Extraction of Jojoba oil by pressing and leaching

Abstract and Figures

Jojoba oil extraction by pressing alone, pressing followed by leaching, and leaching alone were investigated. The extraction process by first and second pressing followed by leaching gave about 50% by weight oil with reference to total seed, which is in agreement with what has been reported previously. The extraction by leaching process was carried out using different solvents. These solvents were; hexane, benzene, toluene, petroleum ether, chloroform, and isopropanol. Hexane, benzene, and petroleum ether gave the highest yield (all about 50% by weight oil with reference to total seed), but when cost is considered, petroleum ether is recommended as the best solvent to leach jojoba oil. The yield obtained in this work for leaching by hexane and benzene are 3–5% and about 10% for isopropanol more than those reported in the literature. Traces of solvent remained with the extracted oil after simple distillation followed by a second stage distillation via a Rotavapour apparatus. These traces slightly affected some of the oil properties such as pour point and flash point.
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Chemical Engineering Journal 76 (2000) 61–65
Short communication
Extraction of jojoba oil by pressing and leaching
M.K. Abu-Arabi1,, M.A. Allawzi, H.S. Al-Zoubi, A. Tamimi
Department of Chemical Engineering, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
Received 9 October 1998; received in revised form 8 June 1999; accepted 31 August 1999
Jojoba oil extraction by pressing alone, pressing followed by leaching, and leaching alone were investigated. The extraction process by
first and second pressing followed by leaching gave about 50% by weight oil with reference to total seed, which is in agreement with what
has been reported previously. The extraction by leaching process was carried out using different solvents. These solvents were; hexane,
benzene, toluene, petroleum ether, chloroform, and isopropanol. Hexane, benzene, and petroleum ether gave the highest yield (all about
50% by weight oil with reference to total seed), but when cost is considered, petroleum ether is recommended as the best solvent to leach
jojoba oil. The yield obtained in this work for leaching by hexane and benzene are 3–5% and about 10% for isopropanol more than those
reported in the literature. Traces of solvent remained with the extracted oil after simple distillation followed by a second stage distillation
via a Rotavapour apparatus. These traces slightly affected some of the oil properties such as pour point and flash point. ©2000 Elsevier
Science S.A. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is unique among plants
in the fact that its product (seeds) contains about 50% by
weight oil, which is more than twice the amount in soybeans
and somewhat more than in most oilseed crops. The oil is
composed mainly of straight chain monoesters in the range
of C20–C22 as alcohol and acids, with two double bonds,
one at each side of the ester bond [1–3].
Interest in jojoba oil stems from its unusual properties
that differ from all known seed oils. The complete absence
of glycerin makes it a liquid wax, not fat. Jojoba oil has
been evaluated for suitability in many applications such as
cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, food, electrical insu-
lators, foam control agents, high-pressure lubricants, heat-
ing oil, plasticizers, fire retardants, and transformer oils plus
others [1–3].
Different methods, similar to those applied to other
oilseeds, have been used for extraction of jojoba oil from
the seeds [3–6]. Those methods are mainly mechanical
pressing, mechanical pressing followed by leaching (solvent
extraction), or leaching only. Some of the oilseeds require
pretreatment/preparation such as cleaning, dehulling, crush-
Corresponding author. Fax: +968-697-107
1On leave at The Middle East Desalination Research Center, P.O. Box
21, Al Khuwair, Postal Code 133, Sultanate of Oman.
ing, flaking, cooking, etc. before the extraction process.
Hexane is the solvent most commonly used in the leaching
process because of its relatively low cost and low toxicity.
Other organic solvents such as benzene, alcohol, chloroform
are also used. Water as a solvent was evaluated to extract
oil from soybean, but gave low yield and high potential of
oil microbiological contamination [6–8].
Knoepfler et. al [9] used carbon tetrachloride, benzene,
hexane, heptane, isopropyl alcohol and tetrachloroethylene
to leach jojoba oil. They first cracked jojoba seeds into
8–12 pieces by passing them through corrugated crush-
ing rolls. They were then chopped into flakes of 0.010in.
(0.25mm) average thickness by passing them through a pair
of smooth rolls. A Soxhlet extractor was used to extract the
oil from the flakes. They found that carbon tetrachloride,
benzene, hexane, and heptane extracted between 45–47%
by weight (based on total seed). Spadaro et al. [10] in-
vestigated the conditions required for material-preparation
and extraction to get efficient leaching of oil from jojoba
seeds using a filtration-extraction process that was previ-
ously used for other oilseeds. The seeds were subjected to;
flaking to different thickness (0.004–0.01in.), cooking in
a mixer type cooker, crisping by evaporative cooling for
20min., slurrying the cooked material with solvent. The
following filtration-extraction characteristics were studied;
flake thickness, moisture content (which was varied be-
tween 5–20%) of flakes during cooking, rerolling of cooked
1385-8947/00/$ – see front matter ©2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.
