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The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Black, Yellow and Red Maca) during seven estrous cycles in rats. Adult female rats (n=8 per group) were treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of each maca variety (1 g/kg) during 28 days. The duration of each phase of the estrous cycle and body weight was determined. Animals were sacrificed in first estrous phase after seven estrous cycles and the number of ova from oviduct, wet uterine and body weight and estradiol levels were recorded. Total polyphenols content found in black, yellow and red maca freeze-dried was 0.56, 0.57 and 0.58 g/100g of lyophilized respectively. The maca varieties did not affect any phase of estrous cycle, number of ova recovered within oviduct, serum estradiol levels, wet uterine and body weights as compared with control group (vehicle). Three varieties of maca did not present effects on the regulation of the number of ova released at ovulation in adult intact female rats.
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Volume 5, Issue 1 2008 Article 15
Journal of Complementary and
Integrative Medicine
Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Varieties Did Not
Alter Female Reproductive Parameters in
Adult Intact Rats
Manuel Gasco, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
Sandra Yucra, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
Julio Rubio, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
Gustavo F Gonzales, Universidad Peruana Cayetano
Heredia
Recommended Citation:
Gasco, Manuel; Yucra, Sandra; Rubio, Julio; and Gonzales, Gustavo F (2008) "Lepidium
meyenii (Maca) Varieties Did Not Alter Female Reproductive Parameters in Adult Intact Rats,"
Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine: Vol. 5: Iss. 1, Article 15.
DOI: 10.2202/1553-3840.1121
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Lepidium meyenii (Maca) Varieties Did Not
Alter Female Reproductive Parameters in
Adult Intact Rats
Manuel Gasco, Sandra Yucra, Julio Rubio, and Gustavo F Gonzales
Abstract
The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different varieties of Lepidium
meyenii (Black, Yellow and Red Maca) during seven estrous cycles in rats. Adult female rats (n=8
per group) were treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of each maca variety (1 g/kg) during 28
days. The duration of each phase of the estrous cycle and body weight was determined. Animals
were sacrificed in first estrous phase after seven estrous cycles and the number of ova from
oviduct, wet uterine and body weight and estradiol levels were recorded. Total polyphenols
content found in black, yellow and red maca freeze-dried was 0.56, 0.57 and 0.58 g/100g of
lyophilized respectively. The maca varieties did not affect any phase of estrous cycle, number of
ova recovered within oviduct, serum estradiol levels, wet uterine and body weights as compared
with control group (vehicle). Three varieties of maca did not present effects on the regulation of
the number of ova released at ovulation in adult intact female rats.
KEYWORDS: Lepidium meyenii, estrous cycle, oocytes, uterine wet weight, body weight, serum
estradiol levels, estrous phase, female rats
Author Notes: This study was financially supported by a grant from International Foundation for
Science (F/3895-1).
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Introduction
Lepidium meyenii (Maca) grows exclusively in the Peruvian Andes over 4000
m altitude. It has been used traditionally as a nutrient and to increase fertility.
Although yellow maca is most popular and preferable for natives, the plant is
observed in several varieties characterized by different colours of the
hypocotyls (Valerio and Gonzales, 2005). Previous scientific studies have
demonstrated that maca improves spermatogenesis in rats (Gonzales et al,
2001, 2003, 2004, 2006; Chung, 2005; Gonzales et al, 2006), mice (Bustos-
Obregon, 2005) and humans (Gonzales et al 2001).
Studies related to the effect of maca in female reproduction are scarce
(Chacon, 1961; Oshima, et al, 2003; Ruiz-Luna et al, 2005). Chacon (Chacon,
1961) described that treatment with maca in female rats resulted in a high
number of oocytes released to oviduct. However the study design has been
criticized due to the small number of animals. Up to date there is not any
scientific study designed to demonstrate the effect of maca on reproductive
parameters in non pregnant adult female rats.
The present study aims to investigate the effects of three different varieties
of maca (red, yellow and black maca) on estrous cycle, number of oocytes
recovered from the oviduct, and wet uterine and body weights. In addition,
serum estradiol level was measured at the end of each treatment (7 estrous
cycles).
Material and Methods
Animals
Three-month-old Holtzman female rats were used. Rats were housed 4 per
cage and maintained at 22°C with a 12:12 light/dark cycle. Rats w ere provi ded
with Purina laboratory chow and tap water ad libitum. The animals were
treated according to the standards of the National Institute of Health for the
care and use of laboratory animals (National Research Council, 1996). The
I n s t i t u t i o n a l R e v i e w B o a r d o f t h e S c i e n t i f i c R e s e a r c h O f f i c e f r o m t h e
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia approved the study (SIDISI-UPCH:
50682).
