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Four Decades of Trends in Attitudes Toward Family Issues in the United States

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Abstract

This article examines trends in family attitudes and values across the last 4 decades of the 20th century, with particular emphasis on the past 2 decades. The article focuses on attitudes toward a wide range of family issues, including the roles of men and women, marriage, divorce, childlessness, premarital sex, extramarital sex, unmarried cohabitation, and unmarried childbearing. More generally, the article considers trends in 3 broad contemporary values: freedom; equality; and commitment to family, marriage, and children. Five data sets are used for the article: Monitoring the Future, General Social Survey, International Social Science Project, Intergenerational Panel Study of Parents and Children, and the National Survey of Families and Households. These 5 data sets reveal substantial and persistent long-term trends toward the endorsement of gender equality in families, which may have plateaued at very high levels in recent years. There have also been important and continuing long-term trends toward individual autonomy and tolerance toward a diversity of personal and family behaviors as reflected in increased acceptance of divorce, premarital sex, unmarried cohabitation, remaining single, and choosing to be childless. At the same time, marriage and family life remain important in the cultural ethos, with large and relatively stable fractions of young people believing that marriage and family life are important and planning marriage and the bearing and rearing of children.

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... Wilcox, 2010. The vast majority of individuals still expect to eventually marry (Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001, Whitehead & Popenoe, 2001, Wilcox & Marquardt, 2011. On the other hand, marriage is now largely governed by the same cultural and institutional rules and regulations of previous generations (Lauer & Yodanis, 2010, Wilcox, & Dew, 2010. ...
... They found that women do not have as strong ties to marriage as men, and much more often than men agree that it is possible to live without marriage and to a greater extent accept childlessness. The explanation may be that women hold a primary responsibility in childcare and household care, which they try to associate with careers, which sometimes is not possible (Thornton, Young-DeMarco, 2001). ...
... Our findings on the prevalence of women's disinterest in marriage compared to men are supported by a study by Thornton, Young-DeMarco (2001), which suggests that women do not have as strong ties to marriage as men and much more often than men agree partners can live without a wedding, and to a greater extent accept childlessness. The explanation may be that women have primary responsibilities in the care of households and children, have a much greater desire to reconcile work and family life, which is not easy for women, but on the other hand refuse to take the role of home-mother (Thornton, Young). ...
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The monograph points to the consequences of a process of changes in demographic behavior that affect the value of the family in society and people's attitudes towards marriage. The monograph summarizes the theoretical and empirical knowledge of what partnership the young generation prefers today and what attitudes they hold towards marriage and premarital sex or cohabitation. The monograph is based on research to determine the attitudes of young people aged 20-40 to marriage and premarital sex using the MAES questionnaire. Attitudes towards marriage are examined in relation to demographic indicators, opinions on cohabitation or in the context of parenthood and ways of division of housework. The basic research tool was a standardized MAES questionnaire consisting of three dimensions: 1. Willingness to marry; 2. General attitudes to marriage and 3. Aspects of marriage. The research sample consisted of 648 young people aged 20-40 who are not married. Data collection was performed in 2018-2019, then the data were statistically processed by SPSS 17.0 program. Grades 1 and 2 were performed, pivot tables were created and hypotheses were tested based on Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi quadratic test.
... In turn, many young adults-defined here as those between the ages of 18 and 35-have seen divorce up close, in their own families (i.e., their parents) and/or in their broader social networks. It is likely unsurprising, then, that young adults today often report being anxious or worried about divorce (e.g., Edin and Kefalas 2005;Gibson-Davis et al. 2005;Miller et al. 2011;Perelli-Harris et al. 2017;Reed 2006;Silva 2013; Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001;Waller and Peters 2008;Willoughby et al. 2020). To be sure, most say that they generally approve of divorce (Eickmeyer 2015;Dugan 2017), but there is still anxiety surrounding divorce due to anticipated emotional and financial repercussions (Edin and Kefalas 2005;Eickmeyer 2015;Dugan 2017;Miller et al. 2011;Reed 2006;Willoughby et al. 2020). ...
... Much of the existing research on this topic looks at general attitudes toward divorce, including whether young adults feel that getting a divorce is morally acceptable and/or whether divorce laws should be more or less stringent (e.g., Hatemi et al. 2015;Kapinus 2005; Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001). Overall, this research suggests that young adults generally hold permissive or supportive attitudes toward divorce. ...
... Beyond simple attitudes toward divorce, a consistent finding in this area is that unmarried young adults are often quite apprehensive about divorce (e.g., Edin and Kefalas 2005;Gibson-Davis et al. 2005;Miller et al. 2011;Perelli-Harris et al. 2017;Reed 2006;Silva 2013;Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001;Waller and Peters 2008;Willoughby et al. 2020). Indeed, while young adults may generally approve of divorce in principle, they also see divorce as a difficult experience, and one that most would strongly prefer to avoid. ...
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Research suggests that young adults commonly approve of divorce but still feel anxious about the possibility of divorcing themselves due to anticipated emotional and financial repercussions. However, the existing research focuses exclusively on heterosexual young adults, which is a significant oversight given the recent legalization of same-sex marriage. As such, we rely primarily on qualitative data from an online survey of unmarried sexual minority young adults (n = 257) to examine how they think about divorce. Our results suggest that sexual minority young adults have somewhat distinct perspectives compared to heterosexual young adults. In particular, they anticipate being quite willing to divorce under a broad set of circumstances, and they report minimal anxieties regarding the prospect of divorce. Given documented associations between attitudes toward divorce in young adulthood and subsequent relational behavior (e.g., cohabitation, marital delay), we conclude by discussing what our results suggest about sexual minority young adults’ relationships in the era of marriage equality.
... La literatura indica que, en general, las personas han transitado hacia una aceptación de la paternidad fuera del matrimonio, la unión libre, el matrimonio tardío, el divorcio como un medio para no dañar a los hijos, como una solución cuando existen problemas en el matrimonio, así como hacia el sexo premarital. En cambio, aún condenan situaciones como el sexo extramarital (Axinn & Thornton, 2000;Thornton & Young DeMarco, 2001). ...
... Sin embargo, la infidelidad marital, es decir, el sexo extramarital se juzga cada vez más (Axinn & Thornton, 2000;Thornton & Young DeMarco, 2001). Así, el ideal de la fidelidad sexual todavía se considera un aspecto más importante de la vida en pareja. ...
... Sin embargo, con la apertura de la sexualidad, también les queda claro que puede darse la paternidad en soltería y que ésta es aceptable, y puede ser tan certera como la que se comparte entre padre y madre. Estos resultados concuerdan con lo que se ha reportado en la literatura (Axinn & Thornton, 2000;Thornton & Young DeMarco, 2001). ...
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En la actualidad, muchas personas comienzan a cambiar la visión que tienen acerca del matrimonio y optan por la unión libre, la soltería e, incluso, relaciones a corto plazo o a distancia. Con el objetivo de identificar las actitudes hacia estos tópicos en estudiantes de preparatoria de la Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo se aplicó la escala de Actitudes hacia la transformación de la vida en pareja de García (2011). Este instrumento está compuesto por siete factores (33 reactivos) que explican el 59.389% de la varianza, con una consistencia interna de .886. Los participantes fueron 296 adolescentes: 172 mujeres y 124 hombres. Los resultados muestran una mayor aceptación hacia temas relacionados con el matrimonio tardío y la paternidad en soltería. En cambio, aspectos como el sexo premarital obtienen poco apoyo. Los resultados son discutidos en términos de la transformación de la vida en pareja en México.
... Individuals today, however, are less likely to think that couples should marry, and people have a greater tolerance for behaviors that were once forbidden socially (Powell et al. 2010). Americans' attitudes toward marriage have also grown more negative, and they view marriage as more restrictive (Gubernskaya 2010;Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001;Treas, Lui, and Gubernskaya 2014). Despite shifts in attitudes and behavior, the literature suggests that norms still govern marriage in the contemporary United States (Cherlin 2020;Knapp and Wurm 2019;Lauer and Yodanis 2010), although norms may be less prescriptive, less intense, and more conditional than they were in the past. ...
... Although research on low-income parents suggests this norm has declined, ethnographic research shows that low-income individuals without children view marriage and childbearing as strongly coupled (Rackin and Gibson-Davis 2017). Likewise, the prevalence of "shotgun marriages" has remained relatively stable over time (Gibson-Davis, Ananat, and Gassman-Pines 2016), and the majority of U.S. adults agree that people who want children should marry (Thornton and Young-Demarco 2001). It is thus an open question about how strong prescriptions to marry are when couples face a pregnancy. ...
... White Americans and the college-educated are more likely to marry and hold favorable attitudes toward marriage than are Black Americans and the non-college-educated, respectively (Gubernskaya 2010; Kuo and Raley 2016;Lundberg and Pollak 2007;Raley, Sweeney, and Wondra 2015;Sassler and Schoen 1999;South 1993;Torr 2011). 3 Women are also more likely than men to prefer marriage, and are more certain about their desire to get married (Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001). Other research, however, shows that women report stronger negative attitudes toward marriage than do men (Autor and Wasserman 2013;Gubernskaya 2010;Sassler and Schoen 1999). ...
