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Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Issue: Volume 38(5) Supplement, May 2006, p S264
Copyright: ©2006The American College of Sports Medicine
Publication Type: [Wednesday Afternoon Poster presentations Posters displayed from 1:00–6:00 pm. One-hour author presentation times are staggered from 2:00–3:00 pm.,
3:00–4:00 pm., and 4:00–5:00 pm.: B-23 Free Communication/Poster – Gaint and Musculoskeletal: WEDNESDAY, MAY 31, 2006 2:00 PM – 5:00 PM ROOM: Hall B]
A Biomechanical Analysis of Squatting and Lunging Type Exercises: 1692: Board #65 3: PM – 4:00 PM
Escamilla, Rafael F.; Bonacci, Lisa; Burnham, Toni; Busch, Juliann; D'Anna, Kristen; Edwards, Brent; Eliopoulos, Pete; MacLeod, Toran; Mowbray, Ryan; Imamura, Rodney T.;
Hreljac, Alan; Andrews, James R FACSM
California State University, Sacramento, Sacramento, CA.
PURPOSE: Although the wall squat, forward lunge, side lunge, and one-leg squat
are common exercises, there are limited EMG data regarding muscle recruitment
patterns. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activity among these
exercises and between technique variations (short and long foot positions).
METHODS: Nineteen healthy males (29±7 y and 77±9 kg) and females (25±2 y and
60±4 kg) served as subjects. Surface electrodes were positioned in pairs over the rectus
femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, medial and lateral hamstrings, gastrocnemius,
hip adductors, and gluteus maximus. Reflective markers were positioned over
appropriate lower extremity landmarks. EMG (960 Hz) and video (60 Hz) data were
collected during three repetitions of each exercise variation throughout a 0–90 deg knee
angle range. Each subject used their 12 repetition maximum intensity for each exercise.
Raw EMG signals were full-waved rectified, smoothed, and linear enveloped, and
normalized by maximum voluntary muscle contractions (MVIC). Differences in muscle
activity as a function of exercise type and knee angle were assessed by a two-way
repeated measures Analysis of Variance (p <0.01).
RESULTS: Over the knee angle range, all exercises produced high quadriceps
activity (50–70% MVIC), moderate hip adductor and gluteus maximus activity (20–40%
MVIC), and low-to-mo derate hamstrings and gastrocnemius activity (10–25% MVIC). The
forward lunge (long stride), side lunge, and one-leg squat consistently produced
significantly greater quadriceps, hamstrings, adductor, gastrocnemius, and gluteus
maximus activity compared to the forward lunge (short stride), wall squat (long foot
position), and wall squat (short foot position). All muscles, except the gluteus maximus,
were significantly greater with the forward lunge (long stride) compared to the forward
lunge (short stride). There were no significantly differences between the wall squat
(feet closer to the wall) and the wall squat (feet further away from the wall).
CONCLUSIONS: The forward lunge (long stride), side lunge, and one-leg squat were
the most effective exercises in recruiting lower extremity musculature, while the wall
squat exercises (both with the feet closer and further away from the wall) were the
least effective. The effect of foot position did affect muscle activity during the lunge,
with a long stride lunge producing significantly greater lower extremity musculature
compared to a short stride lunge. However, there were no significant differences in
muscle activity for any of the tested muscles between the wall squat with the feet close
to the wall and the wall squat with the feet further away from the wall.
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