Experimental prot ocol
Rats received freeze-dried extracts of Black maca (BM), Yellow maca (YM)
and Red maca (RM), in a single daily dose of 1 g of dried hypocot yls/Kg body
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weight suspended in 2 ml of water. An additional group received 2 ml of
vehicle (distilled water). Each group of treatment included 8 animals. Black
maca, YM, RM or vehicle were administered orally from day 1 to day 28 (7
estrous cycles ) usin g an intubation needle No 18 (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania). Rats were treated with maca or vehicle for 28 days because
previous studies demonstrated that after 28 days of maca treatment increased
litter size in pregnant female mice (Ruiz-Luna et al., 2005). The phases of the
estrous cycle were determined by daily vaginal smears,
and all females were
used after they had shown at least two
regular 4-day cycles. The estrus
was
designed as D1, metaestrus and diestrus designed as D2 and proestrus phase as
D3.
At the end of each treatment (at D1 of the next estrous cycle), blood
was collected by cardiac puncture. Rats were sacrificed by excess of ether
inhalation. Uterus was carefully dissected out, cleaned of the adhering
connective tissues and accurately weighed. Also, body weight was recorded at
the end of each treatment.
Preparation of aqu eous extract of the varieti es of Maca
Hypocotyls of Lepidium meyenii, which is cultivated by farmers, were
obtained from Carhuamayo at 4000 m altitude in Junin (Central Andes of
Peru). The plant was authenticated by Irma Fernandez, Botanist from the
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universidad Peruana Cayetano
Heredia. The hypocotyls correspond to the BM, YM, RM varieties. The
vouchers for black maca (IFV 2374), yellow maca (IFV 1885) and red maca
(IFV 2378) were deposited at the Department.
An aqueous extract of the hypocotyls was prepared for each variety. In
brief, 100 g of the dried pulverized hypocotyls were placed in a container with
600 ml of water, and boiled for 60 minutes. Each preparation was left standing
to cool, filtered, and freeze-dried. One gram of dried hypocotyls of BM, YM
and RM produced, 0.56, 0.36 and 0.40 grams of freeze-dried aqueous extract,
respectively. The freeze-dried maca extracts were further diluted to obtain a
dose equivalent to 1g raw material/Kg BW in 2ml of vehicle. These solutions
were placed in small vials and kept in 4° C refrigerator until use.
Assessment of the number of oocytes recovered from the oviduct
Animals were sacrificed at D1 of estrous cycle, post treatment with each of the
three varieties of maca or vehicle. The genital tract was removed and oviducts
were flushed separately with a needle (26G x ½ inch) containing saline (1 ml).
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The flushings were examined under low-power magnification. The number of
oocytes in the oviduct was recorded.
Ho rmone assays
After blood collection, serum was obtained by centrifugation at 3000rpm for
10 minutes. Serum estradiol concentrations of rats treated for 28 days with
vehicle, or yellow maca were measured by radioimmunoassay using
commercial kits (Diagnostic Products Co, Los Angeles, USA). The hormone
labeled with iodine-125 was used as radioactive marker. Samples were run in
the same assay to avoid inter-assay variation. The intra-assay variation was
6.42% for estradiol. The minimum estradiol detection level was 0.9pg/ml.
Total Polyphenol Assay
Sample: 50 mg of dry extract was suspended in 30 ml of water, heated on a
water-bath for 30 minutes at 50o C, cooled under running water and transferred
quantitatively to a 100 ml volumetric flask and diluted to 50 ml with water.
After solid material had settled out of the solution the liquid was filtered
through an Ashless filter paper (ALBET ®, DP150 125, Lot: 2164/54/73). The
first 10 ml of the filtrate was discarded. This is a procedure routinely
performed to allow a more homogeneous and clean sample.
The next 5 ml of the filtrate was diluted to 25 ml with water (sample).
Then, 1 ml of this solution was mixed with 0.5 ml of Folin Ciocalteu phenol
reagent and shook for 5 min, after which 4 ml of a 7.5% sodium carbonate
solution was added. Following mixing, the solution was incubated in the dark
for 5 min at 50 0C. After incubation the absorbance was measured at 760 nm
using a spectrophotometer.
Standard: 50 mg of pyrogallol was dissolved in water and diluted to
100 ml with the same solvent. 5 ml of this solution was diluted to 100 ml with
water (standard solution).
One ml of the sample or standard solution was mixed with 0.5 ml of
Folin Ci ocalt eu rea gent an d 4 ml 7.5% w/ v of so di um car b onate. T hen, it was
incubated in the dark for 5 min at 50 0C. Absorbance was read, at 760 nm (A1
or
A3), using water as a blank. The equation was used to calculate the
percentage content of polyphenols expressed as pyrogallol:
12.5 ( A1) m2
A3 x m
1
m 1=Mass of the sample that was analyzed, in grams
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m 2= Mass of pyrogallol, in grams
A1 = Total polyphenols absorbance
A3 = Standard absorbance
Statistical analysis
Data were analyzed using the statistical package STATA (version 8.0) for
personal computer (Stata Corporation, 702 University Drive East, College Station,
TX, USA). Data are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM).
