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Stress Repression in Restrained Rats by (R)-(-)-Linalool Inhalation and Gene Expression Profiling of Their Whole Blood Cells

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Abstract

As an attempt to quantitatively analyze the physiopsychological effects elicited by odorants, white blood cells and gene expression were profiled in the whole blood of the rats exposed to (R)-(-)-linalool during restraint stress for 2 h. In neutrophils and lymphocytes, significant changes caused by the restraint were repressed by their exposure to the odorant. This indicates that inhalation attenuates stress-induced changes. Significant changes on the stress-induced variations were induced by inhalation in 115 gene expression levels. Of those, 109 genes were down-regulated, whereas the remaining 6 were up-regulated. These findings show that (R)-(-)-linalool inhalation represses stress-induced effects on the profiles of both blood cells and gene expression. Furthermore, these results suggest the possibility that the odorant-induced effects can be quantitatively evaluated by analyzing the profiles of blood cells and gene expression.

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... The majority of included animal studies were carried out in mice [62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71] (10 out of 13), while two studies used rats [72,73] and one study worked with guinea pigs [74]. All studies used a pre-treatment such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ovalbumin (OVA), Der p (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), Der f (Dermatophagoides farina) or other to experimentally induce an immune reaction which served as control condition for the actual intervention. ...
... Animals were between four and 10 weeks of age and comprised both genders. The types of interventions could be divided into the following experimental setups: inhalation of BVOCs [62][63][64], eucalyptol [65,66,74], limonene [67,68,73], mix of limonene/ozone [69,70], linalool [72] and other fragrances (lemon, oak moss, labdanum and tuberose) [71]. Three studies evaluated the effects of different housing conditions in laboratory animal cages equipped with different wood beddings [62,63,67] (Table 2). ...
... The mixture of limonene and ozone inhalation was able to protect from the adverse effects elicited by inhalation of only ozone in two studies [69,70]. Furthermore, inhalation of linalool was able to change the immune cell distribution of previously stressed rats, as one study reported [72]. Another study observed that exposure to certain fragrances was able to induce a general immune activation, which they diagnosed by measuring the number of plaque-forming cells in spleen and the thymic weight [71]. ...
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Given the drastic changes in our lifestyles and ecosystems worldwide, the potential health effects of natural environments have grown into a highly pervasive topic. Recent scientific findings suggest beneficial effects from nature exposure on human immune responses. This review aims at providing a comprehensive overview of literature published on immunomodulatory effects of nature exposure by inhalation of natural substances. A systematic database search was performed in SCOPUS and PubMed. The quality and potential bias of included studies (n = 33) were assessed by applying the EPHPP (Effective Public Health Practice Project) tool for human studies and the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) and SYRCLE (Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation) tools for animal studies. The synthesis of reviewed studies points to positive effects of nature exposure on immunological health parameters; such as anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatic effects or increased NK (natural killer) cell activity. Decreased expression of pro-inflammatory molecules, infiltration of leukocytes and release of cytotoxic mediators are outcomes that may serve as a baseline for further studies. However, partially weak study designs evoked uncertainties about outcome reproducibility and key questions remain open concerning effect sizes, duration of exposure and contributions of specific vegetation or ecosystem types.
... Final ( Chronic stress can cause oxidative stress, and animals exposed to oxidative stress have an increased immobility period during forced swimming tests [29,30]. In addition, the period of immobility in rats is decreased by reducing oxidative stress [30]. ...
... Final ( Chronic stress can cause oxidative stress, and animals exposed to oxidative stress have an increased immobility period during forced swimming tests [29,30]. In addition, the period of immobility in rats is decreased by reducing oxidative stress [30]. The results of this study also identified differences between stress-exposed rats and stress-relieved rats following the inhalation of BEO and linalool. ...
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We explored the physiological effects of inhaling basil essential oil (BEO) and/or linalool and identified odor-active aroma compounds in BEO using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and GC–olfactometry (GC–O). Linalool was identified as the major volatile compound in BEO. Three groups of rats were administered BEO and linalool via inhalation, while rats in the control group were not. Inhalation of BEO for 20 min only reduced the total weight gain (190.67 ± 2.52 g) and increased the forced swimming time (47.33 ± 14.84 s) compared with the control group (219.67 ± 2.08 g, 8.33 ± 5.13 s). Inhalation of BEO for 5 min (392 ± 21 beats/min) only reduced the pulse compared with the control group (420 ± 19 beats/min). Inhalation of linalool only reduced the weight of white adipose tissue (5.75 ± 0.61 g). The levels of stress-related hormones were not significantly different among the groups. The total cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased after inhalation of BEO for 20 min (by more than −10% and −15%, respectively). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lowered (by more than −10%) by the inhalation of BEO and linalool, regardless of the inhalation time. In particular, BEO inhalation for 20 min was associated with the lowest level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (53.94 ± 2.72 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased after inhalation of BEO (by more than +15%). The atherogenic index and cardiac risk factors were suppressed by BEO inhalation. Animals exposed to BEO and linalool had no significant differences in hepatotoxicity. These data suggest that the inhalation of BEO and linalool may ameliorate cardiovascular and lipid dysfunctions. These effects should be explored further for clinical applications.
... The blood tests of this experiment showed that stress hormone levels in both the control and treated groups were appreciably raised at the endofthis stress period. Undernormal conditions,corticoidstresshormones would be expected to suppress the immune response [30].However, the rats that were not exposed to linalool showed the expected stress-related drop in their white blood cell counts, but those that were exposed to linalool fragrance maintained customary leukocyte and lymphocyte white blood cell levels. And also the rats in the linalool group had a very smaller number of "stress genes" activated than those in the control group. ...
... Meanwhile, another study has reveals that inhaling compounds such as linalool has both physiological effect and psychological effect that reflects the links of interactions between nervous and immune systems [30]. ...
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Coriandrumsativum also known as Coriander is a traditional spice and herbaceous annual plant playing an important role in providing health care to large section of population. The seed extract and powder of this plant may serve as an essential source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective cure to combat latest viral diseases. Intend of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the antiviral activity of Coriandrumsativumand the ability of defend the immune system as well. In order to investigate medicinal values of Coriander, literature searches were performed through PubMed and PMC academic publications. It has revealed that plant extract of Coriandrumsativum may inhibit the replication of HIV by interfering with the steps of virus replicative cycle and among the major phytochemicals present in Coriander seeds, E-2-Dodecanol and Dodecanal show highest binding affinity towards structural and non-structural proteins of Dengue virus and MERS coronavirus. Coriander ethanol extract enhance the ability of phagocytosis activity and capacity of the macrophage cells. Scientists have demonstrated that the action of linalool present in Coriander seeds extends ahead of the brain to the immune system itself to defend against many diseases including infectious diseases of viral origin. Hence, further investigations need to be carried out on the phytochemistry of the Coriandrumsativum against viral infections.
... Linalool is characterized by a wide spectrum and strong antibacterial activity (DORMAN & DEANS, 2000). The negative infl uence of linalool was also observed on rats, which damage the vegetables during the period of their storage (NACAMURA et al., 2009). ...
... The essential oils of the investigated G/G/N, T and L chemotypes showed no antibactericidal effect on P. aeruginosa. It is intereting, as the T chemotype contains nearly 30% monoterpenic phenol thymol, and according to the literature the other monoterpenic phenol, carvacrol, inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa (NACAMURA et al., 2009). The essential oils of various phenological stages of T. caramanicus with 58.9-68.9% ...
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The antibacterial activity of essential oils of T. pulegioides chemotypes - geraniol/geranial/neral (G/G/N), thymol (T) and linalool (L) - was studied against the seven phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species isolated from vegetables. The chemotypes were defined according to their main essential oil components: geraniol, thymol and linalool. The results showed that the essential oil of T chemotype had the strongest anti-Pseudomonas activity: it inhibited the growth of all investigated bacteria up to even 84.4% in comparison with controls. The essential oils of L chemotype inhibited the growth of bacteria less than T chemotype, and G/G/N chemotype proved to be the least effective. These differences of anti-Pseudomonas activity depend on the different chemical composition of essential oils of investigated T. pulegioides chemotypes.
... Linalool (24) showed sedative properties when administered to mice (Buchbauer et al. 1991). Research in rats suggests that 24 may protect the immune system from undesirable changes caused by stress (Nakamura et al. 2009). The local anaesthetic effects of 24 are comparable to procaine (Ghelardini et al. 1999). ...
