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Weight Loss, Body Measurements, and Compliance: A 12 Week Total Lifestyle Intervention Pilot Study

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... It is not clear whether the observed effect was due to corosolic acid, the tannin components or a combination thereof. A 12 week lifestyle intervention study involving 56 subjects was conducted by Lieberman et al. that included the use of dietary supplements, diet and exercise [21]. The dietary supplements were taken prior to each meal, and contained 16 mg Banaba extract, 100 mg bitter melon extract, 133 mg Gymnema extract, 1500 mg Garcinia cambogia extract (60% hydroxycitric acid), 2.6 mg Bioperine (from black pepper), 10 mg wheat amylase inhibitor, 167 mcg elemental chromium, 50 mcg elemental vanadium, and 50 mg elemental magnesium. ...
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Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) extracts have been used for many years in folk medicine to treat diabetes, with the first published research study being reported in 1940. This paper summarizes the current literature regarding Banaba and its constituents. The hypoglycemic effects of Banaba have been attributed to both corosolic acid as well as ellagitannins. Studies have been conducted in various animal models, human subjects, and in vitro systems using water soluble Banaba leaf extracts, corosolic acid, and ellagitannins. Corosolic acid has been reported to decrease blood sugar levels within 60 min in human subjects. Corosolic acid also exhibits antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities. The beneficial effects of Banaba and corosolic acid with respect to various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism appear to involve multiple mechanisms, including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of sucrose and starches, decreased gluconeogenesis, and the regulation of lipid metabolism. These effects may be mediated by PPAR and other signal transduction factors. Banaba extract, corosolic acid, and other constituents may be beneficial in addressing the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome, as well as offering other health benefits.
... A 10 mg dose of corosolic acid resulted in significant lowering of blood glucose levels compared to control at the 90-min time point when corosolic acid was given 5 min before a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (Fukushima et al., 2006). Besides the glucose lowering effects, the L. speciosa standardized extract and its combination with other medicinal plants showed potential effect on weight loss in humans (Lieberman, Spahrs, Stanton, Martinez, & Grinder, 2005;Tsuchibe, Kataumi, Mori, & Mori, 2006). Corosolic acid was administered with a high fat diet for 9 weeks. ...
... A 12 week lifestyle intervention study involving 56 subjects was conducted by Lieberman et al. (2005) that included the use of dietary supplements, diet and exercise. The dietary supplements were taken prior to each meal, and contained 16 mg banaba extract, 100 mg bitter melon extract, 133 mg Gymnema extract, 1500 mg Garcinia cambogia extract (60% hydroxycitric acid), 2.6 mg bioperine (from black pepper), 10 mg wheat amylase inhibitor, 167 mcg elemental chromium, 50 mcg elemental vanadium and 50 mg elemental magnesium. ...
Article
Banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) extracts have been used for many years in folk medicine to treat diabetes, with the first published research study being reported in 1940. This review summarizes the current literature regarding banaba and its constituents. The hypoglycemic effects of banaba have been attributed to both corosolic acid as well as ellagitannins. Studies have been conducted in various animal models, human subjects and in vitro systems using water soluble banaba leaf extracts, corosolic acid-standardized extracts, and purified corosolic acid and ellagitannins. Pure corosolic acid has been reported to decrease blood sugar levels within 60 min in human subjects. Corosolic acid also exhibits antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, antineoplastic and osteoblastic activities. The beneficial effects of banaba and corosolic acid with respect to various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism appear to involve multiple mechanisms, including enhanced cellular uptake of glucose, impaired hydrolysis of sucrose and starches, decreased gluconeogenesis and the regulation of lipid metabolism. These effects may be mediated by PPAR, MAP K, NF-κB and other signal transduction factors. No adverse effects have been observed or reported in animal studies or controlled human clinical trials. Banaba extract, corosolic acid and other constituents may be beneficial in addressing the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome, as well as offering other health benefits.
