self-regulation implementation in the field. Resumen El presente estudio destaca la importancia del aprendizaje autorregulado en línea (SRL) en la educación de idiomas al investigar su impacto en el rendimiento del inglés como lengua extranjera (EFL). Se centra en el uso autoinformado de SRL en línea centrándose en seis dimensiones: establecimiento de objetivos, estructuración del entorno, estrategias de tareas, gestión del tiempo, búsqueda de ayuda y autoevaluación, y potencialmente su posibilidad para predecir el rendimiento en L2. Empleando un diseño explicativo cuantitativo, este estudio se realizó en una clase preparatoria de inglés de una universidad estatal en Turquía con 91 estudiantes turcos de EFL. Los datos se recopilaron a través de una versión turca de una escala de cinco puntos tipo Likert sobre aprendizaje autorregulado en línea (Korkmaz & Kaya, 2012), desarrollada inicialmente por Barnard et al. (2009). En cuanto a la variable dependiente de rendimiento, se recogieron puntuaciones sumativas de dos exámenes que miden tanto habilidades receptivas como productivas. Los resultados sugieren que los participantes eran estudiantes autorregulados en línea de nivel medio a alto. Entre las estrategias de autorregulación en línea, relatan estructurar su ambiente de estudio como el comportamiento más frecuente, al buscar ayuda de otros y establecer metas. La correlación positiva más significativa se observó entre la gestión del tiempo y las estrategias de fijación de objetivos, con un tamaño del efecto grande de d= 0,56. Nuestro modelo de regresión múltiple predijo el 14 % de la varianza en las puntuaciones de rendimiento del lenguaje; más específicamente, el empleo de estrategias de búsqueda de ayuda fue el predictor más fuerte de los puntajes de rendimiento del idioma de los estudiantes turcos de inglés como lengua extranjera. Los hallazgos enfatizan la importancia de la investigación sobre la autorregulación en línea y fomentan la implementación de la autorregulación en línea en el campo.
... The "students' academic self-efficacy" refers to the students' belief in their own capacity to understand and perform the tasks assigned to them by their instructors in the class, irrespective of how challenging the activities are (Gebauer et al., 2020). Individuals' exceptional performance is facilitated by their high levels of self-efficacy beliefs, which increase their level of dedication, effort, and tenacity (Pintrich, 2003). Earlier scholars explored that there were a variety of factors that influenced students' academic self-efficacy while they were learning (Waheed, 2010(Waheed, , 2011Solanki and Xu, 2018;Jam, 2019). ...
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Based on the reinforcement theory of motivation, the purpose of this research was to measure the effect of school innovation climate on students’ motivational outcomes, including behavioral engagement, academic self-efficacy, interest, and utility value. Furthermore, the conditional influence of students’ attitude toward technology on the link between school innovation climate and students’ motivating outcomes has been investigated and reported. Data were gathered from the 305 entrepreneurship program students of five different universities located in Wuhan, China. In the SamrtPLS 3.3.3 program, the analysis was carried out using SEM. Results revealed that the school innovation climate has a favorable impact on improving the motivating outcomes of students. Additionally, results also provided support for moderation hypotheses that “students’ attitude toward technology” moderated the relationship between “school innovation climate” and academic self-efficacy. On the contrary, “students’ attitudes about technology,” did not appear to be a significant moderator in terms of enhancing the influence of the “school innovation atmosphere” on the students’ behavioral engagement, interest, and utility value. This study provides key policy and theoretical and practical implications as well as future research avenues for entrepreneurial school managers and education scholars.
... (energy) and (2) on which activities is this energy spent? (direction) (Pintrich, 2003). Motivation thus refers to a set of unobservable constructs that cause affective, behavioral, and cognitive outcomes (Reeve, 2012;Ryan & Deci, 2017d). ...
Article
While most educational models point toward cognitive and metacognitive skills to promote reading comprehension, recent studies indicate that motivation also plays a key role. Consequently, studying social factors that may support reading motivation represents an interesting research avenue. We therefore performed a systematic review of the literature to highlight the types of reading support provided by teachers, parent, or peers that predict changes in reading motivation among students in grades 4 to 6. Restricting our sample to peer-reviewed articles published in the last twenty years, we identified 7208 research papers from electronic databases. From these, we selected papers focused on 4th to 6th graders with normative development, using reading supports (from either teachers, parents, or peers) as independent variable(s) and reading motivation as the dependent variable, and having at least two waves of data. At the end of the selection process, 18 studies were eligible for data extraction. Our synthesis suggests that the current state of research in the field of reading motivation does not allow the identification of reading interventions that are undoubtedly effective in promoting reading motivation. However, it appears that supporting students’ psychological needs is generally an effective way of producing positive changes in their reading motivation.
... Sürdürülen veya yeni başlanacak görevlere karşı içten duyulan ilgi, isteğin fazla olması, o görevin daha hızlı bitirilmesine ve alınan sonuçların daha başarılı olmasına katkı sunmaktadır. Pintrich (2003) öğrencilerin başarıları ile güdülenmeleri arasında ilişki olduğunu belirtmektedir. Güdülenmenin yaş, evde bir kitaplığının olması, cinsiyet, anne-baba eğitimi düzeyi gibi değişkenlere göre anlamlı farklılık gösterdiğinin belirlenmesi (Katrancı, 2015;Kurnaz ve Yıldız, 2015;Smith, 1996) demografik değişkenlere göre incelenmesini gerektirmektedir. ...
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Bu araştırma farklı branştaki öğretmen adaylarının okuma motivasyonlarını incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Nicel araştırma yöntemlerinde tarama deseni ile gerçekleştirilen araştırmanın örneklemini uygun örnekleme yoluyla seçilen 463 öğretmen adayı oluşturmaktadır. Verilerin toplanmasında Yetişkin Okuma Motivasyonu Ölçeği ile demografik değişkenlerden oluşan Kişisel Bilgi Formundan yararlanılmıştır. Veri analizi Jamovi yazılımı kullanılarak incelenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgularda öğretmen adaylarının cinsiyetlerine göre herhangi bir değişim gözlenmezken; farklı branşlara ve sınıf düzeyine göre okuma motivasyonlarının anlamlı bir şekilde farklılık gösterdiği tespit edilmiştir. Bulgulardan elde edilen en çarpıcı sonuç bilimsel yayınları takip eden öğretmen adaylarının okuma motivasyonlarının tüm alt boyutlarda ve toplam puana göre anlamlı farklılık gösterdiği belirlenmiştir. Bu araştırma bulgularına dayanarak, öğretmen adaylarının okuma motivasyon düzeylerinin orta düzeyin üzerinde olduğu söylenebilir. Sonuç olarak öğretmen adaylarının okuma motivasyonları değişkenlik gösterebilmektedir. Araştırma bulgularının gelecekte araştırmacılar için önemli kaynak olacağı öngörülmektedir. Bilimsel yayınları takip eden öğretmen adaylarının yetiştirilmesi için eğitim fakültelerinde bu konuda yapılan çalışma sayılarının artırılması önerilmektedir.
