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Physical and perceptual benefits of yoga asana practice: Results of a pilot study

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Abstract

Twenty-six healthy adults age 20–58 (Mean 31.8) participated in six weeks of either astanga yoga or hatha yoga class. Significant improvements at follow-up were noted for all participants in diastolic blood pressure, upper body and trunk dynamic muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, perceived stress, and health perception. The improvements differed for each group when compared to baseline assessments. The astanga yoga group had decreased diastolic blood pressure and perceived stress, and increased upper body and trunk dynamic muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and health perception. Improvements for the hatha yoga group were significant only for trunk dynamic muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. The findings suggest that the fitness benefits of yoga practice differ by style.

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... Today, it is used in many areas [6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. Recent studies in the literature indicate that yoga provides positive results in reducing complications when used in combination in patients with cancer [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]. In this review, the place and importance of yoga, which is one of the complementary therapies in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, was discussed. ...
... When the literature is examined, yoga has been used specifically in neurological diseases such as hemiplegia, hemiparesis, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, Parkinson's, headache / migraine, myelopathy, traumatic brain injury, Guillain-Barré syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, peripheral neuropathy, asthma, chronic. It is stated that it is used during pregnancy in many painful conditions such as heart and lung system diseases such as obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, speech and swallowing disorders, ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthritis [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. In the practices performed in the field of psychiatry, it has been found that yoga reduces stress and anxiety, increases attention and concentration, regulates sleep and positively affects the quality of life [9,10]. ...
... Smith et al. reported in their study that yoga reduced anxiety and stress and increased the quality of life [14]. In a study, it was reported that yoga not only decreased the perception of stress but also increased muscle strength [15]. It has also been reported that yoga helps somatic complaints such as reduction of muscle tension and relief of bodily pain and aches [16]. ...
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Abstract Yoga is at a key point in ensuring health and happiness in today's world. In the literature, it is generally accepted that the use of yoga together with radiotherapy has physical and psychological benefits. In general, it is stated that it provides strengthening of muscles, reduction of stress, and it can be used to relieve ailments such as fatigue, pain and concentration difficulties in order to maintain the physical and psychological well-being of the person. Yoga practices should be practiced by healthcare professionals who have enough knowledge on the subject. Clinical studies are needed to have sufficient information about whether patients who will receive radiotherapy are eligible to attend yoga classes.
... These components form the Tristana, which is unique to Ashtanga [34]. A strong focus on physical embodiment is necessary since the postures are technically complex, and each movement is coordinated with an inhale or exhale, while the postures are held for five breaths [34,39]. The breathing technique is called Ujjayi Breathing, or victorious breath [39]. ...
... A strong focus on physical embodiment is necessary since the postures are technically complex, and each movement is coordinated with an inhale or exhale, while the postures are held for five breaths [34,39]. The breathing technique is called Ujjayi Breathing, or victorious breath [39]. Each posture and movement has a specific gaze point intended to reduce external distractions and induce concentration (e.g., navel-gazing or omphaloskepsis, which is defined as the "contemplation of one's navel as an aid to meditation" [40]) [34]. ...
... Yoga practitioners report increased psychological wellbeing, life satisfaction, happiness, motivation, and relaxation [30,36,42]. Reduced levels of galvanic skin response and blood lactate have been measured [41], along with improvements in physical fitness, and reduced sympathetic nervous system activity [33,39]. Some can also reduce their heart rate voluntarily without external cues [32]. ...
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Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is often praised for its portability and robustness towards motion artifacts. While an increasing body of fNIRS research in real-world environments is emerging, most fNIRS studies are still conducted in laboratories, and do not incorporate larger movements performed by participants. This study extends fNIRS applications in real-world environments by conducting a single-subject observational study of a yoga practice with considerable movement (Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga) in a participant’s natural environment (their apartment). The results show differences in cognitive load (prefrontal cortex activation) when comparing technically complex postures to relatively simple ones, but also some contrasts with surprisingly little difference. This study explores the boundaries of real-world cognitive load measurements, and contributes to the empirical knowledge base of using fNIRS in realistic settings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of fNIRS brain imaging recorded during any moving yoga practice. Future work with fNIRS should take advantage of this by accomplishing studies with considerable real-world movement.
... Initial evidence suggests that the asanas of yoga are associated with both physiologic and self-perceived stress reduction (Bhavanani & Ramanathan, 2018;Cowen & Adams, 2005;Streeter et al., 2007). Physiologically, preliminary findings indicate asana may have effects on immune system and specific neurotransmitter functions. ...
... If asana-focused yoga can be preliminarily linked to increased GABA, does asana have a differential effect on perceived stress and the secondary psychological symptoms associated with low GABA? Cowen and Adams (2005) compared six-week outcomes between participants in an asana-intensive form of ashtanga yoga and those engaged in a less asana-focused yoga (e.g. hatha). ...
... These findings constitute an important contribution to the empirical literature on yoga, as few previous asana studies have controlled for subjective life stressors or evaluated incremental variance accounted for by interaction effects. In addition, this study highlights ongoing questions about the differential benefits of yoga's various sub-components (Cowen & Adams, 2005), and their varied effect on type of psychological symptoms. All aspects of yoga were negatively correlated with psychological distress in our sample. ...
Article
Yoga contains sub-components related to its physical postures (asana), breathing methods (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana). To test the hypothesis that specific yoga practices are associated with reduced psychological distress, 186 adults completed questionnaires assessing life stressors, symptom severity, and experience with each of these aspects of yoga. Each yoga sub-component was found to be negatively correlated with psychological distress indices. However, differing patterns of relationship to psychological distress symptoms were found for each yoga sub-component. Experience with asana was negatively correlated with global psychological distress (r = −.21, p < .01), and symptoms of anxiety (r = −.18, p = .01) and depression (r = −.17, p = .02). These relationships remained statistically significant after accounting for variance attributable to Social Readjustment Rating Scale scores (GSI: r = −.19, p = .01; BSI Anxiety: r = −.16, p = .04; BSI Depression: r = −.14, p = .05). By contrast, the correlations between other yoga sub-components and symptom subscales became non-significant after accounting for exposure to life stressors. Moreover, stressful life events moderated the predictive relationship between amount of asana experience and depressive symptoms. Asana was not related to depressive symptoms at low levels of life stressors, but became associated at mean (t[182] = −2.73, p < .01) and high levels (t[182] = −3.56, p < .001). Findings suggest asana may possess depressive symptom reduction benefits, particularly as life stressors increase. Additional research is needed to differentiate whether asana has an effect on psychological distress, and to better understand potential psychophysiological mechanisms of action.
... Yoga is practiced in sports for injury prevention [4] as well as to enhance the performance [5,6] through achieving the peak level of physical fitness. It has been documented through several researches that yoga intervention improves the athletic performance in different sports by enhancing their flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular performance [5,[7][8][9], physiological health factors such as heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, immune function and muscle soreness [7,8,[10][11][12] and mental fitness [13][14][15].Yoga increases flexibility and the effects are seen as early as six weeks, even if the participants are only training once a week [16][17][18]. Madanmohan et al. [19] stated that yoga training ...
... Yoga is practiced in sports for injury prevention [4] as well as to enhance the performance [5,6] through achieving the peak level of physical fitness. It has been documented through several researches that yoga intervention improves the athletic performance in different sports by enhancing their flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular performance [5,[7][8][9], physiological health factors such as heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, immune function and muscle soreness [7,8,[10][11][12] and mental fitness [13][14][15].Yoga increases flexibility and the effects are seen as early as six weeks, even if the participants are only training once a week [16][17][18]. Madanmohan et al. [19] stated that yoga training ...
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Background: Yoga is increasingly being incorporated into the training regimes of athletes. The aims of the present study were to understand the effects of practicing yoga for four weeks on selective physical and body composition variables on healthy young Indian male athletes participating in track and field events.
... [11][12][13] Yoga consists of various posture (asana), breathing practices and meditation techniques (pranayamas) and the most important is yogic behavior. [14,15] Nevertheless, it is an ancient system of self-development which deals with a holistic approach to a person through its belief and practices; synchronizes the body and mind. [16] Regular breathing practice reduces sympathetic activity, increases parasympathetic control along with improvement function of respiratory system, cardiovascular system, neuro-endocrine system. ...
... [31] The Savasana, a relaxation exercise probably influences the hypothalamus through the continuous feedback of slow rhythmic proprioceptive and interoreceptive impulses [32] that can establish a psycho-physiological relaxation and reduce the physiological stress in a shorter time. [33] Udupa KN [14] and Wood C [15] have reported the beneficial effects of 'Hatha Yoga' on psychological well-being and improvement in quality of life. Desharnais R (1993) have mentioned the psychological benefits of an aerobic exercise program. ...
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Background and Aim: Hypertension is one of the major growing global problems. Management of hypertension by medicine, diet and exercise is not enough and alternative therapy is need of time. Yoga is one such substitute healthcare practice assumed to improve blood pressure control and quality of life in hypertensive. A prospective intervention was designed to check the effect of home based yoga exercise on blood pressure and quality of life in hypertensives. Methods: A total 74 hypertensive participants were recruited for the present study after following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Participants were divided into two groups, study group (n=39) who have done home based yoga and control group (n=35) who have not done home based yoga. Detailed methodology of home based yoga; their advantage and disadvantage were explained to the study group very well. Study group have done their home based yoga for three months and control group did not have done the home based yoga. Cardiovascular parameters like systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate were recorded after following all standard precautions at the time of initiation of study and at end of every month till completion of study. Participants were also assessed for their quality of life, health and other areas of life by World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire at the time of beginning of the study and at every month till completion of study. Results: Significant decrease in systolic blood pressure from 130.60 ± 4.06 to 124.20 ± 0.60 mm of Hg and diastolic blood pressure from 85.62 ± 5.55 to 79.21 ± 0.73 mm of Hg were seen in study group. In control group, blood pressure reduction was not seen. Self rated score of quality of life was improved in study group as compared to control group. Conclusion: A short term home-based yoga program in hypertensive patients have shown to reduce blood pressure as well as positive effect on self-rated quality of life compared to controls. A simple 12-weeks duration home based yoga exercise program may be useful as supplementary therapy in addition to antihypertensive drugs in hypertensive patients.
... Meditative (Hatha style) yoga focuses on mindful breathing techniques, flexibility, and meditation while power (Vinyasa style) yoga focuses on maintenance of powerful poses, muscular endurance, and has been shown to meet similar metabolic intensity criteria as moderate-intensity walking [6,8]. Both meditative and power yoga have been reported to decrease stress levels over time [9][10][11]. Smith et al. showed a 10-week hatha yoga intervention decreased anxiety and improved quality of life scores over time [9]. ...
... This is supported by reports of decreased physiologic stress outcomes (i.e., cortisol) with meditative yoga practice [12]. A 6-week program of power yoga has been shown to decrease perceived stress over time while also improving muscle strength and endurance [11]. Tay et al. showed increased heart rate variability and decreased respiration following power yoga over time with a 10-week program, which is consistent with greater relaxation and lower physiological stress [10]. ...
