Flavonoid consumption and esophageal cancer among black and white men in the United States

Laboratory of Cancer Prevention, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute-Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.09). 09/2009; 125(5):1147-54. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.24421
Source: PubMed


Flavonoids and proanthocyanidins are bioactive polyphenolic components of fruits and vegetables that may account for part of the protective effect of raw fruit and vegetable consumption in esophageal cancer. We studied the relationship between esophageal cancer and dietary proanthocyanidins, flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses (anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavones, flavonols and isoflavonoids) using recently developed USDA and Tufts flavonoid and proanthocyanidin databases. The study was a population-based, case-control analysis of 161 white men with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), 114 white and 218 black men with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 678 white and 557 black male controls who lived in 3 areas of the United States. Neither total flavonoid nor proanthocyanidin intake was associated with EAC and ESCC in either white or black men. In white men, inverse associations were observed between anthocyanidin intake and EAC (4th vs. 1st quartile odds ratio [OR], 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.91; p(trend) = 0.04) and between isoflavonoid intake and ESCC (4th vs. 1st quartile OR, 0.43, 95% CI, 0.20-0.93; p(trend) = 0.01). None of the associations remained significant after adjusting for dietary fiber, which is strongly correlated with flavonoid consumption. We conclude that total flavonoids and proanthocyanidins do not have strong protective effects in either EAC or ESCC. Some protective effects were evident in flavonoid subclasses and population subgroups. In white men, foods rich in anthocyanidins may have chemopreventive effects in EAC and those rich in isoflavonoids may do so in ESCC.

Download full-text


Available from: Gerd Bobe, Sep 02, 2014
  • Source
    • "A total of 1401 studies were examined, and the 174 studies that remained after excluding articles based on the titles and abstracts were further reviewed; 139 studies were excluded for the following reasons: 106 studies included a cancer type that was not smoking-related; 20 studies were not relevant for dietary flavonoid intake or any of the flavonoid subclasses; 6 studies were review articles; 4 studies did not report the cancer risk according to categories of flavonoid intake; 2 studies were updated with more recent studies from the same cohort; and 2 studies were not related to cancer risk (Figure 1). Finally, 19 case-control studies [13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31] and 15 cohort studies [32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46] were selected for the meta-analysis (Tables 1, 2). Begg’s tests for publication bias showed non-significant results. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To systematically investigate the effects of dietary flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses on the risk of smoking-related cancer in observational studies. Summary estimates and corresponding standard errors were calculated using the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) and 95% CI of selected studies and weighted by the inverse variance. A total of 35 studies, including 19 case-controls (9,525 cases and 15,835 controls) and 15 cohort studies (988,082 subjects and 8,161 cases), were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Total dietary flavonoids and most of the flavonoid subclasses were inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.93). In subgroup analyses by cancer site, significant associations were observed in aerodigestive tract and lung cancers. Total dietary flavonoid intake was significantly associated with aerodigestive tract cancer risk (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83) marginally associated with lung cancer risk (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-1.00). Subgroup analyses by smoking status showed significantly different results. The intake of total flavonoids, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones, as well as the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was significantly associated with decreased risk of smoking-related cancer in smokers, whereas no association was observed in non-smokers, except for flavanones. In meta-analysis for the effect of subclasses of dietary flavonoids by cancer type, aerodigestive tract cancer was inversely associated with most flavonoid subclasses. The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk varied across studies, but the overall results indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids, especially flavonols, was inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk. The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk were more prominent in smokers.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "Proanthocyanidins and other condensed tannins are known to be protective against various pathologies, including cancer (Bobe et al., 2009; De Bruyne et al., 1999; Hanausek et al., 2011). Croton lechleri has been evaluated in cell lines such as KB, V-79, K562 and HeLa for anticancer activity showing low activity (Alfonso-Castro et al., 2012; Chen et al., 1994; Itokawa et al., 1991; Rossi et al., 2003; Vaisberg et al., 1989). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: Croton lechleri Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant which produces a red sap, traditionally known as "Sangre de Drago"; it is used in folk medicine externally for wounds, fractures, and haemorrhoids, internally for intestinal and stomach ulcers and also for the empirical cure of cancers. Materials and methods: We investigated the effects of Croton lechleri sap and taspine in comparison with taxol and vinblastine on the growth of human cancer cell lines of SK23 (melanoma), LoVo and HT29 (colorectal cancer) using MTT and Trypan blue assays. Further, we studied cell cycle by flow cytometry and detected acetylated-α-tubulin by confocal microscope. Results: Croton lechleri inhibited cell proliferation starting from 1 μg/mL in SK23 cells, whereas 10 times higher concentrations were required for growth inhibition of HT-29 and LoVo cell lines. Also taspine (0.1 μg/mL) inhibited the SK23 and HT29 cell proliferation. Further, assay was assessed on SK23 and HT29 cell lines with 24-48 h treatment with sap and taspine. Both sap and taspine inhibited cancer cell proliferation; taspine showed higher activity on SK23 cells, which was significantly increased after 48 h of SK23 treatment. Using confocal microscopy we observed that Croton lechleri (1 μg/mL) caused a loss of microtubule structure, whereas taspine (0.5 μg/mL) caused an increase in acetylated α-tubulin and a modification of cellular morphology, mainly in SK23 cells. Croton lechleri sap 10 and 50 μg/mL influence cell cycle; 50 μg/mL sap caused a dramatic reduction of cells in G(1)/G(0) and S phases with a great increase of subG(0) cells. Conclusions: The data showed that Croton lechleri and taspine could inhibit cell proliferation with higher potency against melanoma SK23 cells, supporting the empirical use of the sap as anticancer in ethnomedicine and taspine as a possible anticancer agent.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We considered flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in a network of multicentric Italian case-control studies including about 10,000 incident, histologically confirmed cases of selected cancers and over 16,000 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) for the highest vs. the lowest quintile of 6 classes of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins were estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Total flavonoids, flavanones, and flavonols were inversely related to oral and laryngeal cancers (ORs, respectively 0.56 and 0.60 for total flavonoids; 0.51 and 0.60 for flavanones; and 0.62 and 0.32 for flavonols). Flavanols were also inversely related to laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.64), whereas flavanones were inversely related to esophageal cancer (OR = 0.38). A reduced risk of colorectal cancer was found for high intake of anthocyanidins (OR = 0.67), flavonols (OR = 0.64), flavones (OR = 0.78), and isoflavones (OR = 0.76). Inverse relations with breast cancer were found for flavones (OR = 0.81) and flavonols (OR = 0.80). Flavonols (OR = 0.63) and isoflavones (OR = 0.51) were inversely associated to ovarian cancer, whereas flavonols (OR = 0.69) and flavones (OR = 0.68) were inversely associated to renal cancer. No association between flavonoids and prostate cancer emerged. We found inverse associations between proanthocyanidins and colorectal cancer. These associations appeared stronger for proanthocyanidins with a higher degree of polymerization (OR = 0.69 for ≥ 10 mers).
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Nutrition and Cancer
Show more