... Adapting reading instruction according to students' literacy levels, including decoding skills and vocabulary, enables students to construct new knowledge using their current knowledge and helps them achieve better reading outcomes (e.g., Connor, Morrison, Fishman, Schatschneider, & Underwood, 2013;Hu, 2014;Nurmi et al., 2013), which probably promotes their performance in digital reading. Regarding perceived teachers' stimulation of reading engagement, stimulating and interesting tasks, activities, and materials within instruction are associated with a higher level of students' learning interest and motivation (e.g., Pintrich, 2003). During reading instruction, students' perception of stimulation may activate their cognition, encourage them to be more engaged in reading activities, and improve the classroom environment (e.g., Lau & Ho, 2016). ...
Article
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Students’ perceptions of instruction quality have long been considered a core element of the effectiveness of education. In particular, perceived high-quality instruction in classrooms might motivate students to gain better digital reading performance, which helps them become well-prepared in the era of information and communication technology (ICT). Thus, this study investigated the correlation between students' perceptions of instruction quality features and their digital reading performance from the aspects of perceived instructional approaches, classroom management, and supportive climate. Data on 223,807 15-year-old students in 29 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries were extracted from the latest Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 database and the study adopted three-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). The findings demonstrated the positive influence of students’ perceived adaptation of instruction, stimulation of reading engagement, disciplinary climate, teacher interest, and teacher support. However, students’ perceived teacher-directed instruction, reading skills exercises, teaching of digital skills, language instruction time, and teacher feedback were unexpectedly negatively correlated with their digital reading performance. Finally, the study concludes by discussing its implications for improving reading instruction quality.
... Self-efficacy influences task performance via goal-setting and self-regulation (self-monitoring, self-assessment and outcomemonitoring) during the performance (Bandura, 1991;Pintrich, 2003). Research on self-efficacy in STEM labelled self-efficacy beliefs based on "mastery experience, an individual's taskspecific experiences, and interpretation of those experiences" (Rittmayer and Beier, 2008, p. 2). ...
Article
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The word identity etymologically derives from the Latin expression identitas, from idem, which means same. But the identities each of us has in the same moment and across life stages can be multiple and continuously changing, and are influenced by internal (i.e., personal) and external (i.e., environmental) factors. In this manuscript, I reviewed the existing literature on the theoretical and practical aspects of science identity across school levels. I explored how it can be measured and shed light on the links between science identity, professional identity, mentoring and sense of belonging. Then, I analysed strategies to foster self-efficacy and sense of belonging in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), with the aim of creating a scientific community that is genuinely inclusive and diverse. A set of recommendations to build a community with shared goals and enhanced diversity, with beneficial effects at several societal levels, has been included.
... Self-confidence is an individual's belief in his resources and abilities. In general, individuals who believe they are able and that they can and will do well, are more likely to be motivated in terms of effort, persistence, and behavior than individuals who believe they are less able and do not expect to succeed (Pintrich, 2003). Entrepreneurs seek challenging and demanding tasks, which require greater confidence. ...
Article
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Employees are deemed to be happy when there is job satisfaction, job security, and work-life balance. This study used a quantitative approach. The foremost aims of the study were to assess the employees’ happiness in terms of time use in business colleges of Bhutan and to find out the difference between employees’ happiness in terms of time used for public and private business colleges of Bhutan. This study has adopted the time use dimension from GNH of Business which consists of working hours, work pressure, flexi-time, work-life balance, adequate break, and sleeping hours. Using the census survey method, all 141 academics from GCBS and RTC were enumerated. The study found that overall employee happiness in terms of time use is 67.34% whereas employees of GCBS are happier (73.52%) than employees of RTC (60.82%).
... A motiváció szó a movere latin igéből ered, amely mozgást jelent. A motivációs elméletek a viselkedés irányítására vonatkoznak, és arra keresik a választ, hogy mi mozgósítja az egyéneket bizonyos tevékenységek vagy feladatok elvégzésére (PINTRICH, 2003). ...
Chapter
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A jó nyelvtanár meghatározásának számos formája, definíciója azonosítható a nyelvpedagógiával, az idegen nyelvek tanításával foglalkozó szakirodalomban, valamint megtalálhatók a nyelvtanári profilok standardizált formában való leírásai is, amelyek lehetőséget nyújtanak a hallgatók képzés során fejlesztett és a gyakorló nyelvtanárok kompetenciáinak azonosítására, fejlettségi szintjének meghatározására. Jelen tanulmány keretében kísérletet teszünk olyan tudás- és képességelemek azonosítására, melyek az uralkodó idegennyelv-tanítási trendektől függetlenül minden korszakban kimutathatók, ezen túlmenően vizsgáljuk egyrészt, hogy ezek kimutathatók-e a jelenleg érvényben lévő idegennyelv-tanári szakok képzési és kimeneti követelményeiben és az Európai Nyelvtanári Profilhálóban, másrészt az idegennyelv szakos modelltantervek elemzése alapján feltárjuk arányukat a nyelvtanárképzés tartalmában.
... Motivation is an important construct for researchers and educators due to its relation to learning and teaching contexts. A number of complex and multidimensional definitions have been proposed to explain motivation, though none have departed from how motivation was initially derived (i.e., from the Latin verb "movere" which means to move [14]). For example, [15] described motivation as the forces that drive and direct one's behaviour towards a desired outcome; [16] defined motivation as that to be moved to take an action; while [17] stated that motivation can influence what, how, and when learners decide to learn. ...
Article
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Despite the criticality of considering student academic motivation as it influences learning, research within the field of adaptive learning technologies for education has so far focused more on customising instruction to implement personalised learning, than investigating how personalised learning is associated with learners’ motivation. Given this, a robust instrument is required to gather information about student academic motivation within the context of adaptive learning technologies. This study sought to validate the Academic Motivation Toward Mathematics Survey (AMTMS) currently used to measure motivation based on self-determination theory in mathematics education at pre-tertiary levels (grades 11 and 12) in Asia. A total of 196 participants recruited via availability sampling took part in this study, after interacting with an in-house mathematics adaptive learning system within a tertiary educational institution. The validation was performed based on modern test theory given that it overcomes some limitations of classical factor analytic approaches. Results supported the factorial structure of the AMTMS but 12 of the original 21 items had to be rescored to establish ordered thresholds. Further, the bifactor equivalent solution suggested the possibility of reporting a singular motivation index comprising the five factors within the AMTMS. Along with the results, this study offers researchers a robust and validated instrument to measure motivation toward mathematics that can be used within an adaptive learning environment.
... For example, they may believe that they could be successful in class if they put in the effort (high competence beliefs). Nevertheless, although these adaptive motivational beliefs may make students feel better about themselves, they unnecessarily alter students' subjective evaluation of a certain course's value, given that these different motivations have different focuses (Pintrich, 2003). When it comes to achievement value, a more domain-specific motivation , the low scores speak to the fact that students in the Non-perfectionist group did not regard the courses as valuable, interesting or personally meaningful. ...