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Yoga is a frequently recommended stress management strategy; however, the acute stress response to varying types of yoga are not fully clear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of meditative and power yoga on indices of physiological and psychological stress. In a crossover counterbalanced design, physically active females (n = 13; age = 20.8 yrs ± 0.8, height = 164.5 cm ± 6.1, body mass = 65.0 kg ± 13.8) who did not regularly participate in yoga or mindful training enrolled in this study. Participants completed two visits each, with a standardized instructional-video 30-min yoga session with either A) meditative (Hatha style) yoga or B) power (Vinyasa style) yoga. Prior to and immediately after each yoga bout, psychological stress was assessed using the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire, and salivary cortisol samples were obtained to measure indices of physiological stress. State anxiety scores were significantly lower following meditative yoga (p = 0.047) but were not different following power yoga (p = 0.625). Salivary cortisol levels were significantly lower following meditative yoga (p = 0.020) but not following power yoga (p = 0.242). Results indicate that acute engagement in meditative yoga decreases markers of psychological and physiological stress, while power yoga does not impart a significant stress-relieving benefit. Findings indicate that differing types of yoga may have various stress-relieving capabilities and should be considered by individuals seeking anxiolytic benefits.
... Naresh Kumar Patel et al., (2018) reported that a short-term 2-weeks of yoga training improved mindfulness in healthy women . Moreover, it have been reported that yoga training also improved fatigue (Woolery et al., 2004), physical fitness (Cowen & Adams, 2005), quality of life and mental health , mood and vitality (Bowden et al., 2012), well being (Kanojia et al., 2013a), risk of fall (Furtado et al., 2016), emotional regulation and self-compassion . ...
... Cheema et al., 2013; Streeter et al., 2010; Danucalov et al., 2013;Javnbakht, Hejazi Kenari, & Ghasemi, 2009a; Kanojia et al., 2013a;Rocha et al., 2012;Smith, Hancock, Blake-Mortimer, & Eckert, 2007;Woolery et al., 2004), 7 studies reported the reduction of stress (mostly measured by PSS)(Bowden et al., 2012;Cowen & Adams, 2005;Fang & Li, 2015;Garcia-Sesnich, Flores, Rios, & Aravena, 2017;Huang, Chien, & Chung, 2013;Lin, Huang, Shiu, & Yeh, 2015;Smith et al., 2007), and 5 studies indicated the reduction of depression (mostly measured by BDI)(Danucalov et al., 2013;Javnbakht et al., 2009a; Kanojia et al., 2013a;Rocha et al., 2012;Woolery et al., 2004). Three studies reported improvement of mood following 5 to 12 weeks of yoga training(Streeter et al., 2010;Woolery et al., 2004). ...
Thesis
The thesis aims to investigate the effects of two techniques of emotional reglulation, mindfulness meditation and yoga, on stress reactivity, alexithymia, and its relevant variables. Forty-four healthy particiants were ramdomly allocated into 3 groups; mindfulness meditation, yoga and control. The results showed that the 8-weeks of mindfulness meditation (one session/week with an instructor and two sessions as home-practice) significantly improved mindfulness skill and concentration. While, the 8-weeks of yoga significantly ameliorated heart rate variability, (increased HF(n.u.), decreased LF(n.u.) and LF/HF). However, there was no significant interaction effect of group x time for stress hormones. Furthermore, there was no significant interaction effect of group x time for alexithymia. We add a qualitative analysis to better understand the process behind the changes following theinterventions. It indicated that the mindfulness meditation seemed to be the most effective intervention for alexithymia. Individual differences such as personality, attitudes and confidence on the effectiveness of intervention as well as the level of physical activity should be taken into account in the choice of the most appropriate intervention for a specific profile. Despite the study limitations due to the small subjects number in the different groups, it appears that mindfulness meditation and yoga seem to be an effective intervention for stress management, and mindfulness meditation would be suggested for alexithymia.
... After the intervention, it was found that the total mean PPHAS scores of the pregnants in the experimental group increased (p ˂ 0.001). Cowen and Adams reported in their studies that the flexibility and sense of health increased in the pregnants who practiced yoga 23 . In a meta-analysis in which six separate randomized controlled studies were evaluated, it was reported that prenatal yoga practice had a significant effect on decreasing the depressive symptoms in the pregnants diagnosed with depression 24 . ...
... However, it was determined that the mean pregnancy and spouse relationship subscale scores in both groups were similar after the yoga practice (intervention) (p ˃ 0.05). In the relevant literature, it has been reported that the meditation performed in yoga practice contributes positively to (a) eliminating the tension and stress in pregnancy, (b) development of self-identity, (c) increase motivation, (c) increase in the emotions of love and affection, and (d) feelings of happiness 21,[23][24][25][26][27] . The literature supports the findings of this study. ...
Article
Pregnancy is a special period in which women experience many changes. Negative psychosocial health level and poor prenatal attachment during pregnancy can result in negative maternal behaviors, postpartum anxiety, and depression. This study was conducted as a randomized controlled experimental study which aimed at identifying the effect of pregnancy yoga on the pregnant’s psychosocial health and prenatal attachment. Sixty three pregnant women who were primipara, who were in the 14 to 26 weeks of their pregnancy, who did not have any chronic disease and a past yoga experience, and who had singular and spontaneous pregnancy were included in the study. Before the intervention, all the pregnant women were evaluated with Pregnant Information Form (PIF), Pregnancy Psychosocial Health Assessment Scale (PPHAS), and Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI). The yoga group did yoga for 40 minutes two days a week for a period of 8 weeks under the supervision of one of the researchers. At the end of 8 weeks (post intervention), both the yoga group and the control group were re-evaluated through the Pregnancy Psychosocial Health Assessment Scale and Prenatal Attachment Inventory. Chi-square, independent sample t test, paired sample t test, Mann Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks were used for data analyses. Post intervention analyses revealed that the mean Pregnancy Psychosocial Health Assessment Scale scores of the experimental group were significantly higher than the scores of the control group (p ˂ 0.001). At the beginning of the study, the Prenatal Attachment Inventory mean scores of both groups were similar. However, at the end of intervention, it was observed that Prenatal Attachment Inventory mean scores of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p ˂ 0.05). The mean anxiety and stress subscale score was found to be higher in the experimental group than the score in the control group (p ˂ 0.05). When the mean anxiety and stress subscale score increased, anxiety and stress level decreased. Prenatal yoga is an effective method in increasing the pregnant’s psychosocial health level and prenatal attachment. © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
... It has been claimed that it is not necessary to distinguish between yoga styles given that they differ only in delivery, not their components postures, breathing, meditation; [9]. Other studies, however, have found significant differences in outcomes of interventions based on distinct yoga styles; for instance, participants in a 6-week ashtanga yoga program demonstrated significantly lower perceived stress and blood pressure, and higher health perception, muscular strength and endurance, in relation to participants that completed 6 weeks of hatha yoga [23]. ...
... The many different styles of yoga used in interventions make the comparison of results more challenging. Although some authors claim that yoga styles are similar in their components and differ only in the way they are delivered [9], anecdotal evidence suggests that this is not the case when comparing distinct yoga styles; for instance, different outcomes were observed for subjects practicing ashtanga vinyasa yoga and those practicing hatha yoga [23]. Clear descriptions of yoga practices used in interventions should thus be given, allowing for proper comparisons among studies. ...
Article
Yoga has been gaining popularity as a complementary therapy for mental health conditions, but research on the efficacy of yoga is still in its beginnings. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the effects of modern postural yoga (strong focus on physical postures) on positive mental health (PMH) indicators in clinical and nonclinical populations. The most common PMH indicators were mindfulness, affect, resilience and well-being, followed by satisfaction with life, self-compassion, empathy and others. Diverse results were found across the 14 studies analysed, including significant positive effects of yoga practice on outcome variables, to no significant effects, both in relation to baseline levels and in relation to control groups. Nonetheless, most studies observed ameliorations in PMH indicators due to yoga practice. Given that yoga interventions pose serious methodological concerns, more research and better experimental designs are needed to properly assess the effects of yoga on PMH indicators.
... Through physical poses (asanas), yoga challenges practitioners to move their bodies in ways comparable to other physical activities (Govindaraj, Karmani, Varambally, & Gangadhar, 2016), elevating heart rates (Cowen & Adams, 2007) into the lower bounds recommended for cardiovascular activity by the American Heart Association (Cowen & Adams, 2007;Haskell et al., 2007). In Movement-Focused yoga traditions, the emphasis is usually on correct movement and achieving increasingly challenging poses and postures (Cowen & Adams, 2005;Govindaraj et al., 2016). As such, Movement-Focused yoga likely shares in the mental health benefits of physical exercise (Penedo & Dahn, 2005;Ross & Thomas, 2010). ...
Article
Yoga is increasingly recognized for both its physical and mental health benefits, yet its central mechanisms of action remain unclear. In addition to benefits generally associated with physical exercise, yoga may also cultivate interoception, the sense of the body's internal state, the ability to notice and respond adaptively to physiological cues. Complicating matters, yoga training varies in the relative emphasis on physical movement and the cultivation of interoceptive awareness, yet few studies have explored whether differences in emphasis impact yoga's benefits. A randomized trial explored the effects of interoceptive emphasis in yoga training on attention and subjective wellbeing. Over a 10-week period featuring classes twice each week, community-dwelling adult participants with moderate depressive symptoms (N = 58) were randomized to attend either more Movement-Focused yoga or Interoception-Focused yoga. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and at a one-month follow-up, which included both self-reports of mood and interoception, and task-performance on a Sustained Attention to Response Task. Relative to Movement-Focused yoga, Interoception-Focused yoga practitioners showed greater improvements in sustained attention, but no differences in self-reported mood or interoception. Yet sustained attention improvements in the Interoception-Focused group were greatest for those endorsing high levels of interoception, an effect that was absent in the Movement-Focused group. Despite an exploratory sample size, these findings support the potential for an interoceptive focus to extend yoga's attentional benefits, particularly for those who report high interoceptive awareness.
... Following the Patanjali yoga sutra, yoga implements 'Chitta vritti nirodha,' which means managing or cooling the mind. In conjunction with enhancing physical strength and flexibility, it is also debated that yogic asanas help build attentiveness too (Cowen et al., 2005). In the following paragraphs, we further present the evidence available on the effect of yoga and meditation on various physical and mental wellness factors associated with students' academic performance (Figure-2). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has negatively impacted the global healthcare and economic systems worldwide. The COVID-19 pandemic has also created an emotional and psychological pandemic among people of all ages irrespective of economic status and physical wellbeing. As a consequence of prolonged lockdowns, one of the most severely affected age groups globally is the young adults' group, especially students. Uncertainties in the academic calendar, restricted outdoor activities, and unusual daily routines during lockdowns led to higher incidences of stress, anxiety, and depression among students worldwide. In this review, we summarise the available evidence on the effect of lockdowns on students and discuss possible positive impacts of yoga and meditation on various psychological, emotional, and immunological parameters, which can significantly influence the general wellbeing and academic performance of students. Perspectives shared in the review will also bring awareness on how yoga and meditation could boost students' performance and assist them in maintaining physical and mental wellbeing during stressful conditions such as future epidemics and pandemics with novel infections. This information could help create better educational curriculums and healthy routines for students.
... Patanjali's yoga sutras state that yoga is the union of the body, mind and soul (Lasater, 1997). Yoga is centred on Patanjali's eight-fold path (Cowen & Adams, 2005). The eight-fold path of yoga includes, observing restraint known as yama; daily rituals termed as niyama; physical postures identified as asanas; breathing practices recognised as pranayama; abstinence classified as pratyahara; concentration and focus called dharana; meditation or dhyana; and enlightenment characterised as samadhi (Iyengar, 1979). ...