Homogeneity of variances was assessed by the Bartlett test. If variances were
homogeneous, differences between groups were assessed by two-way analysis of
v a r i a n ce ( A N O V A ) t e s t . D i f fe r e n c e s b e t w e e n p a i r o f m e a n s w e r e a s s e s s e d b y t h e
Schef test. When variance was not homogeneous a non-parametric analysis was
performed. A value of P< 0 . 0 5 w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .
Results
Estrous Cycle
The phases of estrous cycle were similar between groups; treatment with three
different varieties (BM, YM or RM) did no alter D1, D2 and D3 during the
twenty-eight days of treatment with maca (Table 1).
Table 1. Effect of three different varieties of Lepidium meyenii on the duration of
the phases of the estrous cycle in intact Holtzman female rats.
Treatment Dose
(g/kg)
No. of da ys in estrus
(D1)
No. of da ys in
diestrus (D2)
No. of da ys in
proestrus (D3)
Control - 7.43±0.28 15.81±0.34 6.57±0.33
Black Maca 1 6.89±0.20 15.89±0.51 5.78±0.43
Yellow Maca 1 6.20±0.73 17.40±0.45 6.00±0.56
Red Maca 1 8.08±0.47 15.92±0.53 6.00±0.39
Values are mean±SEM. n=8 in each group.
P>0.05 respect to control.
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Body Weight
According to records all animals showed increase in body weight after 28 days
of treatment (7 estrous cycles) with vehicle (control) or each variety of maca.
Mean weight gain was 19.95 g in all groups and there were no differences
between groups. Final body weights were not different in rats treated with
maca (RM, YM or BM) or vehicle (Table 2).
Table 2. Effect of three different varieties of Lepidium meyenii on body
weightg in intact Holtzman female rats
Treatment Dose
(g/kg)
I n i t i a l w e i g h t
(IW)
Final w eight
(FW)
I n c r e a s e i n b o d y
weight
Control - 254±4 277±5 24±3
Bla ck M ac a 1 251±6 270±9 19±4
Yellow Maca 1 250±4 267±5 19±2
Red Maca 1 248±3 266±3 18±2
Values are mean±SEM. n=8 in each group.
P>0.05 respect to control.
Number of oocytes
Regarding to the mean number of oocytes recovered from the oviducts in D1
of estrous cycle, no differences between RM, YM, BM and control group were
observed(P>0.05) (Figure 1).
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Gasco et al.: Lepidium meyenii (Maca): Not Alter Female Reproductive Parameters
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F i g u r e 1 . Effect of three varieties of maca (Black Maca, Yellow Maca and
Red Maca) on number of oocytes recovered from rat oviduct on Day 1 (D1) of
estrous cycle. The number of animals was 8 per group. Data are Mean ± SEM.
There were no significant differences between groups (P>0.05)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Co n t r ol Black Maca Yellow Maca R e d M a c a
N u m b e r o f o v a p e r g r o u p
Ut erine wet weight
After 28 days of treatment, all variety of Lepidium meyenii (BM, YM or RM)
did not modify uterine wet weight as compared with control group (P>0.05)
(Figure 2).
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F i g u r e 2 . Effect of three varieties of maca on uterine wet weight recovered at
Day 1 (D1) of estrous cycle. Control (vehicle) or Black Maca, Yellow Maca
and Red Maca (1 g/kg). The number of animals was 8 per group. Data are
Mean ± SEM. P>0.05 between different groups of treatment and controls.
20 0
21 5
23 0
24 5
26 0
27 5
29 0
C o n t r o l Black Maca Yellow Maca R e d M a c a
u t e r i n e w e t w e i g h t ( m g )
Serum estradiol levels
The rats were sacrificed at Day 1 (D1) of estrous cycle post treatment with
maca (yellow maca) or vehicle (control group). Treatment with yellow maca
did not affect estradiol levels when compared with control group (P>0.05)
(Figure 3).
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Gasco et al.: Lepidium meyenii (Maca): Not Alter Female Reproductive Parameters
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F i g u r e 3 . Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) on serum estradiol levels in
intact Holtzman female rats.
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
Control M a c a
p g / m l
Total Polyphenol Assay
Total polyphenols content found in black, yellow and red maca freeze-dried
extracts was 0.56, 0.57 and 0.58 g of pyro gallol/100g, respectivel y.