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Cannabis spp. are some of the most controversial medicinal plants in the world. They contain great amounts of biologically active secondary metabolites, including the typical phenolic compounds called cannabinoids. Because of their low toxicity and complex biological activities, cannabinoids can be useful in the therapy of various diseases, but adverse psychological effects (of Δ9-THC in particular) raise concerns. This review summarizes the current knowledge of selected active C. indica compounds and their therapeutic potential. We summarize the main compounds contained in cannabis, the mechanisms of their effects, and their potential therapeutic applications. Further, we mention some of the clinical tests used to evaluate the efficacy of cannabinoids in therapy.
... Thereafter by evaporation process, solvent was removed from all the collected fractions at room temperature. After evaporation of solvent from the fractions F3 and F4, colorless liquid were separated which is analyzed as linalool (Compound 3) by TLC followed by IR spectroscopic analysis [21]. ...
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Solvent extractions of shade dried seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Pithecellobium dulce and Coriandrum sativum plants were executed using organic solvents. The obtained extracted crudes were subjected to the chemical analysis followed by instrumental analysis using standard procedures to identify the naturally occurring phytochemicals [1, 2, 3,]. Limonene, Oleanolic acid and Linalool were obtained from ethanol extracts of Cyamopsistetragonoloba , methanol extract of Pithecellobium dulce and acetone extract of Coriandrumsativum respectively. The compound identification were confirmed by ¹ H NMR, ¹³ C NMR, IR and Mass spectroscopy [4]. The anti-cancer activity of the extracted terpenes determined using in-vitro analysis on HeLa-Human cervix cell lines. The obtained IC 50 value of Oleanolic acid shows better biological activity against HeLa cell lines. It was also found that there is no cell lysis in HeLa cell lines in case of Limonene with concentration less than 30 μg. However, biological activity of Linalool is better in case of HeLa cell line. This suggests that Oleanolic acid and Linalool is good anti-cancer agent as reported from in vitro studies against Hela-Human cervix cell line.
... Basil leaves contain essential oils that can function as antioxidant, antibacterial, fungistatic and insecticidal agents. Monoterpenes and phenylpropanoids are the prevalent groups present in these essential oils (Nakamura et al., 2009;Carović-Stanko et al., 2010;Varga et al., 2017). ...
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Spirulina platensis is a cyanobacterium that has high nutritional content and bioactive compounds. However, the amount of spirulina added into foods can cause a decrease in sensory characteristics, especially through the generation of odour. The present work thus aimed to evaluate the effect of soaking spirulina in basil leaf extract with varying spirulina to basil ratios on its off-odour compound (geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol), sensory characteristics and nutrition contents. Spirulina was soaked in basil leaf extract for 30 min with ratios of 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5 (w/v), and then dried at 40°C for 17 h. The results showed that when compared to non-soaked spirulina control sample, at a ratio of 1:3 (w/v), the geosmin compound which caused off-odour in spirulina was not reduced; while at a ratio of 1:4 (w/v) it was reduced to 52.17%, and at ratio of 1:5 (w/v) it was reduced by 100%. Hedonic scale and phycocyanin content of spirulina also increased with increasing amount of basil leaf extract used. Soaking spirulina in basil leaf extract increased the levels of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, histidine, arginine, threonine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine by 3.57% to 57.39%, and decreased the levels of proline and lysine by 8.67%. Qualitatively, soaking spirulina in basil leaf extract caused the presence of methyl undecanoate fatty acids, linolelaidic acid methyl ester, gamma-linolenic acid methyl ester, and cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoate which were not present in the control sample.
... The piper zine is used as an anti-helminthic agent. Linalool is a terpene alcohol which is used in perfumes and cleaning agents and the inhalation of linalool has demonstrated a reduction of stress in rats (Nakamura et al. 2009). Squalene is a triterpene which is shown to be a potential chemo-preventive agent (Smith 2000). ...
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The leaves of traditionally used herbal plant Tridax procumbens L. contain lots of phytochemicals having potency to reduce inflammation. In this study, the ethanol extract of the leaves of Tridax procumbens L. was analysed for the phytochemicals by GC–MS. The anti-inflammatory activity was then studied with the extract of 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg b.wt in carrageenan-induced mice model by measuring the inflammatory oedema and by analysing the histopathology. The mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and COX2 genes were studied in the inflammatory site to explore the molecular action by reverse transcription PCR and qPCR analyses. A significant (P ≤ 0.01) reduction in mice paw inflammation and a recovered histology were observed in treated groups when compared to control group in 24 h. The RT-PCR results showed a significant (P ≤ 0.01) decrease in the expression levels of TNF-α and COX2 in terms of band density in treated mice compared to control group. The qPCR RQ values also were decreased in treated groups with respect to increasing doses (RQ values of 18.985 ± 0.230, 12.140 ± 1.121, 6.718 ± 0.807 for TNF-α and 15.583 ± 1.043, 7.725 ± 1.013, 5.075 ± 0.615 for COX2, respectively for the three doses) in comparison with the control group (TNF-α 27.107 ± 2.254, COX2 20.626 ± 1.477). Tridax procumbens L. can be, thus, used for the development of a safe, natural, anti-inflammatory drug as it showed a strong inhibitory action on inflammation by acting at molecular level.
... This includes anti-diarrhoeal activity and prevention of hepatic injury (Mishra et al., 2011;Imam et al., 2012). Furthermore, studies have also reported on their potential use as sedatives and in the reduction of stress, indicating their potential to regulate the central nervous system (Nakamura et al., 2009;Balaji et al., 2012,). ...
Article
Research is ongoing to develop and discover new medicinal products and new medicinal crops, as evidenced by a rapid increase in the number of scientific publications. Malaysia and the tropical regions are rich in flora and fauna, however, only a limited number of species have been scientifically researched and fully commercialised. This review described an indigenous plant named Barringtonia, which is less researched but nonetheless has great potential to be developed and commercialised as medicinal crops. Barringtonia is a genus belonging to the family of Lecythidaceae. Barringtonia spp. are perennial and evergreen plants with fibrous fruits. Different parts of these plants are widely employed as medicine to treat numerous diseases including gastrointestinal, respiratory, and skin diseases. The entire plant including the leaf, stem, stick, bark, fruit, and root, is utilised in traditional medicine. Although the majority of Barringtonia spp. are underutilised, several are still important particularly to some rural communities, as food or medicine. The current review is intended to comprehensively discuss the ethno-botanical uses of the genus Barringtonia by linking them with current scientific evidence. The review of literature is comprised of mainly the species B. racemosa, B asiatica, B. acutangula, B. edulis, B. procera, and B. novae-hiberniae. Phytochemicals present in these plants, particularly polyphenols and terpenoids, are discussed in detail in relation to their medicinal uses. This review also provides the nutritional benefits of Barringtonia spp. and identifies the needs for future research and development, domestication, and commercialisation of these plants.
... Over two hundred of plant species produce linalool, mainly from the families Lamiaceae (mint) (Joshi, 2014), Lauraceae (laurels, cinnamon, rosewood) (Salleh et al., 2016) and Rutaceae (citrus fruits) (Azadi et al., 2012;Rabehaja et al., 2016). Research showed that linalool has a strong fragrance that causes stress relief in the experimental rat (Nakamura et al., 2009). ...
Article
Background: The present study is focused on the analysis of chemical constituents of the Coriandrum sativum L. (Locally known as “Kamoon”) which is available in the market of Saudi Arabia. Material and methods: The coriander oil was analyzed by Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The mass spectra were compared with the standard spectra available in National Institute Standard and Technique (NIST) library. Results: The results indicated that the coriander oil is composed of a number of chemical compounds including alpha -pinene, linalool, and geraniol which are biologically active. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the Coriandrum sativum L. due to the presence of many bioactive compounds can be used as a new potential source of medicine for the treatment of various type of illness.
... Linalool exists in two enantiomeric forms, S-(+)-linalool and R-(−)-linalool, which present different fragrances. Interestingly, previous studies revealed that S-(+)-linalool is a stress-relieving agent (Höferl et al. 2006), and R-(−)-linalool has a sedative effect (Kuroda et al. 2005;Nakamura et al. 2009). ...
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Prunus campanulata Maxim. also known as Taiwan cherry is a broadleaf tree native to Taiwan and is highly valued as an ornamental tree. Terpenoids are one of the most important sources of plant secondary metabolites with many functions such as attracting pollinators, defending against herbivores, and acting as anti-bacterial agents. Here, the terpene synthases (TPSs) that produce small and volatile monoterpenes or sesquiterpenes were focused. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, we obtained nine full-length cDNAs from P. campanulata which were predicted to encode TPSs. The predicted proteins possessed typical characteristics of TPSs, such as the highly conserved RRX8W and DDXXD motifs. To identify the functions of these TPSs, the recombinant proteins were reacted with the substrate to produce corresponding monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Analysis results revealed that the eight TPSs produced their corresponding major monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, except for one TPS gene that lacks a part of the N-terminus sequence. MeJA treatment (10 mM) resulted in differential expression of these nine TPSs, suggesting that they may have different regulation mechanisms with different functions in plants.