Article
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This article looks at divergent views of yoga as a complementary wellness activity in Norway through a study of yoga classes whilst employing a qualitative research methodology. Furthermore, the research focuses on how and why yoga is modified by instructors. The discourse is analysed through the application of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Findings indicate that a need for stress relief creates a demand for alternative wellness practices, such as yoga. However, modifications made by instructors to the traditional practice in order to complement the cultural norms of the clients may pose challenges for clients in deriving the maximum benefits. Modifying the practice may also inhibit clients from completely exploring the correct techniques. Besides, marketing yoga as merely a physical activity while attempting to present it as a culturally neutral practice is only a partial offer. Eliminating key elements, such as meditation, chants and breath awareness techniques, suppresses the authenticity of the traditional format which centres on a holistic mind-body-soul approach. Along with achieving optimum physical benefits, improving mental wellbeing is equally integral through yoga. Hence, for service providers, it is imperative to be conscientious of maintaining the authenticity of the yogic practice as opposed to compromising it in lieu of profitability.
... Depending on the type of yoga being practiced, the mindfulness-based part or the physically demanding part is in the foreground [22]. Studies on healthy individuals show the wide-ranging effects of yoga-like reduced body strains, lower levels of anxiety and self-reported stress [23]. In fact, regular yoga practice improves general well-being and has a balancing effect on mood [24,25]. ...
Article
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The major depressive disorder is one of the most common mental illnesses worldwide. Current treatment standards recommend a combined therapy with medication and psychotherapy. As an additive component and to further improvements in treatment, physical activity such as yoga may be integrated into conventional treatment. This study investigates the impact of a 3-month body-oriented yoga in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In total, n = 83 patients were included. An intervention group received a vigorous Ashtanga-Yoga three times a week. The waiting-list control group obtained a treatment as usual (TAU). As a primary outcome depression scores (Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)) were tested at three time points. Secondary outcome was the positive and negative affect [Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS)] and remission rates. To analyze the data, multilevel models and effect sizes were conducted. The results showed an improvement in BDI-II scores for both groups over time [ γ = − 3.46, t (165) = − 7.99, p < 0.001] but not between groups [ γ = 0.98, t (164) = 1.12, p = 0.263]. An interaction effect (time x group) occurred for MADRS [ γ = 2.10, t (164) = 2.10, p < 0.038]. Positive affects improved over time for both groups [ γ = 1.65, t (165) = 4.03, p < 0.001]. Negative affects decreased for all over time [ γ = − 1.00, t (165) = − 2.51, p = 0.013]. There were no significant group differences in PANAS. Post hoc tests revealed a greater symptom reduction within the first 6 weeks for all measurements. The effect sizes for depression scores showed a positive trend. Remission rates indicated a significant improvement in the yoga group (BDI-II: 46.81%, MADRS: 17.02%) compared to the control group (BDI: 33.33%, MADRS: 8.33%). The findings suggest that there is a trendsetting additive effect of Ashtanga-Yoga after 3 months on psychopathology and mood with a greater improvement at the beginning of the intervention. Further research in this field can help to achieve more differentiated results.
... Most commonly, a typical yoga schedule follows a combination of asanas (postures), pranayama (breath control), pratyahara (withdrawal of senses), Dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation) and Samadhi (absorption). While asanas are reported to help in improving the physical strength and flexibility, it is argued to also help in building concentration [21]. Preliminary research suggests that pranayama calms the nervous system and helps in regulating the blood pressure [22]which is further argued to improve the stress response. ...
Article
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This cross-sectional research aims to study the effect of yoga practice on the illness perception, and wellbeing of healthy adults during 4-10 weeks of lockdown due to COVID19 outbreak. A total of 668 adults (64.7% males, M = 28.12 years, SD = 9.09 years) participated in the online survey. The participants were grouped as; yoga practitioners, other spiritual practitioners, and non-practitioners based on their responses to daily practices that they follow. Yoga practitioners were further examined based on the duration of practice as; long-term, mid-term and beginners. Multivariate analysis indicates that yoga practitioners had significantly lower depression, anxiety, & stress (DASS), and higher general wellbeing (SWGB) as well as higher peace of mind (POMS) than the other two groups. The results further revealed that the yoga practitioners significantly differed in the perception of personal control, illness concern and emotional impact of COVID19. However, there was no significant difference found for the measure of resilience (BRS) in this study. Yoga practitioners also significantly differed in the cognitive reappraisal strategy for regulating their emotions than the other two groups. Interestingly, it was found that beginners -those who had started practicing yoga only during the lockdown period reported no significant difference for general wellbeing and peace of mind when compared to the mid- term practitioner. Evidence supports that yoga was found as an effective self- management strategy to cope with stress, anxiety and depression, and maintain wellbeing during COVID19 lockdown.
... In a research conducted in Iran, it was stated that the symptoms of mental illness decreased as a result of the application of physical postures in yoga practice. Also found in a research conducted in Arizona that exibility, muscle strength and dynamism were increased [46,47]. In this research, it can be assumed that the postures that is applied to pregnant women for an average of 35 min are helpful for establishing the mind-body connection and reaching a healthy and peaceful state. ...
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Background Yoga is recommended as a behavioural self-management strategy for stress. However, the evidence of how it affects women's stress perception is not much studied. Hence the present study was taken to assess the perceived stress score and to explore the experiences of pregnant women of stress management before and after prenatal yoga programme according to Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome Theory. Methods This study was made using concurrent triangulation mixed method design. Quantitative part of the study was made pretest-posttest with control group experimental study, qualitative part of the study was made phenomenological method. Quantitative data were gathered from 31 pregnant women in both yoga and control groups. As for qualitative data, 21 and 15 pregnant women were interviewed in the first and second interviews, respectively. Pregnant Woman Description Form was used as a data collection tool; a visual analogue scale was used for measuring stress score; and the interviews were made through Semi-Structured Interview Form. The themes were determined according to the stages of Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome Theory. Thematic approach was used to assess the data. Results The difference among the first, second and third visual analogue scale stress perception mean scores of pregnant women in the prenatal yoga programme and control groups was statistically significant. The women mostly used the expressions relaxation, decrease in stress perception and learning to cope with stress to describe stress perception after prenatal yoga programme. All women told that their stress perception decreased, and they learned how to cope with stress in pregnancy. Discussion This study demonstrated yoga was acceptable to stressed pregnant women. There was a significant decrease in stress perception of pregnant women. The women had a chance to express the physical and mental effects of yoga on stress management.
... Similarly, Kim et al. 7 showed the substantial effects of 16-week HY exercise on body composition, serum lipids, and h-rf components (grip strength, back strength, push-ups, sit-ups, Harvard step test, and sitting trunk flexion) in 18 middle-aged women. hy-focused studies by cowen and adams, 8 Kim et al., 7 and Grabara 9 have confirmed these observations. Although the majority of interventional studies in young, middle-aged and older participants suggest that hy is an acceptable form of pa for enhancing muscular strength, balance and flexibility, the literature is conflicting regarding the effectiveness of yoga training in general and HY specifically to elicit cardiorespiratory fitness benefits. ...
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Background: There is paucity of data examining the effectiveness of long-term Hatha yoga-based (HY) programs focused on the health-related fitness (H-RF) of asymptomatic, sedentary women. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-month HY-based training program on H-RF components in sedentary middle-aged women. Methods: Eighty sedentary women were randomly assigned into either the HY group (HYG) (N.=42) or the control group (CG) (N.=38). The 6-month HYG program involved a progressive series of Vinyasa Flow poses performed 3 times/week for 60 minutes (40 minutes within the exercise zone of 60-75% HR max ). The CG participants did not undergo any physical training or education. Health-related fitness parameters included measures of pre- and post-training: body composition, muscular strength and maximal voluntary isometric torques of elbow flexors and knee extensors, cardio-respiratory fitness, lower back and hamstring flexibility and a static-dynamic balance. Results: Two-way mixed design ANOVA revealed significant main effects for all the indicators of H-RF. Tukey post-hoc tests confirmed that the HYG demonstrated significant improvements in every variable tested. Examples of the benefits achieved include (all P<.001): an average loss of 1.03 kg and a 4.82% decrease in body fat, 14.6% and 13.1% gains in isometric strength of the knee extensors and elbow flexors respectively, an increase in relative VO 2max of 6.1% (33.12±5.30 to 35.14±4.82 mL/kg/min), a 4-cm or 10.4% increase in their MSAR, and an average improved Balance Index of 5.6 mm/s. Reversely, the CG showed non-significant changes in H-RF variables (all P>0.05; percent range from -1.4% to 1.1%). Conclusions: By participating in a moderate-intensity 6-month HY-based training program, middle-aged women can significantly improve their HR-F status. The application of progressive target heart rate goals facilitated greater than expected improvements in cardio-respiratory fitness and improvements in body composition.
... At the start of each of the 3 studies, each participant was first instructed to perform relaxation in Corpse (Savasana), 24 followed by warm up rounds of Sun Salutation (Surya Namaskar). [26][27][28][29] Previously, Surya Namaskar has been used as a warm-up in similar studies. After the warm-up, 11 Hatha yoga poses were performed with a Savasana between them, based on Leslie Kaminoff 's principles ( Figure 2). ...
Context: Yoga as a form of physical activity is growing in popularity. During yoga, individuals interrupt the stress response, which is typically associated with high blood pressure (BP), impaired focus, and high levels of anxiety. Consequently, research into yoga's effects on stress should place a special emphasis upon the interplay of the nervous and cardiovascular systems during yoga practice. Objective: The purpose of this study was to delineate the immediate cardiovascular effects of 12 Hatha yoga poses by means of RR (beat-to-beat) intervals and JT (cardiac repolarization) intervals. Design: The research team designed controlled pilot studies based on half-year periods. Setting: The study took place at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences in Kaunas, Lithuania. Participants: Participants were women who were long-term yoga practitioners. Three studies occurred: (1) Study 1-10 women with a mean age of 30.1 ± 1.9 years, (2) Study 2-10 women with a mean age of 29.9 ± 1.9 years, and (3) Study 3-22 women with a mean age of 32.9 ± 1.8 years. Intervention: The study examined the acute cardiovascular effects of 12 Hatha yoga poses by means of electrocardiogram parameters. Outcome measures: Anthropometrical and physiological parameters were measured: (1) height and weight; (2) body mass index (BMI); (3) heart rate (HR); (4) systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP); and (5) electrocardiogram (ECG) RR and JT intervals. Results: The lowest RR interval value was recorded during the Chaturanga Dandasana, at 456.0 ± 16.5 ms in Study 3, with P < .001 compared to the intervals for all the other poses. Significant differences in the JT interval also emerged during the Chaturanga Dandasana, at 177.3 ± 6.0 ms in Study 3 with P < .001 compared to all the other poses. The next lowest RR interval value was recorded in Study 3 during the Utkatasana, at 569.4 ± 17.6 ms. In the Savasana prior to the program, the RR interval increased in study 1 and decreased in studies 2 and 3. The JT interval in the Savasana prior to the program increased in studies 1 and 2 but decreased in study 3. Conclusions: Healthy women can practice a modified and/or a shorter duration of the Chaturanga Dandasana. Adjustments in the Utkatasana, including having the arms in the prayer position, may help prevent strain to the cardiovascular system. Also, practicing poses with a longer RR interval may aid stress-related health problems.
... Further asana for internal and external parts of the body are prescribed by yoga expert for regular use. Cowen and Adams (2005) pointed at physical benefits of asana such as regulation of blood pressure, increased upper body and trunk muscles, body endurance and flexibly. Once the body is in align with mind, the breath is regularized by the yogi. ...
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The objective of this chapter is to introduce a conceptual framework and application of the four paths of yoga in modern times to strip the human mind of all its impurities and see the stream of consciousness is clear as crystal and capable of reflecting whole reality. The conceptual framework is formulated from the ancient Indian scriptures and literature. Karmayoga, jnanayoga, bhaktiyoga, and rajayoga are the four yoga or spiritual paths significant for improving individual and society wellbeing. The chapter includes trends of each yoga with respect to modern times.