PII: S1385-8947(99)00119-9
62 M.K. Abu-Arabi et al./Chemical Engineering Journal 76 (2000) 61–65
flakes, and extraction temperature on mass velocity and
extraction efficiency using commercial-grade hexane and
heptane as solvents. Tests with heptane showed that in-
creasing the extracting temperature from 80F (26.7C) to
140F (60C) and/or increasing the moisture content up to
10%, increased the extraction efficiency by about 3%. Per-
forming the extraction at 140F and increasing the moisture
content up to 20%, increased the extraction efficiency by
less than 1%. Actually, their data shows no improvement
with increasing the moisture content above 10%. For the
80F extracting temperature, increasing the moisture content
to 10, 15, and 20%, increased the efficiency by 2.6, 2.9, and
3.1%, respectively. They reported that the adequate mass
velocity, defined as pounds of miscella filtrate per hour per
square foot of filter area, for commercial application should
be greater than 2000. For the 140F extracting temperature,
when the moisture content was increased to 10%, the mass
velocity dropped to 1617. For the 80F, the mass velocity
dropped below 2000 when the moisture content was in-
creased to 20%. Rerolling was found not required if the
flakes are rolled initially to a thickness of 0.004in.. Based
on their results, they concluded that both heptane and hex-
ane are suitable as solvents for commercial extraction of
jojoba flakes as there are no significant differences in mass
velocity and extraction efficiency obtained with the two
solvents. However, they recommended using hexane rather
than heptane, because it is more readily available, cheaper
and has a lower boiling point, which facilitates its removal
from the products.
They also conducted three experiments to determine
the filtration-extraction characteristics of uncooked jojoba
flakes. The results were erratic in that the mass velocity var-
ied from about 200 and 1600 and extraction efficiency from
96.5 to 97.8. So they concluded that omission of the cooking
step is not recommended in any commercial operations.
Rawles [11] reported on mechanical seeds grinding and
pressing done at the Western Regional Research Center
(WRRC), Albany, California, and at the San Carlos Apache
Indian Reservation during 1972–1977. Many problems were
encountered during the grinding operations that were tested.
As the mill heated up, a sticky, mud-like meal formed that
plugged the grinder. They were able to solve these prob-
lems by freezing the seed before grinding, but this is very
The effect of moisture and temperature on the efficient op-
eration of a Rosedowns press, made in England, was inves-
tigated. The best results were obtained when operating be-
tween 175–190F (80–88C), and with 3–4% moisture con-
tent. The operation of the press required very careful moni-
toring to avoid loss of oil and plugging. An extraction rate
of 38.2% was obtained, and the oil content remaining in
the meal was 17–20%. A Hander press, made in Japan, was
used for pressing at the San Carlos reservation. Experience
with it indicated that, feeding 20% hulls by weight with the
seed improved the extraction efficiency. Double pressings
were necessary to bring the extraction rate up to 42% from
35–39% in a single press. Also preheating was required to
get this extraction rate. The remaining meal, after double
pressing, contained 9–10% oil. Ruiz et al. [12] also used the
same model Hander press and concluded that moisture con-
trol during the feeding process was critical. Feeding with
4% moisture content, they were able to extract 80% of the
original oil in one pass and up to 94% in two passes.
Miller et al. [13] reported on the mechanical rendering
of jojoba oil by grinding and pressing the seeds. The de-
hulled seeds were grounded at room temperature by using
8in. Bauer single-disk attrition mill modified by the addi-
tion of two L-shaped case wipers to the rotating disk to pre-
vent plugging. Pressing was done by passing preheated feed
(80–90F) through a Rosedowns press. Pressing with about
4% moisture content gave 31.4% oil yield (based on total
seed weight).
Spadaro and Lambou [14] investigated mechanical ex-
traction and solvent-extraction of jojoba oil. The mechani-
cal extraction (cold hydraulic pressing) was performed by
cracking the seeds into 6–10 pieces, and then flaking to
about 0.025 in. thick. The flakes were charged to a six-stack,
pilot-plant model hydraulic press and pressed for 50min at
4400 lb ram pressure. They collected 40 lb of oil from 130 lb
of seed (30.8% oil). In the solvent-extraction, six solvents
were used: carbon tetrachloride, benzene, isopropyl alcohol,
heptane, hexane, and tetrachloroethylene. The process was
carried out, after cracking and flaking the seeds, in a Soxhlet
extractor. A total of 20–24 solvent passes were used. Ex-
traction was done at the boiling point of the used solvent.
Separation of oil from solvent was conducted under vacuum
at 3–6mm Hg for 2 h. The stripped oil was dried in a vac-
uum oven at 105C for 2h. They reported only the results
of three of the solvents, which they considered to have the
most potential. Their results as well as others’ results are
shown in Table 2.