... 736 Linalool is found in many spices and flowers including lavender, citrus, coriander, rosewood, and laurels, birch trees, and is widely used in the cosmetics industry. It exhibits properties including anti-inflammatory and analgesic, [737][738][739] anti-nociception via activation of opioidergic and cholinergic systems, 737 anti-anxiety/stress, [740][741][742][743] sedation, 742,[744][745][746] anti-depressant, modulation of motor movements and locomotion, 742 anti-bacterial, potent anti-leishmanial, 747 antimalarial, 748 anticonvulsant via anti-glutamatergic and GABA neurotransmitter systems, [749][750][751][752][753] anti-insomnia, 21 and antioxidant properties. 754 Its local anesthetic effects 755 were equal to procaine and menthol. ...
Article
Background.—Comprehensive literature reviews of historical perspectives and evidence supporting cannabis/ cannabinoids in the treatment of pain, including migraine and headache, with associated neurobiological mechanisms of pain modulation have been well described. Most of the existing literature reports on the cannabinoids Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), or cannabis in general. There are many cannabis strains that vary widely in the composition of cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds. These components work synergistically to produce wide variations in benefits, side effects, and strain characteristics. Knowledge of the individual medicinal properties of the cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids is necessary to cross-breed strains to obtain optimal standardized synergistic compositions. This will enable targeting individual symptoms and/or diseases, including migraine, headache, and pain. Objective.—Review the medical literature for the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in the treatment of migraine, headache, facial pain, and other chronic pain syndromes, and for supporting evidence of a potential role in combatting the opioid epidemic. Review the medical literature involving major and minor cannabinoids, primary and secondary terpenes, and flavonoids that underlie the synergistic entourage effects of cannabis. Summarize the individual medicinal benefits of these substances, including analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Conclusion.—There is accumulating evidence for various therapeutic benefits of cannabis/cannabinoids, especially in the treatment of pain, which may also apply to the treatment of migraine and headache. There is also supporting evidence that cannabis may assist in opioid detoxification and weaning, thus making it a potential weapon in battling the opioid epidemic. Cannabis science is a rapidly evolving medical sector and industry with increasingly regulated production standards. Further research is anticipated to optimize breeding of strain-specific synergistic ratios of cannabinoids, terpenes, and other phytochemicals for predictable user effects, characteristics, and improved symptom and diseasetargeted therapies.
... Linalool is found in flowers and spices including citrus, lavender, rosewood, birch trees, and coriander. It exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity [333][334][335] as well as anti-nociception via activation of opioidergic and cholinergic systems [333], anticonvulsant via antiglutamatergic and GABA neurotransmitter systems [336][337][338][339][340], anti-anxiety/stress [341][342][343][344], sedation [343,[345][346][347], and anti-insomnia properties [100]. Its local anesthetic effects [348] were equivalent to procaine and menthol [349], and analgesic effects have been attributed to adenosine A 2A activity [350] and ionotropic glutamate receptors including AMPA, NMDA and kainate [351]. ...
Article
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Background Medicinal cannabis registries typically report pain as the most common reason for use. It would be clinically useful to identify patterns of cannabis treatment in migraine and headache, as compared to arthritis and chronic pain, and to analyze preferred cannabis strains, biochemical profiles, and prescription medication substitutions with cannabis. Methods Via electronic survey in medicinal cannabis patients with headache, arthritis, and chronic pain, demographics and patterns of cannabis use including methods, frequency, quantity, preferred strains, cannabinoid and terpene profiles, and prescription substitutions were recorded. Cannabis use for migraine among headache patients was assessed via the ID Migraine™ questionnaire, a validated screen used to predict the probability of migraine. Results Of 2032 patients, 21 illnesses were treated with cannabis. Pain syndromes accounted for 42.4% (n = 861) overall; chronic pain 29.4% (n = 598;), arthritis 9.3% (n = 188), and headache 3.7% (n = 75;). Across all 21 illnesses, headache was a symptom treated with cannabis in 24.9% (n = 505). These patients were given the ID Migraine™ questionnaire, with 68% (n = 343) giving 3 “Yes” responses, 20% (n = 102) giving 2 “Yes” responses (97% and 93% probability of migraine, respectively). Therefore, 88% (n = 445) of headache patients were treating probable migraine with cannabis. Hybrid strains were most preferred across all pain subtypes, with “OG Shark” the most preferred strain in the ID Migraine™ and headache groups. Many pain patients substituted prescription medications with cannabis (41.2–59.5%), most commonly opiates/opioids (40.5–72.8%). Prescription substitution in headache patients included opiates/opioids (43.4%), anti-depressant/anti-anxiety (39%), NSAIDs (21%), triptans (8.1%), anti-convulsants (7.7%), muscle relaxers (7%), ergots (0.4%). Conclusions Chronic pain was the most common reason for cannabis use, consistent with most registries. The majority of headache patients treating with cannabis were positive for migraine. Hybrid strains were preferred in ID Migraine™, headache, and most pain groups, with “OG Shark”, a high THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol)/THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid), low CBD (cannabidiol)/CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), strain with predominant terpenes β-caryophyllene and β-myrcene, most preferred in the headache and ID Migraine™ groups. This could reflect the potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-emetic properties of THC, with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of β-caryophyllene and β-myrcene. Opiates/opioids were most commonly substituted with cannabis. Prospective studies are needed, but results may provide early insight into optimizing crossbred cannabis strains, synergistic biochemical profiles, dosing, and patterns of use in the treatment of headache, migraine, and chronic pain syndromes.
... The (R) and (S) enantiomers of linalool differentially attract pollinators and herbivores, for feeding and oviposition (Raguso 2016;Reisenman et al. 2010;Saveer et al. 2012), and enantiomeric changes during phenological development modulate our perception of flower aroma (Pragadheesh et al. 2017). In mammals, linalool induces psychopharmalogical effects via glutamate receptors (Elisabetsky et al. 1995;Nakamura et al. 2009), perception via Ors produces a sweet, floral note and makes a prominent contribution to the bouquet of flowers, fruit and wine, where both grape and yeast are a source of linalool (Carrau et al. 2005;Lewinsohn et al. 2001;Swiegers et al. 2005). ...
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(Z)-4-undecenal (Z4-11Al) is the volatile pheromone produced by females of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. Female flies emit Z4-11Al for species-specific communication and mate-finding. A sensory panel finds that synthetic Z4-11Al has a characteristic flavour, which can be perceived even at the small amounts produced by a single female fly. Since only females produce Z4-11Al, and not males, we can reliably distinguish between single D. melanogaster males and females, according to their scent. Females release Z4-11Al at 2.4 ng/h and we readily sense 1 ng synthetic Z4-11Al in a glass of wine (0.03 nmol/L), while a tenfold concentration is perceived as a loud off-flavour. This corroborates the observation that a glass of wine is spoilt by a single D. melanogaster fly falling into it, which we here show is caused by Z4-11Al. The biological role of Z4-11Al or structurally related aldehydes in humans and the basis for this semiochemical convergence remains yet unclear.
... Thus, it appears that the measurement of CORT at 1 p.m. is sensitive to stress assessment as a parameter. Nakamura, Fujiwara, Matsumoto, et al. (2009) and Yamamoto, Fijiwara, Saito-Jizumi, et al. (2013) also assessed stress through CORT plasma concentration of rats after they were subjected to the restraint stress test from 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. ...
Article
The use of orange essential oils (EOs) as a complementary treatment is very common in Brazilian popular culture. The levels of melatonin (MEL) and corticosterone (CORT) hormones were investigated simultaneously, by the Luminex™ immunoassay system in mice plasma, after Citrus aurantium and Citrus sinensis EOs inhalation for 30 min. The plasma was analyzed by headspace through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for investigation of the EO components. Mice were submitted to behavioral testing to research anxiolytic-like, sedative, and antidepressant-like effects. The inhalation of atmosphere obtained from vaporization of 10% solution of this Citrus EO separately did not affect MEL or CORT plasma levels; that is, the MEL and CORT levels did not present variation in function of the EO in the schedule used. On the other hand, the imipramine positive control used altered the level of MEL as expected. The EO constituents were detected in plasma at different ratios that is present in inhaled EO. Behavioral tests showed that the inhalation of 10% C. sinensis EO presents an anxiolytic-like and sedative effect. Thus, C. sinensis EO can be a valuable tool for treatment of the anxiety disturbs, apparently without interference with MEL and CORT physiological levels.