Article
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This article seeks to experimentally evaluate the thesis that marriage is deinstitutionalized in the United States. To do so, we map the character of the norm about whether different-sex couples ought to marry, and we identify the extent to which the norm is strong or weak along four dimensions: polarity, whether the norm is prescriptive, proscriptive, bipolar (both prescriptive and proscriptive), or nonexistent; conditionality, whether the norm holds under all circumstances; intensity, the degree to which individuals subscribe to the norm; and consensus, the extent to which individuals share the norm. Results of a factorial survey experiment administered to a disproportionate stratified random sample of U.S. adults ( N = 1,823) indicate that the norm to marry is weak: it is largely bipolar, conditional, and of low-to-moderate intensity, with disagreement over the norm as well as the circumstances demarcating the norm. While the norm to marry is different for men and women and for Black and White respondents, the amount of disagreement (or lack of consensus) within groups is comparable between groups. We find no significant differences across socioeconomic status (education, income, and occupational class). Overall, our findings support key claims of the deinstitutionalization of marriage thesis.
... The 30 year data of the US General Social Surveys from 1991 to 2018 show that the incidence of extramarital sex among people with a history of marriage was 14.63% and 16.48% in 1991 and 2018, respectively [17]. The actual occurrence of extramarital sex is always accompanied by the public's attitude toward extramarital sex: in 1960-1990, the American people's tolerance for extramarital sex significantly increased [18]. A panel data study on American society's sexual behavior and sexual attitudes from 1972 to 2012 noted that Americans' attitudes toward extramarital sex became increasingly tolerant during this period. ...
... Marriage and family are still very important in social culture. Existing studies show that even if parties have had extramarital sex, they still value marriage and family life and try their best to manage marriage and raise children [18]. The occurrence of extramarital sex does not necessarily mean that the spouses' emotions have already declined and that marriage is irreparable. ...
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There is a lack of quantitative studies on the acceptance of extramarital sex in China. Based on data from the Chinese General Social Survey 2013 (CGSS2013), this paper used a zero-inflated Poisson regression model to analyze the factors influencing the public’s attitudes toward extramarital sex. When other variables were controlled, groups of younger ages, higher educational levels, and stronger tendencies toward “liberalization” and non-Islamic beliefs were more tolerant toward extramarital sex, whereas gender and Christian beliefs had no significant influence. In this regard, family and marriage counseling, and society’s moral tolerance and social control of religion are discussed, and further research on cross-cultural verification is needed.
... The expected relationship with age seemed logical, as age would reflect the societal thinking of each generation, and current ideologies towards sexuality and relationships seem to be more favourable and diverse than decades ago. This has already been found for sexual permissiveness regarding premarital and extramarital sexuality (Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001;Kraaykamp 2002) and non-marital co-habitation (Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001). ...
... The expected relationship with age seemed logical, as age would reflect the societal thinking of each generation, and current ideologies towards sexuality and relationships seem to be more favourable and diverse than decades ago. This has already been found for sexual permissiveness regarding premarital and extramarital sexuality (Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001;Kraaykamp 2002) and non-marital co-habitation (Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001). ...
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Background: The attitudes of others towards the sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities are one of the main perceived barriers to them expressing their sexuality. Research on what influences these attitudes yields heterogeneous results. Method: A systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis were carried out. Results: Eleven studies using the Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire-Individuals with an Intellectual Disability (ASQ-ID) were included. Within the included studies, the country's socio-economic development and level of individualism were associated with attitudes towards the sexual rights, parenting and self-control of adults with intellectual disabilities. General population and staff samples held more favourable attitudes than family samples in terms of sexual rights and parenting. Age and gender did not yield significant results. Conclusions: Variables related to country context may underlie the differences observed between countries and therefore influence the population's general thinking and ideologies. Unexpectedly, no age differences were observed. Gender-related results may reflect rapprochement between genders in sexuality. These findings are relevant for researchers and practitioners, as they suggest the importance of considering contextual factors when developing effective interventions that aim to support adults with disabilities to live their sexuality.
... In addition, intra-cohort changes toward more liberal values among the surviving cohorts also matter. These findings resonate with prior research that shows the simultaneous effects of cohort-replacement and intra-cohort changes on liberalising social attitudes (Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001). That is, not only does the demographic metabolism of younger generations replacing older generations matter for attitudinal changes in marriage values, within-individual shifts toward more liberal and tolerant values over time are also crucial forces in the process of social changes. ...
... Finally, findings from the multivariate regression analyses resonate with past research on how socio-demographic characteristics are associated with the direction and scope of attitudinal changes (Lu, 2011;Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001;Gubernskaya, 2010). The findings show that men, older respondents, the non-tertiaryeducated, those currently or were once married, and individuals with some sort of non-Christian religious affiliation were in general more traditional in their views about marriage than their counterparts. ...
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Research on marriage values bears crucial policy implications in a low-fertility context where obstacles to marriage are indicative of fertility barriers, particularly when non-marital births are rare. Using multiple waves of the Taiwan Social Change Survey between 1985 and 2015, this study explores the attitudinal shifts in marriage during a time of rapid social change. The findings indicate that substantial changes have taken place with regard to the institution of marriage. A cohort replacement effect, as well as intra-cohort changes, are the main drivers for the majority of changes in attitudes toward marriage. Overall, more people in the general public now believe that marriages do not necessarily bring more happiness and satisfaction to one’s life. More of them increasingly believe that conventional norms imposed on married couples, and women in particular, should be relaxed. These include norms about living arrangements, in-law relationships, divorce, and the importance of childbearing. However, preferences for marital births have changed little, and more people in the 2010s endorse the notion of having at least one son to continue the family lineage, than in the 1990s. These seemingly paradoxical patterns of value liberalisation and traditional fertility preferences, along with rising female autonomy, could make the “marriage package” seem less desirable for younger cohorts of economically independent women, leading to delayed (or even foregone) family formation.
... The modernization theory postulates that rising individualism, accompanied with material affluence in a society, motivates people to pursue their needs of self-actualization and helps liberate them from the institutional constraints of marriage. According to this theory, marital instability will be higher in societies where individualism is highly valued and among people with higher education (Lesthaeghe 1995;Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001;van de Kaa 2002). In both theories, marital quality 2 of 17 is not an integral part of the marital dissolution process; rather, it is treated as an external factor that requires its own theories and explanations. ...
... It appears that there is no return in the historical trajectory of the values appreciating individualism and personal choices. However, over time, it has become a theoretical puzzle whether the force of individualism or liberalism, once tied with self-actualization, might be the underlying reason for family erosion or family decline in ever more affluent contemporary societies (Lewis 2001; Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001). Researchers came to question whether such social trends as more infrequent marriage, more cohabitation and single-person households, lower fertility and higher divorce were the products of expanded personal freedom or a manifestation of certain structural social problems. ...
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Scholars have assumed that as gender revolutions are completed and societies achieve advanced levels of gender egalitarianism, married persons become happier, and marriages become stable. This study investigates how the norms about gender roles are associated with marital instability. The analysis is based on two propositions: (1) marital dissolution is an outcome of two rather distinct processes, deterioration of marital quality and formation of a decision to leave a marriage, and (2) the antithesis of advanced gender egalitarianism is a set of lingering male breadwinner norms, not gender inequality often manifested by working women performing second shifts. The data are from 68 national surveys conducted in 2002 and 2012 through ISSP coordination, and the sample of person-level analysis is restricted to ages 30–49, supposedly in the life cycle stages of family formation and expansion. The norms of gender roles are classified into four types: traditional norm, prescribing gendered division of labor; lingering male breadwinner norm, emphasizing men as the primary breadwinners while allowing flexibility of women’s roles; super woman norm, prescribing women to perform double roles; and egalitarian norm, emphasizing equal sharing of roles. At the country level, aggregate variables were constructed by calculating the percentage of adults who held each type of norm. The results strongly support the prediction that the male breadwinner norm at the societal level is detrimental to marital quality, while persons holding the egalitarian norm are most satisfied with their family lives.
... In contrast to findings from the United States, our analysis did not show salient marital protection for health. This is consistent with the idea that marital protection is more solid in the United States than in Europe (as suggested, e.g., by Kalmijn, 2017;Cherlin, 2009) and may reflect greater generosity of European welfare states (e.g., the universal access to health and unemployment insurance) but also cultural differences, such as the less central position of marriage in Europe (Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001). In such a context, marriage may yield only minor advantages over nonmarital unions. ...