... Firstly, yoga brings attention toward the entire body (Lloyd et al., 2017) and integrates all elements of the practitioner such as body, mind and emotions (Moliterno, 2008). Secondly, yoga incorporates breathing techniques, relaxation, body alignment, strength, flexibility and coordination exercises (Carman, 2004;Cowen at al., 2005;Fiel, 2011). Thirdly, yoga has many health benefits such as improving cardiovascular, autoimmune, and immunocompromise conditions (Smith et al., 2007;Da Silva et al., 2009;Cramer et al., 2013). ...
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The aim of this study is to detect and emphasize the benefits yoga and movement can have on articulatory, masticatory muscles and sound production
... [7][8][9] Yoga includes the techniques of posture (asana), breath control (pranayama), and meditation, as well as moral and ethical observances. 2,10,11 The proposed benefits of regular yoga practice are many and varied, including increase in muscular strength, flexibility and balance, reduced stress, anxiety and depression, and an enhancement of overall well-being and quality of life. 12,13 There is not enough data to assess the effectiveness of yoga in the management of hematological problems. ...
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Background: Yoga is a physical, mental and spiritual practice that has been around since ages. With time, people have discovered a number of health benefits associated with yoga.Methods: This longitudinal interventional study intended to evaluate the effect of yoga intervention on physical health and various hematological parameters. Thirty five healthy individuals between the age group of 18 to 45 years participated in the study. After a written informed consent, the individuals underwent various types of yoga exercises for 90 days under supervision of professional yoga trainer. Impact on body mass index (BMI), pulse rate, blood pressure (BP), and various haematological parameters like hemoglobin percentage (Hb %), white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet count, were taken under consideration before and after training. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test.Results: Significant reduction in BMI, BP and rise in Hb % and platelet (p<0.05) was observed. However, although WBC count showed improvement, the difference was statistically non-significant. No adverse events were observed during the study period.Conclusions: The present study findings highlight the importance of yoga in improving physical health and hematological markers.
... Healthy subjects (both male and female) are selected (mean age in years 20 ± 5) randomly who are not undergoing any medication or clinical diagnosis. Exclusion criteria considered are subjects with implants, accidental problems and pregnancy [7][8][9]. Fig. 1 shows the steps involved in the whole procedure. SpO 2 , heart rate, blood pressure is recorded. ...
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Yoga is an ancient science which is practiced by an individual as a physical and mental exercise to become fit and healthy. In current study we perform various YOGA exercises to see its effects on various physiological parameters. The main objective of this study is to analyze the effect of karma yoga on physical (strength of quadriceps group of muscles) and physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation level (SpO2), heart rate and blood pressure. Healthy subjects are selected randomly for yoga session. SpO2, heart rates are measured using pulse oximeter and blood pressure using blood pressure apparatus. We used Electromyogram (EMG) acquisition and analysis software to acquire EMG signal from the quadriceps muscle. The variations in the physical and physiological parameters after performing karma yoga for a period of time are observed. The study concludes that there is a significant improvement in the strength of quadricep muscle but reduction in the pulse rate, SpO2, systolic and diastolic blood pressure after practicing the scheduled yoga. The significant results of these experiments show that if yoga exercises will be performed by any individual then its helps in improving their physiological parameters.
... Finally, yoga interventions use distinct styles of yoga that differ in the relative amounts of yoga components offered (i.e., physical postures, breathing techniques, and meditation), yielding different outcomes to practitioners (e.g., [22]). ...
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Purpose Yoga has been increasingly used as a complementary therapy for eating disorders. However, it is still not clear whether yoga is effective in the prevention and treatment of eating disorders, as some studies suggest that yoga practitioners show elevated levels of disordered eating behaviours. The goal of this systematic review is, thus, to analyse the occurrence of disordered eating behaviours and correlates in yoga practitioners. Method PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were used. Search was conducted in several databases and specific journals. Results Twelve articles, all cross-sectional, were identified, following PRISMA guidelines. Results across studies were inconsistent. Yoga practice was usually associated with healthier eating behaviours, lower disordered eating symptoms, and higher positive body image and body satisfaction, suggesting that yoga practitioners may be at a lower risk of developing eating disorders. However, other studies suggested that a high dosage of yoga practice may be associated with a higher prevalence of disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions As yoga is increasingly used as therapy for eating disorders, understanding the relationship between yoga dosage and disordered eating behaviours is critical to guide treatment recommendations and establish yoga as a valuable complementary therapy. Level of evidence Level I, systematic review.
... Despite its demonstrated physical and mental health benefits, there are risks associated with practicing yoga (Atkinson & Permuth-Levine, 2009;Birdee, Ayala, & Wallston, 2017;Chong, Tsunaka, Tsang, Chan, & Cheung, 2011;Cowen & Adams, 2005;Ross & Thomas, 2010). Yoga-related injuries may result in prolonged pain, discomfort, suffering, missed work, and financial loss (Russel, Gushue, Richmond, & McFaull, 2016). ...
Article
Teaching with acoustical guidance involves auditory feedback (e.g., a click sound when a desired behavior occurs) as part of a multicomponent intervention known as TAGteach. TAGteach has been found to improve performance in sport, dance, surgical technique, and walking. We compared the efficacy and efficiency of the standard TAGteach error‐correction procedure and a modified TAGteach error‐correction procedure to teach 4 novice adult yoga practitioners beginner yoga poses. Both error‐correction procedures were effective for all participants; however, the relative efficiency of these error‐correction procedures was unclear. Results are discussed in terms of limitations and considerations for future research.
... Nos últimos 150 anos, o yoga tem sido transportado da Índia para os países ocidentais e tem sido sujeito a um processo progressivo de aculturação, assumindo-se no século XXI como um fenómeno transnacional e predominantemente anglófono (De Michelis, 2007;Singleton, 2010 praticantes de ashtanga vinyasa (um estilo fisicamente mais exigente) relativamente aos praticantes de hatha yoga (um estilo mais suave) (Cowen & Adams, 2005). ...
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Maṇḍalas e Yantras e as escalas do Universo - Mariana Seabra. O yoga brasileiro: conversando com yogues e cientistas - Roberto Simões. Quem são os praticantes de yoga em Portugal? Personalidade e motivações - Rita B. Domingues. Yoga como terapia para os Transtornos Psicossomáticos: uma visão contemporânea e tradicional - Sara B. Ponte.
... Yoga is one of the six schools of Indian philosophy and is also part of Indian traditional medical system, Ayurveda. [48] Many herbal plants mentioned in Ayurveda known to have medical importance. [49][50][51][52][53] Ayurveda is the oldest Indian indigenous medicine system of plant drugs known for preventing or suppressing tumors using herbal drugs and even various research studies are ongoing to that indirectly validate their role in the management of cancer. ...
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Despite tremendous advancements in medicine, the number of oral cancer cases continues to increase, and the need for integrating alternate medicine or adopting an integrative approach has become a compelling cost‑effective requirement for the management and treatment of diseases. Conventional treatment of oral cancer involves surgery followed by radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy which causes several complications including poor quality of life and high chances of recurrence of cancer. Oral cancer is often linked with obesity which is major risk factors in other cancers. Apart from obesity, oral cancer is thought to have an inverse relation with neurodegenerative disorders presumably because cell death decreases in the former case and increases in the latter. Ancient mind–body techniques such as yoga have not been adequately tested as a tool to synergize the cellular equilibrium pertaining to the treatment of oral cancer. Nerve growth factor (NGF), tumor necrosis factor‑alpha (TNF‑α), and interleukin‑6 (IL‑6) are among the early experimental cellular biomarkers that may be used to probe the modulation of oral cancer, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders. Yoga has been reported to influence these molecules in healthy individuals but whether their expression can be altered in patients of oral cancer by yoga intervention is the subject of this research being discussed in this review article. Therefore, the present article not only reviews the current status of research studies in oral cancer, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders but also how these are linked to each other and why the investigations of the putative NGF pathway, involving TNF‑α and IL‑6, could provide useful clues to understand the molecular effects brought about by yoga intervention in such patients.
... , (Kullo, Hensrud, & Allison, 2002). . , (Cowen & Adams, 2005) . , 12 , , . ...
... Despite the lack of evidence about effect of lower back and hamstrings muscles flexibility on sleep quality, a significant study suggested Yoga and 6 months of silver yoga exercise to improve sleep quality and health status (Oken et al., 2006;Cahan and Baharav, 2014) and this exercise increased upper body and trunk dynamic muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and health perception (Cowen and Adams, 2005;Ross and Thomas, 2010). Therefore, while this significantly associated findings between sleep quality and lower back and hamstring muscles flexibility, it feasibly pointed the beneficial of enhancing the flexibility among school children to get well sleep quality. ...
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This study aimed to determine the association between sleep quality (SQ) and physical fitness components among 13-14 years old male students in a secondary school in Kota Kemuning Selangor, Malaysia. The sample consist of 162 students purposively selected according to their physical fitness levels (SEGAK test score). They were in three categories; higher (A score: 4.33±0.21, N=54), intermediate (B score: 3.27±0.26, N=54) and lower (C score: 2.35±0.36, N=54). The SEGAK tests were consist of BMI, step test, push-up, curl-up, and sit and reach. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) self-reported questionnaire was used to measure SQ. The descriptive analysis and Pearson Product Moment test were used to analyze the data. The results showed 51.8% of the students with higher fitness level, and 42.6% of the intermediate level reported “very good” SQ while only 25.9% of the lower fitness level had “very good” SQ. The correlation between overall SQ score and total fitness score was (r=-.282; p <0.001). The physical fitness components which significantly associated with SQ were BMI (r=.211; p=0.007), cardiovascular fitness (r=.319; p <0.001), endurance and strength of abdominal muscles (r=-.197; p =.012), and lower back muscles flexibility (r=.315; p <0.001). These findings illustrated no significant association between SQ and “endurance and strength of shoulder muscles” (r=-.142; p =0.072). The findings suggest that, cardiovascular fitness level and lower back muscles flexibility can improve overall SQ, similarly normal BMI, and endurance and strength of abdominal muscles among secondary school children. Physical educators should be encouraging students to improve their physical fitness components for higher fitness level to enhance their SQ as an important part of healthy life.
... Most descriptions of the effect of yoga on musculoskeletal disorders point to the benefits of joint realignment and active stretch producing traction of muscles during the asanas (or yoga poses) [40]. A growing number of research studies have shown that the practice of yoga can improve posture, strength, endurance and flexibility [31,41,42]; improve balance, gait, and fear of falling434445, and hand grip strength [46]. Other studies have shown that practicing yoga asanas (postures), meditation or a combination of the two, reduces pain for people with arthritis [47,48]. ...
