Schweickert WD, Pohlman MC, Pohlman AS, et al. Early physical and occupational therapy in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients: A randomised controlled trial

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 06/2009; 373(9678):1874-82. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60658-9
Source: PubMed


Long-term complications of critical illness include intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired weakness and neuropsychiatric disease. Immobilisation secondary to sedation might potentiate these problems. We assessed the efficacy of combining daily interruption of sedation with physical and occupational therapy on functional outcomes in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in intensive care.
Sedated adults (>/=18 years of age) in the ICU who had been on mechanical ventilation for less than 72 h, were expected to continue for at least 24 h, and who met criteria for baseline functional independence were eligible for enrolment in this randomised controlled trial at two university hospitals. We randomly assigned 104 patients by computer-generated, permuted block randomisation to early exercise and mobilisation (physical and occupational therapy) during periods of daily interruption of sedation (intervention; n=49) or to daily interruption of sedation with therapy as ordered by the primary care team (control; n=55). The primary endpoint-the number of patients returning to independent functional status at hospital discharge-was defined as the ability to perform six activities of daily living and the ability to walk independently. Therapists who undertook patient assessments were blinded to treatment assignment. Secondary endpoints included duration of delirium and ventilator-free days during the first 28 days of hospital stay. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with, number NCT00322010.
All 104 patients were included in the analysis. Return to independent functional status at hospital discharge occurred in 29 (59%) patients in the intervention group compared with 19 (35%) patients in the control group (p=0.02; odds ratio 2.7 [95% CI 1.2-6.1]). Patients in the intervention group had shorter duration of delirium (median 2.0 days, IQR 0.0-6.0 vs 4.0 days, 2.0-8.0; p=0.02), and more ventilator-free days (23.5 days, 7.4-25.6 vs 21.1 days, 0.0-23.8; p=0.05) during the 28-day follow-up period than did controls. There was one serious adverse event in 498 therapy sessions (desaturation less than 80%). Discontinuation of therapy as a result of patient instability occurred in 19 (4%) of all sessions, most commonly for perceived patient-ventilator asynchrony.
A strategy for whole-body rehabilitation-consisting of interruption of sedation and physical and occupational therapy in the earliest days of critical illness-was safe and well tolerated, and resulted in better functional outcomes at hospital discharge, a shorter duration of delirium, and more ventilator-free days compared with standard care.

