Tension Pneumoperitoneum after Blast Injury
The Journal of Trauma Injury Infection and Critical Care 05/1998; 44(5):915-917. DOI: 10.1097/00005373-199805000-00029
Tension pneumoperitoneum is a known although rare complication of barotrauma, which can accompany blast injury.We report two patients who suffered from severe pulmonary blast injury, accompanied by tension pneumoperitoneum, and who were severely hypoxemic, hypercarbic, and in shock. After surgical decompression of their pneumoperitoneum, respiratory and hemodynamic functions improved dramatically. Several mechanisms to explain this improvement are suggested. In such cases the release of the tension pneumoperitoneum is mandatory, and laparotomy with delayed closure can be contemplated.
Article: Blast injury[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Explosions are physical, chemical or nuclear processes that involve the rapid release of considerable amounts of energy. Their deleterious effects on living organisms are embodied by the term ‘blast injury’ Injuries caused by explosions have increased in frequency throughout this century. This has been caused in part by industrial expansion. More significant has been the proliferation of explosive weapons and their increased use worldwide. The International Committee of the Red Cross has estimated that throughout 70 countries, at least 2000 people are killed or injured every month by anti-personnel mines. The use of explosive devices by terrorist organizations has increased relentlessly, and from time to time civilian doctors are faced with the aftermath of such episodes. Furthermore, many doctors now seek experience of medicine in developing countries and an understanding of blast injury is useful. Explosions and the injuries caused by them are the subject of this review.
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ABSTRACT: To review causes of nonsurgical pneumoperitoneum (NSP), identify nonsurgical etiologies, and guide conservative management where appropriate. We conducted a computerized MEDLINE database search from 1970 to 1999 by using key words pneumoperitoneum and benign, nonsurgical, spontaneous, iatrogenic, barotrauma, pneumatosis, diaphragmatic defects, free air, mechanical ventilation, gynecologic, and pelvic. We identified 482 articles by using these keywords and reviewed all articles. Additional articles were identified and selectively reviewed by using key words laparotomy, laparoscopy, and complications. We reviewed all case reports and reviews of NSP, defined as pneumoperitoneum that was successfully managed by observation and supportive care alone or that required a nondiagnostic laparotomy. Each unique cause of nonsurgical pneumoperitoneum was recorded. When available, data on nondiagnostic exploratory laparotomies were noted. Case reports were organized by route of introduction of air into the abdominal cavity: abdominal, thoracic, gynecologic, and idiopathic. Most cases of NSP occurred as a procedural complication or as a complication of medical intervention. The most common abdominal etiology of NSP was retained postoperative air (prevalence 25% to 60%). NSP occurred frequently after peritoneal dialysis catheter placement (prevalence 10% to 34%) and after gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures (prevalence 0.3% to 25%, varying by procedure). The most common thoracic causes included mechanical ventilation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and pneumothorax. One hundred ninety-six case reports of NSP were recorded, of which 45 involved surgical exploration without evidence of perforated viscus. The clinician should maintain a high index of suspicion for nonsurgical causes of pneumoperitoneum and should recognize that conservative management may be indicated in many cases.
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ABSTRACT: Pneumothorax can be spontaneous, traumatic or iatrogenic. Pneumothorax ex vacuo, sports-related pneumothorax and barotrauma unrelated to mechanical ventilation are interesting and newer entities. Management consists of getting rid of the air and prevention of recurrence of pneumothorax.
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