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Abstract

Linalool is a monoterpene compound present in many plants. The enantiomer naturally occurring in essentiaI oils is (-)- linalool. Many reports have described the racemate form of this monoterpene and its effect on the brain neurotransmitters glutamic acid, -y-aminobutyric acid (GASA),acetylcholine and dopamine. Moreover, linalool has been reported to exhibit a local anaesthetic activity, related to its effects on the nicotinic receptor-ion channel, and to be effective against several bacteria and fungi. Spasmolytic effects and antioxidant properties have also been described. Studies recently performed by our research group have shown that (-)-linalool possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic activities in different animai models. These properties have been ascribed to the ability of (-)-linalool to stimulate the opioidergic, cholinergic M2 and dopaminergic D2 systems, as well as to its interaction with potassium ion (K+)-channels. In addition, the effects of (-)-linalool on pain responses are mediated, at least in part, by the activity of adenosine Al and A2Areceptors and by the reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production/release, probably through mechanisms involving opioidergic, cholinergic and/or glutamatergic systems. Even though many papers have dea!t with the biological activities of racemic linalool and (-)-linalool, the molecular mechanism of these compounds remains poorly understood. (-)-Linaloolis a drug able to all€viate,in some degree, pain responsesmediatedby a wide range of neurotransmitter systems. Receptors modulated by this compound are expressed in both the peripheral and the centrai nervous system (CNS). Pain research is currently targeting a complex system of receptors, ion channels and their modulators in an effort to identify newer, safer methods for pain relief. Thus, (-)-linalool may constitute a valuable tool for the treatment of p<1in, hyperalgesia and inflammatory pain. Moreover, the unique properties of (-)-linalool, which displ<1Yasntimicrobial, anti- inflammatory, analgesic and antihyperalgesic activities, make it potentially very useful for the treatment of infective conditions, often accompanied by inflammation and pain.
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... Inflammatory reactions, caused by diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, can be alleviated through the use of linalool, which interacts with proteins such as COX-2, NF-κB and Nrf-2 [44]. Furthermore, linalool, mainly (3R)-( _ )-linalool, may also interact with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme, inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) without reducing the enzyme synthesis [66]. NO regulates inflammatory and immune responses contributing for edema formation, vasodilation and the recruitment of immune cells for the local of infection. ...
... Linalool exhibits dose-dependent effects in CNS [66]. This phytochemical shows anti-convulsion effects, offering protection against pentylenetetrazol, picrotoxin and transcorneal electroshock-induced convulsions. ...
... [63] Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway [64,65] Inhibition of NO production [66] Anticancer and Anti-proliferative Cell cycle arrest [42,43,49] Apoptosis induction [45,47,48,51,52] Activation of immune cells (T helper cells) [44] Prevention of the overexpression of angiogenic factors (VEGF and TGF-β1) ...
Article
The medicinal properties of essential oils from aromatic plants are known since antiquity. Currently, the technological innovation enabled the reinvention of the ancient plant knowledge leading to the identification and extraction of organic compounds present in essential oils. These organic compounds belong mainly to the terpene group and are accountable for the wide range of bioactive properties attributed to essential oils. Linalool (C10H18O), so-called 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, is a monoterpene alcohol broadly present as a major constituent of plant essential oils, particularly lavender and coriander. Linalool per se is non-toxic and, according to recent in vitro and in vivo scientific studies, it has demonstrated to have a comprehensive range of bioactive properties, which can be exploited for pharmaceutic and cosmetic applications. The present review focuses on the anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-hyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, antinoceptive, analgesic, anxiolytic, antidepressive and neuroprotective properties of linalool. The advantages of the loading in nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, with the purpose of enhancing its bioactive properties are also discussed.
... Linalool, C 10 H 18 O (synonym: 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol), is considered most important compound for the perfume and flavor industries. Moreover, this compound is able to alleviate the pain responses mediated by a wide range of neurotransmitter systems [11] and possesses antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarminative, antispasmodic and antiparasitic activities [12]. A study conducted by Joint Expert committee on food Additive (constituted by FAO/WHO) reported that, worldwide, more than 95% of the total linalool production is used for its fragrance and odorant properties [13]. ...
