Article

Inhalation of Neroli Essential Oil and Its Anxiolytic Effects

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Abstract

In this study, gerbils were subjected to aromatherapy using inhaled neroli. Forced swimming tasks and locomotor activity were measured to evaluate levels of anxiety. Comparison was made between the duration time of the forced swimming tasks and total distance, and the duration time in the central and peripheral areas, between the control and neroli-inhaled groups. In addition, treatment with Xanax, an anxiolytic drug, was used as a positive control. The average duration times for swimming were 228 ± 7, 439 ± 23, 386 ± 21, and 427 ± 18 seconds in the control, neroli-inhaled, and two Xanax-treated groups, respectively. The duration times were significantly increased by 65%-91% in neroli-inhaled, and the two Xanax-treated groups (p<0.01) when compared with the control. The total distances traveled during 30 min were 280 ± 25, 189 ± 11, and 168 ±18 m in the control, neroli-inhaled, and Xanax-treated groups, respectively. The duration times in the central area for the 30- min period were 493 ± 54, 476 ± 57, and 1014 ± 70 seconds in the control, neroli-inhaled, and Xanax-treated groups, respectively. In addition, the duration times in the peripheral area for the 30-min period were 1244 ± 66, 1324 ± 57, and 859 ±83 seconds in the control, neroli-inhaled, and Xanax-treated groups, respectively. The inhalation of neroli and the treatment of Xanax® had anxiolytic effects, as shown in both behavior tests. However, the mechanisms of anxiolytic effect responses for neroli and Xanax were unclear. This study provides evidence-based data on aromatherapy using neroli in the treatment of anxiety.

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... amara L. floral essential oil), for example, has been found to reduce anxiety in post-cardiac surgery patients [45]. It has also shown reduced activity in gerbils using a forced swimming test [46]. Neroli oil is composed mainly of limonene (25%), β-pinene (20%), linalool (16%), and linalyl acetate (10%) [46]. ...
... It has also shown reduced activity in gerbils using a forced swimming test [46]. Neroli oil is composed mainly of limonene (25%), β-pinene (20%), linalool (16%), and linalyl acetate (10%) [46]. Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) oil was found to relieve anxiety in patients after oral administration or inhalation [47,48]. ...
... Limonene (25%), β-pinene (20%), linalool (16%), and linalyl acetate (10%) [46] Rosa damascene Mill. ...
Chapter
In our society, anxiety and depression are serious health issues that affect a large proportion of the population. Unfortunately, drug therapies are not always effective and can lead to drug abuse, delay of therapeutic effect, dependence, and tolerance. Traditionally, aromatherapy has also been used for anxiety relief and mood improvement. The use of essential oils, in relieving anxiety and depression, does not have the disadvantages associated with currently used drug therapies. In-vivo studies on animal models have verified the anxiolytic effects of these essential oils and the interactions of their major components with central nervous system receptors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to argue that the modulation of glutamate and GABA neurotransmitter systems are likely to be the critical mechanisms responsible for the sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant proprieties of linalool and essential oils containing linalool in significant proportions. Popular anxiolytic essential oils are generally rich in terpenoid alcohols like linalool, geraniol and citronellol, and the monoterpene limonene (or citral). Therefore, other essential oils or formulations that contain these terpenoids as major components may serve as important aromatherapeutics for relief of anxiety.
... While, the use of lavender more than 14 days also significantly reduced these factors that they were significant at 1% level. With these results, it can be concluded that Chen et al. (2008) Compared the inhalation of orange blossom with Xanax and the results indicated that the effect is not meaningful compared to Xanax [17] , therefore, in Yallali et al. (2017) research, the intervention has a short time, but because of its high effect of the aroma of the orange blossom on the anxiety and depression, it showed better results compared to the use of Lavender. Sadeghpoor et al. (2017) (inhaling the scent 20 minutes before sleep) examined the lavender scent for two weeks and received significant results based on the Pittsburgh test. ...
... While, the use of lavender more than 14 days also significantly reduced these factors that they were significant at 1% level. With these results, it can be concluded that Chen et al. (2008) Compared the inhalation of orange blossom with Xanax and the results indicated that the effect is not meaningful compared to Xanax [17] , therefore, in Yallali et al. (2017) research, the intervention has a short time, but because of its high effect of the aroma of the orange blossom on the anxiety and depression, it showed better results compared to the use of Lavender. Sadeghpoor et al. (2017) (inhaling the scent 20 minutes before sleep) examined the lavender scent for two weeks and received significant results based on the Pittsburgh test. ...
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... Other therapeutic properties include sedative, calming, tonic, cytophylactic, aphrodisiac, anti-depressant, and antispasmodic action [23]. Most importantly, neroli oil can be utilized as an anxiolytic [24]. Therefore, neroli oil is frequently used for medicinal purposed, in particular for treating gastrointestinal disorders, tachycardia, and rheumatism, for minimizing central nervous system disorders [25], and as a sedative [26]. ...
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... long history of treatment with essential oils has demonstrated their e cacy and safety [3]. Studies have found that oral neroli oil, which is rich in limonene (25%), β-pinene (20%), and linalool (16%), can relieve anxiety [4]. BEO (borneol,16.4%) is a by-product of natural crystalline borneol (NCB, 98.4% borneol) obtained by steam distillation of Cinnamomum camphora. ...
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... In an animal experiment, inhalation of neroli EO significantly increased the swimming time of gerbils (65%) during the FST, showing an attenuation of the levels of anxiety. However, when the locomotor activity was studied through a multi-box ActiMot detection system, inhalation of neroli EO did not seem to exert any effect(Chen et al., 2008). Inhalation of neroli EO (0.1% or 0.5%; 5 min, twice per day for 5 days) was shown to significantly decrease levels of stress and alleviate undesirable menopausal symptoms in a double-blind, randomized controlled trial performed to 36 healthy postmenopausal women(Choi et al., 2014). ...
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... Often, essential oils are more active against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria (Selim et al., 2014); so Neroli has potential as a broad spectrum 'phytopharmaceutical' agent. Chen et al. (2008) demonstrated that inhaled Neroli was as effective as Xanax 6 in the treatment of induced anxiety in gerbils. Behaviour tests indicated that both Neroli and Xanax were more effective than the no-odour control, but the mechanisms for the anxiolytic response were not clear. ...
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... amara L. floral essential oil), for example, has been found to reduce anxiety in post cardiac surgery patients [43]. Neroli oil has also shown anxiolytic activity in gerbils using a forced swimming test [44]. Neroli oil is composed mainly of limonene (25%), β-pinene (20%), linalool (16%), and linalyl acetate (10%) [45]. ...
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