Article
Perfectionism among college students has increased in the past three decades, yet studies of perfectionism in academic contexts are relatively scarce. This study used a person-centered approach to investigate associations between perfectionism profiles and academic indicators (i.e., motivation, behavior, and emotion), whether there are any gender or racial/ethnic differences in perfectionism profiles, and whether growth mindsets moderated associations between perfectionism profiles and academic indicators. Data were collected from 516 college students enrolled in math-related courses. Latent profile analysis revealed four distinct types of perfectionism characterized as Ambitious, Concerned, Perfectionist and Non-perfectionist. The Ambitious group was associated with the best academic indicators overall, whereas the Concerned group had the worst indicators. Students in the Perfectionist and Non-perfectionist groups exhibited more complex patterns across academic indicators, with those in the Perfectionist group having generally more positive motivational/behavioral indicators but more negative emotional indicators, and those in the Non-perfectionist group demonstrating the opposite pattern. Asian American students were over-represented in the Ambitious and Perfectionist groups. Additionally, growth mindset served as a protective factor for the Concerned and Non-perfectionist groups on motivational indicators (task value and perceived cost, respectively). Overall, this study highlights the importance of person-centered approaches and the inclusion of multiple academic indicators (i.e., motivational, behavioral, and emotional) to reveal the complex nature of perfectionism.
... Motivation in science refers to all those latent factors due to which learners strive to learn and desire to explore beyond the existing knowledge. Based on social cognitive theory, developed by Bandura (1986Bandura ( , 2001Bandura ( , 2006 and extended by others (e.g., Pajares & Schunk, 2001;Pintrich, 2003) Glynn et al. (2009Glynn et al. ( , 2011, scholars emphasized two most important factors of motivation in science: intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Amabile (1990) defined intrinsic motivation as "the motivation to do an activity for its own sake because it was intrinsically interesting, enjoyable, or satisfying" (p. ...
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The study was conducted on science learners at high school-and college-level to explore the interrelation of various factors from social environment, cognitive, and non-cognitive resources affecting their creative potential. A hierarchical regression method was used to determine how well positive behavior of parents, supportive behavior of friend groups, grit, motivation in science, and legislative thinking style could predict the creative potential of the science learners. The results revealed that supportive friend group behavior, consistency of interest (a sub-factor of grit), and legislative thinking style can predict the creative potential of science learners. Group variance explained by them was at over 53%. Legislative thinking style turned out to be the most dominant pre-dictor, with 63% of unique variance explained by it. Positive friend group behavior came second, with 9% unique variance explained to the residual. Finally, consistency of interest could explain 12% of unique variance but with negative sign, implying it was not a component of the creative potential of science learners.
... Learning motivation is related to learners' needs and approaches they use to obtain their learning goals. Regarding this, Linnenbrink and Pinrich (2002) as well as Pintrich (2003) concurred that learners can use motivation strategies to achieve academic goals once they understand target tasks and perceive an importance and necessity of assignments. As explained by Pintrich and De Groot (1990), intrinsic motivation i.e., challenges, curiosity, or expertise and extrinsic motivation i.e., environment, readiness of fundamentals or learning materials significantly influence learners' abilities in engaging a variety of learning activities. ...
Conference Paper
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During Covid-19 outbreak, learners have to study online and are required to adapt to new learning environment inevitably. Self-regulated learning (SRL) and motivation are considered as key determinants influencing their academic achievement. Understanding the roles of the two factors is essential for stakeholders in higher education since we have been exposed to a fully online teaching and learning for almost two years. Therefore, this study aimed to determine students' levels of SRL and motivation and to investigate students' needs for achieving their learning goals during Covid-19 situation. In this study, there were 97 second-year undergraduates from a Thailand university participating in the present study to respond to Thai version of online adapted questionnaires about SRL and motivation and to elicit their opinions on the needs for online learning. Quantitative data were analyzed in the SPSS program using descriptive statistics. The results indicated participants showed moderate and high levels in SRL (M=3.23, SD=0.45) and motivation (M=3.74, SD=0.19) respectively. Moreover, the participants showed their needs of new and interesting learning materials as well as instructors' different teaching methods in online learning. This research stresses the importance of learners' reflections on online learning and has some implications for online learning in Thailand higher education.
... Students with high SE beliefs get exceptional results by enhancing their dedication, effort, and persistence. Students who have high SE relate their shortcomings to a lack of effort instead of a limited ability, whereas those who have poor SE ascribe their shortcomings to a lack of ability (21). SE can affect the selection of tasks, as well as persistence in performing the task. ...
Article
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Student performance is a critical factor in academic achievement. Other factors like the students' self-efficacy, affective commitment, and psychological wellbeing play a significant role in shaping their performance. The present study aims to understand the role of self-efficacy, affective commitment, and psychological wellbeing in the students' performance. To carry out the study, the data were collected from the 308 students currently enrolled in the public sector universities of China. Smart-PLS is used to check the validation of the proposed hypotheses. Partial least square structural equation modeling is used for hypothesis testing. Results of the study show that self-efficacy does not play a role in the student performance in public sector universities; however, the affective commitment of the students plays a significant role in their performance. The psychological wellbeing of the students has a substantial influence on their performance. Furthermore, the results have also indicated that psychological wellbeing is an important indicator of student performance. It has also been revealed that psychological wellbeing significantly mediates the relationship between self-efficacy, affective commitment, and student performance. The students who availed of the digital mental health services were found to have a low relationship between their self-efficacy and performance.
... These findings agree with the characteristics of those students who have causal attribution based on the belief that academic success depends on their effort and is, therefore, controllable and eligible for each individual [101][102][103][104][105][106][107]. In this way, highly motivated students, with an optimal level of self-efficacy, positive emotions based on the belief in their own ability, and an adaptive attributional pattern, consider that luck is not a particularly determining factor in their academic development and trust. ...
Article
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The failure and dropout of university studies are issues that worry all nations due to the personal, social, and economic costs that this they entail. Because the dropout phenomenon is complex and involves numerous factors, to reverse it would involve a comprehensive approach through interventions aimed at the factors identified as key in the decision to drop out. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to determine the profile of students who enter the EPN (STEM higher-education institution) to analyze the characteristics that differentiate students who drop out early in their career and those who stay in school. A sample of 624 students who accessed the EPN leveling course (a compulsory course at the beginning of their studies) participated in the study. A total of 26.6% of the participants were women. A total of 50.7% of the participants passed the course. Data referring to social, economic, and academic variables were analyzed. Comparison techniques, as well as artificial neural networks, were used to compare characteristic profiles of students who passed the leveling course and those who dropped out. The results showed significant differences between the profiles of the students who passed and those who dropped out with regard to the variables related to previous academic performance and motivational and attributional aspects. The artificial neural networks corroborated the importance of these variables in predicting dropout. In this research, the key variables predicting whether a student continues or leaves higher education are revealed, allowing the identification of students at possible risk of dropping out and thus promoting initiatives to provide adequate academic support and improve student retention.
... Dimension 7: Academic self-efficacy factor III: Self-regulated learning Self-regulated learning is a goal-driven process through which learners monitor and regulate what they can do (their internal abilities) and negotiate external influences (Harding et al., 2018;Pintrich, 2003). Students rated their ability to self-regulate their learning and judge the standards required to succeed. ...