Di scussion
Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant in which hypocotyls have been
traditionally employed for its supposed fertility-improving properties since it
was described for the first time in the Century XVII by Bernabe Cobo, a
Chronicler of the Conquest of Peru (Valerio and Gonzales, 2005). Chacon in
her bachelor thesis in 1961 claimed that alkaloids from maca increased the
number of ovarian follicles, affected pituitary function and increased estrogen
levels (Chacon, 1961). The design of the study was based on observation of
histological pictures without any quantitative measurements. Also, in this
study animals were not controlled for day of the estrous cycle. Moreover,
neither pituitary function nor estrogen levels were assessed. The final
conclusion was that number of offsprings increased when maca was
administered. Others authors have demonstrated that after 28 da ys of treatment
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with maca increased litter size in pregnant female mice (Ruiz-Luna et al.,
2005).
The present study demonstrated that maca did not affect the number of
oocytes recovered from rat oviduct after 7 estrous cycles rejecting the
hypothesis from Chacon (1990) who suggested that maca increased the
number of follicles (Chacon, 1990). The data collected under the experiment
conditions (dose, duration of treatment, age and strain of animals, etc.) of the
present study also eliminated the possibility that alkaloids were active
principles responsible for increasing ovarian function. Moreover, our findings
demonstrated that serum estradiol levels were not affected by administration
of maca. Different factors may alter the estrous cycle like stress, light,
hormones and temperature (Consoli, 2005; Vinogradova, 2006). Maca
varieties did not modify any phase of estrous cycle during treatment; therefore,
we can suggest that maca did not exert stressor and hormonal effects in intact
female rats.
I n m a l e s , i t h a s b e e n o b s e r v e d t h a t b l a c k m a c a a n d y e l l o w m a c a
increase spermatid count in testis and epididymis sperm count (Gonzales,
2006). However, in the present study maca did not affect ovarian function in
female rats. Instead maca affected on the survival of embryos as demonstrated
previously by Ruiz-Luna et al (2005).
The roles of gonadotrophins on follicular growth and oocyte
maturation (Kurowicka et al, 2006; Mihn et al, 2006; Hillier, 2004) and
acceleration of oviductal transport of oocytes induced by estradiol in cycling
and mating rats (Shoham, 2002; Orihuela et al, 1999, 2001; Rios et al 1997)
have been widely studied. Data from the present study suggest that estrogen-
like activity is not present in the extracts of different varieties of maca. This is
confirmed by the failure to increase uterine weight after treatment with maca.
In conclusion, our results demonstrated that black maca, yellow maca
and red maca administer ed during seven estrous cycles (28 da ys) did not affect
the phases of estrous cycle, number oocytes recovered from the of oviduct,
uterine wet and body weight.
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... With maca powder, an increase in progesterone level in mice and rats was observed but no change in implantation rate in mice ( Oshima et al., 2003;Meissner et al., 2006a). There was also a significant increase in LH and FSH level but no change in pattern of LH surge ( Uchiyama et al., 2014) or oestrus cycles ( Gasco et al., 2008). Aqueous extract of red, yellow or black maca did not affect the number of oocytes, uterine weight ( Gasco et al., 2008) or implantation site, gestation length or sex ratio of pups ( Ruiz-Luna et al., 2005). ...
... There was also a significant increase in LH and FSH level but no change in pattern of LH surge ( Uchiyama et al., 2014) or oestrus cycles ( Gasco et al., 2008). Aqueous extract of red, yellow or black maca did not affect the number of oocytes, uterine weight ( Gasco et al., 2008) or implantation site, gestation length or sex ratio of pups ( Ruiz-Luna et al., 2005). However, maca-treated group had a larger litter size by day 4 post-birth ( Ruiz-Luna et al., 2005) and an improvement in preg-nancy rate with increased post-birth survival of pups was noted with methanol and pentane maca extract (Pino Figueroa and Maher, 2009). ...
... No difference in serum estradiol level in yellow maca treated group and control. Black Gasco et al., 2008 effect of methanol and pentane extract of maca on female rat fertility L. meyenii methanol and pentane extracts 6 female breeders rats per group 3mg/Kg BW of pentane extract, 30mg/Kg BW of crude extract 6 female breeders rats treated with vehicle only 21 days prior to mating Maca-treated animals had 79 pups and 100% pregnancy rates compared to 56 pups and 67% pregnancy rate with control. Mortality of pups at post-natal day 6 was 10.7% for control group and 7.6% and 2.5% for methanol and pentane maca extract-treated groups respectively. ...