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Background While arthritis is the most common cause of disability, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics experience worse arthritis impact despite having the same or lower prevalence of arthritis compared to non-Hispanic whites. People with arthritis who exercise regularly have less pain, more energy, and improved sleep, yet arthritis is one of the most common reasons for limiting physical activity. Mind-body interventions, such as yoga, that teach stress management along with physical activity may be well suited for investigation in both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Yoga users are predominantly white, female, and college educated. There are few studies that examine yoga in minority populations; none address arthritis. This paper presents a study protocol examining the feasibility and acceptability of providing yoga to an urban, minority population with arthritis. Methods/design In this ongoing pilot study, a convenience sample of 20 minority adults diagnosed with either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis undergo an 8-week program of yoga classes. It is believed that by attending yoga classes designed for patients with arthritis, with racially concordant instructors; acceptability of yoga as an adjunct to standard arthritis treatment and self-care will be enhanced. Self-care is defined as adopting behaviors that improve physical and mental well-being. This concept is quantified through collecting patient-reported outcome measures related to spiritual growth, health responsibility, interpersonal relations, and stress management. Additional measures collected during this study include: physical function, anxiety/depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, social roles, and pain; as well as baseline demographic and clinical data. Field notes, quantitative and qualitative data regarding feasibility and acceptability are also collected. Acceptability is determined by response/retention rates, positive qualitative data, and continuing yoga practice after three months. Discussion There are a number of challenges in recruiting and retaining participants from a community clinic serving minority populations. Adopting behaviors that improve well-being and quality of life include those that integrate mental health (mind) and physical health (body). Few studies have examined offering integrative modalities to this population. This pilot was undertaken to quantify measures of feasibility and acceptability that will be useful when evaluating future plans for expanding the study of yoga in urban, minority populations with arthritis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01617421
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Hrudaya is an important organ of human body. It plays essentialrole in difficult activities in human body. Aim - To study aspects of Hrudya according toayurveda and modern science. Methodology - References about hrudya’s origin etc. fromdifferent ayurvedic texts have been studied. Result. Conclusion - This is a review article.Various references from ayurvedic & modern texts regarding Hrudya have been studied tounderstand the concept of HrudyaKey Words :Hrudaya,Heart (Deerghayu International Peer reviewed Journal for Ayurved and Health Sciences ISSN/ISBN Number 0970—3381——issue no---122—April-june2015 Page no 318 -323)
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The aim of this study was to see the effect of suryanamaskar practice with different paces on leg strength of school students. Study had three objectives, first see the interaction effect of training duration and groups, second the main effect of duration, and third the main effect of groups. Within between mixed design was used. Three experimental intact groups were created Pace 1 group, Pace 2 group and Pace 4 group, each group had 15 subjects with age range between 15-17 years. Pace 1 group practiced one round (12 steps) of suryanamaskar in 1 minute, Pace 2 group in 2 minutes and Pace 4 group in 4 minutes. The maximum strength of the legs was measured by the leg dynamometer test. Total 12 weeks training was given in which three observations were taken before the training (pre-test), after 6 weeks (mid-test) and after 12 weeks (post-test). 3 X 3 mixed factorial ANOVA was used and level of significance was set at 0.05. Result showed that practice of Suryanamaskar for 6 weeks and 12 weeks were sufficient to bring out significant improvement on leg strength (main effect of training duration).
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Yoga is the science of conditioning one's mind and body via the practise of shatkarma, asana, pranayama, mudra, and meditation. The aim of this review of literature is to give theoretical rationale for identifying (a) the specific attributes of yoga poses that have been used in yoga protocols of various studies but have not been explicitly explored, & (b) the minimum time necessary to keep a posture to bring about a corresponding change in performance among the aforementioned cognitive functions (s) In humans, The most prevalent and under-treated problems are cognitive decline & psychological health problems. Different studies have been carried out to determine the influence of Yoga on human cognitive and psychological health indices. However, no comprehensive examination of the effects of yoga-based therapy on human cognitive and mental health has been undertaken to far. Yoga is an ancient science that places a premium on disease prevention and treatment, as well as the percentage of health. Yoga is recognized to delay the effects of aging and has been found to be effective in the therapy of aging-related disorders. Yoga is a centuries-old discipline that is said to improve both physical and emotional well-being.
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Background: Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic granulomatous disease globally transmitted and worrisome in Iraq. This study was aimed to detect M. tuberculosis in sputum samples using smear stain and PCR assay for confirmatory identification and determine drug resistance patterns. Methods: During January till June 2016, 72 sputum samples from suspected patients with tuberculosis were processed for Zeihle-Neelsen stain and direct application of conventional PCR assay and Gene-Xpert (Nested Real Time) system. Furthermore, additional 37 provided positive-TB cultures were subjected to above molecular methods for more confirmation and determination of drug resistance genes. Results: Out of 72 sputum samples, 12(16.7%) samples were AFB positive by using smear stain. PCR confirmed 15(20.8%) sputum samples contained TB. conventional PCR targeted gene (1S6110) was applied on 44 samples (7 AFB-positive smear and 37 provided positive cultures), 33(75.0%) samples (4 of AFB- positive smear and 29 provided positive-cultures) were successfully gave amplified product. Those 33 positive samples were contained resistance genes as follow; 27(81.8%) rpoB to Rifampsin, 4 (12.1%) katG to Isoniazid, 8(24.2%) embB to Ethabutamol, 30 (90.9%) rpsL to Streptomycin. When Gene-Xpert PCR assay was directly applied on 49 sputum samples (8 smear positive and 41 smear negative ),11 samples were contained M tuberculosis that involved 8 smear positive samples and other 3 smear negative samples and only 1 (9.1%) of those positive samples contained rifampicin gene. Conclusion: The study highlighted that multi-drug M tuberculosis is circulating and worrisome in Iraq. Direct smear microscopy was simple to perform but had low sensitivity and required confirmation by conventional PCR and Gene-Xpert (Nested Real Time) for detection of drug resistant strains in our community.
Article
Background Participating in yoga may be ideal for college students to increase physical activity and improve mental health. Purpose To investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week yoga intervention within a university setting on mental and physiologic heath. Methods This 8-week yoga intervention included twelve yoga-naïve adults, (23.8 ± 4.6 years; 71% female). Participants attended two 60-min yoga classes/week in addition to baseline, mid- and post-lab visits. Results 83% of participants attended ≥75% of yoga classes. Stress and depression symptoms decreased by 11% and 25%, respectively and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) reduced by 28%. Participants did not meet physical activity recommendations observed greater improvements in stress, depression symptoms, ESR, and C-reactive protein compared to participants who met recommendations. Conclusion The majority of participants attended ≥12 of 16 yoga classes. Exploratory analyses provide preliminary support for the impact of yoga on reducing stress, symptoms of depression, and ESR. Participants who were not meeting physical activity guidelines prior to starting the intervention received greater benefits.
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Interest in yoga as an intervention for psychological wellbeing has increased in recent years, with literature investigating beneficial effects in a variety of presentations and settings. The theoretical understanding of this benefit has previously focused on physiological changes involved in yoga practice, however interest has turned to the potential psychological mechanisms eliciting psychological wellbeing. The current paper builds on previous theory and argues that yoga practice targets transdiagnostic psychological processes; mechanisms that feature commonly across a wide range of presentations, thus reducing distress and increasing wellbeing across clinical and non-clinical populations. Features of yoga practice are discussed in relation to these transdiagnostic processes and the features of modern talking therapies. A new model is proposed positing specific aspects of yoga practice correlate with specific transdiagnostic processes to elicit psychological change and argues that the mechanisms by which change occurs are directly compared with the changes observed in talking therapies. The implications for future research and the potential for this to support the commissioning of holistic approaches in clinical practice are discussed.
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Evidence suggests that yoga can improve executive functioning (EF) and psychological well-being, but there is no evidence whether flow-based, moderate-intensity forms of yoga can deliver similar benefits. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to test the aforementioned effects of engaging in a 30-minute, video-guided sun salutation exercise (n = 25), relative to aerobic exercise (n = 22) and attentional control (n = 24). Low-active participants (Mage = 27.84; 87.3% female), with symptoms of stress, completed psychosocial assessments and tasks assessing EF, before and after the session. Results showed a significant group difference for state anxiety (p = .01, ηp² = 0.13) and stress (p < .05, ηp² = 0.09), in favor of the yoga group. No significant between-groups differences in EF were observed. Results suggest that video-guided, flow-based forms of yoga can induce immediate improvements in well-being, yet extended involvement may be required to realize performance improvements in memory and processing speed.
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From past to present, silver has existed available in many treatments in the field of health including dentistry. In the 1800s, antimicrobial and antirheumatic properties were discovered. Silver components were used in medicine for tetanus and rheumatic drugs as well as for the treatment of cold and gonorrhea. In the following years, with the discovery of antibiotics, studies on the use of silver in medicine were suspended. However, with the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the inability to prevent it, the interest in silver and its compunds has increased and studies on combined use have become the focus of attention. Silver compounds including silver nitrate (AgNO3) and silver sulfadiazine have been utilized as topical antibacterial agents with the aim of controlling skin infections which are confronted in incidents such as burns and chronic ulcers. Using silver compounds in the field of dentistry dates back to previous times owing to their antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. Silver amalgam and dental casting alloys are utilized in dentistry for a long time. In this respect, silver nitrate, being a silver compound, was used as an anti- caries, cavity sterilizing and dentin desensitizing agent. In the 1960s, combined agent studies were carried out, which put forward that compounds with fluoride would be more effective. AgNO3, AgF and Ag (NH3)2F as well as other silver particulate additives were investigated and utilized for management of caries. Various clinical studies have been conducted upon silver in caries management. Applying silver fluoride (AgF) compounds clinically, however, is limited as a result of the associated black staining. In order to eliminate this disadvantage, studies are carried out on silver nanoparticles (NPs) and silver diamine fluoride (Ag (NH3)2F ) compound, which are new compounds and used as anti-caries and dentin desensitizing agents today. Moreover, silver compounds and NPs are focused on for different types of dental applications which involve restorative material, endodontic retrograde cement, dental implants and caries preventive solution.
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This article examines the use of yoga and mindfulness as therapeutic group interventions with people who are incarcerated. The authors discuss the various benefits of yoga and mindfulness with this population, including promoting rehabilitation and reducing recidivism. Moreover, the article describes cultural and ethical considerations for counselors when implementing these interventions in a group setting in jails and prisons.
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Life will not be life without physical activities. Through physical activities alone people were able to survive in this world. The story of evolution throws some light on the nature and types of activities which are an essential part of modern physical activities which are to be fit for day-today existence and to meet the occasional emergencies that arise. Yoga may be an important tool for every individual to maintaining health and improving quality of life. Aerobic exercise can be viewed as an intricate system of bodily supply and demand. That is the body needs energy for any kind of activity and the need is filled by burning off the foods that eat. The purpose of the study was to Effect of 6-Weeks Yoga and Aerobic Exercise on Muscular Strength and Flexibility in Pre-Adolescence Students. For the purpose of the study Sixty (20 in Yoga group, 20 in Aerobic exercise group, 20 in control group) Pre-Adolescence boys student from Burdwan Sri Ramakrishna saradapith uchcha vidyalaya, Burdwan West Bengal were selected as the subjects for this study. The age of the subjects was between 12-14 Years. In order to investigative the existence of significant difference among Yoga group, Aerobic group and Control group on Muscular Strength and Flexibility of pre-adolescence Boys in pre-test, Post-test and Adjusted post test result, the analysis of Co-variance was used at 0.05 level of Significant. In case of existence of significant differences, the post hoc test (L.S.D test) was used in order to investigate the significant difference between paired group means. The result showed that there was significance difference on Muscular Strength among Yoga group, Aerobic group and Control group. The result also showed that there was significance difference on Flexibility among Yoga group, Aerobic group and Control group.