Article
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Purpose The study sought to determine whether there are gender differences in self-perceived employability of students enrolled in Australian higher education science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) programs. Design/methodology/approach Using an online measure comprised of Likert style and open text items, STEM students ( n = 3,134) reported their perceived employability in relation to nine dimensions of employability identified from the literature as having relevance to careers in STEM. Analysis determined whether student confidence differed according to gender, field of study, study mode, age, and engagement with work. Findings Female students in STEM reported higher mean factor scores in relation to their self- and program-awareness, self-regulated learning, and academic self-efficacy. Male students were more confident in relation to digital literacy skills; these findings were consistent both overall and across several fields of study within STEM. Gender differences were observed across study mode, age, and engagement with work. Originality/value The analyses of students' perceived employability provide important insights into the formation of a STEM “identity” among female students. The study has implications for policy, higher education, the engagement of girls in early STEM education, and future research.
... It has been shown that people are more motivated to learn, if they can see the importance of the content with respect to the situation or, if they find the content interesting [47]. For example, being in a bar in a foreign country is likely to increase the interest in learning words and sentences required for ordering a coffee. ...
Preprint
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Learning vocabulary in a primary or secondary language is enhanced when we encounter words in context. This context can be afforded by the place or activity we are engaged with. Existing learning environments include formal learning, mnemonics, flashcards, use of a dictionary or thesaurus, all leading to practice with new words in context. In this work, we propose an enhancement to the language learning process by providing the user with words and learning tools in context, with VocabulARy. VocabulARy visually annotates objects in AR, in the user's surroundings, with the corresponding English (first language) and Japanese (second language) words to enhance the language learning process. In addition to the written and audio description of each word, we also present the user with a keyword and its visualisation to enhance memory retention. We evaluate our prototype by comparing it to an alternate AR system that does not show an additional visualisation of the keyword, and, also, we compare it to two non-AR systems on a tablet, one with and one without visualising the keyword. Our results indicate that AR outperforms the tablet system regarding immediate recall, mental effort and task completion time. Additionally, the visualisation approach scored significantly higher than showing only the written keyword with respect to immediate and delayed recall and learning efficiency, mental effort and task-completion time.
... Motivation is one of the factors that can influence the individual ability to achieve success (Liu, Bridgeman, & Adler, 2012). In this sense, reducing the levels of amotivation is essential to increase results, focusing the motivation in the learning process to achieve goals (Kim & Pekrun, 2014;Pintrich, 2003). The success of soccer referees is linked to several skills, game knowledge, communication, strategic leadership, physical fitness and psychological ability (Guillén & Feltz, 2011). ...
... However, the relationship between motivation and engagement remains elusive. Keeping this in view, Pintrich (2003) and Ford and Smith (2009) recommended combining research on motivation and engagement. Skinner et al. (2016) suggested that such research could help in creating better interventions. ...
Article
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This study explores the relationship between student motivation and student engagement. The study, which is rooted in the self-determination (SDT) and engagement (JD-R) theories, responds to the contemporary call for studying this relationship. A bipartite construct of motivation measures both positive and negative components of motivation and structural equation modeling (SEM) by using data from 693 undergraduate and graduate students. In doing so, the study finds that student motivation is an antecedent of engagement. Adaptive cognition and behavior are positively related to engagement (β = 0.30, β = 0.60); maladaptive cognitions and behavior are negatively related to engagement (β = -0.54). The study advances SDT and JD-R. Implications for educationists and possible interventions to enhance motivation and, consequently, engagement are discussed. The study brings clarity to the student motivation-engagement relationship.
... Self-efficacy was assessed before Go/No-Go tasks by using the survey adapted from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich et al., 1993). The MSLQ has been validated and used in many studies (e.g., Pintrich et al., 1991Pintrich et al., , 1993Pintrich, 2003). This questionnaire is a self-report instrument designed to assess college students' motivational orientations and self-regulated learning, and the self-efficacy subscale in MSLQ is designed particularly to measure the selfefficacy beliefs of students (Pintrich et al., 1991). ...
Article
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Inhibition, associated with self-efficacy, enables people to control thought and action and inhibit disturbing stimulus and impulsion and has certain evolutionary significance. This study analyzed the neural correlates of inhibition modulated by self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was assessed by using the survey adapted from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Fifty college students divided into low and high self-efficacy groups participated in the experiments. Their ability to conduct inhibitory control was studied through Go/No-Go tasks. During the tasks, we recorded students’ brain activity, focusing on N2 and P3 components in the event-related potential (ERP). Larger No-Go N2 amplitudes for the high self-efficacy group were found compared with the low self-efficacy group. Conflict detection as represented by N2 was modulated by self-efficacy, whereas conflict inhibition as represented by P3 was not modulated by self-efficacy. The highly self-efficacious students were more capable of detecting conflicts but not necessarily more capable of inhibiting action given that conflict was detected. Taken together, these findings offer neurophysiological evidence of the important regulatory role of self-efficacy in inhibitory control ability development.
... Career motivation is a multidimensional construction consisting of elements such as career resilience, career insight, and career identity, and it determines the direction and strength of educational behavior [33,34]. An individual with higher motivation for a particular task or field displayed a higher effort level, persistency, and interest compared to others, and this disparity only grew wider when the individual faced difficulties concerning that matter [35]. ...
Article
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This study aims to explore the relationship between the preparedness, self-efficacy, career motivation, and job satisfaction of Korean teachers with the 2018 data of TALIS (Teaching and Learning International Survey). For this purpose, 1266 Korean middle school teachers were selected, and an analysis of mediating effects was executed by utilizing structural equation modeling and phantom variables. The results are as follows: teacher preparedness had a significant and positive effect on teacher self-efficacy and career motivation. However, it failed to show a significant effect on teacher job satisfaction, which was instead significantly and positively affected by teacher self-efficacy and career motivation. In addition, based on the analysis of the estimate of mediating effects, it was discovered that teacher career motivation had a greater positive effect than that teacher self-efficacy on teacher job satisfaction. Taking these results into consideration, this study accordingly makes suggestions concerning the improvement of sustainable teacher job satisfaction, self-efficacy and career motivation inside teacher education courses. Furthermore, this study will propose measures such as further valuing the Teaching Personality and Aptitude Test and strengthening in-depth interviews in student teacher selection, extending teaching experiences through simulated instruction and peer supervision as well as providing well-organized teaching professional counseling opportunities for student teachers.
... Motivation, generally speaking, impacts the direction, strength, and persistence of human behavior (Pintrich, 2003). As it relates to physical activity, motivation has been shown to predict performance ...