... A study conducted by Joint Expert committee on food Additive (constituted by FAO/WHO) reported that, worldwide, more than 95% of the total linalool production is used for its fragrance and odorant properties [13]. More than 200 species of aromatic plants belonging to families Lamianceae, Lauraceae, Rutaceae were reported to produce d-, l-or dl-linalool [11]. Some of the species having higher concentration of Linalool are Origanum onites [14]. ...
Article
The present study was carried out to investigate the chemical composition of essential oil in fresh leaves of Cinnamomum tamala. The leaves were subjected to hydro-distillation, and the oil extracted was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometer (GC–MS). The essential oil comprises 15 components accounting for 100% of the oil. The GC–MS analysis of essential oil showed that L-linalool (66.85%) was the major component followed by cinnamaldehyde (14.62%). The other components were β-terpinyl acetate (4.49%) and 2-propen-1-ol, 3-phenyl-, acetate (4.51%). Linalool is in high demand for its use in fragrance and flavor industries. Facilitation of cultivation and marketing of medicinal plants in the Uttarakhand state by government and high demand of natural linalool by pharmaceutical industries and higher concentration of linalool content in C. tamala essential oil grown in Uttarakhand create an opportunity for the state to emerge as a resource center for the production of natural L-linalool and to get monetary benefits from it.
... Petroselinic acid scavenges free radicals and therefore inhibits lipid peroxidation. CPE enriched with Linalool and ascorbic acid like potent antioxidants has significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and level of antioxidant enzymes was also found to be high as compared to diabetic control rats ( Table 2).Additionally, linalool could be used in therapeutic approaches for the treatment of complications due to oxidative damage [33,34,35]. The antioxidant potential of coriander is also evidenced [4,28,35] which has supported our results in a positive manner. ...
... However, morphology of the glomerulus was improved by CPE treated group viz., reduction in mesangial expansion, membrane thickness and atrophy with different doses. Linalool has been studied for its beneficial effects on renal tissues [34]which may have contributed to structural changes for CPE treated rats (Fig 3). Thus, antioxidant compounds and fatty acids present in the plant might be helpful in the amelioration of chronic blood glucose level, oxidative stress via inhibition of AGEs and its related consequences and may be effective against progression of DN. ...
Article
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Inthe present study, we have demonstrated the phytochemical composition of petroleum ether extract of C. sativum (CPE) seeds by using chromatographic, spectroscopic as well spectrometric analysis. CPE was evaluated for its possible role in mitigation of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in Streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide (NAD) induced type 2 diabetes model. Administration of CPE at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg for 45 days has produced significant attenuation of elevated biochemical parameters including serum glucose, lipid and creatinine levels. CPE has also reserved albuminuria and elevated creatinine clearance in treated diabetic rats. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation in kidneyswas also considerably reduced along with noteworthy increase in level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and decrease in lipid peroxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Molecular docking studies were also employed to reveal out the possible mechanism. In conclusion, using STZ-NAD model, we have successfully predicted that by assets of bioactive constituents CPE might inhibit the progression of DN. C. sativum may act as potential adjuvant for antidiabetic therapy and needs to be investigated further.
... While the concentration of indole, a heterocyclic organic compounds extracted during enfleurage is higher compared to linalool [56,57]. Linalool and indole are known as fragrance and flavor subtances due to their strong and pleasant odor which can be used for medicinal or aromatherapy purposes [58,59]. Dihydrocarveol is reported as a major compound of three choosen flower bud of M. alba [60] and S5-S8 stage [5,19]. ...
... Linalool is a monoterpene alcohol found in many plants and has an antimicrobial effect on a wide range of bacteria (Mandal and Mandal, 2015). It's anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antinociceptive, anticonvulsant and antioxidant properties have also been known (Peana and Moretti, 2008;Laribi et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Coriander seeds essential oil is used in food preparation, perfume, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In this study, extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds was done by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) methods. Chemical composition, total phenol contents, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of essential oils were measured and the results were compared between HD and MAHD methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the essential oils had inhibitory effect on the bacterial membrane and cell wall. Results showed that total phenol contents and antioxidant activity increased under heat and microwave conditions. Coriander seeds essential oil had a very strong effect on Candida albicans. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oil of coriander seeds than Gram-negative bacteria. The essential oil extracted by MAHD showed better antimicrobial activity, higher phenols yield and antioxidant activity. According to the results of GC-MS, linalool was the most common constituent of both essential oils.