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The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of yogic practice and dynamic stretching exercises on muscular flexibility of the school children. To run the human machine smoothly it depends upon one of the most fitness component that is Flexibility. Flexibility is the range of motion through which the limbs are able to move. Dynamic stretching, as the name implies involves movement and muscular effort for the stretch to occur. For the purpose of this study 60 Children age ranged between 10to 14 years were selected randomly from SAPTAGRAM ADARSHA HIGH SCHOOL, NORTH 24 PARGANAS To compare the Back and Hamstring muscle flexibility between the Dynamic Stretching and Yogic Practices groups Sit and Reach Test was induced to the subjects. After initially tested on flexibility all the subjects were divided in to two equal groups. One group was given 6 weeks of dynamic stretching training and the other group was received 6 weeks of yoga exercises. After 6 weeks both the groups were again tested on same the variable. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to calculate the collected data at 0.05 level of Significance. Significant difference was found in Sit and Reach Test in case of flexibility of both the groups after 6 weeks of treatment. Yogasana was slightly better than the dynamic stretching exercise for the school going children.
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The current study analysed joint angles of the wrists and forces on the structures in the hands and wrists in a hyperextended position and a neutral position during three different yoga poses. Participants (n = 9) performed three yoga poses (plank, side plank, and upward dog), with their wrists in a hyperextended position (H) and a neutral position (N). Each pose was completed three times for 10 seconds in H and N, for a total of six trials per pose. A two-way Repeated Measures ANOVA found significant differences in both wrist joint angles and GRF between H and N. Due to the suggested path transmission of forces, as well as the increased longitudinal loading that comes with wrist hyperextension, it is recommended that plank, side plank, and upward dog be performed in a neutral wrist position.
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Sport and exercise science like most areas of life have been affected greatly by technological advancements. It is difficult to imagine modern sports and various sub-disciplines of exercise science without technologies. The use of technologies is, without exception, tainted with frustration and ambivalence. Paradoxically, it is the omnipresence of technology that has contributed most to people’s inability to fully grasp the scope and depth of its influence and also uncertainty as to what role various technological advancements play in sports. Indeed, the influx of sport technologies has profoundly changed the landscape of sport and exercise science. Importantly, technology has in many ways changed what we think of as the athletic body. Therefore, this paper examines the impact of technology on sport performance, considering the theories of technology and quest for improved performance, types of sport technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of sport technologies in modern day sports. It is recommended that those managing, handling and using sport must be equipped to make wise choices on the type and use of sport technologies that would assist in the right performance
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Objectives: To assess the awareness regarding influenza A (H1N1) among adults at selected community in Rishikesh, Uttarakant”. Method: The present quantitative cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in the month of April to June 2015 among the adult population those who visit to AIIMS OPD, Rishikesh., A total of a 400 (40%) samples was selected based on non-probability convenient sampling technique and a structured self administered questioner was prepared to collect the data’s. The subjects selected for the study were contacted personally during the time period of data collection. A written consent from each subject was taken and the respondent was counselled to provide correct information. The information collected was kept strictly confidential and anonymity was maintained. A descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse the data. Result: the result shows that around 327 (81.7%) had no awareness regarding influenza A H1N1 and 73(18.3%) samples were having awareness regarding cause, spread, treatment and prevention of Influenza A (H1NI). The mean score was 8.5 with the standard deviation of 3.7. So it was concluded that adult population have no awareness regarding Influenza A (H1N1).
Conference Paper
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There is evidence that the practice of yoga improves the physical and mental performance. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of yoga training on endurance of Basketball players. Thirty Basketball players were given yoga training for 6 week and thirty players were selected as control group and no training were given to the control group. There was a significant (P<0.05)difference observed in respiratory endurance (from 1658.0±180.680 to 1746.33±94.558). Our result shows that yoga practice for six week results in significant difference in respiratory endurance of Basketball playersat 0.05 level of significance.
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Purpose: Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common neurologic complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. DSP-related symptoms have been associated with disability, reduced quality of life (QOL), and impaired function. Yoga has been shown to improve mental and physical status in people with chronic diseases. We assessed feasibility and measured the effect of a 4-week integrative yoga program in 3 persons with HIV-related DSP in the lower extremities. Case Description: Of 22 patients with DSP scheduled to attend an HIV pain clinic over 6 months, 3 enrolled in and completed the yoga program. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of HIV disease and DSP in the feet, controlled HIV disease status, average foot pain of at least 4/10 on a numerical scale, sensory symptoms in the lower extremity, and an established regimen of pharmacologic pain management. The age range of participants was 56 to 64 years. Time since HIV disease diagnosis ranged from 15 to 30 years; time with DSP ranged from 7 to 15 years. A battery of QOL, function, disability, pain, and physical performance outcomes was measured at baseline, after the yoga intervention, and at 4-week follow-up. Outcomes: Overall attendance rate at the yoga classes was 88%. No adverse events occurred, and participants were highly satisfied with the program. Pain-related QOL and some gait parameters improved in all cases. It appeared that pain-related QOL improved without concurrent reduction in perceived pain severity or interference. Other outcomes, such a walking endurance, balance, and function, improved in some cases, but changes were inconsistent between individuals. No cases demonstrated improvement in vibration sensation or leg strength, nor reduction in self-reported disability. Conclusions: Although recruitment challenges led to concern regarding feasibility of this intervention, the program appeared to be safe and viewed favorably by the participants. There were inconsistent outcomes between individual participants; however, all experienced improved pain-related QOL and improvement in some gait characteristics. Yoga may be a viable nonpharmaceutical approach to the management of HIV-related DSP, but further research is needed to assess effectiveness, identify optimal format and dosage, and determine characteristics of potential responders.
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I feel that it is important to know the stories behind those who are working hard in the field to bring forward massage therapy research. Interviews with massage therapy researchers will now occasionally be included in the Journal as a new editorial feature. The first interview is with Virginia S. Cowen, PhD, LMT a New York State-licensed and NCB board-certified massage therapist with a PhD from Arizona State. She first became interested in massage therapy research while in massage therapy school, and her most recent work is investigating the integration of massage therapy into medical settings. Dr. Cowen states that massage therapy needs to move to Phase 3 research, and aligning with massage therapy practice and research on massage therapy education are areas ripe for research development. She urges the massage therapy profession to work together to develop clinical practice guidelines which could help move the profession forward.
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Three hundred Cricket players in the age group of 14 to 18 years from 29 different Delhi schools were studied in the present study using contrast group design under ex-post facto method. Simple random cluster sampling technique was used to divide the players into 2 groups of low and high level of intelligence. All the players were being assessed on the specifically developed batting performance tool. Major findings were that Intelligence of the cricketers does not influence their stump guard taking activity. Intelligence of the cricketers does not influence their stance taking activity of batting skills. Intelligence of the cricketers does not influence their bat holding activity. Intelligence of the cricketers does not influence their preparatory activity regarding taking shot. Intelligence of the cricket players influences shot taking activity. Intelligence of the cricketers is a factor which influences their post shot activities. Intelligence of the cricketers influences their batting skill. There was a significant difference (at .01 level of confidence) in the batting performance of intelligent in comparison to the less intelligent cricket players (CR=3.52) on batting skills. Key words: Cricket, intelligence, batting skill, ex post-facto
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The influence of exercise mode and practice qualities on the stress reduction benefits of exercise was examined. College students in swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing, exercise, and lecture-control classes completed the Profile of Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory before and after class on three occasions. Swimmers had unusually positive initial moods and reported less tension and confusion after swimming only on the first day of testing. Participants in yoga, an anaerobic activity that satisfied three of the four mode requirements, were significantly less anxious, tense, depressed, angry, fatigued, and confused after class than before on all three occasions. Supporting the importance of the four mode characteristics, participants in the exercise control activity of fencing reported improvements only in vigor. A possible influence of practice conditions was observed when members of the body conditioning class reported significant increases in fatigue, but no other mood changes. Results of this study supported the possibility that exercise mode and practice requirements in the proposed taxonomy moderate the stress reduction benefits.
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Mind-body exercise methods are spreading rapidly throughout the health, fitness, and rehabilitation fields. Many of the claimed benefits for these activities are not supported by clinical evidence, and, as alternative therapies, they carry legal and professional ramifications. Understanding the nature of mind-body exercise and knowing the scientific evidence behind claims for its benefits can help clinicians make appropriate recommendations to patients. For example, yoga and tai chi can reduce stress, decrease hypertension, and exert cardiorespiratory benefits, and tai chi can improve balance in seniors. However, there is not enough evidence to support replacing conventional medical treatments with somatic methods.
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The short-term effects of 4 weeks of intensive yoga practice on physiological responses in six healthy adult female volunteers were measured using the maximal exercise treadmill test. Yoga practice involved daily morning and evening sessions of 90 minutes each. Pre- and post-yoga exercise performance was compared. Maximal work output (Wmax) for the group increased by 21%, with a significantly reduced level of oxygen consumption per unit work but without a concomitant significant change in heart rate. After intensive yoga training, at 154 Wmin(-1) (corresponding to Wmax of the pre-yoga maximal exercise test) participants could exercise more comfortably, with a significantly lower heart rate (p < 0.05), reduced minute ventilation (p < 0.05), reduced oxygen consumption per unit work (p < 0.05), and a significantly lower respiratory quotient (p < 0.05). The implications for the effect of intensive yoga on cardiorespiratory efficiency are discussed, with the suggestion that yoga has some transparently different quantifiable physiological effects to other exercises.
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The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais, swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed.
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The purpose of this randomized pilot study was to evaluate a possible design for a 6-week modified hatha yoga protocol to study the effects on participants with chronic low back pain. Twenty-two participants (M = 4; F = 17), between the ages of 30 and 65, with chronic low back pain (CLBP) were randomized to either an immediate yoga based intervention, or to a control group with no treatment during the observation period but received later yoga training. A specific CLBP yoga protocol designed and modified for this population by a certified yoga instructor was administered for one hour, twice a week for 6 weeks. Primary functional outcome measures included the forward reach (FR) and sit and reach (SR) tests. All participants completed Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaires. Guiding questions were used for qualitative data analysis to ascertain how yoga participants perceived the instructor, group dynamics, and the impact of yoga on their life. To account for drop outs, the data were divided into better or not categories, and analyzed using chi-square to examine differences between the groups. Qualitative data were analyzed through frequency of positive responses. Potentially important trends in the functional measurement scores showed improved balance and flexibility and decreased disability and depression for the yoga group but this pilot was not powered to reach statistical significance. Significant limitations included a high dropout rate in the control group and large baseline differences in the secondary measures. In addition, analysis of the qualitative data revealed the following frequency of responses (1) group intervention motivated the participants and (2) yoga fostered relaxation and new awareness/learning. A modified yoga-based intervention may benefit individuals with CLB, but a larger study is necessary to provide definitive evidence. Also, the impact on depression and disability could be considered as important outcomes for further study. Additional functional outcome measures should be explored. This pilot study supports the need for more research investigating the effect of yoga for this population.
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This report presents selected estimates of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among U.S. adults, using data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Data for the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population were collected using computer-assisted personal interviews (CAPI). This report is based on 31,044 interviews of adults age 18 years and over. Statistics shown in this report were age adjusted to the year 2000 U.S. standard population. Sixty-two percent of adults used some form of CAM therapy during the past 12 months when the definition of CAM therapy included prayer specifically for health reasons. When prayer specifically for health reasons was excluded from the definition, 36% of adults used some form of CAM therapy during the past 12 months. The 10 most commonly used CAM therapies during the past 12 months were use of prayer specifically for one's own health (43.0%), prayer by others for one's own health (24.4%), natural products (18.9%), deep breathing exercises (11.6%), participation in prayer group for one's own health (9.6%), meditation (7.6%), chiropractic care (7.5%), yoga (5.1%), massage (5.0%), and diet-based therapies (3.5%). Use of CAM varies by sex, race, geographic region, health insurance status, use of cigarettes or alcohol, and hospitalization. CAM was most often used to treat back pain or back problems, head or chest colds, neck pain or neck problems, joint pain or stiffness, and anxiety or depression. Adults age 18 years or over who used CAM were more likely to do so because they believed that CAM combined with conventional medical treatments would help (54.9%) and/or they thought it would be interesting to try (50.1%). Most adults who have ever used CAM have used it within the past 12 months, although there is variation by CAM therapy.