... There is also a long tradition of using basil as a medicinal plant in treating coughs, diarrhoea, worm infestations and kidney malfunctions (Holm, 1999). Recent studies even suggest that basil oil displays great potential as a stress repressor (Nakamura et al., 2009), and it is also used as a component in drugs for leukaemia treatment (Moteki et al., 2002). A long tradition of cultivation for different market requirements led to great intraspecific variation at both a morphological and a biochemical level. ...
... Manufacturing industries use 3-Cyclohexane and β-Myrcene as additives in producing perfumes, pesticides, polyvinyl, and nitrocellulose resins [15]. Over 200 families of Lamiaceae plants are known to produce large amounts of chemicals of Linalyl alcohol and 2-Nephthalenol, which are used as a scent in 60-80% of perfumed hygiene products, oxidizing colouring agents and cleaning agents including soaps, detergents, shampoos and lotions [16]. Medically, Linalyl alcohol therapy has been studied to reduced serum cortisol and improved the coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in healthy men [17]. ...
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Background Cymbopogon species are widely used as herbal remedies by the traditional healers living in Nkonkobe Municipality for the treatment and management of skin and respiratory infections. According to our survey, the plants seem to be very important because of the higher demands. Methods The leaves of C. validis and C. plurinodis were hydro-distilled and the resulted extracted oils were analyzed by GC/MS. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 7.8 to 500.0 μg/ml of the extracted oils were tested against eight bacterial strains, using micro-well dilution method. The human Chang liver cell viability was determined using the CellTiter-Blue cell assay. Results GC-MS analysis of the C. validis essential oil amounted to 87.03%, major components identified were Linalyl alcohol (18.9%), 2-Nephthalenemethanol (6.67%), Longifolene (6.53%), Cubedol (6.08%). Total oil percentage of C. plurinodis was 81.47% and the main components were characterized as 3-Cyclohexane-1-ol (13.58%), Nerolidol (13.6%) and 2-Carene (12.6%). The essential oils from both plants were found to be active against the growth of Gram positive than the Gram negative bacterial tested. Lethal dose at 50 (LD50) of both plants showed 74.87 ± 1.41 and 81.66 ± 1.40 degree of toxicity at 24 h. Conclusion Both plants extracts were toxic to human Chang liver cell lines.
... Linalool is also used as a chemical intermediate for the synthesis of vitamin E. Additionally, linalool is used by pest professionals as a flea and cockroach insecticide 45,46 . In a recent study it was found that inhaling linalool can reduce stress in lab rats and this could form the basis of identifying novel fragrances with soothing effects against stress 47 . ...
Article
Variations in the yield, chemical composition and biological (antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, biofilm inhibition and hemolytic) attributes of hydro-distilled and supercritical fluid extracted essential oil (SCFEEO) from common basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were appraised. The yield of hydro-distilled essential oil (HEO) (0.82%) significantly (p<0.05) exceeded than the SCFEEO yield (0.45%). Physical parameters such as color, solubility, density and refractive index of the tested oils revealed insignificant variation. GC-MS analysis established linalool (21.80%, 36.06%) and estragole (17.87%, 12.80%) as the major chemical compounds in the SCFEEO and HEO, respectively. The DPPH free radical scavenging capacity and reducing power for the SCFEEO were greater than those of HEO. Meanwhile, SCFEEO exhibited better antibacterial activity against P. multocida whereas HEO displayed effective antifungal action against A. flavusas as well as showed superior biofilm inhibition and hemolytic activities. The significant (p<0.05) variations observed in the biological activities of the tested essential oils can be linked to the varying concentration of bioactive constituents isolated depending upon the technique employed. Based upon the present data, SCFEE basil oil can be considered as a promising candidate for potential antioxidant/antimicrobial applications.
... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has approved the use of linalool as a larvicidal and repellent of flies and mosquitoes. [9][10][11] Myrcene is a hydrocarbon terpene largely used as an intermediate in chemical synthesis of other substances used in the perfume industry, as menthol, citral, geraniol, and linalool. Despite its pleasant smell, rarely it is used as a fragrance component due to its easiness to polymerize and oxidize. ...
Article
Citrus essential oil has many uses in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals industry, especially the minor compounds present in the oil. This work aimed to evaluate the distillation patterns of the components of the peel essential oil of Citrus sinensis using vacuum fractional distillation. The performed tests shown the separation of the compounds occur with the leaving of the lighter terpenes, followed by the heavier terpenes and part of the oxygenated functions. Most of the oxygenated functions remained in the bottom of the column, being concentrated in this fraction. Many trace compounds were found in the bottom products. Limonene mass percentage reduced from 96.68% to 52.81% in the bottom products. Linalool had its mass percentage increased from 0.37% in the raw oil to 4.22% in the bottom. It was also observed in the operation conditions of the column (10 kPa and 70 °C), there was no evidence of thermal degradation of the raw oil, neither of the obtained fractions during the process.
... It is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol chemical found in many flowers and spice plants. 17 So, the main objective of this research was to isolate pure compounds from chloroform/methanol (1:1) crude extract of the leaves of sweet basil herb and characterize them using infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). ...
... GC-MS analysis of VOCs produced by Ch4/11 showed that one component of it was a terpenic alcohol named linalool. Linalool used as an olio chemical, flavoring agent in beer, stress relief in rodents 12 and as insecticide 10 . Linalool is used as a scent in 60-80 % of perfumed hygiene products and cleaning agents including soaps, detergents, shampoos, and lotions. ...
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An endophytic Daldinia bambusicola isolated from stems of Camellia caduca (Theaceae), collected from Cherrapunji, Meghalaya, India (25.30° North, 91.70° East). Volatile organic compounds produced by this organism were analyzed through GC-MS. Major VOCs were found as linalool; benzeneethanol; 2H-1-benzopyran-2-One, 4, 7-dihydroxy; hexane; pivalic acid anhydride; 2-ethylhexanol etc. The organism inhibited most of the test pathogens and 100 % inhibition was observed with Phytophthora palmivora. The organism after its treatment is able to increases the self-life of vegetables and fruits.
... It is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol chemical found in many flowers and spice plants. 17 So, the main objective of this research was to isolate pure compounds from chloroform/methanol (1:1) crude extract of the leaves of sweet basil herb and characterize them using infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). ...
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p class="abstract"> Background: For thousands of years, several people depend on traditional medicines from flowers, bark, leaves and fruits of plants. Sweet Basil ( Ocimum basilicum L. ) is a medicinal herb which belongs to the family of Labiatae and it is the most abundant of the genus Ocimum. The present study aimed to isolate pure compounds from chloroform/methanol (1:1) crude extract of the leaves of O. basilicum herb and characterize them using infra-red (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic techniques. Methods: The sample of powdered leaves of O. basilicum was extracted using a mixture of chloroform and methanol (1:1) and the crude extract was investigated for its chemical composition using spectroscopic techniques. Results: Only one fraction designated as O. basilicum -14 (OB-14) displayed a single spot on TLC plate. Results showed that two isomeric compounds named (1-(2-vinylcyclohexa-1,4-dienyl) propan-2-ol and 2-(2-vinylcyclohexa-1,5-dienyl) propan-1-ol) were isolated as a mixtures using column chromatography over silica gel. The structures of these compounds were identified using IR and one dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques such as proton NMR (<sup>1</sup>H NMR), carbon-13 NMR (<sup>13</sup>C NMR) and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT). Conclusions: So, more compounds can be isolated from the plant using different chromatographic techniques.</p
... thases. One of these, linalool synthase (LIS), has been showed to produce (S)-linalool in several floral tissues (24,25). Linalool is used as a scent in 60-80% of perfumed hygiene products and cleaning agents such as soaps, detergents, shampoos, and lotions. ...