... The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this weight control program. The mean reduction in body weight for completers over the 12-week program of 3.3 ± 0.9 kg is comparable to other traditional weight loss programs of the same duration, with mean weight losses ranging between 3 and 6 kg171819. The approximate 4% decrease in initial body weight achieved by our subjects over 3 months is likely to contribute to improved health, given the evidence that significant improvements in lipid profiles and glucose control can be seen with decreases in body weight of only 5%202122. ...
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Overweight and obesity result from a complex interaction of behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors. The present study reports on the efficacy of a community-based weight control program in 31 overweight and obese adults. TrymGym is a multi-dimensional lifestyle behavior change program for improving both diet and physical activity (PA) related behavior with education and cognitive behavioral training. The program was evaluated using nutritional, physiological, and physical activity-related psychological factors before and after the 12 week program. Paired sample t-tests were conducted to identify significant changes. Body weight (BW) and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 3.6 and 6.4% respectively in completers of the study. Waist and hip circumferences decreased by 4.1 and 5.7% respectively. Caloric intake decreased from 1994+/-146 at baseline to 1768+/-144 in completers of the study. There was also a significant 5.2% decrease in the percentage of calories derived from fat and a 4% increase in percent of calories from protein. Although intake of vitamin C was increased at the end of the study, intake of several other micronutrients at baseline did not meet Dietary Reference Intake recommendations and were further compromised at week 12. Despite a trend toward increased participation in leisure-time and strenuous PA there was a decrease in behavioral intention to participate in future PA. Overall, this community-based weight control program was effective in fostering a significant improvement in BW, anthropometric measurements, participation in PA, and nutritional intake.
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Piperine is a natural ingredient of Piper nigrum (black pepper) and some other Piper species. Compared to the use of pepper for food seasoning, piperine is used in food supplements in an isolated, concentrated form and ingested as a bolus. The present review focuses on the assessment of the possible critical health effects regarding the use of isolated piperine as a single ingredient in food supplements. In human and animal studies with single or short-term bolus application of isolated piperine, interactions with several drugs, in most cases resulting in increased drug bioavailability, were observed. Depending on the drug and extent of the interaction, such interactions may carry the risk of unintended deleteriously increased or adverse drug effects. Animal studies with higher daily piperine bolus doses than in human interaction studies provide indications of disturbance of spermatogenesis and of maternal reproductive and embryotoxic effects. Although the available human studies rarely reported effects that were regarded as being adverse, their suitability for detailed risk assessment is limited due to an insufficient focus on safety parameters apart from drug interactions, as well as due to the lack of investigation of the potentially adverse effects observed in animal studies and/or combined administration of piperine with other substances. Taken together, it appears advisable to consider the potential health risks related to intake of isolated piperine in bolus form, e.g., when using certain food supplements.
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Weight loss elicits physiological adaptations relating to energy intake and expenditure that antagonize ongoing weight loss. To test whether dietary composition affects the physiological adaptations to weight loss, as assessed by resting energy expenditure. DESIGN, STUDY, AND PARTICIPANTS: A randomized parallel-design study of 39 overweight or obese young adults aged 18 to 40 years who received an energy-restricted diet, either low-glycemic load or low-fat. Participants were studied in the General Clinical Research Centers of the Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Children's Hospital, Boston, Mass, before and after 10% weight loss. The study was conducted from January 4, 2001, to May 6, 2003. Resting energy expenditure measured in the fasting state by indirect calorimetry, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported hunger. Resting energy expenditure decreased less with the low-glycemic load diet than with the low-fat diet, expressed in absolute terms (mean [SE], 96 [24] vs 176 [27] kcal/d; P = .04) or as a proportion (5.9% [1.5%] vs 10.6% [1.7%]; P = .05). Participants receiving the low-glycemic load diet reported less hunger than those receiving the low-fat diet (P = .04). Insulin resistance (P = .01), serum triglycerides (P = .01), C-reactive protein (P = .03), and blood pressure (P = .07 for both systolic and diastolic) improved more with the low-glycemic load diet. Changes in body composition (fat and lean mass) in both groups were very similar (P = .85 and P = .45, respectively). Changes in dietary composition within prevailing norms can affect physiological adaptations that defend body weight. Reduction in glycemic load may aid in the prevention or treatment of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus.