... Beta-linalool has been used as a mild sedative in phyto-and aromatherapy. Its inhale has been associated with stress-relieving and relaxing effects, while its topical application has shown antimicrobial, anti-int1ammatory, analgesic and anti-hyperalgesia activities (Peana and Moretti, 2008;Rodrigues et al., 2016;Schulz et al., 1998). Among all elicitors, the 0.25 mg/L MLE treatment gave the highest increase in Fig. 4. Effect of different concentration of Moringa oleifera leave extract (MLE), Aloe vera leave extract (ALE), Sodium chloride (NaCl), and Spirulina platensis aqueous extract (SAE) on "chlorophyll a", "chlorophyll b" and "carotenoid" contents of Lavandula officinalis in-vitro plantlets leaves. ...
Article
Biotic and abiotic elicitors have been reported to promote growth or multiplication as well as alter bioactive compositions of different plant species. Lavandula officinalis is a perennial plant, which produces fragrant flowers that are utilized to prepare the lavender oil. Lavender oil is rich in beta-linalool, cineol, camphor and many other bioactive compounds, which together contributes to its pain relieving, antimicrobial and cicatrizing activities. Micropropagation is a good alternative to propagate lavender as it reduces the time required to achieve the production of essential oil and eliminates the exposures of the lavender plants to environmental pollutants, thus ensuring a better quality of the oil produced. In this study, we have investigated the effects of 3 biotic elicitors - Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE), Aloe vera leaf extract (ALE), Spirulina platensis aqueous extract (SAE) and an abiotic elicitor - Sodium chloride (NaCl) on the growth, multiplication and phytochemical compositions of Lavandula officinalis in-vitro plantlets. All tested biotic elicitors (MLE, ALE, SAE) negatively affected the plantlets fresh weight and shoots height. However, these elicitors were found to enhance the number of leaves per explant. On the other hand, the effect of abiotic elicitor (NaCl) were opposite to that of the biotic elicitors. In contrast to the negative growth effects, SAE and high ALE concentration (40 ml/L) were found to enhance number of shoots per explant. Interestingly, we found that all tested biotic and abiotic elicitors were able to increase the beta-linalool contents in the L. officinalis in-vitro plantlets. We observed that SAE is the best elicitor among the 4 tested elicitors because both 0.5 and 1.0 g/L SAE were able to increase linalool production and enhanced shoots proliferation.
... Lavender, with the scientific name "Lavandula angustifolia," is a kind of labiateae. Lavender flowers contain linalool, linalyl acetate, ocimene, camphor, and flavonoid (Denner 2009), which have antidepressant (Fibler and Quante 2013), sedative, local anesthetic, antioxidant, dose-dependent anti-seizure (Peana and Moretti 2008), hypnotic (Fibler and Quante 2013), antioxidant and anti-anxiety (Bakhsha et al. 2014) effects. In oral use, linalool increases noradrenaline and dopamine levels, explaining its hypnotic effects (Yamada, Mimaki, and Sashida 2005). ...
... The racemate form of linalool has effect on the brain neurotransmitters glutamic acid, g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acetylcholine, and dopamine. Studies recently performed by our research group have shown that (2)-linalool possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic activities in different animal models(Peana et al., 2002;Peana & Moretti, 2008). ...
Article
The aromatic volatile organic compounds present in honey is important since they contribute toward organoleptic characteristics, identity, and quality of honey. A good number of scientific data and information from some literatures corroborate bioactivity with toxicity of volatile organic compounds present in honey. Nevertheless, systematic scientific study of honey aromatic compounds is an overlooked issue unlike investigation on other bioactive compounds of honey. Reports on comprehensive profiling of honey aromatic compound, bioactivity screening, toxicological evaluation, medicinal values for a particular disease condition as well as database development could be some of the future research scope with honey aromatic compounds. In this article, reports on aromatic compound in honey and their implications in terms of physiochemical characteristics, origin tracking, quality, physiological, and toxicological effects are compiled. It is hoped that this article exhort the scientific community to conduct more rational scientific studies on honey aromatic compounds which is not well-explored in depth.
... This compound has many proven activities and is present in several remedies used in traditional medicine for sedative purposes. Moreover, linalool revealed antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihyperalgesic and analgesic properties [24]. Chang and Shen investigated the cytotoxic activity of linalool. ...