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Maca - Lepidium meyenii Walp has been cultivated and used by Andean people for over 1,300 to 2000 years in Peru as food and medicine. Starting in the late 1990's it has developed into an important herbal medicine in China and is now cultivated there widely, too. Aim of study: This study aims to provide an insight into the emergence of maca on the global market as an alternative remedy to treat reproductive health related problems in both men and women and to critically assess these health claims. Methodology: A search of electronic databases such as EMBASE and a hand-search was done to acquire peer-reviewed articles and reports about maca. Results and discussion: Lepidium meyenii is used traditionally as a tonic, fertility enhancer for both humans and cattle, and to treat a variety of ailments such as rheumatism, respiratory disorders and anaemia among others. Maca root is cooked, baked, fermented as a drink and made into porridge. In the last twenty years, maca was introduced onto the global market and demand has dramatically grown over this time with its promotion on the internet, as the 'Peruvian Ginseng' for libido and fertility enhancement. It has also been said to treat menopausal symptoms, erectile dysfunction and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The sky-rocketing demand for the plant has seen a shift from traditional cultivation methods to mass production practices with the use of fertilisers and also pesticides; as maca is now grown in areas other than the Andes such as in the Yunnan province in China. This can potentially affect the phytochemistry and composition of the plant and thus, the quality, safety and efficacy of maca products. Meanwhile, research into maca's medicinal properties has followed the spike in popularity of maca and has been focused mainly on maca's aphrodisiac and fertility enhancing properties. So far, the in vivo studies and clinical trials conducted have yielded inconclusive results. Some of the key limitations reside in methodology and sample size. Chemical profiling, led to the discovery of new compounds unique to maca, such as, 'macamides' and also other active metabolites like the glucosinolates; to which the medicinal effects of maca have been ascribed but cannot be confirmed due to lack of data. Conclusions: To date, the health claims of maca cannot be fully supported from a scientific standpoint and more research is needed. It appears that the indigenous local knowledge about the health benefits of maca has been dragged out of context to fit the demands of a growing market for herbal remedies. This globalisation (or hype esp. in China) also has had serious consequences for the local producers in Peru. The lack of protocols to regulate the production and marketing of maca during this rapid expansion, poses a threat to both the safety of consumers and the sustainability of supply.
... Thus, it can be noted that oral administration of BMHE at level 400 mg kg −1 BW of doe day −1 seriously alleviated the drastic effects of HS on rabbit does and their litters. The positive effects of maca were similarly observed in mice [27], rats [52], and murine [53]. These positive effects may be due to maca's sterol bioactive components, such as campesterol (27.3%), ergosterol (13.6%), brassicasterol (9.1%), Δ7,22 -ergostadienol (4.5%), and sitosterol (45.5%), having phytoestrogen activity [54]. ...
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Rabbits are sensitive to heat stress (HS) in hot regions due to difficulty in eliminating excess body heat. We evaluated the ameliorating role of black maca hydroalcoholic extract (BMHE) against HS conditions on the productive and reproductive performance of V-line rabbit does. Rabbits were divided into four equal groups (T1–T4), each containing three replicates. T1 received commercial basal diet (BD) only, whereas T2–T4 received BD and 200, 400, and 600 mg BMHE kg−1 body weight (BW) of doe day−1, respectively, administered orally for 1 week before the mating process each month from May to August. HS significantly decreased the BW of rabbits after the weaning period, as well as litter size, and litter weights measured 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after the postnatal period. HS conditions also significantly decreased BW at slaughter as well as all carcass quality parameters. HS led to significantly impaired physiological responses, oxidative status, and reproductive efficiency in exposed rabbits. Orally administered 400 mg BMHE kg−1 BW of doe alleviated all these drastic effects in HS rabbits among all treatments. Thus, oral treatment of 400 mg BMHE kg−1 BW (T3) is a promising ameliorating agent against HS conditions in V-line rabbit does, especially in tropical or subtropical regions.
... Therewithal, in some studies conducted in rats, it was clarified that maca improved feed efficiency (Wan et al., 2018). In addition, it advanced fertility and sexual functions without changing hormone levels , it also increased the level of luteinising and follicle-stimulating hormones (Uchiyama et al., 2014) without affecting the oestrus cycle (Gasco et al., 2008). Besides, maca powder increased bone density (Meissner et al., 2006a), and it had effects of protective activity against bone resorption (Zhang et al., 2006;Gonzales et al., 2010) and balancing effect on hormone (Wang et al., 2009;Meissner et al., 2006a) and lipid (Barraza et al., 2015) levels. ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of maca powder supplementation (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 g/kg) in the diet on performance, carcass characteristics, serum biochemical constituents and hormone concentrations, bone biomechanical properties, and ileum histomorphology in growing Japanese quails. In this 42-day trial, a total of 480 mixed sex Japanese quail chicks, aged 1 day, were randomly distributed among six experimental groups. Each experimental group contained four replicates of 20 chicks each. The addition of 2.0 g/kg of maca powder to the diet significantly decreased body weight, body weight gain compared to the control group (P < 0.05). In addition, with the 1.5 g/kg level of maca powder, feed efficiency improved considerably (P < 0.05). The testis weight increased significantly with the addition of maca powder at 1.0 g/kg level to the diet, and testesteron concentration of serum in male quails was also increased significantly at 1.5 g/kg level of maca powder compared to control group (P < 0.05). The addition of 2.5 g/kg level of maca powder significantly reduced the cholesterol concentration of serum in male quails compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The administration of 2.0 g/kg level of maca powder to the diet caused a decrease in shear force (P < 0.05). The addition of maca powder to the diet significantly increased crypt depth and villus surface area at 0.5 g/kg level, villus width at 1.0 g/kg level, and villus height at 2.0 g/kg level in growing quails (P < 0.05). According to the results obtained from the present research, it can be said that the addition up to 2.0 g/kg maca powder to growing quail diets could improve feed efficiency, testesteron concentration of serum, and ileum properties.