    • "Early mobilization is being increasingly used as a non-pharmacological method[60] and is associated with decreased depth of sedation, improved outcomes such as increased number of ventilator-free days and reduced hospital and ICU LOS. Multiple studies have demonstrated the safety of early mobilization of critically ill patients.[60616263] In our survey, the majority of respondents were aware of the benefit of mobilization but were limited in implementing it due to lack of support staff and concerns of safety, particularly in patients with multiple lines and those receiving ventilatory support. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aim:Use of sedation, analgesia and neuromuscular blocking agents is widely practiced in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Our aim is to study the current practice patterns related to mobilization, analgesia, relaxants and sedation (MARS) to help in standardizing best practices in these areas in the ICU.Materials and Methods:A web-based nationwide survey involving physicians of the Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) and the Indian Society of Anesthesiologists (ISA) was carried out. A questionnaire included questions on demographics, assessment scales for delirium, sedation and pain, as also the pharmacological agents and the practice methods.Results:Most ICUs function in a semi-closed model. Midazolam (94.99%) and Fentanyl (47.04%) were the most common sedative and analgesic agents used, respectively. Vecuronium was the preferred neuromuscular agent. Monitoring of sedation, analgesia and delirium in the ICU. Ramsay's Sedation Scale (56.1%) and Visual Analogue Scale (48.07%) were the preferred sedation and pain scales, respectively. CAM (Confusion Assessment Method)-ICU was the most preferred method of delirium assessment. Haloperidol was the most commonly used agent for delirium. Majority of the respondents were aware of the benefit of early mobilization, but lack of support staff and safety concerns were the main obstacles to its implementation.Conclusion:The results of the survey suggest that compliance with existing guidelines is low. Benzodiazepines still remain the predominant ICU sedative. The recommended practice of giving analgesia before sedation is almost non-existent. Delirium remains an underrecognized entity. Monitoring of sedation levels, analgesia and delirium is low and validated and recommended scales for the same are rarely used. Although awareness of the benefits of early mobilization are high, the implementation is low.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
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    • "There is evidence to support the rehabilitation of critically ill patients within the ICU [8-10], but there is a paucity of literature to support rehabilitation following discharge from intensive care and particularly following discharge from hospital. It is also unclear what components should be included in post-hospital discharge rehabilitation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Following discharge home from the ICU, patients often suffer from reduced physical function, exercise capacity, health-related quality of life and social functioning. There is usually no support to address these longer term problems, and there has been limited research carried out into interventions which could improve patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a 6-week programme of exercise on physical function in patients discharged from hospital following critical illness compared to standard care. The study design is a multicentre prospective phase II, allocation-concealed, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled clinical trial. Participants randomised to the intervention group will complete three exercise sessions per week (two sessions of supervised exercise and one unsupervised session) for 6 weeks. Supervised sessions will take place in a hospital gymnasium or, if this is not possible, in the participants home and the unsupervised session will take place at home. Blinded outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline after hospital discharge, following the exercise intervention, and at 6 months following baseline assessment (or equivalent time points for the standard care group). The primary outcome measure is physical function as measured by the physical functioning subscale of the Short-Form-36 health survey following the exercise programme. Secondary outcomes are health-related quality of life, exercise capacity, anxiety and depression, self efficacy to exercise and healthcare resource use. In addition, semi-structured interviews will be conducted to explore participants' perceptions of the exercise programme, and the feasibility (safety, practicality and acceptability) of providing the exercise programme will be assessed. A within-trial cost-utility analysis to assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention compared to standard care will also be conducted. If the exercise programme is found to be effective, this study will improve outcomes that are meaningful to patients and their families. It will inform the design of a future multicentre phase III clinical trial of exercise following recovery from critical illness. It will provide useful information which will help the development of services for patients after critical illness.Trial registration: NCT01463579.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Trials
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    • "Prolonged tracheal intubation by endotracheal tube increases the risk of oral and upper airway damage including tracheal stenosis and vocal cord palsy (Bhatti et al., 2010). It is generally accepted that endotracheal intubation requires a greater reliance on sedation than tracheal intubation; higher levels of sedation; increased time to extubation and mobilization ; and active cognitive engagement by the patient (Schweickert et al., 2009). It is also thought that decreasing dead space with the use of a tracheostomy, may reduce the work of breathing and promote liberation from the ventilator (De Leyn et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: This article aims to guide the nurse caring for a tracheostomy patient, following the main principles of nursing care. Tracheostomy is a surgical procedure to create an opening in the anterior wall of the trachea. Owing to improvement in technological support, the number of adult patients receiving a tracheostomy has increased. This requires the critical care nurse to have an understanding of the essential principles of care for a patient with a tracheostomy tube in situ. Literature search was conducted in Medline and Cinahl using the search terms tracheostomy OR tracheotomy AND procedure/nursing care/experience limited to English language and adult. Owing to the lack of empirical research on the care of patients with tracheostomy, evidence is limited and therefore expert consensus is utilized in much of the article. This article considers the indications for a tracheostomy, identifies the component parts of a tracheostomy tube, discusses 12 essential principles of care for a patient with a tracheostomy tube in situ, and finally briefly describes the nurse's role in an emergency and when discharging a patient with a tracheostomy tube to a ward. Performing a tracheostomy has an enormous impact on patients and their care. Nurses caring for patients with tracheostomy require an appreciation of the breadth of knowledge needed to provide individual and safe care. It is also important to appreciate the lack of empirical evidence on which to base that care.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Nursing in Critical Care
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