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Objective This study analyzes the dynamics of health associated with the transition to first marriage and remaining in marriage up to 24 years in order to estimate the protective effect of heterosexual marriage (compared to being never married, including the unpartnered, partnered, and cohabiting) on physical, mental, and self-rated health. Background Past research produced inconclusive results on marital health protection. This study advances the debate by overcoming theoretical and methodological shortcomings of previous research. The authors use new statistical methods, which go beyond controlling for self-selection into marriage on health levels and also account for selection on health trajectories. Method The authors used German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) data (1992–2018, stratified random sample; N = 27,205 observations for physical and mental health, N = 110,440 observations for self-rated health). This study relied on fixed effects models with individual slopes, which controlled for individual premarital health trends, as well as fixed effects models with group slopes (FEGS), which modeled self-selection into marriage on premarital health trajectories. Results Compared to health trajectories of the never married, self-rated health and physical health declined temporarily upon the transition into marriage, but improved in the long run; however, the cumulative protective effect was statistically significant only among men and only for self-rated health. Mental health improved around the transition into first marriage, but the effect was short-lived. Men with more sustainable premarital health had a higher chance of marrying. Conclusion This study does not support the strong theoretical claims of marital protection and suggests that marriage exerts a mix of protective and adverse effects on health.
... While women continue to spend more time on unpaid domestic labor compared with men, rates are converging in time (Bianchi, Sayer, Milkie, & Robinson, 2012;Sayer, 2005), and the proportion of households comprised of man-woman couples in which women are the sole or primary income earner has increased (Boushey, 2009;Livingston, 2018aLivingston, , 2018bRuggles, 2015). These trends also underlie broader shifting in the meaning and importance of cultural institutions such as marriage; cohabitation without marriage, and non-monogamous partnerships and consensual non-monogamy are increasing in the US (Daugherty & Copen, 2016;Kuperberg, 2019;Sizemore & Olmstead, 2017;Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001), and those who approve of cohabitation and non-monogamy have more socially liberal views in general (Axinn & Thornton, 2000;Kuperberg, 2019), which may move in historically concomitant ways to fewer social sanctions towards alcohol use. Alcohol may be becoming increasingly accepted within roles such as marriage and parenting, as potentially indicated by the growth of advertising and marketing efforts towards 'moms' with alcohol positioned as an appropriate coping response to and reward for stress (Harding, Whittingham, & McGannon, 2021). ...
Article
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Gender differences in binge drinking have converged in recent cohorts, due in part to faster decreases in consumption among boys in adolescence, and faster increases in consumption among women in young to middle adulthood. Changes in education and occupation explain a portion, but not all, of these differences; the present study examines how attitudes about gender, religion and family additionally explain cohort effects in binge drinking by sex. Data were drawn from the Monitoring the Future panel studies, including >54,000 participants who were high school seniors from 1976 through 2006, followed to age 29/30 from 1988 through 2016. The main effect relationship between cohort and binge drinking was assessed, and 28 items on gender, religion and family were evaluated to determine if mediation criteria were met; mediation models assessed direct and indirect effects. Results indicated that gender, religion and family attitudes and beliefs among US adults across the 20 th and 21 st centuries have shifted dramatically but not monotonically. US adolescents and adults have largely become less religious; some attitudes on women and family have become less conservative and some more. Among men, views on marriage showed the largest mediation effects; agreeing with the statement ‘one partner is too restrictive’ mediated 3.35% of the cohort effect (95% C.I. 2.42, 4.31) and ‘couples should live together before they are married’ mediated 1.6% of the cohort effect (95% C.I. −2.37, −0.8). Among women, declines in religious service attendance mediated 2.0% of cohort effects in binge drinking (95% C.I. −3.03, −1.09), as well as similar family attitudes as men. In conclusion, changes in social roles, as well as some gender, and religious views, partially mediate cohort effects on binge drinking for men and women. The dynamic changes in how adolescents and adults view family and gender are important components of alcohol epidemiology.
... Changes to the family structure have been widely discussed in the literature from a theoretical point of view (Beck 1992;Popenoe 1988Popenoe , 1993Schumpeter 1988;Lesthaeghe 1995), and empirical evidence has been provided for several countries (see, for example, Dorbritz 2008;Fokkema et al. 2008;Prskawetz et al. 2008). However, fewer studies have examined birth cohort changes as a critical explanation (see, for example, Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001;Gubernskaya 2010;Choe et al. 2014;Lee 2019). As a young country, Australia has been exposed to significant and sometimes contrasting trends. ...
... One of the most fundamental social changes in industrialized countries since the middle of the twentieth century has been the shift toward greater gender equality in attitudes concerning women's and men's roles in both society and the family. The focus has mainly been on women (e.g., Brewster & Padavic, 2000;Inglehart & Norris, 2003;Jansen & Liefbroer, 2006;Lesthaeghe, 1995;Scott, 2008;Testa, 2007;Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001;van Egmond et al., 2010). Gender equal attitudes have not spread equally across all social groups and developed Western societies. ...
Article
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The relationship between gender role attitudes and fertility intentions is highly debated among social scientists. We emphasize the need for a multidimensional theoretical and empirical approach to extend the two-step behavioral gender revolution approach to a three-step attitudinal gender revolution approach distinguishing between gender roles in the public sphere, mothers’ role in the family, and fathers’ role in the family. Using the Generations and Gender Survey of eight European countries, we demonstrate the usefulness of such an approach. Gender equal attitudes related to the public sphere are more widespread than those concerning mothers’ or fathers’ roles in the family. Our results show that the association between gender role attitudes and fertility intentions varies—in terms of significance and magnitude—according to the dimension considered (gender roles in the public sphere, mothers’ and fathers’ role in the family), gender, parity, and country. We conclude that without a clear concept of and empirical distinction between the various elements of the gender role attitudes/fertility nexus, scientific investigations will continue to send conflicting messages.
... Other pivotal demographic and social transformations, such as the increase in the level of education and labour force participation of older generations, and women in particular-are also thought to be associated in complex ways with G1-G3 exchanges, for both structural and cultural reasons (Kalmijn, 2006). For example, as highly educated people are hypothesised to be more individualistic (Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001) and are more likely to live farther away from their family members (Silverstein, 1995), one can expect highly educated grandparents to have fewer contacts with their grandchildren and to be less likely to provide intensive grandchild care as they prefer to be 'busy with' social and leisure activities (McGarrigle et al., 2018). Changes in the labour market participations often assume that grandparents would increase their engagement in grandchild provision as more mothers are employed (Geurts et al., 2015). ...
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Levels of coresidence, residential proximity, face-to-face contacts and intergenerational support exchanges remain overall high and stable across European countries. However, to date, few studies have focused on trends in grandparent-grandchild relations. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether and to what extent grandparent-grandchild exchanges have changed over time. We used data from the Italian Surveys on Family, covering the years 1998-2016, and considered three different currencies of exchanges between grandparents and their grandchildren (coresidence, face-to-face contacts, and grandchild care provision). Our results showed an astonishing stability over time in these indicators of grandparent-grandchild exchanges, with only a small reduction in daily contacts. Also, we found little changes in the associations between such indicators of intergenerational exchanges and the demographic and socioeconomic determinants usually used to explain them. Despite changes among Italian grandparents such as increases in their age profile, in education, and in marital disruption, the relations between grandparents and their grandchildren remain stable over time with generally high levels of intergenerational exchanges.
... Eine feste Paarbeziehung ist denn auch laut Umfragen für die meisten Menschen eines der wichtigsten Ziele im Leben (Diener, Gohm, Suh & Oishi, 2000). So berichten rund 80 % der Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen (Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001) bzw. rund 99 % in einer Untersuchung von Pedersen, Miller, Putcha-Bhagavatula und Yang (2002), dass sie eine feste Partnerschaft anstreben. ...
... For example, studies have demonstrated that traditional gender attitudes are associated with female underemployment, unequal housework divisions, and domestic violence against women (Davis and Greenstein 2009). Mirroring the trends observed for objective indicators of gender equality, research has documented significant progress towards more gender-egalitarian social attitudes since the mid-20th century (Thornton and Young-DeMarco, 2001). However, since the turn of the century this trend has also stalled, even regressed (Cotter et al. 2011;Van Egmond et al., 2010). ...
Article
Traditional gender beliefs play an important role in (re-)producing gender inequalities, and trends towards gender egalitarianism have stalled. As such, identifying factors that contribute to individuals upholding traditional versus egalitarian gender attitudes is an important scholarly endeavour. While previous studies have identified critical predictors—such as religion, education and parenthood—intergenerational influences have received comparatively little empirical attention. Drawing upon gender-socialization theory, we derive hypotheses about how parental attitudes towards gender are transmitted to their children, considering differences between mothers' and fathers' influences, parental (dis)agreement in attitudes, and moderation by child's gender. We test these hypotheses using high-quality data from a national sample of Australian 14/15-year-old adolescents (Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, n = 1806). We find substantial intergenerational associations in gender ideology. Paternal and maternal attitudes exert a similar degree of influence on their children's attitudes, and have complementary rather than cumulative effects. While fathers' attitudes influence sons' and daughters' attitudes equally, mothers' attitudes influence daughters' attitudes more than sons'.