This review is intended to critically evaluate research on relaxation techniques used in physical and rehabilitation medicine. Literature searches were undertaken using the Medline, Cinahl, Bids/Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. The main criteria for inclusion were randomization into groups and the inclusion of a control condition. However, some original articles and reviews were included. Studies were categorized generally into “physical” and “nonphysical” approaches to relaxation. Physical approaches included Jacobson’s Progressive Relaxation, Mitchell’s Simple Physiological Relaxation, Massage, and the Alexander Technique. A section on comparative studies, using Jacobson’s Progressive Relaxation as a “gold standard”, was also included. Nonphysical approaches included Benson’s Relaxation Response and Hatha Yoga. Outcome measures included heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, galvanic skin response, electromyography, and electroencephelography as physiological indicators of relaxation, and measures of anxiety and depression as psychological indicators of relaxation. Male and female subjects, of a variety of age ranges, who fell into the categories of normal healthy subjects, and patient/client groups with both pathological and psycho-social disorders participated in the trials. In general, all techniques reviewed demonstrated the potential to reduce both the physiological and psychological indicators of stress, in all subject groups, suggesting increased relaxation. Some studies demonstrated inconsistent findings, which may suggest differential responses between male and female groups, between normal subjects and patient/client groups, and between physiological and psychological responses. Further research is required to confirm these differential responses.
This review is intended to critically evaluate research on relaxation techniques used in physical and rehabilitation medicine. Literature searches were undertaken using the Medline, Cinahl, Bids/Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. The main criteria for inclusion were randomization into groups and the inclusion of a control condition. However, some original articles and reviews were included. Studies were categorized generally into 'physical' and 'nonphysical' approaches to relaxation. Physical approaches included Jacobson's Progressive Relaxation, Mitchell's Simple Physiological Relaxation, Massage, and the Alexander Technique. A section on comparative studies, using Jacobson's Progressive Relaxation as a 'gold standard', was also included. Nonphysical approaches included Benson's Relaxation Response and Hatha Yoga. Outcome measures included heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, galvanic skin response, electromyography, and electroencephelography as physiological indicators of relaxation, and measures of anxiety and depression as psychological indicators of relaxation. Male and female subjects, of a variety of age ranges, who fell into the categories of normal healthy subjects, and patient/client groups with both pathological and psycho-social disorders participated in the trials. In general, all techniques reviewed demonstrated the potential to reduce both the physiological and psychological indicators of stress, in all subject groups, suggesting increased relaxation. Some studies demonstrated inconsistent findings, which may suggest differential responses between male and female groups, between normal subjects and patient/client groups, and between physiological and psychological responses. Further research is required to confirm these differential responses.
Article
The civilization of India has produced a great variety of systems of spiritual beliefs and practices. Ancient seers used yoga as a means to explore the exterior and interior world and, perhaps, ultimately to achieve wisdom and knowledge of the sacred Indian texts: the Vedas, Upanishads, and Shastras.6 These great teachers, or gurus, did not equate yoga with religion but more as an art of living at the highest level in attunement with the larger life–reality. The emphasis in yoga was on personal verification rather than on belief. The practice of yoga was a way to inner joy and outer harmony.The Sanskrit word “yoga” comes from the root yug (to join), or yoke (to bind together or to concentrate). Essentially, however, the word “yoga” has come to describe a means of uniting or a method of discipline: to join the body to the mind and together join to the self (soul), or the union between the individual self and the transcendental self. Yoga comes from an oral tradition in which teaching was transmitted from teacher to student. The Indian sage Patanjali, called “The Father of Yoga, ” collated this oral tradition in his classic work The Yoga Sutras, a 2000-year-old treatise on yogic philosophy. He defines yoga as “that which restrains the thought process and makes the mind serene.” Patanjali suggests that ethics (yama and niyama) is the way to cleanse the mind, body, and spirit. He emphasizes a more psychological approach to healing and self-realization. The body's organs and systems are to be cleansed first through asanas (postures) and pranayama (controlling the breath).13 The Sutras provide guidance on how to gain mastery over the mind and emotions and how to achieve spiritual growth. The code of conduct includes the practice of the highest human virtues like ahimsa (noninjury) and satya (truth), and the promotion of the noblest feelings like amity and compassion.2Initially, the discipline of hatha yoga used in the studies described later was developed as a means for meditation: preparing the body and the nervous system for stillness. Physical strength and stamina developed by asanas and pranayama allowed the mind to remain calm. The word “hatha” can be divided into two words: ha (sun) and tha (moon). The common interpretation of hatha yoga is a union of the pairs of opposites. Hatha yoga, the yoga of activity, addresses the body and mind and requires discipline and effort. It is through hatha yoga that most Westerners are introduced to the philosophy. Many people believe that this is yoga and are unaware of the totality of yoga as a philosophy of life.Along with meditation, yoga asanas and pranyama have become popular in the West, and yoga has become “westernized.” Postures are taught as ends in themselves merely to heal an illness, reduce stress, or look better. The fact that these postures are a foundation for self-realization is generally ignored. Yoga is often thought of as calisthenics, epitomized by the headstand, the lotus posture, or another pretzel-like pose. Many think of yoga as a system of meditation or religion. Yoga, however, is meant to be practiced in the larger context of conscious spiritual discipline. The Hatha Yoga Pradipika is considered to be the classic manual on hatha yoga. The first chapter reminds the student that hatha yoga is used as a vehicle in self-realization.25 This goal should be kept in sight. Yoga is proposed to be a preventive as well as curative system of the body, mind, and spirit.14Recently, large numbers of Americans are practicing yoga for its proposed health benefits. Some health professionals are referring their patients to yoga teachers for help in managing a variety of stress-related ailments. Yoga is regarded as a holistic approach to health that not only increases flexibility, strength, and stamina but also fosters self-awareness, emotional stability, and peace of mind. Yoga has become a household word in the West. Millions of men and women read books about yoga, attend classes or seminars, and do the physical exercises for which yoga is famous. Many have tried meditation or some other form of yoga on a regular basis. Clearly, yoga is alive in Western society today.There are various styles of hatha yoga, and each has specific characteristics that reflect a particular approach to the yoga asanas such as Iyengar, Kundalini, Kripalu, and Sivananda. Iyengar, a popular style in the West, is based on the teachings of living yoga master named B.K.S. Iyengar. The method is orderly and progressive. Postures are adjusted to meet the needs and physical conditions of the student. There are specific anatomic guidelines in the execution of the asanas and pranayama.12 As a therapy, yoga is a system designed to refine human physiology. Asanas, or postures, if done properly, are believed to affect every gland and organ in the body. Postures have to be adjusted so that the various organs, joints, and bones are properly positioned so that physiologic changes may occur. Distribution of body weight has to be even on the joints and muscles so that there is no injury. Therapeutic yoga is the performance of postures for treating medical disorders. A key development in this application of yoga is Iyengar's use of props (e.g., chairs, belts, blankets, blocks) to assist the patient in assuming the posture without strain. It is said that each posture has a specific shape to which the body must be adapted and not the asana to the body.23In a disease like osteoarthritis (OA) of the finger joints, asanas are proposed to realign the skeletal structure and loosen stiff joints. Effects may be the result of the geometry of the asana. Many musculoskeletal problems may be mechanical and have to be mechanically considered. Realignment of muscles is proposed to remove the altered stresses and strains and to re-establish anatomic relationships.8
Article
Yoga as therapy with psychosomatic disorders has been practiced for many centuries in India, and only recently has become utilized for this purpose in other countries. The yoga system evolved as a 'system of liberation' to allow man to discriminate between his ego-self and pure consciousness, and as such, its medical benefits are really 'side-effects'. Integral yoga practice, however, with which many other self-regulatory somatopsychic approaches have much in common, consists of a holistic technology which functions to restore optimal homeostatis by a variety of special techniques not found in other approaches. Clinical observations of psychosomatic patients indicate that their distorted somatopsychic functioning necessitates their practice of yoga-like therapy. A review of the clinical evidence available indicates that yoga practice has proven most effective with a wide range of psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders. The effectiveness of yoga can be partially understood in terms of neurophysiological theory.
Article
This paper presents evidence from three samples, two of college students and one of participants in a community smoking-cessation program, for the reliability and validity of a 14-item instrument, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), designed to measure the degree to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The PSS showed adequate reliability and, as predicted, was correlated with life-event scores, depressive and physical symptomatology, utilization of health services, social anxiety, and smoking-reduction maintenance. In all comparisons, the PSS was a better predictor of the outcome in question than were life-event scores. When compared to a depressive symptomatology scale, the PSS was found to measure a different and independently predictive construct. Additional data indicate adequate reliability and validity of a four-item version of the PSS for telephone interviews. The PSS is suggested for examining the role of nonspecific appraised stress in the etiology of disease and behavioral disorders and as an outcome measure of experienced levels of stress.
Article
Yoga and relaxation techniques have traditionally been used by nonmedical practitioners to help alleviate musculoskeletal symptoms. The objective of this study was to collect controlled observations of the effect of yoga on the hands of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Patients with OA of the hands were randomly assigned to receive either the yoga program or no therapy. Yoga techniques were supervised by one instructor once/week for 8 weeks. Variables assessed were pain, strength, motion, joint circumference, tenderness, and hand function using the Stanford Hand Assessment questionnaire. The yoga treated group improved significantly more than the control group in pain during activity, tenderness and finger range of motion. Other trends also favored the yoga program. This yoga derived program was effective in providing relief in hand OA. Further studies are needed to compare this with other treatments and to examine longterm effects.
Article
1. This report shows that in a group of 40 physical education teachers who already had an average of 8.9 years physical training, 3 months of yogic training produced significant improvement in general health (in terms of body weight and BP reduction and improved lung functions). 2. There was also evidence of decreased autonomic arousal and more of psychophysiological relaxation (heart rate and respiratory rate reduction), and improved somatic steadiness (decreased errors in the steadiness test). 3. The changes at the end of 3 months in volar GSR in different directions (increase/decrease/no change), depending on the initial values, suggests that practising yoga may help to bring about a balance in different autonomic functions, so that functioning is optimised.
Article
This study examined the effects of an 8-week stress reduction program based on training in mindfulness meditation. Previous research efforts suggesting this program may be beneficial in terms of reducing stress-related symptomatology and helping patients cope with chronic pain have been limited by a lack of adequate comparison control group. Twenty-eight individuals who volunteered to participate in the present study were randomized into either an experimental group or a nonintervention control group. Following participation, experimental subjects, when compared with controls, evidenced significantly greater changes in terms of: (1) reductions in overall psychological symptomatology; (2) increase in overall domain-specific sense of control and utilization of an accepting or yielding mode of control in their lives, and (3) higher scores on a measure of spiritual experiences. The techniques of mindfulness meditation, with their emphasis on developing detached observation and awareness of the contents of consciousness, may represent a powerful cognitive behavioral coping strategy for transforming the ways in which we respond to life events. They may also have potential for relapse prevention in affective disorders.
Article
Mind-body fitness programs use a combination of muscular activity and mindful focus on awareness of the self, breath, and energy to promote health. The ancient discipline of yoga includes physical postures and breathing and meditation techniques. Scientific evidence exists about the physiologic effects of yoga. Mind-body fitness programs may offer therapeutic effects different from those offered by traditional body fitness programs.