Lanzani et al. [15] have reported that a wet process tech-
nology was applied to jojoba seeds to obtain oil and detox-
ified protein meal. The yield of oil was less than 20% by
weight with reference to total seed.
The objectives of this work are: (i) to study oil extraction
from jojoba seeds grown in Jordan by pressing alone without
pretreatment, pressing followed by leaching with hexane,
and leaching with different solvents, (ii) to investigate the
chemical and physical properties of the pressed oil and the
oil leached by hexane, and (iii) to find out if there are any
differences between them.
2. Equipment and experimental procedures
2.1. Pressing only
To obtain the jojoba oil by pressing, a manually oper-
ated hydraulic press type (P/N, 15.011), made by SPECAC
Limited (UK), with variable load (0–15) metric tons was
used. For each run, about 80g of whole jojoba seeds were
M.K. Abu-Arabi et al./Chemical Engineering Journal 76 (2000) 61–65 63
placed in a cylindrical container (6.52cm inside diameter),
then were subjected to the press load. The amount of oil
collected was considered as the weight of oil extracted. A
second pressing was done on some samples by removing it
from the cylindrical container after the first press, breaking
the disk–like residue and then putting it again in the cylin-
drical container and subjecting it to a second pressing. Both
the first and second pressing were done at room temperature.
2.2. Pressing followed by leaching
In this case, the jojoba seeds were subjected to first
and second pressing as mentioned above, then the sample
was taken out of the cylindrical container and crushed to
<1.0mm average size. The crushed sample was leached
by hexane using Soxhlet extractor. The total amount of oil
extracted is the sum of that obtained by first and second
pressing and from the leaching step.
2.3. Leaching only
A Soxhlet extractor was employed for the leaching ex-
periment. For each run, 30g of crushed jojoba seeds was
charged into the Soxhlet extractor and 150ml of organic sol-
vent was used. The solvents used were; hexane, petroleum
ether, isopropanol, benzene, toluene, and chloroform, which
were laboratory grade. Leaching was carried out at the boil-
ing point of each solvent until a clear liquid was obtained
from the jojoba, which indicated complete leaching of the
leachable oil. The Soxhlet extraction process took about
18 h. The extracted phase (oil and solvent) was then distilled
in two stages to separate the oil and solvent. The first stage
was a simple distillation followed by a second stage, which
was a Rotavapour apparatus. A vacuum pump was attached
to the Rotavapour apparatus to ensure complete removal of
the solvent. The oil produced by this method was compared
with the pure pressed oil by measuring their properties.
3. Results and discussion
First, the amount of oil extracted by pressing was found
as a function of the press load. Fig. 1 shows the oil yield
(by weight with reference to total seed) with pressure. The
amount extracted increases exponentially as the pressure in-
creases, but as the pressure is increased to 35.4MPa, it starts
to level off indicating that this is about the required load to
get the maximum amount extracted by pressing. This type
of data is needed for the mechanical design of any press
to be used in large-scale production. Further pressing runs
in this study were subjected to 35.4MPa pressure. The ex-
perimental data was fitted to a third polynomial to give the
following equation with R2=0.987.
% oil =0.0009 P30.0761 P2+2.7086P
where Pis the pressure.
Fig. 1. Jojoba oil yield (wt.% with reference to total seed) as a function
of press load.
The results obtained from first and second pressing and
followed by leaching using hexane as a solvent are shown in
Table 1. The first pressing gave about 35.4%, while the sec-
ond pressing gave about 8.4% by weight oil. Both presses
were subjected to 35.4 MPa pressure. Leaching process gave
about 6.7% by weight oil. As can be seen, there is a slight
difference in the percentage of oil recovered for the different
trails. This is expected, because there will be a slight differ-
ence in the amount of oil present in each seed and the seeds
have different sizes. Table 2 shows the results of pressing
obtained in this work and those reported in the literature,
which are in agreement.
3.1. Leaching process
The leaching process depends mainly on the chemical
structure of the solvent and the kind of solute that will be ex-
tracted from solid material. This probably follows the prin-
ciple ‘like dissolves like’. This does not mean that both
the solute and the solvent have to be chemically similar
but rather have similar functional groups. Solvents are usu-
ally classified by the number of functional groups present
in their molecules, which affect the interaction of either or
both types of physical and chemical interactions between
the solute and the solvent [16].
According to the above principles, jojoba oil extraction
depends on the kind of organic solvent and its structure.
Jojoba oil is a nonpolar ester compound with a very long
straight chain structure. Therefore, any solvent that has a
similar structure (and nonpolar compound) will leach more
oil. Table 3 shows the yield of different solvents used in this
work and those reported in the literature. Solvents’ proper-
ties and their cost [17] are also shown in Table 3. This work
results of the jojoba oil yield are the average of four runs.
Hexane, petroleum ether, and benzene gave a high percent
of yield because they are nonpolar hydrocarbon compounds.