... El análisis de las opiniones públicas sobre el género -sobre los roles y espacios de hombres y de mujeres, las desigualdades e injusticias que enfrentan las mujeres, entre otros-evidencia que éstas no son estáticas, sino que cambian a lo largo del tiempo. A partir de la creciente igualdad y mayor participación de las mujeres en la vida política y económica de las sociedades, las actitudes respecto a los roles de género y las familias han ido cambiando hacia la búsqueda de la libertad de las mujeres (Thornton y Freedman, 1979;Thornton, 1989;Thornton y Young-DeMarco, 2001). Estos cambios se atribuyen al nivel de la modernización de las sociedades, evidenciando que en las sociedades postindustriales se presenta una transformación de los valores al adoptar valores postmateriales, alejándose de las percepciones tradicionales de los roles de género (Inglehart, 1990(Inglehart, , 1997Inglehart y Norris, 2003). ...
... This is particularly true for women working outside the home and educated women (Gibson-Davis, 2011;Kaufman & Goldscheider, 2007;Nemoto, 2008). Sanchez et al. (2002) found that women tended to perceive marriage as disempowering, referring to marriage as enslavement and a denial of a woman's personhood or individuality (Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001). ...
Article
This article considers women who establish diverse families, focusing on the hetero‐gay family as a point of departure. These women challenge patriarchal imperatives through implicit acts of civil disobedience, creating an alternative to the constraints of the traditional two‐parent different‐sex family. We show how the concept of civil disobedience, conventionally restricted to the field of law and public policy, applies as well to the domestic sphere of family life, a potential arena of contention and activism. This case example illustrates the utility of taking into account the reciprocal influences of families and the larger social and political context in which they are imbedded.
... Many studies have examined attitudes and beliefs toward family relationships, including attitudes toward marriage, cohabitation, and divorce; beliefs about gender roles in marriage; and ideas about childlessness, single parenting, and same-sex parents (Axinn et al., 1994;Bouchard & Lachance-Grzela, 2016;Cunningham et al., 2005;Halman & van Ingen, 2015;Noordhuizen et al., 2010;Sieben & Verbakel, 2013;Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001;van der Valk et al., 2008). Comparatively less research exists about the attitudes and beliefs that people have toward the equivalence of biological and nonbiological family relationships. ...
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Objective This research describes the attitudes that people have toward biological and nonbiological parenting and examines how living arrangements during youth affect people's attitudes as adults. Background It is generally believed that people have negative beliefs about nonbiological (i.e., step) family relationships, but there is little systematic research on such attitudes, and even less is known about how these come about. This topic is important given the long-term increase in the number of stepfamilies, a trend that raises concerns as to whether attitudes toward stepfamilies can become more positive over time. Method We used Dutch survey data from 5,949 respondents aged 25 to 45 years with an oversample of people who grew up with a stepparent. The respondents' parents also were interviewed. Attitudes were measured in the same way for the two generations, and elaborate retrospective questions were asked about respondents' living arrangements in youth. Results People who grew up in a stepfamily had more positive attitudes about stepfamily relationships and more negative views on the relevance of biological relatedness. This effect was only present for stepfather and not for stepmother families. Part of this effect was due to parental attitudes, but even after these were taken into account, the effect of living arrangements in youth remained. Conclusion The general public is divided about the relevance of biology for family relationships. Value socialization and observational learning in youth are both important for understanding people's attitudes toward stepfamily relationships. Implications As the number of stepfamilies keeps growing, normative support for stepparents may increase.
... The social support mechanism suggests that individuals not complying with social customs experience a lack of peer support (Wrosch and Freund 2001), which can have negative consequences for emotional well-being and career development. The stigma mechanism evokes experiences of social sanctions and exclusion for individuals who disobey norms (Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001). The economic model has various facets and offers several explanations for different types of norms noncompliance. ...
Book
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This open access book examines how childhood social disadvantage influences young-adult demographic decision-making and later-life economic and well-being outcomes. This book in particular focuses on testing whether the consequences of childhood social disadvantage for adult outcomes differ across societies, and whether these differences are shaped by the “context of opportunities” that societies offer to diminish the adverse impact of economic and social deprivation. The book integrates a longitudinal approach and provides new insights in how the experience of childhood disadvantage (e.g. low parental socio-economic status, family disruption) influences demographic decisions in adulthood (e.g. the timing of family-events such as cohabitation, marriage or parenthood; the risk of divorce or having a child outside a partner relationship; the exposure to later-life loneliness, poor health, and economic adversity). Moreover, using a cross-national comparative perspective it investigates whether the relationships of interest differ across nations, and tests the “context of opportunities” hypothesis arguing that the links between childhood disadvantage and adult outcomes are weakened in societal contexts offering good opportunities for people to escape situations of deprivation. To do so, the book analyzes national contexts based on economic prosperity, family values and norms, and welfare-state arrangements.
... The social support mechanism suggests that individuals not complying with social customs experience a lack of peer support (Wrosch and Freund 2001), which can have negative consequences for emotional well-being and career development. The stigma mechanism evokes experiences of social sanctions and exclusion for individuals who disobey norms (Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001). The economic model has various facets and offers several explanations for different types of norms noncompliance. ...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on adult family-related experiences and the manner in which they affect later-life socio-emotional and economic well-being (loneliness, employment, earnings). Particularly innovative is the investigation of these relationships in a cross-national perspective. Results from two studies conducted by the authors of this chapter within the CONOPP project show that deviations from family-related social customs differently impact socio-emotional and economic well-being outcomes as there is: (a) a non-normative family penalty for loneliness (individuals who never experience cohabitation/marriage or parenthood or postpone such events are the loneliest); and (b) a non-normative family bonus for women’s economic outcomes (single and/or childless women have the highest earnings). Moreover, analyses revealed that European countries differ considerably in the manner in which similar family-related experiences affect later-life well-being. For example, childlessness had a stronger negative impact on loneliness in Eastern Europe than in Western Europe and the observed heterogeneity could be explained by culturally-embedded family-related values and norms (childless individuals in countries placing stronger accent on ‘traditional’ family values are lonelier compared to childless individuals in less ‘traditionalistic’ nations). In terms of economic outcomes, results show that the lower the female labor force participation during child-rearing years, the more substantial the differences in later-life employment and income between women with different family life trajectories.
... With the advent of delayed marriage, cohabitation, lifetime singlehood, and same-sex marriage (Heuveline and Timberlake 2004;Heuveline, Timberlake, and Furstenberg 2003;Holland 2017;Jones and Yeung 2014;Kiernan 2001), it is clear that marriage as an institution has been changing throughout many parts of the world. As behavioral changes surrounding the marriage institution abound, attitudes toward, and perceptions related to, marriage and family have also shifted away from traditional norms of universal marriage and childbearing (Fuwa 2014;Gubernskaya 2010;Jones 2005) and toward greater individualism and tolerance for diversity of personal and family behaviors (Lee and Mutz 2019;Lesthaeghe 2014; Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001;Treas, Lui, and Gubernskaya 2014). These family changes have been viewed as evidence that marriage is undergoing deinstitutionalization, which has been defined in terms of the rise of marriage alternatives and a decline in the dominance of marriage (Cherlin 2004(Cherlin , 2020 as well as the lesser governance of spouses' behaviors by social norms (Cherlin 2004(Cherlin , 2020Lauer and Yodanis 2010). ...
... During the lifetimes of these two cohorts, there has been a general loosening of traditional family values and greater acceptance of deviations from these norms (Thornton & Young DeMarco, 2001). At the same time, studies have shown a general decline in religiosity among later generations, with an apparent rise in so-called religious "nones" (Hout & Fischer, 2014;America's Changing Religious Landscape, 2015;Voas & Chaves, 2016). ...
Article
We investigated whether religiosity among middle-aged adults in the Baby Boom generation and Generation-X was associated with filial elder-care norms. The sample consisted of 720 Baby Boom and 520 Gen-X respondents participating in the Longitudinal Study of Generations. A cohort-comparative model was devised using data from Baby Boomers in 1994 and Gen-Xers in 2016, when they were 42 and 40 years old, respectively. A three-step latent class modeling technique identified three religious classes in both generations: strongly religious, weakly religious, and doctrinally religious. Weakly religious Baby Boomers and Gen-Xers reported weaker filial elder-care norms than the strongly religious in each generation. No difference in these effects were detected by generation. However, only among Baby Boomers did the doctrinally religious express stronger filial norms, suggesting cross-cohort weakening in how beliefs translate into filial responsibility in the absence of congregational practice. This research opens lines of inquiry that examine long-term effects of adult children’s religiosity on the actual provision of assistance to older parents when they face health difficulties.
... Embedded in these values is the expectation that Mexican mothers will be successful and self-sacrificial mothers (Connelly et al., 2013). In contrast, European-American values reflect egalitarian beliefs about parenting and expectations that women can successfully maintain dual roles as parents and providers (Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001). European-American mothers also tend to express high levels of confidence in their parenting role relative to immigrant mothers in the U.S. (Bornstein & Cote, 2004). ...