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Cumin is an important medicinal plant in Iran. Plant cell suspension culture is a method for the production of medicinal and secondary metabolites. The linalool is a plant secondary metabolite that has been recognized as a neuroprotective agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of salicylic acid elicitor on induction of linalool in cell suspension culture of cumin. For this purpose, the cumin seeds were prepared, to obtain sterile seedling, were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and alcohol, and were cultured on MS basal medium. This research was conducted in two separate experiments including callus induction and suspension cultures. Leaf explants were prepared from sterile seedlings and used to produce callus on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BAP. In order to establish suspension culture, the appropriate calli were transferred to liquid medium. Then cell cultures were treated with elicitors. The effects of elicitor on the production of linalool secondary metabolite and cell viability were assessed by GC-Mass and tetrazolium test respectively. For this purpose, the salicylic acid (at concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/l) was used. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The results of cell culture and GC-Mass analysis showed that salicylic acid had significant effects on the linalool production (<0.01). At all concentrations of salicylic acid, viability of the cells in suspension culture experiments was lower than control. Increasing the elicitor concentrations lead to reduction in cell survival. In conclusion it is possible to produce linalool as a secondary metabolite and pharmaceutical agent in cell culture of cumin. It is necessary to determine the best combination of medium and elicitor.
... Linalool is also used for scent in 60%-80% perfumed hygiene products and washing agents such as detergents, shampoos and so on [18]. The research also shows that inhaling linalool can reduce stress and anxiety [19,20]. Linaloolrich essential oil from the leaves of Croton cajucara was demonstrated to be potent against Leishmania amazonensis [21]. ...
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Objective: To determine the chemical constituents, cytotoxic activity and possible applications of the essential oils from the leaves of Abrus precatorius L. Gaertn. Methods: Hydro-distillation using Clevenger-type apparatus was employed to obtain the essential oils. Oil analysis was performed using an HP 6890 gas chromatograph coupled with an HP 5973 mass selective detector. The cytotoxicity bioassay was carried out using the brine shrimp lethality test. Results: Forty-five compounds were identified representing 100% of the oil. The principal components were γ-cadinene (19.1%), α-selinene (15.3%), α-cubenene (12.8%), β-caryophyllene (8.2%), germacrene B (7.9%), α-copaene (7.7%) and linalool (6.3%). Others are caryophyllene oxide (5.5%), β-elemene (5.4%) and α-caryophyllene (4.0%). The oil was potent with the LC50 value of 0.45 μg/mL. Conclusions: The essential oil from the leaves of Abrus precatorius L. Gaertn. could hold promise for future applications in the treatment of cancer-related diseases, in addition to flavor and fragrance industry.
... [31] In addition, R-(-)linalool has a sedative effect. [32,33] S-(+)-linalool has been reported to be a stress-relieving agent. [34] 1,8-Cineole is a major monoterpenoid present in many plant volatile/essential oils, principally the Eucalyptus and Rosemarinus species. ...
Article
Cinnamomum kanehirae Hayata is an endemic tree species in Taiwan. Leaf essential oils from 26 sources of C. kanehirae were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty-eight compounds were identified from C. kanehirae leaf essential oils. The main constituents in leaf essential oils were linalool, 1,8-cineole, β-selinene, 1-hexadecyne, and α-cadinol. According to the chemical compositions of leaf essential oils and their relative contents obtained from GC-MS analyses, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, the 26 sources examined were classified into five chemotypes: linalool type, linalool/1,8-cineole type, 1,8-cineole type, linalool/α-cadinol type, and mixed type. The biochemical correlations between the major constituents of C. kanehirae were examined and their relationship is discussed.
... This Citrus enantiomeric distribution is an interesting feature in order to highlight their clinical and commercial applications and allows using this parameter for identification, characterization, genuineness and pharmacological activity assessment. For example, (R)-(+)limonene and (S)-(-)-limonene, (R)-(-)-linalool and (S)-(+)linalool have a distinct odor threshold, physiological and psychopharmacological effects [26,[28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. ...
Article
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Essential oils (EO) are major products in the world economy. Citrus species (Rutaceae) EO, present in the pericarp of the fruit and leaves, provide raw material for a wide variety of industries such as resin products for paper and textiles, binders to manufacture insecticides, antiseptics, pharmaceuticals, perfumes and food. This study determines the chemical components monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, plus limonene and linalool enantiomeric distribution of Citrus aurantium Lineu, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck and Citrus reticulata Blanco EO, through gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All EO were acquired and collected in South and South- Central Brazil. Samples were obtained by steam distillation, hydrodistillation or cold pressing extraction. The results showed that limonene (39.5 to 92.7%) is the main component of the pericarp and linalool (14.2 to 24.8%) is the main component of the leaves. It was shown that the extraction method did not change this distribution. The (R)-(+)-limonene was 60 to 99% in all Citrus EO analyzed. The (R)-(-)-linalool was 59 to 64% in Citrus aurantium and (S)-(+)-linalool was 76 to 99% in Citrus sinensis and Citrus reticulata. The hydrolate of Citrus aurantium (orange water) was also analyzed and presented as the main components nootkatone (17%), alpha-terpineol (10%), linalool (10%) with ee (R)-(-)-linalool, limonene (0.8%) with ee (R)-(+)-limonene. These results confirm the interesting quality of Citrus EO from Brazil, ensuring their applications in many industries, products categories, including medical applications owing their physiological and psychopharmacological properties, which show similarities with Citrus EO from other countries.
... Chapter 9, Animal Models, in section: "Comparative Physiology and Anatomy", subsection, "Comparative Airway Anatomy." Additional References: Troy, 1977;Jirovetz et al., 1991;Buchbauer et al., 1991;Jirovetz et al., 1990;RIFM, 1997;Buchbauer et al., 1993;Perrucci et al., 1996;Perrucci, 1995;Rice et al., 1994;Silver, 1992;Karr et al., 1992;Regnault-Roger et al., 1995;Rice et al., 1994a;Perrucci et al., 1995a;Sugawara et al., 1998;Coats et al., 1991;Cometto-Muniz et al., 1998;Isola et al., 2003;RIFM, 2003;Rogers, 2003;RIFM, 2003a;Isola et al., 2003a;Isola et al., 2004;Larsen et al., 1997;Smith et al., 2004;RIFM, 2004a;Isola, 2004a;Barocelli et al., 2004;Rogers et al., 2005;Kuroda et al., 2005;Tanida et al., 2006;Yang et al., 2005;Corsi et al., 2007;Sato et al., 2007;Nakamura et al., 2010;Nakamura et al., 2009;Linck et al., 2009;Mastubara et al., 2011 Literature Search and Risk Assessment Completed on: 03/25/13 ...
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The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Reproductive toxicity was based on the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) of 0.03 mg/kg/day for a Cramer Class I material. The estimated systemic exposure is determined to be equal to this value while assuming 100% absorption from skin contact and inhalation. A systemic exposure at or below the TTC value is acceptable. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... Others: galactagogue and laxative Linalool occurs in spice plants/ flowers with many commercial uses based on its aroma -floral, with a touch of spiciness. It has a soothing effect, and occurs in > 200 tropical and boreal plants Linalool is said to be "one of the most widely used substances to soothe away emotional stress" [22]. ...
... It is also found in mints, cinnamon, rosewood and citrus fruits. Rats that inhaled linalool under stressful conditions were protected from the stress evoked activation of the immune system (Nakamura et al., 2009). ...
... In agreement with the present findings, Sahu et al [75] reported that survival rate after challenging the fish with A.hydrophila was enhanced in Labeo rohita fed diets containing Magnifera indica kernel. Similar results were also reported after feeding tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with two Chinese medicine herbs and challenging with A.hydrophila [91]. Pachanawan et al [92] also reported that survival rate after challenging the fish with A.hydrophila was increased in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing either dry leaf powder of Psidium guajava or ethanol extract of P.guajava ...
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Objective: Basil Ocimum basilicum Linn. (Lamiaceae), popularly known as "Sweet Basil" has been used as traditional medicine for household remedy against various human ailments from antiquity. Methods: The aerial parts of The present study deals with the development of immunity on both specific and non specific levels by the leaf extract of Ocimum basilicum Linn. on Clarias batrachus a common fish. Ocimum basilicum Results: The present study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous leaf extract of Linn. were extracted with double distilled water and then extracts were screened for their immunomodulatory effects on Clarias batrachus. Haematological and biochemical studies were done on specific and nonspecific levels after administering the extracts for 15 and 30days. Ocimum basilicum Conclusion: Based on the results it is appropriate to conclude that the plant extract of on fish Clarias batrachus in biochemical and haemological profiles. It was observed that the herbal diet (prepared by the aqueous leaf extract of O.basilicum) fed fishes exhibited significant increase in RBC, WBC, serum protein and globulin at 2.5% and 5% concentrations of crude extracts in both the 15 and 30 days of treatments in the blood of the fish which may be considered as a sign of improvement in both specific immune response and non specific immune responses. It may be due to the presence phenolic compounds like tannins, saponin, flavonoids, steroid, terpenoids, eugenol, caryophylline, cardiac glycerides etc. Ocimum basilicum Keywords: Immunostimulants, Phytochemicals, Clarias batrachus, may act as a potent Immunostimulant in preventing and controlling various diseases of human being. Ocimum basilicum linn .