Article
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This study aimed to provide a quantitative synthesis of the effect of Self-determination theory (SDT) based instructional interventions on the motivational regulations of participants in organized physical activity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on experimental studies conducted before December 2021. The search using the online databases PsychINFO, PsychARTICLES, ERIC, SportDISCUS, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and Google Scholar and other supplementary search strategies yielded 7774 articles, with 38 articles (142 effects and 12,457 participants) meeting the inclusion criteria. The articles were analyzed using a meta-analytic multivariate model. The study showed that SDT-based instruction had a positive heterogeneous small effect on intrinsic motivation (g = 0.29; CI 95% [0.17, 0.41]) and identified regulation (g = 0.23; CI 95% [0.10, 0.35]) and a negative heterogeneous, small effect on external regulation (g = −0.16; CI 95% [-0.31, −0.00]) and amotivation (g = −0.14; CI 95% [-0.28, −0.01]). SDT-based instruction did not have an effect on integrated regulation (g = 0.08; CI 95% [-0.11, 0.28]) nor introjected regulation (g = 0.03; CI 95% [-0.7, 0.13]). Univariate categorical moderator analyses highlighted multiple variables that impacted the size of the effects on the outcomes, including type of intervention and control group, length of study, age of participants, and study quality. Findings from the moderator analyses challenge the practical implications of SDT-based instructional interventions in improving motivation in organized physical activity. High-quality experimental trials using careful and precise conceptualizations of need-supportive behaviors and strategies would benefit the discipline.
... The learning environments are surrounding students in the classroom, such as the curriculum, instructor instruction, and student interaction, influence students' motivation in the learning process (Rosdiana et al., 2020). Furthermore, Pintrich (2003) and Urdan and Schoenfelder (2006) asserted that facilities, classroom environments, and schools support students' motivation to learn. In other words, classrooms and schools with more amenities and effective teaching strategies improve students' learning outcomes and motivate them to learn science. ...
Article
Research indicates that faculty members struggle with compromised subjective well-being (SWB). Although motivation is considered central to SWB, little research has investigated this connection in faculty using comprehensive, multifaceted frameworks. To address this, the present study took an achievement goal approach to examining multifaceted SWB (positive and negative emotions, career and life satisfaction) in 1,335 faculty members from Germany, the USA, and India. Structural equation modelling revealed that, invariant across countries and institutions, achievement goals were meaningfully and differentially associated with SWB. Mastery (task) approach goals were particularly conducive to SWB, while work avoidance goals were detrimental. Moreover, mixed results emerged for performance and relational goals. These findings highlight the centrality of goals for understanding and supporting faculty development.
Article
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The educational implications of COVID-19 have shaken both practitioners and researchers alike. Practitioners were expected to use technologies instantaneously, and this set up trauma in individuals. The ramification of understanding people’s response to why technologies are accepted/not accepted and used/not used has significant implications for education. This conceptual paper sets out the process used to develop a theoretical framework based on the technology acceptance model (TAM). The constructs within the original TAM and extended TAM, were explored to understand “why” practicing teachers would choose to use technologies for educational purposes at primary and secondary school levels during the COVID-19 pandemic period. The TAM has been criticized for being simplistic and narrowly focused. Many researchers criticize TAM because their finding cannot be confirmed or that the constructs don’t fit their needs. This paper challenges these critiques. The theoretical framework suggested in this paper represents a view of reality of the relational and influencing effects of variables that potentially moderate or control affective and cognitive responses. It contributes to the existing literature through a comprehensive reviewing of concepts, constructs and COVID-19 “event” contextual realities. The findings offered are that: contextual realities and application often require a grounded theoretical framework to unravel complex questions and answers; the suggested unidirectional influence of perceived ease of use (PEOU) on perceived usefulness (PU) can be challenged through a dispositional rationale; neglecting non-use as a reality severely hampers TAMs applicability in studies focused on theory testing, and TAM provides sufficient flexibility by leaving the doors open for adaptation, and this flexibility is an asset in social science research.
Article
Since the COVID‐19 pandemic prompted numerous global changes, educational institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina were forced to adapt their educational approaches, with schools and universities implementing alternative teaching and learning practices. Thus, this study aimed to investigate students' perspectives on the digital transformation of higher education in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including their preferences for hybrid, online, or face‐to‐face teaching models, their internet habits and readiness for e‐learning, their attitudes and satisfaction with online learning, and their computer anxiety. The research sample consisted of 330 students studying in a variety of fields and academic years at both public and private universities. The data was gathered via an online questionnaire. A multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed a significant effect of students' field of study, year of study, and university status on their preferences for hybrid, online, and face‐to‐face classes. However, the MANOVA test revealed that the aforementioned factors have an insignificant effect on students' internet habits and readiness for e‐learning, attitudes and satisfaction with online learning, and computer anxiety, all of which have an insignificant impact on student's academic achievement as determined by standard multiple regression analyses. Additionally, multivariate analysis revealed that students' preferences for hybrid, online, and face‐to‐face classes have a significant influence on their internet habits and readiness for e‐learning, attitudes, and satisfaction with online learning, and computer anxiety. The findings of this study may aid in a better understanding of tertiary education's digital transformation and the improvement of educational policy, curricula, and instructional and learning strategies.
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This presentation explores motivation as it is related to teaching and to the workplace. As Yoshida et al., suggest, motivation is related to a variety of educational outcomes which include curiosity, persistence, motivation and performance (2008, p. 1401). As such it is an internal state that may be effected by external factors which in turn “arouse, direct and sustain behaviour” (Tan, 2009, p. 156). Motivation is also related to calibration. As Hallinan states, “Calibration measures the difference between actual and perceived ability. If you’re as good as you think you are, then you are said to be well calibrated. If you are not as good as you think you are, then you are said to be poorly calibrated” (Hallinan, 2009, p. 155). Consequently in the educational enterprise (or in any learning task) it is preferable that the learner starts of in a well calibrated condition. This will entail a reasonably realistic view of their learning competencies and be less likely to result in demotivation from negative feedback should these learning competencies by too widely calibrated. Secondly, a well calibrated individual is more likely to respond to the conditions of optimal motivation that are possible in the learning situation of a self-determined learner. Related to calibration is the fact that students and employees can be motivated when they do not perceive contingencies or opportunistic incentives or barriers between actions and outcomes (Yoshida et al., 2008, p. 1401). Diminution of autonomy may lead to mal-adaptive consequences (Deci, 1996, p. 31). Whilst in everyday life it serves as justification for service and job performance, morally it is not in itself self-justificatory. In the teaching context, Gardner and Lambert (1972) describe motivation as persistence that is shown by teachers and learners in the learning environment towards achieving a learning goal. In both the teaching and business context a distinction can be made between intrinsic motivation (behaviour for its own sake) and extrinsic motivation (behaviour as a means to some external reward) (Bektas-Cetinkaya and Oruc, 2011, p. 72).
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During the past several decades, achievement goal theory has inspired much research into the direction, strength, and quality of individuals’ achievement strivings and of associated cognitive, emotional, and behavioral engagement. Through relentless debate and conceptual evolution, the theory has embraced many alternative perspectives and novel methodologies and remains as one of the most relevant theories of achievement motivation in the classroom. In this chapter, we first survey major developments in the definitions, models, and conceptualizations of achievement goals and unresolved issues that require continued attention. We then introduce several prominent trends in contemporary achievement goal research, followed by emerging questions for future achievement goal research. Despite its long-lasting contributions to the field of educational psychology, we believe achievement goal theory has now reached its critical juncture. The courses of development in the next few years may determine the theory’s longevity as a viable account of human motivation, especially for children and adolescents in achievement settings. We believe the theory can take yet another step forward to maximizing its educational implications by carefully streamlining the findings across different frameworks and taking stock of various recent debates.