Article
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The Parenting Sense of Competence Scale (PSOC) is one of the most commonly used self-report measures of parenting competence, yet there exists limited work documenting its psychometric properties among ethnically and culturally diverse populations of parents. We evaluated the factor structure and validity of the PSOC (administered in English and Spanish) among a sample of low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking Mexican-origin mothers of infants in the United States. Two hundred and five women (mean age 27.8) reported on their parenting competence, parenting stress, depressive symptoms, and infant’s temperament at 12 months postpartum. A two-factor structure (parenting satisfaction and parenting self-efficacy) emerged as the best fit to the data. Both subscores demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and validity evidence. Findings extend existing work documenting a two-factor structure of the PSOC and provides preliminary validity support for use of the PSOC and Spanish-translated PSOC among Mexican American mothers.
... For instance, while in Italy partnerships and childbearing are established in a traditional setting, in France today most births take place within unmarried unions, and also in Great Britain both unpartnered and unmarried births are frequent. Although in many countries being in a marriage is still seen as the ideal setting to start and complete family plans (Barlow and Probert 2004;Thornton and Young-DeMarco 2001), we have witnessed a change in the link between marriage, cohabitation and fertility (Perelli-Harris et al. 2010b), and sometimes in the proportion of births outside any union. The link between childbearing and instability evocated earlier could thus be itself affected by the change in partnership circumstances at birth. ...
... Within this framework, individuals' attitudes and their changes over time play a key role in the societal adaptation process to structural changes, favouring the development of new behaviours (Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001;Golscheider et al., 2015;Zentner & Eagl, 2015). Gender-norms refer to views held by individuals regarding the roles men and women should play in society, for instance with respect to the division between paid and unpaid work. ...
Article
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In the last decades, conventional patterns of assortative mating have been challenged by changes in the gender-gap in education. In many countries, educationally hypogamous unions (i.e. the woman is more educated than the man) now outnumber hypergamous unions (i.e. the man is more educated than the woman). The extent to which such structural changes have also been accompanied by gender egalitarian attitudes has not yet been investigated. This paper fills the gap by focusing on both age and educational assortative mating, using data from wave 1 and 2 of the Generations and Gender Surveys for 6 European countries. I investigate the role of gender-role attitudes of single men and women, measured in the first wave, on their age and educational assortative mating outcomes observed in the second wave. To this aim, I applied multinomial logistic regressions, and used as reference outcome category remaining single in the second wave. Compared to non-egalitarian men, I found that men holding gender-egalitarian views are more likely to form hypogamous unions instead of remaining single, in terms of both age and educational assortative mating. Egalitarian women are more likely than non-egalitarian women to form age-hypogamous unions instead of remaining single, but they are less likely to form educationally hypogamous unions. I discuss the implications of these results in relation to the convergence of mating preferences between men and women.
... Other pivotal demographic and social transformations, such as the increase in the level of education and labour force participation of older generations, and women in particular-are also thought to be associated in complex ways with G1-G3 exchanges, for both structural and cultural reasons (Kalmijn, 2006). For example, as highly educated people are hypothesised to be more individualistic (Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001) and are more likely to live farther away from their family members (Silverstein, 1995), one can expect highly educated grandparents to have fewer contacts with their grandchildren and to be less likely to provide intensive grandchild care as they prefer to be 'busy with' social and leisure activities (McGarrigle et al., 2018). Changes in the labour market participations often assume that grandparents would increase their engagement in grandchild provision as more mothers are employed (Geurts et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Levels of coresidence, residential proximity, face-to-face contacts and intergenerational support exchanges remain overall high and stable across European countries. However, to date, few studies have focused on trends in grandparent–grandchild relations. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether and to what extent grandparent–grandchild exchanges have changed over time. We used data from the Italian Family and Social Subjects ( FSS ) Surveys, covering the years 1998–2016, and considered three different currencies of exchanges between grandparents and their grandchildren (coresidence, face-to-face contacts, and grandchild care provision). Our results showed stability over time in coresidence, a small reduction in daily contacts (from 47% in 1998 to 39% in 2016) and an increase in grandchildren care (from 78% in 1998 to 82% in 2016). In addition, we found little changes in the associations between such indicators of intergenerational exchanges and the demographic and socio-economic determinants usually used to explain them. Despite changes among Italian grandparents such as increases in their age profile, in education, and in marital disruption, the relations between grandparents and their grandchildren have so far remained stable over time, with generally high levels of intergenerational exchanges.
... Yet, the direction of the relationship between education and attitudes toward divorce is debated, particularly with respect to the temporal trends in educational gaps in divorce attitudes. Although several studies assess changing attitudes toward divorce over time (Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001;Toth & Kemmelmeier, 2009), the relationship between education and divorce attitudes and its change over time has hardly been a major focus (except for Martin & Parashar, 2006). Two theories -the diffusion theory and lagged diffusion theory (explained below)-provide contrasting expectations for the relationship between education and divorce attitudes, and its change over time (Martin & Parashar, 2006;Pampel, 2016). ...
Article
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Rising rates of divorce in Taiwan prompted debates over changes in the meaning of family, which must be understood alongside changes in attitudes toward divorce. The diffusion and lagged diffusion theories offer competing hypotheses regarding divorce attitude change by education and gender over time. Using the Taiwanese Social Change Survey, this study examines the trends in attitudes toward divorce in Taiwan over three decades (1985–2015). We test the diffusion and lagged diffusion theories by examining the relationships between higher educational attainment, gender, and attitudes towards divorce. We find that Taiwanese men and women became more open toward divorce in general along with higher education expansion. Increased acceptance toward divorce is more substantial for the college educated than those without, and college-educated women are more open to divorce than are college-educated men. The results support the diffusion theory and highlight the importance of education and gender in shaping attitude shift.
... Furthermore, an off-time occurrence of life events (e.g., finding a romantic partner) is associated with loneliness (Zoutewelle-Terovan & Liefbroer, 2018). Individuals whose transitions do not conform with norms of ideal timelines have been argued to not have access to immediate social support (Wrosch & Freund, 2001) and to run the risk of becoming stigmatized (Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001). ...
Article
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Although loneliness is typically associated with adolescence and old age, research has revealed that it is prevalent across the life span. The present study contributes to the loneliness literature by investigating a broad range of risk factors in a Dutch sample ( N = 52,341) ranging from late adolescence to old age using a cross-sectional survey administered by the regional public health services in the province of Limburg in the Netherlands. Risk factors associated with higher levels of self-reported loneliness across the life span were being male, lower education levels, inadequacy of financial resources, mental health, informal caregiving that is experienced as burdensome, and limited social contact or network type. In addition, in early adulthood, having a non-western migration background and having a physical disability were associated with higher levels of loneliness, whereas living alone, having a non-western migration background, and not having a paid job were risk factors of loneliness in middle adulthood. In late adulthood, living alone and having a physical disability were associated with loneliness. The present study demonstrates that different stages of life are associated with different vulnerability factors of loneliness. Hence, the prevention of loneliness might require different interventions in different age groups.
... Indeed, the role of the media and popular discourse in shaping the construction of single parenthood is important because it exerts tremendous effects on individuals' thoughts about single parenthood and impacts the lives of single parents themselves (Ganong et al., 1990;Usdansky, 2008). Historically, much of the public has been critical of unmarried childbearing as they consider it "immoral," "destructive," and "one of the worst things that could happen" to a teenage girl (Thornton & Young-DeMarco, 2001;Usdansky, 2008). Indeed, national support for single parents, especially mothers, remains low, with nearly two-thirds of adults saying that "more single women raising children on their own is bad for society" (Livingston, 2018b). ...
Article
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Single parenthood has risen dramatically in the United States over the last 50 years, along with social science research on these families. Some of this early research centered on causes as well as the consequences of single parenthood, especially on children, the latter of which many scholars argue reifies differences as problematic in single-parent families by comparing them against the “normative” framework of heterosexual, married-parent families. More recently, however, there has been much growth in social science research that examines the lived experiences of single parents and their children. In this review, I focus on this expanding field of inquiry and present research that highlights the diversity and complexity of single-parent families. In particular, I summarize the classed, raced, and gendered media and public discourse on single parents, the changing demographics of single parenthood in the United States, and the ways that poor, Black single mothers are shifting the narrative on these families. I also discuss three types of single-parent families that have received increasing scholarly attention: single parents in multigenerational homes, single fathers, and single parents “by choice.” These subtypes further nuance discussion of single parenthood by highlighting the growing diversity of these families. New developments and future directions for research on single parenthood are also discussed.
... i.e., women expect marriage more than men (Crissey, 2005), increase in age (Thornton & Young-demarco, 2001), higher levels of religiosity (Mosko & Pistole, 2010), puberty (Gangoli & Chantler, 2009), sexual exposure (Willoughby & Carroll, 2010), financial capacities of men (Carlson et al., 2004), seeking financial gains from marriage (Xie et al., 2003), and being white in race than being black (Crissey, 2005). Boys prefer beautiful girls and girls prefer educated boys as mates (Husain & Gulzar, 2015). ...