Chloroform, which is polar compound, leached a lower per-
64 M.K. Abu-Arabi et al./Chemical Engineering Journal 76 (2000) 61–65
Table 1
Yield of jojoba oil after first and second pressing followed by leaching process using hexane.
No. of Mass of Mass of oil after Mass of oil after Mass of Leached Total oil,
trial seeds, g first pressing, g (% oil) second pressing, g (% oil) oil, g (% oil) g (% oil)
1 90.0 34.1 (37.9) 8.0 (8.9) 4.3 (4.8) 46.4 (51.5)
2 90.0 31.4 (34.9) 7.1 (7.9) 7.3 (8.1) 45.8 (50.9)
3 90.0 30.3 (33.7) 7.7 (8.6) 6.3 (7.0) 44.3 (49.2)
Average 90.0 31.9 (35.4) 7.6 (8.4) 6.0 (6.7) 45.5 (50.6)
SD 1.95 0.46 1.53 1.08
Table 2
Pressing results
Source % oilaType of press No. of pressing Pretreatment or treatment processes
This work 35.4 hydraulic (manually operated) single none
43.8 hydraulic (manually operated) double breaking the disk-like residue from first press
Rawles [11] 38.2 Rosedowns press single preheating, hulls and moisture contents were adjusted
35–39 Hander press single preheating, hulls and moisture contents were adjusted
40–42 Hander press double preheating, hulls and moisture contents were adjusted
43 Hander press triple preheating, hulls and moisture contents were adjusted
Ruiz et al. [12] 80–94bExpeller Hander EX-100 single flaking, preheating, hulls contents were adjusted, moisture
50–70bExpeller Hander EX-100 single flaking, preheating, hulls contents were adjusted, moisture
Spadaro and Lambou [14] 30.8 hydraulic press (pilot-plant) single preheating, cracking, flaking
Miller et al. [13] 31.4 Rosedowns press single grinding, preheating, moisture content = 4%
aBased on total seed weight.
bThis is % extracted from original oil, the whole oil content in the seeds is not reported.
Table 3
A comparison between the organic solvents used in the leaching process
Solvent Structure Refractive Boiling Specific Color No. of Cost of the % Leached oil
index (25C) point (C) gravity leached oil solvent ($/L)
(G/ml) (ASTM) This work Literature values
Hexane C6H14 1.3723 68.7 0.670 0.5 25.0 52 48.8 [14], 46.9 [9]
Petroleum ether a mixture of 1.3787 60–100 0.656 L 2.0 11.2 50
(ligroin) hydrocarbona
Benzene C6H61.4972 80.1 0.874 L 1.5 28.0 49.3 45.5 [9]
Chloroform CHCl31.4459 61.2 1.490 L 2.0 25.8 32.5
Isopropanol CH3HCOHCH31.3772 82.2 0.785 1.5 19.0 45 36.1 [14], 35.1 [9]
Toluene C6H5CH31.4941 110.5 0.867 3.5 17.0 44.8
Carbon tetrachloride CCl4–76.5 1.584 45.7 [9]
Tetrachloroethylene C2Cl4– 121.1 1.620 42.3 [9]
Heptane C7H16 –98.4 0.684 48.1 [14], 46.5 [9]
aMainly hexane and heptane.
centage of jojoba oil than the above solvents. Isopropanol
and toluene leached about the same amount. The yield ob-
tained in this work for hexane, benzene, and isopropanol are
higher than those reported in the literature. This could be
due to the solvents’ purity and the time of leaching. The re-
sults obtained in this work for hexane, petroleum ether, and
benzene show that these solvents are able to get the same
(or slightly more in the case of hexane) the amount obtained
by first and second pressing followed by leaching.
Petroleum ether is the best solvent used in this research
since its cost is relatively low and it leached a high per-
centage of oil, while hexane gave the highest yield but
its cost is relatively high. Benzene gave the same yield
as that of petroleum ether, but its cost is the highest one.
Toluene and isopropanol can be ranked third with regard
to the amount of oil leached. Toluene has a high boiling
point so it needs more heat to vaporize in any distillation
recovery process compared to the other solvents. The oil
leached by toluene has different color number, as shown
in Table 3, from those obtained by other solvents which
probably means that toluene may extract materials from
the seeds other than the oil, such as sugar, pigments, etc.