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Self-regulated learning is an important predictor of students’ academic achievement, employability, and career progression. Cognitive, affective, metacognitive, and motivational processes play a crucial role in students’ ability to effectively monitor and regulate their learning while using advanced learning technologies (ALTs). This chapter focuses primarily on motivational and affective processes related to self-regulated learning with different types of ALTs such as serious games, intelligent tutoring systems, simulations and immersive technologies. While initial approaches to measuring students’ motivation and affect have been predominantly centered around self-reported instruments, recent advances in learning analytics and educational data mining show significant benefits in using multimodal data as they reveal the dynamics of learning processes as they unfold with ALTs. As such, our chapter focuses on the use of novel techniques aimed at detecting, tracking, modeling, and fostering students’ motivational and affective processes during learning, problem solving, and reasoning with various ALTs. We discuss implications for measuring motivational and affective processes using multimodal data for researchers, students, and educators by combining both objective and subjective methodologies.KeywordsSelf-regulated learningMotivationAffectLearning analyticsTrace data
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In order for the learning process to always retain personal value for the learner, it is necessary that his or her motivation be maintained through an awareness of his or her purpose and goals. This article presents a local model (at the individual object level) of enhancing external motivation, which give to determine students’ efforts to get rewards. The concept of this model based on describing the behavior of agents (in our case students). The characteristics of the phenomenon in the motivation of learning at different stages of adolescent development are analyzed. The problem of computer modeling of educational processes with the help of agent modeling on the example of studying student motivation is considered. Internal and external factors that may strengthen or weaken the adolescent’s motivation to study have been studied. The expediency of using information technologies of agent modeling to study the dynamics of strengthening or weakening student motivation is substantiated. Using the AnyLogic Cloud computing environment the change of dynamics of strengthening of motivation of teenagers on an example of model of strengthening of external motivation is defined.
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The present study aimed to explore the relationship between reading motivation, reading engagement, strategy use, and L2 reading proficiency and the predictability of the first three factors on L2 reading proficiency in a group of Iranian EFL learners. The participants were selected based on a nonrandom purposive sampling technique. They were asked to complete the MRQ, reading engagement questionnaire, the SILL, and an IELTS reading test. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software. The findings indicated that there existed a meaningful positive relationship between reading motivation and L2 reading proficiency as well as reading engagement and L2 reading proficiency. There did not exist a positive relationship between strategy use and L2 reading proficiency. The results also revealed that reading motivation and reading engagement predicted the L2 reading proficiency of the participants. Furthermore, a significant difference existed among the low, intermediate, and high-proficient L2 readers in terms of reading motivation and reading engagement. Implications of the study are presented in the article.
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این پژوهش به منظور بررسی اثرات مستقیم و غیر مستقیم مؤلفه ­های انگیزشی بر پیشرفت تحصیلی یادگیرندگان سیستم آموزش از دور انجام گرفت. جامعۀ آماری این پژوهش را دانشجویان ترم سوم و بالاتر دانشگاه پیام نور در نیمسال دوم سال تحصیلی 89 ـ 1388 تشکیل می‏داد که در سراسر کشور در مقاطع کارشناسی، کارشناسی ارشد و دکترا در رشته‏های مختلف مشغول تحصیل بودند. روش نمونه‏گیری از نوع خوشه­ای چند مرحله­ای بود. حجم نمونه بر اساس جدول کرجسی ـ مورگان، با در نظر گرفتن خطای 05/0 = α و خوشه­ای بودن روش نمونه­گیری برابر 476 نفر محاسبه شد که به ترتیب از دانشگاه­ پیام نور استان تهران، استان گیلان و استان اردبیل، 283 نفر معادل 59 درصد ، 118 نفر معادل 25 درصد و 75 نفر معادل 16 درصد انتخاب شدند. روش پژوهش از نوع مطالعات توصیفیـ همبستگی بود. برای جمع‏آوری داده­ها، بخشی از پرسشنامهْ راهبردهای انگیزش برای یادگیری (MSLQ) ساختۀ پینتریچ، اسمیت، گارسیا، و مک­کیچی مربوط به مقیاس انگیزش استفاده شد. پایایی پرسشنامه در این مطالعه با روش آلفای کرونباخ برابر 86/0 محاسبه شد. همچنین نتایج تحلیل عاملی تأییدی نشان داد که بارهای عاملی گویه­های پرسشنامه در تبیین مؤلفه­ها از نظر آماری معنادار هستند. یافته ­های پژوهش نشان داد که مدل پژوهش، 56 درصد واریانس پیشرفت تحصیلی را تبیین می‏کند. بالاترین ضریب مسیر بین خودکارامدی و جهت­گیری درونی هدف ( 96/0 = β، 5/14 = t، 01/0 < P)؛ پس از آن بین اضطراب امتحان و جهت‏گیری بیرونی هدف ( 78/0 = β، 3/8 = t، 01/0 < P) به دست آمد. اما ضریب مسیر محاسبه شده بین جهت­گیری بیرونی هدف و پیشرفت تحصیلی ( 02/0- = β، 41/0- = t، 05/0 > P) معنادار نبود.
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The original version of the book was inadvertently published with an incorrect line inthe Abstract in Chapter 9 (Ethics, EdTech, and the Rise of Contract Cheating). This has now been rectified and the line has been removed. The chapter and book have been updated with the changes. The updated
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Background Research suggests that students and teachers often tend to diverge in their perceptions of instructional practices that are part of their everyday classroom experience. This might include differing views about assessment and feedback, or the effectiveness of task design. Accordingly, there is a need to understand as much as possible about the reasons for such differences. Purpose Whilst it is important to investigate students’ and teachers’ views on the reasons for these differences, the present study aimed to contribute to the ‘why’ and ‘how’ behind student-teacher divergence in perception by specifically focusing on teachers’ perspectives. Method A total of 398 Austrian secondary school teachers responded to an open response question in an online survey. They were invited to reflect on the possible reasons for student–teacher divergence in terms of perceptions of instruction. The teachers’ statements written in response to the question were analysed, in detail, using qualitative content analysis. Data were grouped according to micro, meso and marcrolevel factors. Findings Analysis gave rise to a detailed categorisation of the reasons given by teachers, from their viewpoints, for student-teacher divergence in perception. The resultant categories and sub-categories revealed a wide range of explanations, including socio-demographic, motivational and emotional factors, and consideration of classroom features, and environmental factors. Conclusions As the themes that emerged were largely consistent with factors discussed in previous literature, the findings offer further in-depth insight into the possible underlying mechanisms, as well as highlighting some newly identified explanations, from teachers’ viewpoints, for student-teacher divergence in perception. The study generates some new ways to think about why teachers and students may have different perceptions of everyday instructional practices in the classroom, and draws attention to the significance of this complex area for all concerned with strengthening the quality of teaching and learning.