... Despite these trends, gender inequality remains strong, particularly in the private family sphere (England, 2010;Pedulla and Th ebaud, 2015). While ideological support for gender equality has increased over the past decades (Brewster and Padavic, 2000;Thornton and Young-DeMarco, 2001; Davis and Greenstein, 2009;Pampel, 2011), there is also evidence of a recent stall in the move towards egalitarianism (Cotter, Hermsen and Vanneman, 2011;Pedulla and Th ebaud, 2015), or even a revival of traditional gender ideology within the sphere of family life (Pepin and Cotter, 2018). ...
Article
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We investigate how the relative education and earnings of husbands and wives are associated with self-reported decision-making within the family. Using European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions 2010 data for 27 European countries (n = 72,638), we find that women who earn more than their partner are more likely to report that they alone make the major financial and other important decisions. Men are more likely than women to be reported as financial decision makers if women contribute less than a quarter to joint earnings. However, in line with predictions based on traditional gender display, the association with relative earnings is not linear: among couples in which wives earn almost all of the income, we find that husbands are reported to have more say in financial decision-making than among couples in which both contribute a substantial part of the joint income. This non-linear pattern does not hold similarly for general decision-making. The discrepancy suggests that major financial issues, which were traditionally within the male realm, may be more susceptible to gender display than other family decisions.
Article
Objetivo: El estudio se orientó a indagar la relación entre algunas funciones ejecutivas (FE) (control inhibitorio, cálculo de riesgo-beneficio, flexibilidad cognitiva, habilidad de planeación y toma de decisiones) con el deseo sexual general, diádico y solitario, inhibición del deseo sexual y disposición hacia las fantasías sexuales en una muestra de jóvenes entre 17 y 30 años. Método: Estudio de enfoque cuantitativo de corte transversal. Mediante un muestreo intencional por conveniencia se seleccionaron 64 jóvenes entre 17 y 30 años, estudiantes universitarios que se encontraban en una relación de pareja. Para evaluar las variables de las FE se utilizaron tareas de la Batería Neuropsicológica de Funciones Ejecutivas y Lóbulos Frontales (BANFE): Stroop, juego de cartas, clasificación de cartas y Torre de Hanoi, y las variables relacionadas con el deseo sexual fueron valoradas mediante el Test del Deseo Sexual Inhibido, el Inventario del Deseo Sexual (SDI-2, sigla de Sexual Desire Inventory) y la Escala de la Actitud hacia las Fantasías Sexuales. Resultados: Se encontraron correlaciones entre las variables del deseo sexual, disposición hacia las fantasías sexuales y el deseo sexual inhibido; deseo sexual total y diádico y disposición hacia las fantasías sexuales correlacionó con el control inhibitorio; y el deseo sexual inhibido correlacionó con la planificación y el control de impulsos. Discusión: Los hallazgos del estudio llaman la atención sobre las implicaciones educativas encaminadas a desarrollar las funciones ejecutivas en adolescentes y jóvenes con el fin prevenir conductas sexuales de riesgo.to formulate new hypotheses in the field of sexuality and neurosciences. The study findings draw attention to the educational implications aimed to develop the executive functions in adolescents and young people to prevent risky sexual behavior.
Chapter
The chapter identifies gender ideology as a critical factor in the management of work–life integration, since the gender ideology held by regions and individuals can have negative or positive consequences on the management of WLI. Three possible gender ideologies were identified: traditional, egalitarian, and neotraditional/transitional, and these have different effects on the management of work–life integration. The interaction between dominant regional and individuals’ preferred gender ideology is complex and complicated by the effects of cognitive dissonance. Regions have moved away from the predominant traditional gender ideology, but the movement did not achieve the preferred egalitarian ideology. This means that the dominant gender ideology is still detrimental to women’s effectiveness in the work and family domains. Also, the drift is stronger in the western world than it is in Africa. People must manage their gender ideology to enhance WLI achievement, especially for women.
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Attitudes toward childlessness have received little attention from social scientists even as childlessness as a family form has become more popular. One key predictor of childlessness attitudes is religious commitment, though few studies have examined this association in-depth. Using data from two recent, national datasets—the National Survey of Family Growth and the Survey of U.S. Catholics and Family Life—we assess the relationships between individuals’ religious characteristics and various attitudes about their own and others’ childlessness, as well as how these factors may vary across gender. We find strong associations between religious affiliation, religious attendance, and religious salience, and each of the outcomes such that religious commitment tends to be associated with more negative attitudes toward childlessness. Interactions across gender were rare and the direction of the interactions was mixed. Religion is a pivotal factor in perpetuating pronatalist attitudes in the United States among both men and women.
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The present paper aims to study the socialization and internalization of early marriage among Afghan migrant women living in Yazd. The study has been conducted through a qualitative approach and grounded theory method. Data were collected among 20 Afghan migrant women living in Yazd through in-depth interviews. Findings show that early marriage occurs in a context where the tradition of early marriage is transmitting from one generation to the next one through social learning, and this phenomenon is made by issues such as generational homogeneity in marriage, and the significant role of mothers in education of children and the values transmission. So that the time and the form of marriages, do not show significant generation difference due to the dominance of traditional-social thoughts and socialization as a factor has also contributed to its stabilization. However, these women, due to their experience of early marriage and the relative dissatisfaction with it, looking for their unattainable desires and demands for their children in an utopian future. Early marriage may gradually change over time as a result of mental and attitudinal shifts, however, social values and past-rooted traditions continue to play an active role in intergenerational reproduction of early marriage.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has radically altered everyday interactions, potentially disrupting the process of romantic relationship formation. Prior research suggests that threats to the basic psychological need for relatedness, along with negative mental imagery, can lead to an obsessive preoccupation with a romantic interest. The present research examines how the relatedness-threatening nature of the pandemic may similarly facilitate problematic relationship behaviors. Two studies—a small-scale natural experiment with measurements before and during the pandemic (Study 1) and a daily diary study (Study 2)—investigated how relatedness frustration and negative fantasies predict presumptuous romantic intentions. In Study 1 these threats unexpectedly corresponded to reduced presumptuous romantic intentions, though no such main effect was present in Study 2. Replicating prior experimental work, in both studies, more negative fantasies about a romantic target predicted greater presumptuous romantic intentions. Study 2 also revealed that at the between-person level the combinatory effect of relatedness frustration and negative fantasies led to greater intentions. At the within-person level, this combinatory effect led unexpectedly to reduced intentions. Finally, there was substantial heterogeneity in the within-person effect of COVID-induced relatedness frustration: although frustration stoked intentions for some individuals, for others it reduced intentions. This work suggests that for many, the early social ramifications of COVID-19 reduced motivation to presumptuously pursue romantic relationships. Yet, certain individuals, particularly those with more negative fantasies, are more prone to pursue presumptuously amidst the pandemic.
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Sexual infidelity in China has undergone a rapid increase in recent decades. Despite much speculation, social forces that help to prompt such increase have yet to be identified. Drawing on data from the Chinese Private Life Survey, coupled with the perspectives of attitudinal and institutional changes, we examine social determinants of marital infidelity that may reveal potential mechanisms of its diffusion. We find that more liberal attitudes toward extramarital sex, greater sexual dissatisfaction, and lower marital satisfaction were all positively associated with the likelihood of marital infidelity. Results also show that institutional factors such as personal income, living apart from one's spouse, and urbanity influenced the practice of extramarital sex. Taken as a whole, both attitudinal changes toward sex, love and marriage, and institutional changes as a result of social transformation may play a role in determining the rise of sexual infidelity in China.
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Studies often explain differences in family behaviors by migration status by testing four hypotheses: socialization, selection, disruption, and assimilation/ adaptation. These hypotheses were initially formulated as competing explanations, but some scholars have argued that they are complementary. Currently, however, this complementary relationship is not well understood. In this article, I draw on intersectionality theory to challenge this hypothesis-based narrative of the relationship between migration and family formation and dissolution trajectories. I use retrospective information on marriages, union dissolutions, and births of men and women from five waves of the National Survey of Family Growth (1995–2015) to construct a six-category typology of family trajectories. This typology divides men and women into groups with similar family formation and dissolution trajectories. I correlate this typology with information on each respondent’s race/ethnicity, educational attainment, place of birth, and age at migration. The exploratory analysis of these correlations underlines the need for approaches that move beyond testing the above-mentioned hypotheses toward nuanced descriptions of the multiple ways in which family formation and migration paths are intertwined, and how these relationships are influenced by gender and social class inequalities.