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The role of dietary carbohydrates in weight loss has received considerable attention in light of the current obesity epidemic. The authors investigated the association of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) with dietary intake of carbohydrates and with measures of the induced glycemic response, using data from an observational study of 572 healthy adults in central Massachusetts. Anthropometric measurements, 7-day dietary recalls, and physical activity recalls were collected quarterly from each subject throughout a 1-year study period. Data were collected between 1994 and 1998. Longitudinal analyses were conducted, and results were adjusted for other factors related to body habitus. Average body mass index was 27.4 kg/m(2) (standard deviation, 5.5), while the average percentage of calories from carbohydrates was 44.9 (standard deviation, 9.6). Mean daily dietary glycemic index was 81.7 (standard deviation, 5.5), and glycemic load was 197.8 (standard deviation, 105.2). Body mass index was found to be positively associated with glycemic index, a measure of the glycemic response associated with ingesting different types of carbohydrates, but not with daily carbohydrate intake, percentage of calories from carbohydrates, or glycemic load. Results suggest that the type of carbohydrate may be related to body weight. However, further research is required to elucidate this association and its implications for weight management.
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There is a general perception that almost no one succeeds in long-term maintenance of weight loss. However, research has shown that approximately 20% of overweight individuals are successful at long-term weight loss when defined as losing at least 10% of initial body weight and maintaining the loss for at least 1 y. The National Weight Control Registry provides information about the strategies used by successful weight loss maintainers to achieve and maintain long-term weight loss. National Weight Control Registry members have lost an average of 33 kg and maintained the loss for more than 5 y. To maintain their weight loss, members report engaging in high levels of physical activity ( approximately 1 h/d), eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet, eating breakfast regularly, self-monitoring weight, and maintaining a consistent eating pattern across weekdays and weekends. Moreover, weight loss maintenance may get easier over time; after individuals have successfully maintained their weight loss for 2-5 y, the chance of longer-term success greatly increases. Continued adherence to diet and exercise strategies, low levels of depression and disinhibition, and medical triggers for weight loss are also associated with long-term success. National Weight Control Registry members provide evidence that long-term weight loss maintenance is possible and help identify the specific approaches associated with long-term success.
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There is a general perception that almost no one succeeds in long-term maintenance of weight loss. However, research has shown that ≈20% of overweight individuals are successful at long-term weight loss when defined as losing at least 10% of initial body weight and maintaining the loss for at least 1 y. The National Weight Control Registry provides information about the strategies used by successful weight loss maintainers to achieve and maintain long-term weight loss. National Weight Control Registry members have lost an average of 33 kg and maintained the loss for more than 5 y. To maintain their weight loss, members report engaging in high levels of physical activity (≈1 h/d), eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet, eating breakfast regularly, self-monitoring weight, and maintaining a consistent eating pattern across weekdays and weekends. Moreover, weight loss maintenance may get easier over time; after individuals have successfully maintained their weight loss for 2–5 y, the chance of longer-term success greatly increases. Continued adherence to diet and exercise strategies, low levels of depression and disinhibition, and medical triggers for weight loss are also associated with long-term success. National Weight Control Registry members provide evidence that long-term weight loss maintenance is possible and help identify the specific approaches associated with long-term success.
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There is a general perception that almost no one succeeds in long-term maintenance of weight loss. However, research has shown that approximately 20% of overweight individuals are successful at long-term weight loss when defined as losing at least 10% of initial body weight and maintaining the loss for at least 1 y. The National Weight Control Registry provides information about the strategies used by successful weight loss maintainers to achieve and maintain long-term weight loss. National Weight Control Registry members have lost an average of 33 kg and maintained the loss for more than 5 y. To maintain their weight loss, members report engaging in high levels of physical activity ( approximately 1 h/d), eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet, eating breakfast regularly, self-monitoring weight, and maintaining a consistent eating pattern across weekdays and weekends. Moreover, weight loss maintenance may get easier over time; after individuals have successfully maintained their weight loss for 2-5 y, the chance of longer-term success greatly increases. Continued adherence to diet and exercise strategies, low levels of depression and disinhibition, and medical triggers for weight loss are also associated with long-term success. National Weight Control Registry members provide evidence that long-term weight loss maintenance is possible and help identify the specific approaches associated with long-term success.
