Efficacy and safety of laser lithotripsy in fragmentation of urocystoliths and urethroliths for removal in dogs

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.56). 06/2009; 234(10):1279-85. DOI: 10.2460/javma.234.10.1279
Source: PubMed


To characterize the efficacy and safety of laser lithotripsy in the fragmentation of urocystoliths and urethroliths for removal in dogs.
Prospective case series.
100 dogs with naturally occurring urocystoliths and urethroliths.
Via cystoscopy, laser lithotripsy was performed to fragment uroliths. Basket retrieval and voiding urohydropropulsion were used to remove fragments. Postprocedural contrast cystography was performed to assess efficacy and safety. In 40 dogs, midstream urine samples were collected just prior to laser lithotripsy (day 0) and on days 1, 3, and 11 after laser lithotripsy to assess inflammation.
Urolith removal was complete in 82% of dogs (52/66 with only urocystoliths, 17/17 with only urethroliths, and 13/17 with urocystoliths and urethroliths). Urolith removal was incomplete in 18 dogs; of these dogs, 9, 6, and 3 had urolith fragments >or= 3 mm, 1 to < 3 mm, and < 1 mm in diameter, respectively. Sex (female) was the most significant predictor for success. Median procedure time was 72 minutes. Two dogs developed urinary tract obstruction following laser lithotripsy. Hematuria was detected in 53% of dogs on day 0 and in 84%, 13%, and 3% of dogs on days 1, 3, and 11, respectively. Leukocyturia was detected in 13% of dogs on day 0 and in 47%, 0%, and 3% of dogs on days 1, 3, and 11, respectively.
Results suggested that use of laser lithotripsy was a safe and effective alternative to surgical removal of urocystoliths and urethroliths in dogs.

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