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Becoming a parent has been described as a dominant social norm, especially for women. Though some research has indicated changes toward more flexible gendered parenthood norms, methodological issues may be masking the continued presence of a gender double standard. In line with the condition for activation of double standards, we postulated that endorsement of the parenthood norm would vary depending on the response context. Our aim was to analyze the parenthood norm for women and for men taking into account the response context in a quantitative survey. In a French nationally-representative sample, more than 4,000 female and male adults were asked whether a woman/man can have a fulfilled life without having children in two questions presented in a random order. Based on the literature on question-order effects, the answer to the first question should be influenced by the participant’s personal background (e.g., gender, parental status), i.e., the personal background context, whereas the question asked second should be influenced by the comparison with the first question, i.e. the social relational context. In the personal background context, the own-gender parenthood norm was endorsed more strongly than the other-gender parenthood norm by both female and male participants. In contrast, in the social relational context, the parenthood norm for women was endorsed more strongly than the parenthood norm for men by both female and male participants. Our results showed a strong gender double standard observed only in the comparative context and illustrates the need to use appropriate survey methodology to examine the presence of gendered social norms.
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We document changes in U.S. children's family household composition from 1968 to 2017 with regard to the number and types of kin that children lived with and the frequency of family members' household entrances and departures. Data are from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 30,412). Children experienced three decades of increasing instability and diversification in household membership, arriving at a state of "stable complexity" in the most recent decade. Stable complexity is distinguished by a decline in the number of coresident parents; a higher number of stepparents, grandparents, and other relatives in children's households; and less turnover in household membership compared with prior decades, including fewer sibling departures. College-educated households with children were consistently the most stable and least diverse. On several dimensions, household composition has become increasingly similar for non-Hispanic Black and White children. Children in Hispanic households are distinct in having larger family sizes and more expected household entrances and departures by coresident kin.
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Recent research has demonstrated that egalitarian gender role ideologies are associated with higher marital satisfaction and higher psychological well-being. However, there has been little research investigating whether gender role ideologies in Evangelical populations follow these same trends. The current study examined how gender role ideologies in an Evangelical population are related to marital satisfaction and eudaimonic well-being, as well as the role of locus of control in these relationships. Three hundred sixty-three Evangelical Christian women were administered a survey containing measures of gender role ideology, marital satisfaction, eudaimonic well-being, and locus of control. No bivariate relationship was found between marital satisfaction and gender role ideologies. However, locus of control significantly moderated this relationship, such that the relationship was only significant for women with a more external locus of control. Specifically, externalizing women evidenced a significant positive relationship between egalitarian gender role ideologies and marital satisfaction, whereas the relationship was not significant for internalizing women. Moreover, egalitarian gender role ideologies were found to be positively related to eudaimonic well-being. The results of this research expand the current body of literature surrounding gender role ideologies within religious populations, specifically regarding outcomes that are associated with holding specific gender role ideologies.
Chapter
One of the most remarkable trends in contemporary fertility is the postponement of parenthood. Whereas childbearing in the late teens and early twenties was the norm in the mid-twentieth century, today women are often in their late twenties or thirties when they have their first child. The delay in parenthood is reflected in the decrease in adolescent motherhood and a shift in “peak fertility ages” toward the early 30s in many countries. In this chapter, I discuss the delay in parenthood and some of its consequences. Delayed parenthood has a number of benefits, but many people in Western countries may be “waiting too long.” Many people overestimate their capacity to have children at older ages; as a consequence, unintended childlessness has become more common.
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This article examines a half-century of trends in family attitudes and beliefs in the United States, including attitudes toward gender, marriage, childbearing, cohabitation, sex outside marriage, divorce, and same-sex relations. These trends are viewed through the lens of developmental idealism. We also describe how the developmental idealism framework applies to Western contexts generally and the United States specifically. We trace family attitudes from the 1960s through 2018 using four data sources: the Intergenerational Panel Study of Parents and Children, Monitoring the Future, the General Social Survey, and the International Social Survey Programme. We find profound and largely consistent changes in Americans’ attitudes. We argue these changes can be understood as the expansion of developmental idealism in the United States. Americans increasingly endorsed family attributes long understood as modern under developmental idealism, as well as attributes more recently viewed as modern through extensions of freedom and equality. At the same time, sizable majorities remained committed to marriage and children. While Americans increasingly supported all individuals’ freedom to choose among a diversity of family behaviors, most continued to view marriage and children favorably in their own lives.
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İnsan gelişimi, aile ve kültür: Farklı bakış açıları
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Family culture is deeply rooted in the transformation and development of Chinese society and has a profound influence on individual behavior and family decision-making. This paper examines the impact of the family culture of China on marriage stability. By using data from the China Family Panel Studies, this paper shows that family culture is significantly positively associated with marriage stability. The estimation of the instrumental variable—the number of memorial archways ( paifang) per 100,000 persons in each province—and a series of robustness checks all support the major results. It is also found that the positive impact of family culture on marriage stability is mainly seen for people with weaker perceived importance of family well-being, for those with lower levels of education, and for individuals living in a small family. Finally, the positive effect of family culture on marriage stability is primarily observed in older generations, specifically those born before 1969.
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This study aims to determine the relationship between career adaptability and work engagement among millennial employees in Yogyakarta
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Background Violence is an important public health problem and one of the main causes of deaths worldwide. The mental health consequences of surviving intimate partner violence (IPV) include depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. Previous studies have identified that there is a relationship between depression and level of disability in female survivors of IPV. Estimating the direct, indirect or total effect of an exposure on an outcome makes it possible to identify mediating effects between a group of variables. Detecting mediation effects is useful for identifying casual pathways that generate a final outcome and provides a rationale for designing interventions to target the mediator, which in turn positively affects the outcome. The objective was to identify the mediating role of depressive symptoms on the relationship between IPV and disability. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 94 women over the age of 18 who were survivors of IPV by men. They were recruited from two public hospitals in Cali and Tuluá in southwest Colombia. An analysis of casual relationships was performed using structural equation modelling that was made up of: four exogenous observed variables (age, current relationship status [in a relationship or single], level of schooling, and history of an impairment), intermediate endogenous variables (violence and depressive symptoms), and the main endogenous variable (disability). The analyses were carried out in Stata14.2. Results The direct effect of IPV severity on the level of disability was not statistically significant (β = 0.09; P = 0.63). However, the indirect effect of IPV severity on disability mediated by depressive symptoms was (β = 0.39; P < 0.01). The total effect of IPV severity on the level of disability was even greater (β = 0.48; P = 0.01). Conclusions This study found a complete mediating role of depressive symptoms on the relationship between the severity of IPV and the level of disability for the female participants in this study. The results of this research contribute to defining strategies to prevent and address intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms and disability in this population.
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In Reply. —Drs Haverkos and Drotman assert in their second paragraph that our conclusion regarding the negligible likelihood of an epidemic spread of HIV in the heterosexual population rests on a simple network model that relies exclusively on our survey findings that 80% of adults reported no or one sexual partner in the past year and the very low percentages of men and women reporting homosexual or bisexual activity during the same period. This is a gross simplification of the argument and its empirical support in chapters 6 and 7 devoted to the characterization of sexual networks in the United States and its implications for the epidemic, and chapter 11's extended discussion of the correlations of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with numbers of sexual partners and sexual practices.1
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In this paper I examine changes in men and women's attitudes to sexual morality across nations and time. First, I use time-series data from British Social Attitudes and the General Social Survey of the United States to examine to what extent there has been a revolution in sexual attitudes and whether the change in attitudes has continued through to the 1990s. In particular, I investigate whether changes in permissiveness are mainly due to period effects or to cohort replacement. I also compare the trajectory and pace of change in the two countries. Second, I use data from the International Social Survey Programme to compare British and American attitudes with those of four other nations with very different sociopolitical and religious traditions - Ireland, Germany, Sweden and Poland. With the exception of attitudes to pre-marital sex, attitudes have not changed very dramatically over the past few decades. Attitudes towards homosexuality are becoming slowly more tolerant, especially among women, but condemnation of extra-marital sex has remained high. Religion plays an important role in explaining both within and cross-national variations in attitudes and provides a powerful counterbalance to permissive trends. I conclude that change has not been as revolutionary as is often claimed and the demise of traditional values is over-stated.
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This paper documents increasing cohabitation in the United States, and the implications of this trend for the family lives of children. The stability of marriage-like relationships (including marriage and cohabitation) has decreased despite a constant divorce rate. Children increasingly live in cohabiting families either as a result of being born to cohabiting parents or of their mother s entry into a cohabiting union. The proportion of births to unmarried women born into cohabiting families increased from 29 to 39 per cent in the period 1980-84 to 1990-94, accounting for almost all of the increase in unmarried childbearing. As a consequence, about two-fifths of all children spend some time in a cohabiting family, and the greater instability of families begun by cohabitation means that children are also more likely to experience family disruption. Estimates from multi-state life tables indicate the extent to which the family lives of children are spent increasingly in cohabiting families and decreasingly in married families.