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Context: The scarcity of data addressing the health effects of popular diets is an important public health concern, especially since patients and physicians are interested in using popular diets as individualized eating strategies for disease prevention. Objective: To assess adherence rates and the effectiveness of 4 popular diets (Atkins, Zone, Weight Watchers, and Ornish) for weight loss and cardiac risk factor reduction. Design, Setting, and Participants: A single-center randomized trial at an academic medical center in Boston, Mass, of overweight or obese (body mass index: mean, 35; range, 27-42) adults aged 22 to 72 years with known hypertension, dyslipidemia, or fasting hyperglycemia. Participants were enrolled starting July 18, 2000, and randomized to 4 popular diet groups until January 24, 2002. Intervention: A total of 160 participants were randomly assigned to either Atkins (carbohydrate restriction, n=40). Zone (macronutrient balance, n=40), Weight Watchers (calorie restriction, n=40), or Ornish (fat restriction, n=40) diet groups. After 2 months of maximum effort, participants selected their own levels of dietary adherence. Main Outcome Measures: One-year changes in baseline weight and cardiac risk factors, and self-selected dietary adherence rates per self-report. Results: Assuming no change from baseline for participants who discontinued the study, mean (SD) weight loss at 1 year was 2.1 (4.8) kg for Atkins (21 [53 %] of 40 participants completed, P=.009), 3.2 (6.0) kg for Zone (26 [65%] of 40 completed, P=.002), 3.0 (4.9) kg for Weight Watchers (26 [65%] of 40 completed, P<.001), and 3.3 (7.3) kg for Ornish (20 [50%] of 40 completed, P=.007). Greater effects were observed in study completers. Each diet significantly reduced the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio by approximately 10% (all P<.05), with no significant effects on blood pressure or glucose at 1 year. Amount of weight loss was associated with self-reported dietary adherence level (r=0.60; P<.001) but not with diet type (r=0.07; P= .40). For each diet, decreasing levels of total/HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and insulin were significantly associated with weight loss (mean r=0.36, 0.37, and 0.39, respectively) with no significant difference between diets (P= .48, P= .57, P= .31, respectively). Conclusions: Each popular diet modestly reduced body weight and several cardiac risk factors at 1 year. Overall dietary adherence rates were low, although increased adherence was associated with greater weight loss and cardiac risk factor reductions for each diet group.
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Studies in this report investigate the existence and quantitative contribution of a metabolic component to an apparently elevated efficiency of energy utilization during refeeding following low-calorie consumption. Energy balance during a 25-d refeeding period was assessed in rats that had been food restricted (at 50% of normal intake) for either 30 or 10 d. Relative to weight-matched controls (with comparable lean tissue mass and similar food intake), refeeding following both periods of low food consumption (30 or 10 d) was associated with a 10% reduction in energy expenditure (p less than 0.001). Analysis of body composition revealed that virtually all the energy saved as a result of this metabolic (as opposed to tissue mass) adaptation was deposited as fat rather than protein. After the energy cost for depositing the extra fat is accounted for, the metabolic component represents a net 15% lower energy expenditure when normal food intake is resumed. These adaptive changes in energy expenditure may thus constitute an important mechanism for the rapid replenishment of energy stores in preparation for recurring food shortages and may also underlie the ease with which the obese condition is rapidly reachieved after weight loss.
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The management of obesity is increasingly dominated by nonprofessional self-helping groups. Little information about the efficacy of these groups is available from independent sources. In a study of 108 women enrolled in a commercial weight reduction program, we found very high attrition rates; 50% of the members dropped out in six weeks and 70% in 12 weeks. Similar attrition rates have been reported in five other programs in three different countries. Very high attrition rates diminish the effectiveness of commercial weight reduction programs, and they suggest caution in the interpretation of data based on weight losses of persons who remain in these programs.