... Also, Korkmaz et al. (2016) demonstrated that the evaluated parameters were not affected by the addition of maca powder to the diet in laying hens. Therewithal, in some studies conducted in rats, it was clari ed that maca improved feed e ciency (Wan et al., 2018), advanced fertility and sexual functions without changing hormone levels , also increased the level of luteinising and follicle-stimulating hormones (Uchiyama et al., 2014) without affecting the oestrus cycle (Gasco et al., 2008), increased bone density (Meissner et al., 2006a), and it had effects of protective activity against bone resorption (Zhang et al., 2006;Gonzales et al., 2010) and balancing effect on hormone (Wang et al., 2009;Meissner et al., 2006a) and lipid (Barraza et al., 2015) levels. ...
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This study research was carried out to determine the effects of the supplementation of maca powder at different levels to the diet on performance, carcass characteristics, serum biochemical constituents and hormone concentrations, bone biomechanical properties and ileum histomorphology in Japanese growing quails. In the study, a total of 480 day-old and mixed sex Japanese quail chicks were randomly distributed to six treatment groups with four subgroups. Experimental diets were formulated by adding 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 g/kg maca powder to the basal diet. At the end of the experiment, the body weight and body weight gain increased linearly with the addition of maca powder up to 1.0 g/kg to the diet, feed conversion ratio was also linearly affected and improved significantly at 1.5 g/kg compared to other groups. While the treatments did not affect the slaughtering parameters except for testis weight, testis weight improved linearly with addition of increased levels of maca powder. In female quails, albumin level of the serum decreased linearly with the addition of maca powder to the diet, while in males, triglyceride and cholesterol levels decreased linearly, and albumin, calcium, phosphorus levels were also affected quadratically.While serum hormone concentrations were not affected by the treatments in females, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising-hormone were quadratically affected in male quails, and testosterone concentrated linearly with increased levels of maca, and also reached the highest value at 2.5 g/kg. Shear force and shear stress were positively affected by the addition of maca powder up to 1.0 g/kg to the diet, while negatively affected by higher maca powder levels. Villus height, villus width, crypth depth, and villus surface area increased linearly with the administration of maca powder at increased levels to the diet, and the best result was obtained at the level of 2.0 g/kg in these parameters. According to the results obtained from the present research, it can be said that the addition up to 2.0 g/kg maca powder to growing quail diets could be improve performance, serum hormone concentrations, bone biomechanical traits, and ileum parameters.
... After confirming regular 4-day cyclicity for 2 weeks, the animals were selected for this study. The effect of AQ.HCl on the oestrous cycle was monitored for 28days (Gasco et al., 2008). ...
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This study investigated the effect of Amodiaquine hydrochloride (AQ.HCl) administered by gavage on the oestrous cycle, ovarian morphology and on the antioxidant status of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the ovary of 15 regular cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats. The experiment was divided into 3 groups as follows: group I-received 6 mg/kg bw AQ.HCl for 28 day; group II-received 12 mg/kg bw of AQ.HCl for 28 days; and group III-received distilled water and served as control. The animals were autopsied on the 28 th day by cervical dislocation. Result showed that the mean length of the oestrous cycle was prolonged in all the AQ.HCl treated rats when compared to the control. The increase in mean cycle length was statistically significant (p < 0.05) in the group that received 12 mg/kg bw of AQ.HCl. Histological sections of the ovaries of the rats treated with AQ.HCl revealed that the most remarkable change was widespread follicular atresia when compared to the control. The study revealed a reduction in the antioxidant status of SOD and CAT in the ovary. This reduction in anti-oxidant status was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for CAT. The result of this study showed that AQ.HCl is deleterious to the ovary by prolonging the length of the oestrous cycle, producing widespread follicular atresia and depletion of the enzymatic antioxidant status of SOD and CAT and consequently resulting in a state of oxidative stress in the ovary.
... La maca no afecta la tasa de implantación en ratonas (39,40) , ni genera mayor número de óvulos por ciclo (41) , ni afecta el desarrollo normal de los embriones preimplantacionales (42) . Sin embargo, las ratonas que recibieron extracto acuoso de maca presentaron un mayor número de crías que las del grupo control. ...