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Background: The effectiveness of exogenously triggered serotonin increase (e.g. via dietary supplements, drugs) is varied. However, since urinary serotonin concentrations were found to correlate with those in the cerebrospinal fluid the olfactory system might be an efficient and testable pathway to quickly elevate serotonin levels due to its fast-acting central neurophysiological and peripheral pathways. However, little research has been devoted to investigate this assumption. Objective: This paper extends previous findings of parasympathetic activation of a specially designed essential oil inhaler (AromaStick® Balance) by experimentally testing its impact on urine serotonin and saliva cortisol excretion. Method: Two experiments involving healthy individuals were conducted to test the efficacy of essential oil application to the nose by employing different inhalation protocols and control conditions. Results: In the pilot study (n = 8), serotonin urine excretion was increased after six inhalations (effect size Cohen’s d = 0.7). In the second experiment (n = 80), inhalations proved superior to both a natural control condition and a pseudo placebo condition after six and three inhalation cycles (0.6 < d < 1.8). In addition, there was a large reduction of cortisol saliva levels after three inhalations (d = 0.9). Conclusion: Short and deep inhalations of essential oil scents directly delivered to the olfactory system appear to result in enhanced serotonin and reduced cortisol release in healthy individuals of both sexes.
Chapter
Als Einstieg in das Thema duftunterstützte Therapie stellen wir zwei Übungen vor, wie man die Duftrichtung „Frisch-grün-zitrisch“ für sich dufttherapeutisch nutzen kann. Die eine basiert auf einer multisensorischen Inspiration zur Kreativitätssteigerung und nennt sich „Duftflug“, die andere basiert auf einer körperlichen und geistigen Übung für neue innere Kraft und heißt „Scented Power Posing“. Anschließend gehen wir aktuellen Erkenntnissen aus der Babyduftforschung für Erwachsene nach, die der duftunterstützten Selbsttherapie neue und wertvolle Impulse gegeben haben. Wir besprechen in diesem Zusammenhang die Selbsttherapie mit Ur-Parfüms bzw. mit Ur-Wirkparfüms und geben Anleitungen, wie man sie für sich selbst kreieren und einsetzen kann. Ur-Parfüms sind die ersten Düfte, die der Mensch in seiner Entwicklung riecht. Klinische Forschungen bestätigen ihre große positive psychische Wirkung bei Säuglingen, die sogar zur Schmerzlinderung führt. Wir postulieren, dass diese Dufterfahrung selbst noch bei Erwachsenen unbewusst präsent ist und für die Dufttherapie aktiviert werden kann. Für die Zukunft der Parfümerie, die noch mehr Wellness bieten möchte, verspricht man sich vor allem viel von Pflanzenpeptiden, um einzelne Gehirnareale z. B. gegen Stress und seine Auswirkungen zu unterstützen.
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Gamma irradiation is utilized in floriculture for generating variants with improved traits. In the present study, stem cuttings of Jasminum auriculatum Vahl. were irradiated with different levels of gamma rays viz. 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gray (Gy) to examine any alterations on the profile of floral volatile compounds (FVOCs). It was demonstrated that low dose (10 Gy) could enhance the contents of desired FVOCs as compared to non-irradiated plants, indicating a hormetic effect. The concentration of linalool (a monoterpene volatile) in the floral scent bouquet was found to be increased by two-fold in 10 Gy gamma-irradiated variants as compared with control. A concurrent decrease in benzyl acetate concentration was also noticed. Principal component analysis (PCA) of major FVOCs could cluster the plants developed from high and low irradiation doses. Expression analysis of acetyl-CoA-benzylalcohol acetyltransferase (JaBEAT), monoterpene synthase (JaMTS) and MYB transcription factor (JaMYB) genes correlated well with the concentrations of the corresponding FVOCs. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) profiling of 10 Gy gamma-irradiated variants revealed the presence of significant DNA polymorphism (36.67%), as compared with control.
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In recent years, aromatherapy has become increasingly popular for clinical treatment and therapeutic management of both acute and chronic stress. It targets distinct and unique neurobiological characteristics of the olfactory system, which is tightly linked to emotions and information processing as well as the autonomous nervous system. Yet, depending on the mode of application, aromatherapeutic interventions show varying degrees of therapeutic effectiveness. In a series of five experiments, the effects of a new mode of aromatherapeutic application (inhaler) was investigated, which is specifically designed to directly stimulate the olfactory system and to reduce the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Overall, the application of the inhaler showed consistent and large psychological and physiological effects. It also clearly outperformed other stress management techniques, like progressive muscle relaxation, Bach flowers or passive resting periods (natural control). The effects occurred shortly after very few inhalations, drastically reduced stress related biomarkers (i.e. blood pressure, heart rate and cortisol) and considerably enhanced well-being. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Psychological stress is the most prevalent issue in today's life, affecting millions of people worldwide in terms of productivity and quality of life. Chronic mental stress leading to sustained elevated levels of cortisol, a stress biomarker, is detrimental for the body and a causative factor for chronic diseases such as heart disease, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, impaired immunity, diabetes, psychosomatic disorders, and related neurotic disorders, etc. Until now there have been limited options available to manage stress, with variable effective outcomes. Potential antistress herbal candidates such as ginseng, ashwagandha, Ocimum, Rhodiola, Ginkgo, lavender, etc. and nutritional agents such as fish oil, poly unsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acid, natural proteins such as milk peptides, etc. are established clinically and preclinically to control elevated stress cortisol levels and to help individuals coping with psychological stressors with minimal adverse effects. They might be the promising therapeutic intervention to alleviate both physical and mental stress-related symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, depression, etc. with a preventive approach in diminishing chances of sustained elevated levels of stress hormone-induced chronic diseases.
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Background: Cancer is a grave health problem for the world as global cancer burden rises to 14 million new cases with 8.2 million deaths every year which is expected to rise by 70% in next 2 decades as reported by WHO. These steady rises in death demand for rapid developments in anti-cancer agents. Essential oils, being natural and multi-component complex systems have recently attracted a lot of attention in this search for novel anti-cancer agents. Materials and methods: The pharmaceutical attributes of essential oil components specifically focusing their affinity towards COX, 5-LOX, AKT, MDM2, PDK1 and mTOR which defines the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were assessed. 123 compounds present in essential oils of different plants were analyzed for their drug like attributes which were then allowed to dock with PI3K dependent receptors crucial for development of cancer malignancies. Among them, 21 compounds were filtered possessing high druglikeness with favourable metabolism offered by major cytochromeP450 isoforms. Finally, the best docked compounds with highest binding affinities were employed for building a ligand based pharmacophore. Being inhibitors P-glycoprotein they also exhibited good absorption profiles and non-carcinogenic properties. Further from these 21, six compounds were evaluated against A549 lung cancer cells. Results: The pharmacophoric feature obtained can be applied for both designing and screening moieties for active inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway specifically from essential oil compounds and these final 21 compounds can be further promoted to studies for anti-cancer drug development. Among these six compounds, exhibited promising inhibitory results against A549 lung cancer cells. Further, immunoblotting assay confirmed the efficacy of the compounds for inhibiting mTOR and AKT enzymes which are bandmasters for downstream signaling of the PI3K pathway. Conclusions: Methyl nonanoate, (R)-citronellol, cis-carveol (L-carveol), 3-methyl-Cyclohexanone, 4-carene and thujopsene were finally screened for PI3K targeted anti-cancer therapies which may find direct application as inhalers or sprays against lung cancer as these compounds are highly volatile.
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Mangifera indica (family Anacardiaceae), commonly known as mango, is a pharmacologically, ethnomedically and phytochemically diverse plant. Various parts of M. indica tree have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different ailments and a number of bio-active phytochemicals constituents of M. indica have been reported, namely, polyphenols, terpenes, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins and amino acids, etc. Several studies have proven pharmacological potential of different parts of mango tree such as leaves, bark, fruit peel and flesh, roots and flowers as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anthelmintic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-plasmodial and antihyperlipemic. In the present review, a comprehensive study on ethnopharmacological applications, pharmacological activities and bioactive compounds of M. indica has been described.
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The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data show that this material is not genotoxic. Data from the suitable read across analog linalyl phenylacetate (CAS # 7143-69-3) show that this material does not have skin sensitization potential. The repeated dose toxicity endpoint was completed using linalyl cinnamate (CAS # 78-37-5) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100. The developmental and reproductive toxicity endpoint was completed using linalool (CAS # 78-70-6), dehydrolinalool (CAS # 29171-20-8), benzoic acid (CAS # 65-85-0) and sodium benzoate (CAS # 532-32-1) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The local respiratory toxicity endpoint was completed using linalool (CAS # 78-70-6) and benzoic acid (CAS # 65-85-0) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework along with data from the suitable read across analog linalyl cinnamate (CAS # 78-375).