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The present paper describes the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from four Impatiens species, Impatiens glandulifera Royle, I. parviflora DC., I. balsamina L. and I. noli-tangere L. The GC and GC-MS methods resulted in identification of 226 volatile compounds comprising from 61.7%–88.2% of the total amount. The essential oils differed significantly in their composition. Fifteen compounds were shared among the essential oils of all investigated Impatiens species. The majority of these constituents was linalool (0.7%–15.1%), hexanal (0.2%–5.3%) and benzaldehyde (0.1%–10.2%). Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the essential oils was investigated using different methods. The chemical composition of the essential oils and its antioxidant evaluation are reported for the first time from the investigated taxon.
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This research aimed to study about chemical composition and anti-cancer activities of natural agarwood and cultivated agarwood ( Gyrinops vertegii [Gilg.] Domke). Agarwood used in the research was of lowest qualities, which comprised agarwood with natural kemedangan type (A), with cultivated kemedangan-I type (B1), and with cultivated kemedangan-II type (B2), all after methanol extraction. Chemical composition was examined using GC-MS instrument, meanwhile tests on lungs associated anticancer activities (A549’s cancer cells) were performed using MTT method. Chemical composition in low-quality agarwoods was predominantly sesquiterpene compounds, comprising among others guaiacol, cumene, aromadendrene, aplha-humulene, velleral, etc; and conservely did not contain chromone derivative compounds which are compounds characterizing quality agarwood. Low-quality agarwood extracts afforded efficacious potency as anticancer actions against A549’s lungs-attacking cancer cells with IC 50 values at 144.92 µgmL ⁻¹ (A); IC 50 at 206.88 µgmL ⁻¹ (B1), and IC 50 187.97 µgmL ⁻¹ (B2).
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The sedative properties of the essential oil of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller) and of its main constituents--linalool and linalyl acetate--were investigated in mice followed up in a series of experimental procedures. The significant decrease in the motility of female and male laboratory animals under standardized experimental conditions is found to be closely dependent on the exposure time to the drugs. Nevertheless after an injection of caffeine into mice a hyperactivity was observed which was reduced to nearly a normal motility only by inhalation of these fragrance drugs. In particular the correlation of the motility of the animals to linalool in serum is experimentally proven, thus furnishing evidence of the aromatherapeutical use of herbal pillows employed in folk medicine since ancient times in order to facilitate falling asleep or to minimize stressful situations of man.
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Linalool, a monoterpene compound prevalent in essential oil of plant species traditionally used as sedatives, has been characterized as anticonvulsant in several experimental models. Linalool inhibits the binding of [3H]glutamate and [3H]dizocilpine to brain cortical membranes, indicating a participation of the glutamatergic transmission its mechanism of action. In this study, we investigated the effects of linalool on [3H]glutamate release (basal and potassium-stimulated) and [3H]glutamate uptake in mice cortical synaptosomes. Linalool significantly reduced potassium-stimulated glutamate release as well as glutamate uptake, not interfering with basal glutamate release. The data indicates that linalool may interfere with several relevant elements of the glutamatergic transmission, including detriment of the K+-stimulated glutamate release.
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The paper describes in vivo voltammetric detection of nitric oxide with carbon fibre microelectrodes at the lumbar spinal dorsal horn level of decerebrated-spinalized rats during peripheral noxious inflammatory processes. At the lumbar (L3-L4) dorsal horn level, a nitric oxide dependent peak of oxidation current (650 mV), remaining stable for up to 4h ((92 +/- 5)% of control) could be detected indicating that significant amounts of nitric oxide are produced continuously. Following subcutaneous injection in the hindpaw of 50 microl of 0.5% formalin the oxidation current rapidly increased ((115 +/- 5)% of control at 25 min) and reached (120 +/- 6)% of control 1h later. Subsequently the voltammograms stabilized for up to 90 min and decreased ((107 +/- 4)% at 124 min). After an injection in the hindpaw of 150 microl of 4% carrageenan, the voltammograms remained at control level for 1h and then the oxidation current increased continuously for up to 4h ((145 +/- 16)% of control at 240 min); such an increase was reversed by ketamine. In these two models of inflammation, the delay in onset and the duration of the increases in NO release within the dorsal horn relate, to some extent, to the time course of the peripheral inflammatory processes, since they are shorter after formalin than after carrageenan. The results provide a direct in vivo demonstration that the intercellular messenger nitric oxide participates in the transmission of noxious afferent messages within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord following peripheral inflammation.