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La maca (Lepidium meyenii) es una planta que crece sobre los 4000 metros de altitud en los Andes Centrales del Perú, presenta diferentes variedades de acuerdo al color de su hipocótilo. La presente revisión resume los resultados de estudios sobre los efectos de la maca en la función sexual, la espermatogénesis, la función reproductiva femenina, la memoria, la depresión y la ansiedad, como energizante y contra la hiperplasia benigna de próstata, osteoporosis y síndrome metabólico. Se discute también su efecto antienvejecimiento y la seguridad en su consumo. Se han demostrado diferencias en el efecto de las variedades negra, amarilla y roja de maca. La maca negra es la que mejores resultados presenta sobre la espermatogénesis, la memoria y contra la fatiga, mientras que la maca roja es la variedad que mejor revierte la hiperplasia benigna de próstata y la osteoporosis inducida experimentalmente. Además, la maca reduce los niveles de glucosa, y su consumo se relaciona con la reducción de la presión arterial y un mejor puntaje de salud. Estudios experimentales han demostrado que el consumo a corto como a largo plazo no muestra toxicidad tanto in vivo como in vitro. A pesar que los estudios experimentales han demostrado que la maca presenta diversos efectos benéficos, son necesarios más estudios clínicos para confirmar estos resultados
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Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) has emerged as a popular functional plant food due to various claimed health effects. This review details the major (i.e., starch, dietary fiber, and protein) and minor constituents (i.e., minerals, non-starch polysaccharides, polyphenols (flavonolignans), macaenes, macamides, glucosinolates, and alkaloids) of maca (root and aerial parts). Diverse health effects of maca are also summarized. Various bioactivities of maca include enhanced reproductive health, antifatigue, antioxidation, neuroprotection, antimicrobial activity, anticancer, hepatoprotection, immunomodulation, and improving skin health and digestive system's function. Plant genetics, botanical parts, processing, extraction, and experimental protocols represent the major factors affecting the chemical composition, physicochemical attributes, and health effects of maca-based products. However, clinical studies to support the claimed health effects of maca and related mechanisms appear to be lacking. Product innovation and diversification in food and non-food utilization of different parts of maca to maximize the value perceptions are suggested.
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It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (una de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muna), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.
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In order to determine whether or not ovum transport acceleration induced by estradiol (E2) requires RNA and protein synthesis in the oviduct, inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis were injected locally in rats treated with E2. We also tested whether administration of oviductal RNA from E2-treated rats could mimic the effect of E2 on ovum transport. Rats on Day 2 of pregnancy were given a single s.c. injection of 10 microg E2 and an intraoviductal (i.o.) injection of actinomycin D, alpha-amanitin, or cycloheximide (Chx). In control groups, either the steroid or the inhibitor or both were replaced by the respective vehicle. RNA obtained from oviduct or ileum of E2-treated rats or from the oviduct of propylene glycol-treated rats was injected into the oviducts of recipient rats on Day 1 of pregnancy. Animals were autopsied 24 h later to determine the number and distribution of eggs in the genital tract. All three inhibitors partially blocked the E2-induced ovum transport acceleration, whereas administration of inhibitors alone did not affect oviductal egg recovery. Only oviductal RNA obtained from E2-treated rats decreased the number of oviductal eggs (active extract). To interpret this finding, the active extract was preincubated with RNase or DNase before i.o. administration. Other groups of recipient rats also treated with active extract were injected s.c. with Chx, or their uterine horns were ligated to disclose the fate of the missing oviductal eggs. Active extract treated with RNase did not decrease the number of oviductal eggs; Chx blocked the effect of the active extract; and eggs missing from the oviduct were partially recovered in the uteri of ligated recipient rats. It is concluded that protein synthesis in the oviduct is required for the full effect of E2 on ovum transport and that one or more RNA species induced by E2 in the oviduct are by themselves able to mimic, and therefore mediate, the effect of E2 on ovum transport.
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In order to examine whether sperm migration into and through the oviduct follows an invariable pattern or is subject to regulation, rats in proestrus, estrus, metestrus, or diestrus were inseminated in the upper third of each uterine horn with 10-20 million epididymal spermatozoa. Three or eight hours later, the numbers of spermatozoa free and adhering to the epithelium in the ampullary and isthmic segments were determined. A significantly higher number of spermatozoa were recovered in estrus than in other stages, at 3 h than at 8 h, and at all stages from the isthmus than from the ampulla. Spermatozoa adhering to the epithelium were observed only in proestrus and estrus and in the isthmus. The effect of exogenous estradiol-17beta (E2) and progesterone (P4) on sperm migration was investigated in rats in which the estrous cycle was inhibited pharmacologically. E2 facilitated sperm migration into the oviduct and P4 antagonized this effect, whereas P4 alone had no effect. Concomitant treatment with E2+P4 induced adhesion of spermatozoa to the oviductal epithelium. In conclusion, the pattern of sperm migration into and through the rat oviduct varies with the stage of the cycle, being dependent on E2 and P4. The adhesion of spermatozoa to the rat oviductal epithelium is stage- and segment-specific and requires the combined action of both hormones.