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Each year millions of Americans enroll in commercial and self-help weight loss programs. Health care providers and their obese patients know little about these programs because of the absence of systematic reviews. To describe the components, costs, and efficacy of the major commercial and organized self-help weight loss programs in the United States that provide structured in-person or online counseling. Review of company Web sites, telephone discussion with company representatives, and search of the MEDLINE database. Randomized trials at least 12 weeks in duration that enrolled only adults and assessed interventions as they are usually provided to the public, or case series that met these criteria, stated the number of enrollees, and included a follow-up evaluation that lasted 1 year or longer. Data were extracted on study design, attrition, weight loss, duration of follow-up, and maintenance of weight loss. We found studies of eDiets.com, Health Management Resources, Take Off Pounds Sensibly, OPTIFAST, and Weight Watchers. Of 3 randomized, controlled trials of Weight Watchers, the largest reported a loss of 3.2% of initial weight at 2 years. One randomized trial and several case series of medically supervised very-low-calorie diet programs found that patients who completed treatment lost approximately 15% to 25% of initial weight. These programs were associated with high costs, high attrition rates, and a high probability of regaining 50% or more of lost weight in 1 to 2 years. Commercial interventions available over the Internet and organized self-help programs produced minimal weight loss. Because many studies did not control for high attrition rates, the reported results are probably a best-case scenario. With the exception of 1 trial of Weight Watchers, the evidence to support the use of the major commercial and self-help weight loss programs is suboptimal. Controlled trials are needed to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of these interventions.
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The scarcity of data addressing the health effects of popular diets is an important public health concern, especially since patients and physicians are interested in using popular diets as individualized eating strategies for disease prevention. To assess adherence rates and the effectiveness of 4 popular diets (Atkins, Zone, Weight Watchers, and Ornish) for weight loss and cardiac risk factor reduction. A single-center randomized trial at an academic medical center in Boston, Mass, of overweight or obese (body mass index: mean, 35; range, 27-42) adults aged 22 to 72 years with known hypertension, dyslipidemia, or fasting hyperglycemia. Participants were enrolled starting July 18, 2000, and randomized to 4 popular diet groups until January 24, 2002. A total of 160 participants were randomly assigned to either Atkins (carbohydrate restriction, n=40), Zone (macronutrient balance, n=40), Weight Watchers (calorie restriction, n=40), or Ornish (fat restriction, n=40) diet groups. After 2 months of maximum effort, participants selected their own levels of dietary adherence. One-year changes in baseline weight and cardiac risk factors, and self-selected dietary adherence rates per self-report. Assuming no change from baseline for participants who discontinued the study, mean (SD) weight loss at 1 year was 2.1 (4.8) kg for Atkins (21 [53%] of 40 participants completed, P = .009), 3.2 (6.0) kg for Zone (26 [65%] of 40 completed, P = .002), 3.0 (4.9) kg for Weight Watchers (26 [65%] of 40 completed, P < .001), and 3.3 (7.3) kg for Ornish (20 [50%] of 40 completed, P = .007). Greater effects were observed in study completers. Each diet significantly reduced the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio by approximately 10% (all P<.05), with no significant effects on blood pressure or glucose at 1 year. Amount of weight loss was associated with self-reported dietary adherence level (r = 0.60; P<.001) but not with diet type (r = 0.07; P = .40). For each diet, decreasing levels of total/HDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and insulin were significantly associated with weight loss (mean r = 0.36, 0.37, and 0.39, respectively) with no significant difference between diets (P = .48, P = .57, P = .31, respectively). Each popular diet modestly reduced body weight and several cardiac risk factors at 1 year. Overall dietary adherence rates were low, although increased adherence was associated with greater weight loss and cardiac risk factor reductions for each diet group.