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The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data from the suitable read across analog linalool (CAS # 78-70-6) show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential and also provided a MOE > 100 for the local respiratory endpoint. The repeated dose, developmental and reproductive toxicity endpoints were completed using nerolidol (isomer unspecified, CAS # 7212-44-4) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework.
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This study investigated the anti-obesity and anti-lipidemic ability of linalool (LL) in ApoE deficiency mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Four experimental groups of 8 mice each were constructed: a control group received a basic diet and oral repeated dose of the vehicle only for 12 weeks; a HFD group received a HFD and oral repeated dose of the vehicle only for 12 weeks; and the HFD&LL25 and HFD&LL50 groups received a HFD and oral repeated dose of LL 25 and 50 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks, respectively. HFD produced a significant increase in body weight, spleen weight, and adipose tissue weight compared with the control group. An increase in the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities, total cholesterol (T-CHO), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol was also found in the HFD group. Histopathological examinations showed severe liver injuries, characterized by extensive fatty changes and hepatocyte degeneration/necrosis. On the contrary, oral administration with LL significantly improved HFD-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia, evidenced by a decrease in the adipose tissue weight, T-CHO, TG, and histopathological lesions. The results indicate that LL suppressed HFD-induced obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatic steatosis, suggesting that LL might be a promising adjuvant therapy for the treatment of these metabolic disorders related to corpulence.
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Linalool is a monoterpene compound reported to be a major component of essential oils in various aromatic species. Several Linalool-producing species are used in traditional medical systems, including Aeolanthus suaveolens G. Dom (Labiatae) used as anticonvulsant in the Brazilian Amazon. Psychopharmacological in vivo evaluation of Linalool showed that this compound have dose-dependent marked sedative effects at the Central Nervous System, including hypnotic, anticonvulsant and hypothermic properties. The present study reports an inhibitory effect of Linalool on Glutamate binding in rat cortex. It is suggested that this neurochemical effect might be underlining Linalool psychopharmacological effects. These findings provide a rational basis for many of the traditional medical use of Linalool producing plant species.
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In this study, we examined hormonal regulation of the distribution profiles of leukocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood of rats. Flow cytometric analysis revealed significant and selective changes in the numbers and the percentages of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations which were a function of diurnal variations in hormone secretion and hormonal changes induced by acute stress. Changes in numbers and percentages of leukocyte subpopulations, which varied with time of day, were similar to changes observed under stress conditions. At the beginning of the rat's active period, and after 1 h of restraint stress, there was a significant reduction in numbers of leukocytes and lymphocytes. This reduction was primarily accounted for by a decrease in numbers of B cells, natural killer cells, monocytes (diurnal study), and helper T cells (diurnal study). There was also a significant decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes which was mirrored by an increase in the percentage of neutrophils in the peripheral blood. Peripheral blood leukocyte numbers were inversely related to plasma corticosterone levels. These results suggest that the endocrine system plays a role in the regulation of immune cell turnover and/or redistribution between immune compartments under conditions of normal daily experiences, namely, the diurnal cycle, and mild acute stress. They also suggest that these effects are selective for certain subpopulations of leukocytes.
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The numbers and proportions of leukocytes in the blood provide an important representation of the state of activation of the immune system, and of the pattern of distribution of immune cells in the body. We have shown previously that acute stress induces large, rapid, and reversible changes in the distribution of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in the rat. The studies described here specifically investigate the role played by adrenal steroid hormones in mediating stress-induced changes in blood leukocyte distribution. Since adrenal steroids act at two distinct receptor subtypes that show a heterogeneity of expression in immune cells and tissues, the role played by each subtype in mediating changes in leukocyte distribution is also investigated. Cyanoketone, a corticosterone (CORT) synthesis inhibitor, significantly reduced the decrease in lymphocyte numbers observed during stress and significantly enhanced the increase in neutrophil numbers observed after the cessation of stress. Acute administration of aldosterone (a specific type I adrenal steroid receptor agonist) to adrenalectomized animals did not have a significant effect on blood leukocyte numbers. In contrast, acute administration of CORT (the endogenous type I and type II receptor agonist), or RU28362 (a specific type II receptor agonist), to adrenalectomized animals produced changes in leukocyte distribution that were similar to those observed in intact animals during stress. These results suggest that CORT, acting at the type II adrenal steroid receptor, is a major mediator of the stress-induced changes in blood lymphocyte and monocyte distribution.
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Antidepressant effects brought about by olfactory stimulation with various odorants were investigated with the forced swimming test, a reliable means for screening antidepressant effects. Lemon odor significantly reduced total immobility time and potentiated the imipramine-induced reduction of total immobility time in the test. This synergistic effect of lemon odor and imipramine was not due to lemon odor decreasing the metabolism of imipramine. Lemon odor decreased locomotor activity in the open field, suggesting its effects to differ from those of psychostimulants but to be similar to those of antidepressants. The effects of citral, which is one of the main components of lemon odor, were as strong as those of lemon odor. The remaining odorants tested in this study failed to have any effects on total immobility time in the forced swimming test or on locomotor activity in the open field.
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There are physiological variations in the levels of leucocytes. Among these, the circadian rhythm is very important in terms of the magnitude. Since newly identified lymphocyte subsets (i.e. extrathymic T cells) have recently been detected, a comprehensive study of the circadian rhythm was conducted. All leucocytes were found to vary in number or proportion with a circadian rhythm and were classified into two groups. One group--granulocytes, macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, extrathymic T cells, gammadelta T cells, and CD8+ subset--showed an increase in the daytime (i.e. daytime rhythm). The other group--T cells, B cells, alphabeta T cells, and CD4+ subset--showed an increase at night. Humans are active and show sympathetic nerve dominance in the daytime. Interestingly, granulocytes and lymphocyte subsets with the daytime rhythm were found to carry a high density of adrenergic receptors. On the other hand, lymphocyte subsets with the night rhythm carried a high proportion of cholinergic receptors. Reflecting this situation, exercise prominently increased the number of cells with the daytime rhythm. These results suggest that the levels of leucocytes may be under the regulation of the autonomic nervous system.
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The existence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) on lymphocytes remains controversial. We attempted to show the existence of nAChR on murine lymphocytes. The intraperitoneal injection of nicotine induced the lymphocytosis in the spleen on day 3. Although freshly isolated lymphocytes bound small quantities of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha BuTx), they began to bind alpha BuTx after incubation in medium. In contrast to granulocytes, various lymphocyte subsets obtained from various lymphoid organs were found to bind alpha BuTx. Affinity purification of alpha BuTx-binding protein revealed that lymphocytes expressed the same nAChR molecules as those of muscle. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that lymphocytes expressed the alpha-subunit mRNA of nAChR. These results suggest that lymphocytes carry nAChR on the surface and are stimulated directly via their nAChR by parasympathetic nerve stimuli.
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Immobilization stress induces formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to the oxidative injury in various tissues. In this study, the effects of immobilization stress on peripheral blood cells distribution, plasma level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and activities of antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes were investigated in male Fischer rats. A significant increase in plasma TBARS was observed during and after the stress. Dramatic increases of neutrophils and monocytes imply that ROS formation resulted from their activation. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocytes were dramatically increased during and after the stress, while a large fall in erythrocyte number was observed. These findings suggest that the activation of immune cells can be a source of the immobilization-induced ROS production, and that antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes play an important role in preventing the ROS-induced injuries.
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A total of 15 green tea samples were prepared from fresh tea leaves obtained from three different countries: two from Laos, seven from Myanmar, and six from Vietnam. The volatile aroma constituents of the 15 samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Eleven aroma constituents were chosen from over 100 chemicals found in the samples to compare differences among various teas. They were hexanal, 1-penten-3-ol, heptanal, 1-pentenal, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol, (Z)-3-penten-1-ol, linalool oxide (trans-furanoid), linalool oxide (cis-furanoid), linalool, linalyl propanoate, and geraniol. Generally, concentrations of linalool and hexanal seem to play an important role in the quality of green teas. Green teas from Laos and Myanmar contained heterocyclic compounds, such as pyridines and pyrazines, formed by high-temperature processing. The presence of these heterocyclic compounds suggested that the temperature used for tea processing plays an important role in the formation of aroma chemicals in green teas.