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To determine the effect of oral administration of an aqueous extract from the roots of Lepidium meyenii (maca) on spermatogenesis in adult male rats. Male rats received an aqueous extract of the root (66.7 mg in one mL) twice a day for 14 consecutive days. Treatment with Lepidium meyenii resulted in an increase in the weights of testis and epididymis but not the seminal vesicle weight. The length and frequency of stages IX-XIV seminiferous tubules, where mitosis occurred, were increased and stages I-VI were reduced in rats treated with Lepidium meyenii. The Lepidium meyenii root invigorates spermatogenesis in male rats by acting on its initial stages (IX-XIV).
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The effects of two Peruvian folk medicines, Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatropha macrantha, on mouse sex steroid hormones and embryo implantation were investigated. Progesterone levels increased significantly in mice that received L. meyenii Walp, while testosterone levels increased significantly in mice that received L. meyenii Walp as well as in those that received both L. meyenii Walp and J. macrantha. However, there were no marked changes in blood levels of estradiol-17beta or the rate of embryo implantation.
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To evaluate the effect of the alcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the spermatogenesis in male rats. In Holtzman rats, Maca alcoholic extract (5 %) was given by oral route at doses of 48 mg/day or 96 mg/day for 7 days, 14 days and 21 days. Testicular function was assessed by measurements of lengths of different stages of seminiferous epithelia and by epididymal sperm count. Ethanolic extract of Maca increased the length of stages IX-XI of seminiferous epithelium at treatment day 7, day 14 and day 21. Progression of spermatogenesis was evident only after day 21 when lengths of stages XII-XIV of seminiferous epithelium were increased; at day 7 and day 14, no important change in spermatogenesis was observed. Epididymal sperm count was increased with 48 mg/day at all times. With 96 mg/day an increase in sperm count was observed at day 7, but it was reduced at day 14 and day 21 of treatment. Serum testosterone levels were not affected. The alcoholic extract of Maca activates onset ant progression of spermatogenesis at 48 mg/day or 96 mg/day in rats.
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Previously, we found that the dose of estradiol (E2) required to accelerate egg transport increases 5- to 10-fold, in mated compared to cyclic rats. Here we examined protein synthesis in the oviduct of mated and cyclic rats following a single injection of E2 known to accelerate oviductal egg transport or after concomitant treatment with progesterone (P4) known to block this acceleration. On Day 1 of the cycle or pregnancy, E2, P4, or E2 + P4 were injected s.c., and 4 h later oviducts were removed and incubated for 8 h in medium with 35S-methionine. Tissue proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE, and protein bands were quantitated by fluorography and densitometry. In mated rats, E2 and P4 increased different protein bands and P4 did not affect the fluorographic pattern induced by E2. In contrast with mated rats, none of these treatments changed the fluorographic pattern of the oviductal proteins in cyclic rats. Estradiol-induced egg transport acceleration was then compared under conditions in which oviductal protein synthesis was suppressed. Mated and cyclic rats treated with equipotent doses of E2 for accelerating egg transport also received actinomycin D (Act D) locally. Estradiol-induced oviductal egg loss was partially blocked by Act D in mated but had no effect in cyclic rats. We conclude that the oviduct of mated and cyclic rats differs in that only the former responds with increased protein synthesis to a pulse of exogenous E2 and P4 and requires an intact protein synthesis machinery in order to accelerate egg transport in response to E2.
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To discuss the clinical therapeutic window for LH during the follicular phase. Review of selected papers that were retrieved through a Medline search and a review of clinical trials, the results of which are in the process of publication. Women undergoing infertility treatment. Recombinant human LH (r-hLH) was administered SC as a supplement to FSH during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Follicular development, E2 production, and endometrial thickness. Optimal follicular maturation is the result of both FSH and LH stimulation. In patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, 75 IU of r-hLH and 150 IU of FSH per day resulted in more follicles and provided sufficient E2 for optimal endometrial proliferation. Additional r-hLH (>250 IU/day), in patients with either hypogonadotropic hypogonadism or polycystic ovary disease, may precipitate a series of deleterious physiological actions leading to atresia of developing follicles. Adding r-hLH to FSH in women treated with GnRH agonist showed no benefits in terms of number of mature oocytes, fertilization, and cleavage. However, those who experience profound pituitary desensitization may benefit from adding LH to the stimulation protocol. No obvious clinical criteria have been established to define this group of patients. A "threshold" and "ceiling" level for LH (therapeutic window) is proposed, below which E2 production is not adequate and above which LH may be detrimental to follicular development.