Chloroform leached the least amount of oil, also its cost
is relatively high. Additionally, chloroform has high spe-
cific gravity that resulted in the flotation of the jojoba meal
during the leaching process. Overall, petroleum ether can
be classified as the best solvent based on the foregoing
M.K. Abu-Arabi et al./Chemical Engineering Journal 76 (2000) 61–65 65
Table 4
A comparison between the properties of pressed and leached oil by hexane
Characteristics Observed value of Observed value of
(ASTM No.) pressed jojoba oil leached jojoba oil
(literature value) oil
Flash point -open cup, C
(D 92) 275 (295) 267.0
Aniline point, C (D 611) 52.9 (N/A) 52.7
Pour point, C (D 97) 8.0 (9.0)a6.0
TAN, mg KOH/g (D 974) 0.36 (N/A) 2.89
TBN, mg KOH/g (D 2896) 1.0 (N/A) 1.0
Ash content, wt.% (D 482) 0.0 (0.0)a0.0
Color number (D 1500) 1.0 (1.5) 0.5
Refractive index (D 1218) 1.4593 (1.465) 1.4600
Viscosity, Cst (D 446)
at 40C 24.75 (24.92)a26.16
at 100C 6.43 (6.43)a6.57
Viscosity index (D 2270) 233 (233)a233
aThese values were taken from reference [18], while the other liter-
ature values were taken from reference [2].
Jojoba oil produced from the leaching process by organic
solvents is different from that produced by the pressing pro-
cess since the leached oil is not pure (i.e., some of the or-
ganic solvents do not separate completely from oil during
distillation process). In Table 4, the properties of jojoba oil
leached by hexane and the pressed oil are shown. The pour
point of the leached oil is 2C less than that of the pressed
oil meaning that some long chain paraffin’s were extracted
less by hexane, and therefore the pour point of the leached
oil would be reduced. Flash point is another indicator of the
presence of traces of hexane because the flash point of hex-
ane is much less than that of jojoba oil. Thus, traces of hex-
ane will reduce the flash point of the leached oil compared
to that of the pressed oil. The other properties did not sig-
nificantly change. Further treatment to remove these traces
from the oil is needed, if it is to be used in cosmetics, phar-
maceuticals or any other products that may come in contact
with living tissues.
4. Conclusions
The yield of jojoba oil (with reference to total seed) that
can be obtained by pressing is about 44% by weight and by
first and second pressing followed by leaching is about 50%
by weight. The pressure required in the hydraulic press is
about 35.4MPa to obtain the maximum amount by press-
ing. The six organic solvents used in the leaching process
leached different amounts depending on the type of solvent
(polar or nonpolar) and its structure. Hexane leached the
highest amount of oil followed by Petroleum ether, ben-
zene, isopropanol, toluene, and then chloroform. When cost
is considered as a parameter, petroleum ether is the best sol-
vent to be used in the leaching process. Further investigation
is needed to determine the percentage of solvent recovery
and how much losses take place to be able to really decide
which is the best solvent. Traces of solvents remained with
the oil after simple distillation followed by a second stage
distillation via a Rotavapour apparatus. These traces affect
some of the oil properties.
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... Healthy jojoba seeds were selected and transferred to the laboratory of the Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Alexandria University in plastic bags. The BO from seeds was extracted by the pressing method [66]. The seeds were well dried for 14 days. ...
Full-text available
Citation: Shawer, R.; El-Shazly, M.M.; Khider, A.M.; Baeshen, R.S.; Hikal, W.M.; Kordy, A.M. Botanical Oils Isolated from Simmondsia chinensis and Rosmarinus officinalis Cultivated in Northern Egypt: Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity against Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst).
... Healthy jojoba seeds were selected and transferred to the laboratory of the Plant Protection Department, Faculty of Agriculture (Saba Basha), Alexandria University in plastic bags. The BO from seeds was extracted by the pressing method [66]. The seeds were well dried for 14 days. ...
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Abstract: The rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), are key stored-product pests in Egypt and worldwide. The extensive use of synthetic in-secticides has led to adverse effects on the environment, human health, and pest resistance. As a result, environmentally friendly pest management alternatives are desperately required. The bo-tanical oils (BOs) of jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis (L.), and rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants growing in Egypt were extracted, identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and evaluated for their insecticidal activity against S. oryzae and T. castaneum. The main constit-uents identified in BOs were carvyl acetate (20.73%) and retinol (16.75%) for S. chinensis and camphor (15.57%), coumarin (15.19%), verbenone (14.82%), and 1,8-cineole (6.76%) for R. offici-nalis. The S. chinensis and R. officinalis BOs caused significant contact toxicities against S. oryzae and T. castaneum adults, providing LC50 values of 24.37, 68.47, and 11.58, 141.8 ppm at 3 days after treatment (DAT), respectively. S. chinensis oil exhibited significant fumigation toxicity against both insects; however, it was more effective against S. oryzae (LC50 = 29.52 ppm/L air) than against T. castaneum (LC50 = 113.47 ppm/L air) at 3 DAT. Although the essential oil (EO) of R. officinalis sig-nificantly showed fumigation toxicity for S. oryzae (LC50 = 256.1 and 0.028 ppm/L air at 1 and 3 DAT, respectively), it was not effective against T. castaneum. These BOs could be beneficial for es-tablishing IPM programs for suppressing S. oryzae and T. castaneum.