Article
The use of competition to motivate students is common but debated. The purpose of the study was: (a) to examine to whom teachers attribute the common emphasis on competition and (b) to explore the reasons teachers give to minimize competition or not in their classrooms. Teachers attribute the focus on competition least to teachers and then increasingly to students, principals, parents, and school boards. Teachers who try to minimize competition identify the importance of learning and individualization, and those who do not, promote competition as healthy and helpful. Results are discussed in terms of classroom practices and future research.
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C. Midgley et al. (2001) raised important questions about the effects of performance-approach goals. The present authors disagree with their characterization of the research findings and implications for theory. They discuss 3 reasons to revise goal theory: (a) the importance of separating approach from avoidance strivings, (b) the positive potential of performance-approach goals, and (c) identification of the ways performance-approach goals can combine with mastery goals to promote optimal motivation. The authors review theory and research to substantiate their claim that goal theory is in need of revision, and they endorse a multiple goal perspective. The revision of goal theory is underway and offers a more complex, but necessary, perspective on important issues of motivation, learning, and achievement.
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In this chapter a theory of motivation and emotion developed from an attributional perspective is presented. Before undertaking this central task, it might be beneficial to review the progression of the book. In Chapter 1 it was suggested that causal attributions have been prevalent throughout history and in disparate cultures. Studies reviewed in Chapter 2 revealed a large number of causal ascriptions within motivational domains, and different ascriptions in disparate domains. Yet some attributions, particularly ability and effort in the achievement area, dominate causal thinking. To compare and contrast causes such as ability and effort, their common denominators or shared properties were identified. Three causal dimensions, examined in Chapter 3, are locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal properties. As documented in Chapter 4, the perceived stability of a cause influences the subjective probability of success following a previous success or failure; causes perceived as enduring increase the certainty that the prior outcome will be repeated in the future. And all the causal dimensions, as well as the outcome of an activity and specific causes, influence the emotions experienced after attainment or nonattainment of a goal. The affects linked to causal dimensions include pride (with locus), hopelessness and resignation (with stability), and anger, gratitude, guilt, pity, and shame (with controllability).
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Currently, there is a debate about which types of achievement goals promote optimal motivation. A number of theorists argue for a mastery goal perspective focusing on the adaptive consequences of mastery goals and the maladaptive consequences of performance goals. Others endorse a multiple goal perspective in which both mastery and performance goals can be beneficial. The purpose of the present investigation was to review why this debate has emerged and to offer a comprehensive test of the mastery vs. multiple goal perspectives. In Study 1, a correlational approach was employed to identify the optimal goals for college participants to adopt for a learning activity. In Study 2, an experimental approach was employed to identify the optimal goals to assign for the same activity. Each study revealed benefits of both mastery and performance goals, providing support for the multiple goal perspective.
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In an attempt to rescue the self from the ravages of postmodern analysis, M. Brewster Smith (1994) called into action traditional investments in science and moral vision. However, not only are the grounds for these investments found wanting, they themselves harbor threats to human well-being. Furthermore, by understanding the postmodern conception of language as relational, a certain place can be made for both empirical research and moral deliberation. At the same time, postmodern thought opens new vistas for psychology and new horizons for the self.
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The types of goals that students adopt in educational settings and the consequences of those goals on 2 important educational outcomes - performance and intrinsic motivation - are discussed. In the case of performance, we briefly review and evaluate a large body of theory and research conducted by other investigators. In particular, we consider the possibility that some commonly accepted conclusions about the effects of achievement goals are premature. In the case of intrinsic motivation, we describe a theoretical model that has guided our own work on this topic and provide some recent experimental results. We believe that this model and our experimental results can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of goals and optimal motivation. Finally, we return to the college classroom environment and examine the consequences of goals for both performance and intrinsic motivation, offering a broader analysis of success in college courses.
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terpret results, but they all share an un- derlying faith in the scientific method. According to this view, disciplines as di- verse as physics and history are joined by their shared faith in using objective data to make an argument. In contrast, artists and writers use non-scientific methods to explore some of the same issues that educational re- searchers may wish to explore, and they do it in ways that can be both illu- minating and satisfying. Does this mean that a well-written novel or an artisti- cally produced film should count as educational research? In my opinion— and it is clear that this debate is mainly about opinions—the answer is no. Artistic endeavors are qualitatively dif- ferent from scientific ones and it is a difference to be respected. Reason 2: To maintain the reputation of
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Article
Current theories of motivation provide insightful discussions of why people behave as they do. In addition, the research studies surrounding these theories provide insights that can help people move toward the goals of greater competence, autonomy, and relatedness. However, these theories cannot lead to realization of what is widely considered the most fundamental goal of humanity: underlying contentment. In this article, a Zen Buddhist perspective is presented that illuminates some problematic aspects of current theories of motivation. The article also presents the way in which Zen Buddhism avoids these problems and points toward contentment (whether linked to Buddhist doctrine or not). The article closes with educational implications of a Zen Buddhist perspective.
Article
We continue the discussion of cognitive and situative perspectives by identifying several important points on which we judge the perspectives to be in agreement: (a) Individual and social perspectives on activity are both fundamentally important in education; (b) Learning can be general, and abstractions can be efficacious, but they sometimes aren’t; (c) Situative and cognitive approaches can cast light on different aspects of the educational process, and both should be pursued vigorously; (d) Educational innovations should be informed by the available scientific knowledge base and should be evaluated and analyzed with rigorous research methods.
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Sixty-six studies were reviewed that met several a priori criteria. Specifically, the studies had to be empirical investigations that related to a particular academic domain and that involved connected discourse presented either in traditional written form or on computer. In addition, the studies had to incorporate some measure of both knowledge and interest. The resulting body of literature was first summarized and analyzed in terms of the domains chosen, the subjects selected, the nature of the texts used, the manner in which knowledge and interest were assessed, and the principal outcomes reported. Next, from this analysis, six premises were proposed as guides for future research and practice. Finally, concluding remarks were advanced that address the overall significance of text-processing research that interactively considers the domain of knowledge and the interest of the reader.
Article
It is argued that interest is central in determining how we select and persist in processing certain types of information in preference to others. Evidence that shows that both individual and text-based interest have a profound facilitative effect on cognitive functioning and learning is reviewed. Factors that contribute to text-based interest are discussed, and it is suggested that interest elicits spontaneous, rather than conscious, selective allocation of attention. It is further proposed that the psychological and physiological processes associated with interesting information have unique aspects not present in processing information without such interest. Current advances in neuro-cognitive research show promise that we will gain further knowledge of the impact of interest on cognitive functioning and that we will finally be in a position to integrate the physiological and psychological aspects of interest.
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This article reviews research on the effects of reinforcement/reward on intrinsic motivation. The main meta-analysis included 96 experimental studies that used between-groups designs to compare rewarded subjects to nonrewarded controls on four measures of intrinsic motivation. Results indicate that, overall, reward does not decrease intrinsic motivation. When interaction effects are examined, findings show that verbal praise produces an increase in intrinsic motivation. The only negative effect appears when expected tangible rewards are given to individuals simply for doing a task. Under this condition, there is a minimal negative effect on intrinsic motivation as measured by time spent on task following the removal of reward. A second analysis was conducted on five studies that used within-subject designs to evaluate the effects of reinforcement on intrinsic motivation; results suggest that reinforcement does not harm an individual’s intrinsic motivation.
