H5N1 strain-specific Hemagglutinin CD4+ T cell epitopes restricted by HLA DR4

Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia Mason, Seattle, WA 98101-2795, United States.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 06/2009; 27(29):3862-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.019
Source: PubMed


CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in the viral immunity, and as such identification of unique strain-specific HLA class II restricted epitopes is essential for monitoring cellular strain-specific viral immunity. Using Tetramer-Guided Epitope Mapping technique, we identified HLA-DR0401 restricted HA epitopes that are strain-specific to H5N1 virion. Two immunodominant epitopes H5HA(441-460) and H5HA(57-76) were identified from in vitro stimulated human PBMC. Both epitopes elicit strong cellular immune responses when HLA-DR0401 transgenic mice are immunized with H5N1 subvirion indicating in vivo naturally processed immunodominant epitopes. The H5HA(57-76) epitope is unique for the H5N1 strain but conserved among all H5N1 clades recommended for vaccine development by World Health Organization. The unique H5HA(57-76) response was uncommon in unexposed individuals and only observed in the naïve T cell subset. Thus, H5N1 strain-specific H5HA(57-76) immunogenic epitope represents a unique marker for monitoring the efficacy of vaccination or as a candidate vaccine peptide.

Download full-text


Available from: Eddie A James
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease mediated by T-lymphocytes and associated with the human leukocyte antigen-death receptor 4 (HLA-DR4). The HLA-DR4 protein selectively interacts with the antigenic peptides on the cell surface and presents them to the T cell receptor (TCR) on CD4+ T cells. The HLA-DR4-antigen-TCR complex initiates the autoimmune response and eventually causes the chronic inflammation within patients bodies. To inhibit HLA-DR4-restricted T cell activation, an ideal approach is to discover non-T cell stimulating substrates that specifically bind to HLA-DR4. In this paper, a comprehensive structure-based design strategy involved de novo design approach, pharmacophore search, and dock method was presented and applied to "simplify" the known binding peptide ligand of HLA-DR4 and identified specific small-molecule inhibitors for HLA-DR4. The designed three-step strategy successfully identified five nonpeptide ligands with novel scaffolds from a chemical library containing 4 × 10(6) commercially available compounds within a tolerable computing time. The identified five chemicals, BAS-0219606, T0506-2494, 6436645, 3S-71981, and KM 11073, are all non-T cell stimulators and are able to significantly inhibit HLA-DR4-restricted T cell activation induced by type II collagen (CII) 263-272 peptide. IC(50) for the best two potentials, BAS-0219606 and T0506-2494, was 31 and 17 μM, respectively, which is equivalent or better than the known peptide ligands. It is hopeful that they can be used as effective therapeutic means for further treatment of RA patients. In addition, the comprehensive strategy presented in this paper exhibited itself to be an effective flow line from peptide ligands to small-molecule inhibitors and will have applications to other targets.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most reported human H5N1 viral infections have been severe and were detected after hospital admission. A case ascertainment bias may therefore exist, with mild cases or asymptomatic infections going undetected. We sought evidence of mild or asymptomatic H5N1 infection by examining H5N1-specific T-cell and antibody responses in a high-risk cohort in Vietnam. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were tested using interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot T assays measuring the response to peptides of influenza H5, H3, and H1 hemagglutinin (HA), N1 and N2 neuraminidase, and the internal proteins of H3N2. Horse erythrocyte hemagglutination inhibition assay was performed to detect antibodies against H5N1. Twenty-four of 747 individuals demonstrated H5-specific T-cell responses but little or no cross-reactivity with H3 or H1 HA peptides. H5N1 peptide-specific T-cell lines that did not cross-react with H1 or H3 influenza virus HA peptides were generated. Four individuals also had antibodies against H5N1. This is the first report of ex vivo H5 HA-specific T-cell responses in a healthy but H5N1-exposed population. Our results indicate that the presence of H5N1-specific T cells could be an additional diagnostic tool for asymptomatic H5N1 infection.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · The Journal of Infectious Diseases
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hemagglutinin protein (HA) of the influenza virus family is a major antigen for protective immunity. Thus, it is a relevant target for developing vaccines. Here, we describe a human CD4+ T cell epitope in the influenza virus HA that lies in the fusion peptide of the HA. This epitope is well conserved in all 16 subtypes of the HA protein of influenza A virus and the HA protein of influenza B virus. By stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a healthy adult donor with peptides covering the entire HA protein based on the sequence of A/Japan/305/1957 (H2N2), we generated a T cell line specific to this epitope. This CD4+ T cell line recognizes target cells infected with influenza A virus seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 strains, a reassortant H2N1 strain, the 2009 pandemic H1N1 strain, and influenza B virus in cytotoxicity assays and intracellular-cytokine-staining assays. It also lysed target cells infected with avian H5N1 virus. We screened healthy adult PBMCs for T cell responses specific to this epitope and found individuals who had ex vivo gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses to the peptide epitope in enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. Almost all donors who responded to the epitope had the HLA-DRB1*09 allele, a relatively common HLA allele. Although natural infection or standard vaccination may not induce strong T and B cell responses to this highly conserved epitope in the fusion peptide, it may be possible to develop a vaccination strategy to induce these CD4+ T cells, which are cross-reactive to both influenza A and B viruses.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Virology
Show more