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The optimal nutritional approach for the prevention of cardiovascular disease among obese persons remains a topic of intense controversy. Available approaches range from conventional low-fat to very-low-carbohydrate diets. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of an ad libitum low-glycemic load diet, without strict limitation on carbohydrate intake, as an alternative to a conventional low-fat diet. A randomized controlled trial compared 2 dietary treatments in obese young adults (n = 23) over 12 mo. The experimental treatment emphasized ad libitum consumption of low-glycemic-index foods, with 45-50% of energy from carbohydrates and 30-35% from fat. The conventional treatment was restricted in energy (250-500 kcal/d deficit) and fat (<30% of energy), with 55-60% of energy from carbohydrate. We compared changes in study outcomes by repeated-measures analysis of log-transformed data and expressed the results as mean percentage change. Body weight decreased significantly over a 6-mo intensive intervention in both the experimental and conventional diet groups (-8.4% and -7.8%, respectively) and remained below baseline at 12 mo (-7.8% and -6.1%, respectively). The experimental diet group showed a significantly greater mean decline in plasma triacylglycerols than did the conventional diet group (-37.2% and -19.1%, respectively; P = 0.005). Mean plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 concentrations decreased (-39.0%) in the experimental diet group but increased (33.1%) in the conventional diet group (P = 0.004). Changes in cholesterol concentrations, blood pressure, and insulin sensitivity did not differ significantly between the groups. An ad libitum low-glycemic load diet may be more efficacious than a conventional, energy-restricted, low-fat diet in reducing cardiovascular disease risk.
She is also the Founding Dean of New York Chiropractic College's (Seneca Falls, New York) M.S. Degree Program in Applied Clinical Nutri-tion. Roger Spahrs, M.D., is the medical director of Health Synergies Maria Grinder is the owner of World Gym. To order reprints of this article, write to or call
  • Shari Lieberman
  • C D N S Ph
  • F A C N Alicia
  • M D Stanton
Shari Lieberman, Ph.D., C.N.S., F.A.C.N., is a research scientist and industry consultant based in New York City and Pompano Beach, Flori-da. She is also the Founding Dean of New York Chiropractic College's (Seneca Falls, New York) M.S. Degree Program in Applied Clinical Nutri-tion. Roger Spahrs, M.D., is the medical director of Health Synergies, Inc., Center for Integrative Health Care, Indianapolis, Indiana. Alicia Stanton, M.D., F.A.C.O.G., is the medical director of BodyLogicMD, Hartford, Connecticut. Lydia Martinez, N.C.P.T., is a nationally certified personal trainer at World Gym, Ft. Washington, Maryland. Maria Grinder is the owner of World Gym. To order reprints of this article, write to or call: Karen Ballen, ALTERNA-TIVE & COMPLEMENTARY THERAPIES, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor, New Rochelle NY 10801, (914) 740-2100.
She is also the Founding Dean of New York Chiropractic College's (Seneca Falls, New York) M.S. Degree Program in Applied Clinical Nutrition is the medical director of Health Synergies, Inc., Center for Integrative Health Care, is the medical director of BodyLogicMD
  • Shari Lieberman
Shari Lieberman, Ph.D., C.N.S., F.A.C.N., is a research scientist and industry consultant based in New York City and Pompano Beach, Florida. She is also the Founding Dean of New York Chiropractic College's (Seneca Falls, New York) M.S. Degree Program in Applied Clinical Nutrition. Roger Spahrs, M.D., is the medical director of Health Synergies, Inc., Center for Integrative Health Care, Indianapolis, Indiana. Alicia Stanton, M.D., F.A.C.O.G., is the medical director of BodyLogicMD, Hartford, Connecticut. Lydia Martinez, N.C.P.T., is a nationally certified personal trainer at World Gym, Ft. Washington, Maryland. Maria Grinder is the owner of World Gym.
Florida. She is also the Founding Dean of New York Chiropractic College's (Seneca Falls
  • Shari Lieberman
Shari Lieberman, Ph.D., C.N.S., F.A.C.N., is a research scientist and industry consultant based in New York City and Pompano Beach, Florida. She is also the Founding Dean of New York Chiropractic College's (Seneca Falls, New York) M.S. Degree Program in Applied Clinical Nutrition. Roger Spahrs, M.D., is the medical director of Health Synergies, Inc., Center for Integrative Health Care, Indianapolis, Indiana. Alicia Stanton, M.D., F.A.C.O.G., is the medical director of BodyLogicMD, Hartford, Connecticut. Lydia Martinez, N.C.P.T., is a nationally certified personal trainer at World Gym, Ft. Washington, Maryland. Maria Grinder is the owner of World Gym.