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Social-motivational processes and socialization experiences can play a critical role in students' academic success. However, the search for specific mechanisms and processes that explain these social influences on motivation is still in its inception. The purpose of this article was to begin to articulate some of these processes in the hope that more precise explanations of influence will emerge. The Ist section of the article focuses on ways in which social-motivational processes are relevant for understanding motivation to achieve academically, using goal pursuit as a case in point. Models describing complementary, developmental, and hierarchical relations among social and task-related goals and their implications for understanding student achievement are presented. Then, ways in which students' social encounters and experiences with parents, teachers, and peers might influence their adoption and internalization of socially valued goals are examined. New directions for theoretical and empirical inquiry are presented.
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The effects of goal setting and self-monitoring during self-regulated practice on the acquisition of a complex motoric skill were studied with 90 high school girls. It was hypothesized that girls who shifted goals developmentally from process to outcome goals would surpass classmates who adhered to only process goals who, in turn, would exceed classmates who used only outcome goals in posttest dart-throwing skill, self-reactions, self-efficacy perceptions, and intrinsic interest in the game. Support for all hypotheses derived from the developmental model was found. The girls' self-reactions to dart-throwing outcomes and self-efficacy perceptions about dart skill were highly correlated with their intrinsic interest in the game. It was also found that self-recording, a formal form of self-monitoring, enhanced dart-throwing skill, self-efficacy, and self-reaction beliefs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Close to 140 studies comprising an African-American empirical literature on motivation were reviewed. The review was organized around five topics subsumed under three broader assumptions about the relationship between ethnic minority status and motivation. First, research on the achievement motive was reviewed to examine the belief that African Americans lack certain personality traits deemed necessary for achievement strivings. Second, the empirical literatures on locus of control and causal attributions were summarized to investigate the assumption that African Americans are less likely to believe in internal or personal control of outcomes, the belief system that theoretically should accompany high achievement-related behavior. And third, research on expectancy of success and self-concept of ability was reviewed to examine the hypothesis that African Americans have negative self-views about their competence. None of these assumptions was supported in the review. In fact, African Americans appear to mai...
Article
This article suggests directions for future research on goal theory. It points out areas in which attention to definition of constructs and to problems in classroom implementation would strengthen the field. In addition, suggestions for use of different sampling techniques and designs and introduction of qualitative methods are discussed. Possible contributions of constructivist views of learning to goal theory are considered. Finally, investigation of the ways in which social goals interact with mastery and performance goals to influence strategy use is proposed.
Article
What was noted by E. J. Langer (1978) remains true today; that much of contemporary psychological research is based on the assumption that people are consciously and systematically processing incoming information in order to construe and interpret their world and to plan and engage in courses of action. As did E. J. Langer, the authors question this assumption. First, they review evidence that the ability to exercise such conscious, intentional control is actually quite limited, so that most of moment-to-moment psychological life must occur through nonconscious means if it is to occur at all. The authors then describe the different possible mechanisms that produce automatic, environmental control over these various phenomena and review evidence establishing both the existence of these mechanisms as well as their consequences for judgments, emotions, and behavior. Three major forms of automatic self-regulation are identified: an automatic effect of perception on action, automatic goal pursuit, and a continual automatic evaluation of one's experience. From the accumulating evidence, the authors conclude that these various nonconscious mental systems perform the lion's share of the self-regulatory burden, beneficently keeping the individual grounded in his or her current environment.
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Extracts available on Google Books (see link below). For integral text, go to publisher's website : http://www.elsevierdirect.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780121098902
Chapter
This chapter reviews the research on the development of children's competence-expectancy beliefs and achievement values. The research is based on an expectancy-value model of achievement motivation and behavior developed by Eccles and her colleagues. Expectancy-value theory has been one of the most important views on the nature of achievement motivation. To characterize the theory very broadly, theorists adopting this perspective posit that individuals' expectancies for success and the value they have for succeeding are important determinants of their motivation to perform different achievement tasks, and their choices of which tasks to pursue. The chapter presents information on how competence-expectancy beliefs and values relate to each other over time. It also discusses relations of competence beliefs, achievement values, and achievement goals. Finally, it discusses how children's expectancies and values relate to their achievement behaviors and activity choices. The work presented in the chapter is related to recent work on the self-regulation of behavior and action control, discussing the roles that expectancies and values may play in the regulation of behavior.
Article
Currently well-developed lines of theory and research on motivation in education focus on its expectancy aspects, especially as they apply in achievement situations that call for striving to attain specific goals. This article considers concepts and principles that might be included in a model that addresses the value/interest/appreciation aspects of motivated learning, including learning in exploratory situations that do not require focused achievement striving. Featured concepts and principles include an optimal match between the learning opportunity and the learner's prior knowledge and experiences, learner identification with or perception of self-relevance of the learning domain, curricular choices that feature content and activities that lie within both the cognitive and the motivational zones of proximal development, and teacher scaffolding of learners' exposure to the domain in ways that build motivational schemas that enable learners to appreciate the domain's value and experience its satisfactions.
Chapter
Starting from Aristotle’s psychological theories as interpreted by the immensely influential Arab thinkers, Avicenna and Averroes, the scholastics of the high middle ages developed a program for understanding cognition in ways that, I believe, are philosophically interesting. But the whole topic is an area in the history of philosophy and science that languishes for lack of attention by scholars who are sufficiently sensitive to the significance of the problems the scholastics faced. The present mentalist turn in cognitive science, however, may help to awaken an interest in this side of scholastic philosophy. Both programs, the current computational mentalism and the scholastic, are very much concerned with mental representation and think more deeply about this subject than other approaches to cognition in Western philosophy and psychology. Of course, this concern with representations is embedded within two very different programs, and it will be part of my purpose here to state their differences explicitly. But in addition I shall try to delimit the area of common concerns.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
The calibration and self-regulated learning literatures were reviewed. Calibration is a measure of how accurately individuals assess their confidence in their own knowledge. Self-regulated learning is a process of developing goals, using strategies, and monitoring performance in order to complete tasks. Individual characteristics, self-testing, and feedback are common components of both calibration and self-regulated learning; however, the specific aspects of these components often differ. Different levels of calibration might suggest different applications of self-regulated learning or different phases in task completion or learning. Certain types of self-regulation might impact calibration. These reciprocal effects between calibration and self-regulation are unclear and should be evaluated. Determining whether self-regulated learners can and should become well calibrated also is an important instructional design issue. Suggestions for research are presented.
Article
Perceived control of events is one motivational variable that appears to affect children’s academic achievement. In this review the conceptualization and measurement of the control dimension is discussed from three theoretical perspectives: social learning theory, attribution theory, and intrinsic motivation theories. For each of these three perspectives evidence on the relationship between achievement and perceptions of control is summarized, and possible explanations for the relationship are discussed. Throughout this review similarities and differences among these orientations are pointed out. Specific recommendations are made for research which will advance our understanding of this relationship and which will provide the most useful information to educators.