Hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs) in archived serum from 1950-60s California mothers: A pilot study

Department of Toxic Substances Control, California Environmental Protection Agency, Berkeley, California 94710, USA.
Environment international (Impact Factor: 5.56). 06/2009; 35(6):937-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2009.04.002
Source: PubMed


We are studying participants selected from the Child Health and Development Studies (CHDS), a longitudinal birth cohort of over 20,000 California pregnancies between 1959 and 1967, for associations between maternal body burden of organochlorine contaminants and thyroid function. We designed a pilot study using 30 samples selected among samples with high and low PCB concentrations to evaluate the feasibility of measuring OH-PCBs in the larger study population. GC-ECD and GC-NCI/MS were used to determine PCBs and OH-PCBs as methyl derivatives, respectively. Maternal serum levels of Sigma11PCBs and Sigma8OH-PCB metabolites varied from 0.74 to 7.99 ng/mL wet wt. with a median of 3.05 ng/mL, and from 0.12 to 0.98 ng/mL wet wt. with a median of 0.39 ng/mL, respectively. Average concentrations of Sigma8OH-PCB metabolites in the high PCB group were significantly higher than those in the low PCB group (p < 0.05). The levels of OH-PCB metabolites were dependent on PCB levels (r = 0.58, p < 0.05) but approximately an order of magnitude lower (p < 0.05). The average ratio of Sigma8OH-PCBs to Sigma11PCBs was 0.14 +/- 0.08. The primary metabolite was 4-OH-CB187 followed by 4-OH-CB107. Both of these metabolites interfere with the thyroid system in in vitro, animal, and human studies. OH-PCBs were detectable in all archived sera analyzed, supporting the feasibility to measure OH-PCB metabolites in the entire cohort.

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    • "Table 1 Median ΣOH-PCB/ ΣPCB ratio in human blood from different locations worldwide Locations ΣOH-PCBs/ΣPCBs References Eastern Romania (2006) (2007), n=53 0.06 Dirtu et al. (2010) Belgium (2000), n=20 0.09 Dirtu et al. (2010) Canada (1992), n=30 0.11 Sandau et al. (2000) Slovakia (2001) (2002) (2003) (2004), n=459 0.12 Hovander et al. (2006), Park et al. (2007) Faroese Islands (1994) (1995) (1996) (1997) (1998) (1999) (2000) (2001) (2002), n=135 0.20 Fangstrom et al. (2002) (2005) Netherlands (1998–2000), n=102 0.25 Soechitram et al. (2004) Japan (1998–2001), n=21 0.30 Kunisue and Tanabe (2009), Nomiyama et al. (2010a, b) Latvia (1993), n=45 0.31 Sjödin et al. (2000) USA (1959–2009), n=205 0.31 Marek et al. (2013), Park et al. (2009b) Sweden (1991–2001), n=112 0.35 Meironyté Guvenius et al. (2003), Sjödin et al. (2000), Weiss et al. (2006) India (2007) (2009), n=45 0.51 Eguchi et al. (2012) "
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, attention has been directed to chemicals with possible endocrine-disrupting properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites belong to one group of environmental contaminants that have been shown to interact with the endocrine system in mammals, including humans. Although recent developments have been made in terms of determination of PCB metabolites in blood samples, still limited number of studies have been able to elucidate their profiles and toxicological and health effects in humans. This review aims to evaluate and compare the levels of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and methyl sulfone PCBs (MeSO2-PCBs) in blood and their relationship to parent compounds and also address the potential risks and adverse health effects in humans. Levels of OH-PCBs varied between 0.0002 and 1.6 ng g−1 w/w in human serum/plasma from the selected literature, correlating well with ∑PCBs. In contrast, ∑OH-PCB/∑PCB ratio in animals did not show a significant correlation, which might suggest that the bioaccumulation plays an even more important role in the concentration of OH-PCBs compared to PCB metabolism. Highest levels of MeSO2-PCBs were reported in marine mammals with high selectivity retention in the liver. Health effects of PCB metabolites included carcinogenicity, reproductive impairment, and developmental neurotoxicity, being more efficiently transferred to the brain and across the placenta from mother to fetus in comparison to the parent PCBs. Based on the lack of knowledge on the occurrence and distribution of lower chlorinated OH-PCBs in humans, further studies to identify and assess the risks associated to human exposure are essential.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
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    • "In addition, PCBs are also formed as by-products in combustion processes. PCDD/Fs and PCBs are toxic chemicals that can cause serious health effects such as cancer, hormone disruption, impaired reproduction, skin toxicity and immune system disorders, when exposure continues over an extended period (ATSDR, 1999; JECFA, 2002; Park et al., 2009). On the other hand, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used brominated flame-retardants. "
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    ABSTRACT: The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in breast milk from women living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Catalonia, Spain. The results were compared with the levels obtained in previous surveys carried out in the same area in 1998 (baseline study), 2002 and 2007. The current total concentrations of 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDD/Fs in breast milk ranged from 18 to 126pgg(-1)fat (1.1-12.3pg WHO2005-TEQPCDD/F), while the total levels of PCBs ranged from 27 to 405pgg(-1)fat(0.7-5.3pg WHO2005-TEQPCB). In turn, PBDE concentrations (sum of 15 congeners) ranged 0.3-5.1gg(-1)fat, with a mean value of 1.3ngg(-1)fat. A general decrease in the concentrations for PCDD/Fs, both planar and total PCBs, and PBDEs in breast milk was observed. The levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in milk of women living in urban zones were higher than those corresponding to industrial zones (41%, 26%, and 8%, respectively). For PCDD/Fs and PCBs, the current decreases are in accordance with the reduction in the dietary intake of these pollutants that we have also observed in recent studies carried out in the same area of study.
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    • "The arrow illustrates decreasing metabolic capacities for PCBs. The concentration ratios of OH-PCBs/PCBs were taken from following references: (1) Nomiyama et al., 2010a, (2) Houde et al., 2006, (3) Bennett et al., 2009, (4) Kunisue and Tanabe, 2009, (5) Weijs et al., 2009, (6) Routti et al., 2008, (7) Gebbink et al., 2008, (8) Park et al., 2009, (9) Soechitram et al., 2004, (10) Nomiyama et al., 2010b. penta-and hepta-PCBs (Fig. 2). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) in blood from three porpoise species: finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides), harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), and Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli). The porpoises were found stranded or were bycaught along the Japanese coast. Concentrations of OH-PCB were the highest in Dall's porpoises (58pgg(-1) wet wt), second highest in finless porpoises (20pgg(-1) wet wt), and lowest in harbor porpoises (8.3pgg(-1) wet wt). The concentrations in Dall's porpoises were significantly higher than the concentrations in finless porpoises and harbor porpoises (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). There was a positive correlation between PCB and OH-PCB concentrations (r=0.67, p<0.001), suggesting the possible concentration-dependent induction of CYP enzymes. The three porpoise species may have exceptionally low metabolic capacities compared with other marine and terrestrial mammals, because low OH-PCB/PCB concentration ratios were found, which were 0.0016 for Dall's porpoises, 0.0013 for harbor porpoises, and 0.00058 for finless porpoises. Distinct differences in the OH-PCB congener patterns were observed for the three species, even though they are taxonomically closely related.
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