... A major impact of heat was observed when the quantity of p-xylene was reduced from 1.75% in HDC to 0.08% in SE. is is as a result of thermal decomposition by partial dehydrogenation of the methyl groups. Petroleum ether is the best solvent used in research due to its relative cheap cost and low boiling point (30-60°C) [32], but there was no significant difference in the compounds eluted except for the terpenoids. It can be suggested that the SE techniques using petroleum ether are suitable for the extraction of terpenoid portion from tamarind plant seeds. ...
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The present study aims to compare two traditional extraction techniques. A volatile compound from Tamarindus indica seed was obtained with Soxhlet extraction (SE) and hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus (HDC). The extraction yield and chemical composition of the essential oil samples were compared. Both oils extracted were analyzed with GC-MS, and forty-one chemical compounds were identified in essential oil components from SE while forty chemical compounds were found in the HDC-extracted oil sample. The major essential oil components present in both the SE and HDC method are cis-vaccenic acid, 2-methyltetracosane, beta-sitosterol, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)-, and n-hexadecanoic acid in varying concentrations. Moreover, the essential oils obtained by both methods look similar quantitatively but differ qualitatively. The HDC method produced more oxygenated compounds that contribute to the fragrance of the oil. The major constituents observed in the essential oil extracted by SE methods include cis-vaccenic acid (17.6%), beta-sitosterol (12.71%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)- (11.82%), n-hexadecanoic acid (8.16%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester (5.84%), oleic acid (4.54%), and 11-octadecenoic acid and methyl ester (3.94%). However, in the hydrodistillation technique, the oil was mostly composed of 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z, Z)- (23.72%), cis-vaccenic acid (17.16%), n-hexadecanoic acid (11.53%), beta-sitosterol (4.53%), and octadecanoic acid (3.8%). From the data obtained, HDC seems to be a better method for extraction of Tamarindus indica essential oil compared to the Soxhlet extraction apparatus.
... In order to evaluate if the oil composition was affected during ultrasound assisted extraction, gas liquid chromatography analyses were carried out on two different extracted samples using UASE and soxhlet. Table (2) shows that no appreciable differences in the extracts composition. This indicates that the oil composition is not affected by the use of ultrasound, and these results agree with Luque-Garcia J.L. et al (Luque 2004). ...
The application of ultrasound during extraction and trans-esterification of oil from rapeseed was evaluated. Two methods of extraction were used, batch-wise extraction and soxhlet extraction. In batch-wise extraction procedure, ground rapeseeds were added to solvent and ultra-sonicated either by cleaning bath or ultrasonic generator. Conventional soxhlet extraction assisted in the soxhlet chamber by ultrasound has been developed. Ultrasonic technique reduced time required to extract oil. Using batch wise extraction procedure, percent recovery of oil increased almost 17.83% and 20.99% by using cleaning bath and ultrasonic generator respectively rather than control after 2hrs.While in using soxhlet extraction percent recovery reached 85% after 1.5 hr in case of ultrasonic and after 4 hrs without using ultrasonic. Physical and chemical properties of rapeseed oil were tested. Then the alkaline trans-esterification of rapeseed oil with methanol and potassium hydroxide for production of biodiesel was studied, using ultra-sonication and magnetic stirring. In trans-esterification the use of ultra-sonication and magnetic stirring led to similar high yields of 90% of methyl esters after approximately 10 min. of reaction time. Comparison between biodiesel obtained and standard biodiesel and diesel fuel was done.
... Previously, JJO yield of 52.2% was reported using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction [48]. For other solvents such as hexane, benzene, and petroleum ether, a maximum oil yield of 52% was obtained [49]. Oil yields from jojoba and date seeds are shown in Table 1. ...
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Vegetable oils possess excellent lubricant properties, but one reason limiting their application as lubricants is their low kinematic viscosity. This study investigated how the addition of ethylene–vinyl acetate copolymer could affect the kinematic viscosity and thermal stability of jojoba, date seed, and waste cooking oils. The yield of oil from jojoba and date seed was 51.7 ± 0.77% and 8.2 ± 0.5%, respectively. The oleic acid content in jojoba, date seed, and waste cooking oils was 3.09, 49.15, and 72.4%, respectively. Kinematic viscosity of date seed oil with 4% ethylene vinyl acetate was 178 ± 2.8 mm2/s at 40 °C, whereas the kinematic viscosities of jojoba and waste cooking oil with 4% ethylene vinyl acetate were 170 ± 2.1 and 165 ± 1.4 mm2/s at 40 °C. The addition of 4% ethylene vinyl acetate increased kinematic viscosities of date seed, jojoba, and waste cooking oils by a multiplication factor of 5.5, 6.8, and 4.7, respectively. Thermal stability was evaluated using decomposition temperatures. Onset decomposition temperature for jojoba, date seed, and waste cooking oils with ethylene–vinyl acetate was 344, 267, and 339 °C, and offset decomposition temperatures were 479, 474, and 450.6 °C, respectively. Offset decomposition temperature for jojoba and date seed oils without ethylene–vinyl acetate was 407 and 445 °C, whereas the onset temperature of industrial gear oil was 238 °C, and the offset temperature was 363 °C. Nevertheless, kinematic viscosity and thermal stability of vegetable oil–ethylene vinyl acetate blends were higher than those of industrial gear oil.