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"… seeks to describe and interpret the main changes in family patterns that have occurred over the past half-century in Japan, China, India, the West, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Arab countries and to relate them to various alterations in other institutional areas." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article explores the relationship of historical research to contemporary family studies. Family history was influenced greatly by fields such as sociology and anthropology, leading it to make several contributions to those fields in turn. The continuing collaboration of these disciplines can significantly enrich current family research, practice, and policy making. History's specific contribution lies in its attention to context. Although historical research confirms sociologic and ethnographic findings on the diversity of family forms, for example, it also reveals that all families are not created equal. The advantage of any particular type of family at any particular time is constructed out of contingent and historically variable social relationships. Historical research allows researchers to deepen their analysis of family diversity and family change by challenging widespread assumptions about what is and what is not truly new in family life. Such research complicates generalizations about the impact of family change and raises several methodological cautions about what can be compared and controlled for in analyzing family variations and outcomes.
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As soon as men and women … acquire the habit of weighing the individual advantages and disadvantages of any prospective course of action … they cannot fail to become aware of the heavy personal sacrifices that family ties and especially parenthood entail under modern conditions. (Schumpeter 1988/1942, pp. 501–502)
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Data from the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families and Households are used to provide national estimates of cohabitation trends and levels. The rapid increase since around 1970 is documented over both birth cohorts and marriage cohorts. Almost half of the persons in their early 30s and half of the recently married have cohabited. Changes in the proportion ever married are compared with changes in the proportion who have either married or cohabited. Much of the decline in marriage has been offset by increased living together without being married. The stability of unions of various types is compared. Cohabitations end very quickly in either marriage or disruption. About 60 percent of all first cohabitations result in marriage. Cohabiting unions and marriages preceded by cohabitation are much more likely to break up than are unions initiated by marriage. Multivariate analysis reveals higher rates of cohabitation among women, whites, persons who did not complete high school, and those from families who received welfare or who lived in a single-parent family while growing up.
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Attitudes about the primacy of marriage as a way of life have changed markedly over the past two decades. The legitimacy of singleness as a life-style is increasingly recognized by young people and their parents; most Americans no longer regard getting married as necessarily better than remaining single and do not disapprove of those who eschew marriage. Although most young people interviewed in the 1980 Study of American Families say that they would be bothered at least a little by failure to marry, relatively few say they would be greatly bothered by that outcome. It is somewhat surprising that the mothers of these young people also report fairly evenhanded attitudes regarding marriage for their children, suggesting that the younger generation will probably not experience much parental pressure to marry. Although the imperative to marry has weakened and the perceived advantages of marriage as compared to single life have declined, marriage continues to be valued by the majority of young Americans as shown in several studies of attitudes toward marriage. More than 90 percent expect to marry and there has been almost no decline in that proportion since 1960. What is more, despite the high levels of divorce, most young people say that they expect their marriages to be lasting. What has changed about marriage plans has been the rising age at which young people, especially young women, expect to marry--an expectation reflected in the increasing age at which Americans are actually marrying. There also seems to be a widespread desire not to let marriage interfere with education and to obtain some work experience before marriage. Marriage continues to be more important to young women than young men, despite recent trends toward more egalitarian sex roles. There is some evidence that experience with divorce increases negative attitudes about marriage and favorable ones about singleness as a way of life.
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Data from a nationally representative sample of 1,880 young men aged 15-19 reveal that neighborhood quality, parental education, race or ethnicity, and attitudes about male gender roles are related to young men's attitudes toward an unplanned pregnancy and to their contraceptive experiences. Young men who live in poor neighborhoods are more likely to be pleased about an unplanned pregnancy than those who have better living conditions (12% vs. 2%) and are also more likely to view impregnating a woman as enhancing their masculinity (8% vs. 3%). Among men with average living conditions, 12% of black adolescents view fathering a child as enhancing their masculinity, compared with 6% of white adolescents; among those with very good living conditions, these proportions were 10% and 2%, respectively. Young men whose parents had less education and those who held traditional male gender role attitudes were also more likely than their counterparts to view fathering a child as enhancing their masculinity. Regarding contraceptive behavior, sexually active black men and Hispanic men were more likely than white men to have discussed contraception with their last partner; black men were more likely to have used an effective contraceptive method the last time they had intercourse; and black men were more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse. However, young men who were aware that they had been responsible for a previous pregnancy were less likely than those who reported no pregnancies to have used an effective contraceptive the last time they had intercourse. These same young men were also more likely to report that fathering a child would please them and enhance their masculinity.
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Changes in the sexual behavior of teenagers can have a significant impact on levels of adolescent pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Understanding the role played by attitudes and educational efforts will provide critical prevention information. Data on the sexual behavior, sexual attitudes, educational experiences and demographics of 2,087 never-married metropolitan males aged 17-19 from the 1979 National Survey of Young Men and the 1988 and 1995 waves of the National Survey of Adolescent Males were analyzed through multivariate methods to examine factors that predict sexual behavior as well as those that predict sexual attitudes. The percentage of males aged 17-19 who had ever had sex increased from 66% in 1979 to 76% in 1988 and then decreased to 68% in 1995. The frequency of sexual intercourse in the year prior to the survey increased significantly over time, although the lifetime number of sexual partners did not. Acceptance of premarital sex increased significantly from 1979 to 1988, then decreased significantly from 1988 to 1995. Over time, young men were increasingly likely to prefer having and supporting a baby to marriage, abortion or adoption as the resolution to a nonmarital pregnancy. Trends in attitudes were strongly associated with sexual behaviors, with more conservative attitudes predicting less sexual activity. AIDS education, which was nearly universal in 1995, was associated with decreased sexual activity, although not among black youths. More conservative sexual attitudes and increased exposure to AIDS education are key predictors of decreased sexual activity among adolescent males. However, broader societal factors, such as fear of AIDS and increased awareness of problems associated with teenage pregnancy and STDs, may underlie both attitudinal and behavioral changes.
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PIP Hoping to determine whether recent changes in marriage and fertility behavior are simply temporary or more permanent, the attitudes and values of young adults were compared to the recent trends. The data come from the 1987 wave of the National Survey of Children, which has tracked a nationally representative sample of young people since 1976. The following behaviors and their corresponding attitudes are discussed: sexual activity, pregnancy, nonmarital childbearing, abortion, marriage and cohabitation, and divorce. Also considered are how blacks and whites differ in their behavior and attitudes. Since the 1970s, the incidence of premarital intercourse has increased substantially among adolescents and has resulted in a rise in the pregnancy rate. Adolescents strongly disapprove of sexual activity among younger teens, but accept it for older adolescents. Nonmarital childbearing increased by about 50% from 1970 to 1987. Adolescents, however, generally hold negative attitudes toward adolescent pregnancy, and the majority of sexually experienced teens report wanting to avoid pregnancy. In 1985, over 40% of teens who became pregnant obtained an abortion. Adolescents are divided on the acceptability of abortion -- except in instances of rape, in which case most accept abortion. Young adults strongly favor delayed marriage and oppose divorce, feeling that couples should not get married unless they intend to stay together for life. About 1/2 of young adults approve of cohabitation and only 1/5 are opposed to nonmarital childbearing. Based on the policy implications of the findings, it is concluded that the attitudes and values of young adults do not reflect the demise of the family, as has been predicted.
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The author presents an overview of long-term trends in U.S. nuptiality. "Marriage in colonial North America was notable for being early (for women) and marked by low percentages never marrying.... Between 1800 and the present there have been long cycles in nuptiality. Since about 1800, female age at first marriage rose from relatively low levels to a peak around 1900. Thereupon a gradual decline commenced with a trough being reached about 1960 at the height of the baby boom. There then began another, and rapid, upswing in female marriage age. Proportions never married at ages 45-54 replicated these cycles with a lag of about 20-30 years. Since 1880 (when comprehensive census data became available), male nuptiality patterns have generally paralleled those of women. Male marriage ages were higher than those of females with proportions never marrying also usually higher."
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This paper documents increasing cohabitation in the U.S., and the implications of this trend for the family lives of children. The stability of marriage-like relationships (including marriage and cohabitation) has decreased--despite a constant divorce rate. Cohabitation also increasingly involves families with children, including both births to cohabiting couples and children from prior relationships. The proportion of births to unmarried women born into cohabiting families increased from 29 to 41 percent, 1980-84 to 1990-94, accounting for almost all of the increase in unmarried childbearing. As a consequence, about twofifths of all children spend some time in a cohabiting family, and the greater instability of families begun by cohabitation means that children are also more likely to experience family disruption. Estimates from multi-state life tables indicate the extent to which the family lives of children are spent increasingly in cohabiting families and decreasingly in married fa...
Habits of the heart The war over the family: Capturing the middle ground
  • R N Bellah
  • R Madsen
  • W M Sullivan
  • A Swidler
  • S M Tipton
  • B Berger
  • P Berger
Bellah, R. N., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W. M., Swidler, A., & Tipton, S. M. (1985). Habits of the heart. Berke-ley: University of California Press. Berger, B., & Berger, P. (1984). The war over the family: Capturing the middle ground. Garden City, NY: An-chor Books. Bianchi, S., & Spain, D. (1996).