Article
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common complication of repetitive activities and causes significant morbidity. To determine the effectiveness of a yoga-based regimen for relieving symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Randomized, single-blind, controlled trial. A geriatric center and an industrial site in 1994-1995. Forty-two employed or retired individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome (median age, 52 years; range, 24-77 years). Subjects assigned to the yoga group received a yoga-based intervention consisting of 11 yoga postures designed for strengthening, stretching, and balancing each joint in the upper body along with relaxation given twice weekly for 8 weeks. Patients in the control group were offered a wrist splint to supplement their current treatment. Changes from baseline to 8 weeks in grip strength, pain intensity, sleep disturbance, Phalen sign, and Tinel sign, and in median nerve motor and sensory conduction time. Subjects in the yoga groups had significant improvement in grip strength (increased from 162 to 187 mm Hg; P = .009) and pain reduction (decreased from 5.0 to 2.9 mm; P = .02), but changes in grip strength and pain were not significant for control subjects. The yoga group had significantly more improvement in Phalen sign (12 improved vs 2 in control group; P = .008), but no significant differences were found in sleep disturbance, Tinel sign, and median nerve motor and sensory conduction time. In this preliminary study, a yoga-based regimen was more effective than wrist splinting or no treatment in relieving some symptoms and signs of carpal tunnel syndrome.
Article
To examine the methodology of worksite fitness and exercise programs and to assess their effect on health-related fitness, cardiac risk factors, life satisfaction and well-being, and illness and injury. The 52 studies reviewed cover English-language literature for the period from 1972 to 1994, as identified by a search of the Cumulative Index Medicus, Medline, the Canadian Sport Documentation Centre's "Sport Discus," computerized bibliography, and my own files. Reports were divided into five controlled experimental studies, 14 quasi-experimental studies with matched controls (one reported in abstract), and 33 other interventions of varied quality. Methodologic problems include difficulty in allowing for Hawthorne effects, substantial sample attrition, and poor definition of the intervention (exercise or broad-based health promotion). Findings are analyzed by specific fitness and health outcomes. Program participants show small but favorable changes in body mass, skinfolds, aerobic power, muscle strength and flexibility, overall risk-taking behavior, systemic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and cigarette smoking. Claims of improved mood state are based heavily on uncontrolled studies. Quasi-experimental studies suggest reduced rates of illness and injury among participants, but seasonal and year-to-year differences in health weaken possible conclusions. Participation in worksite fitness programs can enhance health-related fitness and reduce risk-taking behavior, but population effect is limited by low participation rates.
Yoga has already been shown to improve perceptual-motor skills, but the factors which influence its effects are not well defined. This study correlates age, gender, and motivation to learn yoga with the performance in a dexterity task following yoga. Tweezer dexterity was recorded in eighty subjects belonging to four groups. Two groups were given a month of yoga training. One group consisted of subjects who had volunteered to join for the training and the other group were deputed for the training as part of their job. The two remaining groups did not receive yoga training and were selected to match the respective groups receiving yoga, for age and sex, but not for their motivation to learn yoga. The test involved using a tweezer to place metal pins in evenly spaced holes in a metal plate within four minutes. Following yoga the scores of the volunteers who learnt yoga increased significantly, whereas there was no change in scores of deputed subjects and non-yoga groups. For reasons described in detail, factors such as age and gender did not appear to contribute to the difference in performance. Hence motivation to learn yoga appeared to influence the magnitude of increase.
A student under optimal stress does bring out his or her best, However extremes of stress can result in stress induced disorders and deteriorating performance. Can yoga be of benefit in stress induced effects in medical students? The present study was conducted in first MBBS students (n = 50) to determine the benefit if any of yogic practices on anxiety status during routine activities and prior to examination. Feedback scores were assessed to determine how the students had benefited from the practices. Anxiety status as assessed by Spillberger's anxiety scale showed a statistically significant reduction following practice. In addition the anxiety score which rose prior to exams showed a statistically significant reduction on the day of exam after practice. These results point to the beneficial role of yoga in not only causing reduction in basal anxiety level but also attenuating the increase in anxiety score in stressful state such as exams. The results of the exam indicated a statistically significant reduction in number of failures in yoga group as compared to the control group. The improvement in various parameters such as better sense of well being, feeling of relaxation, improved concentration, self confidence, improved efficiency, good interpersonal relationship, increased attentiveness, lowered irritability levels, and an optimistic outlook in life were some of the beneficial effects enjoyed by the yoga group indicated by feedback score.
On the basis of medical officers diagnosis, thirty three (N = 33) hypertensives, aged 35-65 years, from Govt. General Hospital, Pondicherry, were examined with four variables viz, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate and body weight. The subjects were randomly assigned into three groups. The exp. group-I underwent selected yoga practices, exp. group-II received medical treatment by the physician of the said hospital and the control group did not participate in any of the treatment stimuli. Yoga imparted in the morning and in the evening with 1 hr/session. day-1 for a total period of 11-weeks. Medical treatment comprised drug intake every day for the whole experimental period. The result of pre-post test with ANCOVA revealed that both the treatment stimuli (i.e., yoga and drug) were effective in controlling the variables of hypertension.
The vital capacity of the lungs is a critical component of good health. Vital capacity is an important concern for those with asthma, heart conditions, and lung ailments; those who smoke; and those who have no known lung problems. To determine the effects of yoga postures and breathing exercises on vital capacity. Using the Spiropet spirometer, researchers measured vital capacity. Vital capacity determinants were taken near the beginning and end of two 17-week semesters. No control group was used. Midwestern university yoga classes taken for college credit. A total of 287 college students, 89 men and 198 women. Subjects were taught yoga poses, breathing techniques, and relaxation in two 50-minute class meetings for 15 weeks. Vital capacity over time for smokers, asthmatics, and those with no known lung disease. The study showed a statistically significant (P < .001) improvement in vital capacity across all categories over time. It is not known whether these findings were the result of yoga poses, breathing techniques, relaxation, or other aspects of exercise in the subjects' life. The subjects' adherence to attending class was 99.96%. The large number of 287 subjects is considered to be a valid number for a study of this type. These findings are consistent with other research studies reporting the positive effect of yoga on the vital capacity of the lungs.
Article
A widening recognition of the mind-body-spirit connection in western medicine has resulted in a growing interest in ancient health practices such as yoga. As complementary therapies enter mainstream medical settings, nurses and other healthcare providers need a fundamental understanding of these modalities to be able to advise patients effectively. This article provides an overview of yoga and details the benefits of yoga practice.
Article
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a clinical program, developed to facilitate adaptation to medical illness, which provides systematic training in mindfulness meditation as a self-regulatory approach to stress reduction and emotion management. There has been widespread and growing use of this approach within medical settings in the last 20 years, and many claims have been made regarding its efficacy. This article will provide a critical evaluation of the available state of knowledge regarding MBSR and suggestions for future research. A review of the current literature available within the medical and social sciences was undertaken to provide an evaluation regarding what we know about the construct of mindfulness, the effectiveness of MBSR, and mechanisms of action. There has been a paucity of research and what has been published has been rife with methodological problems. At present, we know very little about the effectiveness of this approach. However, there is some evidence that suggests that it may hold some promise. The available evidence does not support a strong endorsement of this approach at present. However, serious investigation is warranted and strongly recommended.
Article
Ten healthy, untrained volunteers (nine females and one male), ranging in age from 18-27 years, were studied to determine the effects of hatha yoga practice on the health-related aspects of physical fitness, including muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and pulmonary function. Subjects were required to attend a minimum of two yoga classes per week for a total of 8 weeks. Each yoga session consisted of 10 minutes of pranayamas (breath-control exercises), 15 minutes of dynamic warm-up exercises, 50 minutes of asanas (yoga postures), and 10 minutes of supine relaxation in savasana (corpse pose). The subjects were evaluated before and after the 8-week training program. Isokinetic muscular strength for elbow extension, elbow flexion, and knee extension increased by 31%, 19%, and 28% (p<0.05), respectively, whereas isometric muscular endurance for knee flexion increased 57% (p<0.01). Ankle flexibility, shoulder elevation, trunk extension, and trunk flexion increased by 13% (p<0.01), 155% (p<0.001), 188% (p<0.001), and 14% (p<0.05), respectively. Absolute and relative maximal oxygen uptake increased by 7% and 6%, respectively (p<0.01). These findings indicate that regular hatha yoga practice can elicit improvements in the health-related aspects of physical fitness. (c)2001 CHF, Inc.
Twenty girls between 10 and 13 years of age, studying at a residential school were randomly assigned to two groups. One group practiced yoga for one hour fifteen minutes per day, 7 days a week, while the other group was given physical training for the same time. Time for planning and for execution and the number of moves required to complete the Tower of London task were assessed for both groups at the beginning and end of a month. These three assessments were separately tested in increasingly complex tasks requiring 2-moves, 4-moves and 5-moves. The pre-post data were compared using the Wilcoxon paired signed ranks test. The yoga group showed a significant reduction in planning time for both 2-moves and 4-moves tasks (53.9 and 59.1 percent respectively), execution time in both 4-moves and 5-moves tasks (63.7 and 60.3 percent respectively), and in the number of moves in the 4-moves tasks (20.9 percent). The physical training group showed no change. Hence yoga training for a month reduced the planning and execution time in simple (2-moves) as well as complex tasks (4, 5-moves) and facilitated reaching the target with a smaller number of moves in a complex task (4-moves).
Article
The thoracic region of the spine is normally kyphotic, or anteriorly concave. Hyperkyphosis, colloquially called “dowager’s hump,” refers to excessive kyphotic curvature; however, there is no criterion standard, nor are there any outcome-based definitions of the condition. A kyphosis angle ≥ 40°—the 95th percentile value for young adults—is currently used to define hyperkyphosis.1,2 Hyperkyphosis may be associated with physical and emotional limitations3–11 and may have multiple precipitants.4,12–14 Yoga could be an optimal intervention for hyperkyphosis in that it may improve physical and emotional functioning as well as combat some of the underlying muscular and biomechanical causes. We conducted a single-arm, nonmasked intervention trial to assess the effects on anthropometric and physical function of yoga among women with hyperkyphosis.
Complementary therapies are becoming increasingly popular in cultures dominated by biomedicine. Modalities are often extracted from various healing systems and cultural contexts and integrated into health care, expanding the focus from treatment of disease to the promotion of health. The cultural aspects of biomedicine are presented and compared and contrasted with other healing systems. Three healing systems; traditional Chinese medicine, Yoga, with roots in Ayurvedic medicine and Shamanic healing illustrate these fundamental differences in approaches to healing. A reverse example of isolating one healing intervention from biomedicine and interpreting it through other cultural lenses is presented. Implications are drawn for practice and research.
Article
Yoga has become increasingly popular in Western cultures as a means of exercise and fitness training; however, it is still depicted as trendy as evidenced by an April 2001 Time magazine cover story on "The Power of Yoga." There is a need to have yoga better recognized by the health care community as a complement to conventional medical care. Over the last 10 years, a growing number of research studies have shown that the practice of Hatha Yoga can improve strength and flexibility, and may help control such physiological variables as blood pressure, respiration and heart rate, and metabolic rate to improve overall exercise capacity. This review presents a summary of medically substantiated information about the health benefits of yoga for healthy people and for people compromised by musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary disease.
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Psychophysiologic effects of hatha yoga on musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary function
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Relaxation techniques
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