... There are several ways of the extraction of essential oil from herbal plants. These techniques include pressing, crushing, solvent extraction (SE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) [15][16][17][18][19]. To choose a suitable extraction method, some factors should be considered, including types of the plant, solvent, sensitivity of the essential oil, and the obtained concentration of the desired component [20,21]. ...
In this paper, the operational impact of three parameters including power of ultrasonic apparatus, size of fennel seeds and experiment time on the extraction yield of Anethole, which is the main considerable component in fennel essential oil and its concentration have been studied through Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction. The ultrasonic extraction of oil from fennel seeds using a solution of 70% water-ethanol was studied at different particle sizes, different ultrasonic powers and three different levels of time. The most effective parameter was particle size, while the experiment time had the least impact on both the efficiency and Anethole concentration as well. As a result, compared to Soxhlet method, the ultrasonic-assisted extraction was more efficient. In this experiment, eighteen constituents were identified for fennel seeds using GC-MS. The major components were Anethole (78.12%), Fenchone (8.81%), Limonene (4.39%), and Estragole (4.52%). Furthermore, the analysis of two quadratic models using the Box-Behnken design (BBD) indicated that the quadratic polynomial model can be applied for estimating the Anethole extraction yield as well as Anethole concentration.
High internal phase gel emulsions (HIPGEs) with jojoba oil as internal phase fractions of 83vol%-92vol% were prepared by using shea butter ethoxylates (SB-50) of different mass fraction as solely emulsifier. Effects of the internal volume fraction and SB-50 concentration on the formation and stability of oil-in-water HIPGEs were attentively explored by microscope and rheometer, and the mechanism of gel emulsions were proposed. The results indicate that the average particle size of droplets increases with the increase of oil phase volume fraction and emulsifier mass fraction. At the same time, the HIPGEs possess wider linear viscoelastic regions, higher critical stress and higher G', indicating that stronger rheological properties. After heating at 100 °C, all samples were extremely stable. Most of them can maintain good stability after centrifugation, long-time storage or several freeze-thaw treatments. When the mass fraction of SB-50 increases to 3wt%, the sample shows extraordinary stability and can resist the interference of external conditions such as centrifugation, long-term storage, heating and freezing. The longer carbon chain and wider carbon chain distribution make it possible to form HIPGEs possessing higher viscosity. In the current work, the HIPGEs prepared exhibited good self-supporting properties, which show the possibility to translate the printability and extrudability during 3D structuring. These food-grade HIPGEs can potentially be used as 3D printing inks to make them widely used in cosmetics, food, drug delivery, encapsulation materials, etc.
Conference Paper
Tamanu oil (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) was traditionally used for wound healing and to cure various skin problems and cosmetic purposes. In this research, the hydraulic pressing technique was used to extract Tamanu oil originating from Ben Tre province, Vietnam, at the pilot scale. The study investigates the influence of material properties such as morphology, material moisture, and process parameters such as pressing pressure and pressing time on extraction efficiency. It was found that rising pressing time and pressure increased extraction efficiency; morphology and material moisture had complex effects on the volume of Tamanu oil obtained. The highest Tamanu oil extraction yield was 639 mL/kg at conditions: material moisture of 8.2%, extruded kernels, pressing pressure of 180 kg/cm² and pressing time of 15 minutes. Chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis indicated that prime fatty acids identified in Tamanu oil were palmitic acid (12.69%), stearic acid (13.52%), oleic acid (41.88%), and linoleic acid (29.94%). The research that the hydraulic press method was suitable to separate the Tamanu oil, and it could be used to manufacture Tamanu oil at an industrial scale.
The quality of Assam tea seed oil obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction was evaluated and compared to that of tea obtained using a screw press. Supercritical CO2 extraction produced a higher oil yield (12.94–16.53% w/w) compared to the screw press method (9.96–12.18% w/w). Using a higher temperature for supercritical CO2 and screw press extraction caused a decrease in the saponin content from 32.12 to 25.07 mg saponin equivalents/g oil and from 39.28 to 35.60 mg saponin equivalents/g oil, respectively, and for supercritical CO2 extraction also increased the flavonoid content from 0.84 to 1.75 mg/mL quercetin equivalents but did not affect the flavonoid yield for screw press extraction (1.02–1.07 mg/mL quercetin equivalents). The tannin content obtained from supercritical CO2 and screw press extraction was not significantly different (31.67–36.30 and 29.49–32.12 mg/mL tannin equivalents, respectively). Increasing the temperature of supercritical CO2 extraction resulted in a decrease in acid value and free fatty acids. No significant differences in acid value or free fatty acids were observed for oil extracted using the screw press method. Iodine and saponification values of oil obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction decreased when the extraction temperature increased, and screw press oil had higher iodine and saponification values when the temperature was increased. All of the extracted Assam tea seed oils, obtained by both methods, overwhelmingly contained oleic acid (48.55–50.14%), linoleic acid (24.14–25.52%), and palmitic acid (18.74–19.95%). In addition, an increase in temperature promoted the extraction of phenolic compounds for both extraction methods (9.21–22.01 mg GAE/100 g oil), resulting in an increase in the antioxidant capacity of the extracted oil. These results indicate that supercritical CO2 extraction could be competitive with the screw press method, providing an environmental approach and enhancing the quality of the oil obtained.