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The odorants in Chinese jasmine green tea scented with jasmine flowers (Jasminum sambac) were separated from the infusion by adsorption to Porapak Q resin. Among the 66 compounds identified by GC and GC/MS, linalool (floral), methyl anthranilate (grape-like), 4-hexanolide (sweet), 4-nonanolide (sweet), (E)-2-hexenyl hexanoate (green), and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (sweet) were extracted as potent odorants by an aroma extract dilution analysis and sensory analysis. The enantiomeric ratios of linalool in jasmine tea and Jasminum sambac were determined by a chiral analysis for the first time in this study: 81.6% ee and 100% ee for the (R)-(-)-configuration, respectively. The jasmine tea flavor could be closely duplicated by a model mixture containing these six compounds on the basis of a sensory analysis. The omission of methyl anthranilate and the replacement of (R)-(-)-linalool by (S)-(+)-linalool led to great changes in the odor of the model. These two compounds were determined to be the key odorants of the jasmine tea flavor.
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Various sampling techniques including solid-phase trapping solvent extraction (SPTE), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), reduced pressure steam distillation (RPSD) and simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction (SDE) were compared for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the fragrances from the Lavandula species. Linalyl acetate (35.44%) and linalool (18.70%) were predominant components of Hidcote lavender samples obtained by SPTE whereas those levels were 2.63-4.04 and 36.80-43.47% in the same samples by RPSD and SDE, respectively. The partition coefficients between the headspace gaseous phase and HS-SPME fiber, and the relative concentration factors of the four characteristic components of the lavender were measured for relative evaluation of the fiber efficiency. Five different coatings were evaluated and 100-microm poly(dimethylsiloxane) was the most efficient for the successful extraction of lavender fragrances. A total of 43 compounds were identified by SPTE and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from four Lavandula species. Lavandula angustifolia Hidcote species, which contains a higher level of linalyl acetate and linalool but little camphor, was evaluated as the highest quality among the four different Lavandula species.
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To investigate the effect of green odor on the elevation of the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels and body temperature (T(b)) induced by stress, adult male rats were subjected to a 2-h immobilization stress and exposed to green odor or its vehicle only. In comparison with the vehicle group, animals in the green odor group showed a significant reduction in plasma ACTH levels at the end of the stress when green odor was applied during the stress. The elevated plasma ACTH levels 2 days after the stress were reduced by green odor applied 0, 1, 2, 4 or 6 h after the beginning of the stress. Neither the immediate nor the long-lasting plasma ACTH response was affected by a prestress treatment of green odor. T(b) elevation was evident following the end of the stress and during the light phase the day after the stress. Both the immediate and the long-lasting elevations in T(b) were attenuated by green odor. These data suggest that green odor extracted from green leaves has a relieving effect on plasma ACTH and T(b) levels induced by an immobilization stress for not only immediate but also long-lasting periods.
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During inflammation, neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils release cell type-specific mediators and proteases through signaling molecules, such as G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels. As such, ion channels and receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors, are common drug targets. We sought to identify, for the first time, ion channels and receptors preferentially expressed by each granulocyte subtype. Using GeneChip, we compared approximately 20,000 transcripts present in 7 leukocyte types, platelets, mast cells, and fibroblasts to identify granulocyte subtype-selective transcripts for receptors and ion channels. Granulocyte subtype-selective transcripts were chosen on the basis of several conditions, such as the transcript having a 5-fold or greater expression level compared with the maximum level of other leukocytes. Fifty-one transcripts were chosen to be preferentially expressed by each granulocyte subtype. Seventeen of the 51 transcripts have not been previously reported as granulocyte subtype selective. Among the 17 receptors and ion channels, 6 were basophil selective, eosinophil selective, or both and were not highly expressed by other organs, indicating that they might be potential targets for antiallergy drugs. Use of this database of potential cell type-selective drug targets should minimize the efforts required for pharmaceutical development.
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In a previous study, we presented evidence that scent of grapefruit oil excites sympathetic nerves innervating white and brown adipose tissues and the adrenal gland, inhibits the vagal nerve innervating the stomach, increases lipolysis and heat production (energy consumption), and reduces appetite and body weight. Here, we examined the effects of olfactory stimulation with scent of lavender oil (SLVO) in rats and observed that in contrast to grapefruit oil, it inhibits the sympathetic nerves innervating the white and brown adipose tissues and adrenal gland and excites the parasympathetic gastric nerve. Local anesthesia of the nasal mucosa with xylocaine or anosmic treatment using ZnSO(4) eliminated the autonomic changes caused by SLVO. Moreover, stimulation with SLVO lowered the plasma glycerol level, and treatment with either ZnSO(4) or an intracranial injection of thioperamide, a histamine H3 receptor-antagonist, abolished SLVO-mediated glycerol decline. Furthermore, a 15-min daily exposure to SLVO increased food intake and body weight. Finally, linalool, a component of lavender oil, induced responses similar to those caused by SLVO, and the glycerol response to linalool was eliminated by thioperamide. Thus, scent of lavender oil and its active component, linalool, affect autonomic nerves, suppress lipolysis through a histaminergic response, and enhance appetite and body weight.
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Microarrays have attracted tremendous interest among biologists. However, questions have been raised regarding the reproducibility between experiments performed in different laboratories using different platforms. Here, we discuss these problems and reach the following conclusions. First, the reproducibility between different platforms of arrays is low, but bioinformatics may permit compensation at least among oligonucleotide microarrays. Second, it is hard to interpret microarray results generated using mixed cell populations. Hierarchical clustering may be applied to identify whether upregulated transcripts in an inflammatory tissue were caused simply by an increased number of inflammatory cells.
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We examined the effects of odorant inhalation on the sleep-wake states in rats. Odorants used in the experiment were clove, jasmine, lavender, lemon, peppermint, pine, rose, sandalwood, valerian, and ylang-ylang. Valerian and rose inhalation significantly prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, whereas lemon inhalation significantly shortened it. The effect of valerian inhalation was markedly noticeable. In the anosmic rats, a significant effect of odorants on the pentobarbital sleep time was not seen. Electroencephalographic studies on natural sleep revealed that rose inhalation did not exert any significant effect on sleep, but a significant shortening in sleep latency and a significant prolonging in total sleep time were observed with valerian inhalation, whereas a significant prolonging in sleep latency was observed with lemon inhalation. Such effects of valerian and lemon inhalation were not admitted in anosmic rats. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase assay indicates that valerian inhalation decreases the activity of the enzyme and enhances GABA activity. Although valerian has been reported to exert a good effect for sleep as a medicine for internal use, the present study is the first medical report suggesting that the inhalation of valerian may enhance the sleep. On the other hand, the present results may suggest the possibility that lemon inhalation may cause a worsening of insomnia symptoms.
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The specific physiological responses induced by inhaling R-(-)- as well as S-(+)-linalool in 24 human subjects undergoing experimental stress were investigated in this study. Various physiological parameters of the autonomous nervous system (heart rate, blood pressure, electrodermal activity) as well as the endocrine system (salivary cortisol) were monitored. The study clearly indicated that odorants can modulate salivary cortisol levels, with both linalool enantiomers exerting relaxing effects. Concerning blood pressure and heart rate, S-(+)-linalool acted as an activating agent in contrast to electrodermal activity. R-(-)-linalool proved to be stress-relieving as determined by heart rate. In conclusion, the results revealed that (1) chirality crucially influences the physiological effects of odorants and that (2) odorants may act differently on certain physiological parameters.
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Excessive globin mRNA in whole blood RNA decreases transcript detection sensitivity and increases signal variation on microarrays. Hence, methods based on peptide nucleic acid inhibitory oligos and biotinylated DNA capture oligos have been developed to reduce globin mRNA. However, there is limited information about the effects of these two methods on gene expression profiles. Thus, we systematically compared the facility and effects of the two globin reduction methods on profile measurements from Jurkat cell line RNA with or without spiked globin mRNA and human blood RNA isolated using PAXgene collection tubes. We showed that the methods were efficient at increasing the sensitivity of transcript detection without loss of specificity, but neither method could recover a profile equivalent to that of an identical RNA sample without globin mRNA excesses. The capture oligo method had slightly better transcript detection sensitivity for cell line RNA, lowered signal variation for PAXgene RNA, and more similar profiles to controls than the inhibitory method. However, the capture method required larger amounts of initial high-quality RNA to yield sufficient cRNA amounts, and its procedures were more complex and time consuming than the inhibitory method. These results inform the selection of methods suitable for multicenter surveillance of gene expression profiles.
  • Komori T.