As jojoba oil has potential as a substitute for some of the petroleum-derived products, the possibility of using the oil in lubricant formulations was examined. It is observed that jojoba oil as a component enhances and also imparts certain properties to the base oil which otherwise can only be realized by doping with additives, thereby helping partially to substitute mineral oil base stocks and to reduce or eliminate the use of some of the additives.
Two relatively new protein isolation techniques (the Aqueous Extraction Process and the Membrane Isolation Process) were combined to obtain a single isolation procedure to produce protein and oil food products from undefatted soybeans. Three lots of soybeans were processed using aqueous extraction, centrifugation and industrial ultrafiltration membranes to obtain either a full-fat, low-fat or intermediate-fat product and an oil cream. Proximate and amino acid analyses, nitrogen solubility profiles, and storage tests were made on spray dried products. Mean membrane permeation rates achieved ranged from 20–42.6 gfd. Protein products possessed high nitrogen solubilities below pH 3.5 and above pH 7, and were desirably light in collor.
Data for the application of the versatile filtration-extraction process to jojoba seed on a bench-scale has been presented. Based on experience with other oil-seeds, there should be good correlation between the bench-scale and its commercial application. Moisture contents of the material during cooking were optimum at 10 and 15%. Mass velocities in excess of 2,000 and extraction efficiencies of over 98% were obtained. These results are considered suitable for commercial application. Hexane is recommended over heptane as the extraction solvent. The use of uncooked flakes is not considered feasible for large-scale application.
Holdup and drainage characteristics have been determined for three jojoba meals of different nature and size distribution, using hexane and isopropanol as solvents. Density and viscosity properties of the oil-solvent solutions have been measured. The experimental information should be of value in the design of solvent extraction equipment for jojoba nuts.
Data are presented which show the effects of different solvents on the yield and properties of liquid wax fromSimondsia chinensis (jojoba) and on the characteristics of the hydrogenated waxes obtained from the liquid waxes. Three reagent grade solvents, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, and isopropyl alcohol, and three commercial grade solvents, heptane, hexane, and tetrachloroethylene, were evaluated as extractants for the liquid wax from jojoba. Soxhlet-type of extractions were carried out under conditions in which the solvent was the only significant variable. Four of the solvents extracted essentially the same amount of material from the seed while isopropyl alcohol extracted significantly more material and tetrachloroethylene significantly less. Obviously the difficulties involved in separating the solids recovered from the isopropyl alcohol extraction preclude its use as the extracting solvent for jojoba wax. The density of the liquid waxes varies from 0.8631 to 0.8648; the waxes from the tetrachloroethylene and hexane extractions had the lowest value and the wax from isopropyl alcohol the highest. In each case, regardless of the solvent used, a precipitate developed in the liquid wax after it had been desolventized and stored for 7–10 days. Hydrogenation of clear fractions and precipitate containing fractions of these liquid waxes showed that the precipitate had no apparent effect upon the melting point or hardness of the resulting solid wax. Some of the liquid waxes required a longer hydrogenation time to attain an iodine value of about 1. At this iodine value all of the solid waxes had melting points between 66 and 68°C. Hardness values of all the solid waxes as measured by the Trionic hardness gauge were 90.
Jojoba seeds were successfully milled at ambient temperature using a modified 8 in. single disk attri-tion mill. Rates to 4000 lb/hr at low energy input (1.7 kwh/ton) were achieved. The oil was expressed with a laboratory screw press at yields from 27. to 33.6%. Multiple linear regression analysis showed the oil yield to be a function of the motor amperage and feed moisture content. The press throughput rate was a function of the motor amperage and the amount of fine and coarse particles in the milled feed.
An industrial wet process to obtain oil and meal from jo-joba was set up. The process sequence consists of breaking the seeds, homogenizing with water of suitable pH and temperature, and centrifuging to accomplish separation into oil, process water and wet meal. Oil is obtained with a yield of 70–75% and requires no supplementary refining treatment for the industrial purposes for which it is destined. The meal obtained is devoid of the toxic components simmondsin and simmondsin-2′ ferulate, and the protein content may be considered unchanged. The procedure contemplates a drying treatment for the meal with a view to using it as animal feed. This system is simple, economical and flexible in use.